Sie sind auf Seite 1von 280

Cornell

TJ

University

Library

755.H71

Internal

combustion

reference

engines
:a

1924

022

810

224

INTERNAL

COMBUSTION
ENGINES

REFERENCE

BOOK
FOB

DESIGNERS,

OPERATORS,
AND

ENGINEERS,

STUDENTS

BT

WM.

M.

HOGLE,

CONSULTING

ENGINEEK

NEW

YORK

COMPANY

PUBLISHING

MCGRAW
239

B.S.

WEST

39th

1909
1"

STREET

COPTHIGHT,

1909,

BY

ttcGRAW

PUBLISHING

NEW

Stanbope

H.

G1LSON

BOSTON.

COMPANY

YORK

iPrees

COMPANY

U.S.A.

To

all

this

who

book

its

find

may

is

respectfully

contents

useful,

dedicated.
W.M.

iii

H,

PREFACE.

That

this
the

to

treating

are

the

brought

down

this

complete

Works

Machines,"

De

by

and

to

and

applied

the

confine

phase

relation

the

these

formulas,

in

general

operation,

but

formula
derived

in

following

this

aim

have
the

the

formula

used

in

chapter

on

invaluable

bustion
internal-comthis

on

In

subject

Refrigerating

the
and

"The

to

C, by

actual

Indicator

used

bearing,

the

is

and

tant
impor-

most

is taken

Card."

except

design

actual
far

to

efficiency;

thermal

designing,

its discussion

pression"
"Com-

on

been

have

the

of

practical

chapter

the

as

formulas

more

immediate

no

eliminate,

to

the

formulas

problems
PV

work

to

compression

on

chapter,

Donkin

mathematical

subject.

however,
way,

of

and

this

of

contained

the

of the

subject

and

is

theory

involved

more

matter

of

the

gas

lines.

Motors

thermodynamic

several
prove

the

the

the

the

on

of

text-books

best

practice

Wood.

been

practicable,

as

the

Heat

Volson

it has

However,

works
side

these

of

the

"Thermodynamics,

being

several

nents
expo-

as

supplement

to

thermodynamics

of

of

one

of present

well

been

not

Clerk, Hutton,

by
along

knowledge

have

matter

mathematical

the

largely

internal-combustion

reproach

of

treat

deal

beyond

be

one

available

engines,

far

would

perfect understanding

the

for

books

which

and

however,

in the

any

that

cipally
prin-

reference

reference

of the

books,

It

with

particularly

are

all is due

at

standpoint

and, while

slighted.

be

not

may

these
date

order

of

development

of

book

in

engine,

and

design.

modern
of

books

theoretical

market

question.

theory, fall far short

of

use

in

excellent

to

the

on

satisfactory, compact

subject

growth
Many

placed

of

from

engine.

and

lack

many

subject

with

is

the

on

There
the

work

and

found
up

in

the

vi

PREFACE

For
the

information

practical
author

is

indebted,

who

disposal.

have

It

the

the

in

to

different

of

intention

this

contained

extent,

result

practical

to

reliable

most

while

closely

in

The

the

taken

engine

every

design,

of

matter

be

means

work

facturers
manu-

tests

in

his

at

that

mation
infor-

keeping

with

only

use

and

the

and

engine

practice
the

should

be
is

the

find

(they
that

will

each

the

designer

compiled

be

they

contained

found
be

may

should

or

the

fill

any

found

for

standard
here

all

operator,

especially
in

of

place

the
for

author
itself

in

and

issuing

fulfill,

WILLIAM

Ohio,

and
results

insure

gas-

book),
handassembled

in

this

part

book
at

that

least,

intentions.

Toledo,

any

advantage.

desire

for

nor

may

with

sidered,
con-

by

not

keeping
use

been

average.
herein

original

fact
of

the

either

neither

in
their

formulas

requirements,
while

results

has

should

given

market,

with

keeping

practice

average

formulas

give

to

on

tables

average

may

large

the

appeared

and

It

been

data

practice.

In

and

to

placed

has

which
actual

and

December,

1908.

M.

HOGLE.

it

his

CONTENTS.

Introductory.
PAGE

History

of

internal

combustion

Development

of internal

Fundamental

working

of

motive

combustion

as

power
motive

power

conditions

Chapter

Sequence

as

I.

"

The

Beau

de

Rochas

Cycle.

cycle

Description

of

Relation

card

of

Discussion

cycle
cycle

to

of card

Chapter

of

Description
Clerk

and

Clerk

"

The

Clerk

Cycle.

principle

theories

Day

II.

11

compared

11

The

Robson

The

Stockport

The

Day

engine

12

The

Day

cycle

13

engine

Discussion

engine

the

of

Description

12

of the

12

Day
Day

cycle
card

Chapter

Fuel

Temperature
Period

of fuel

Compression
Fuel
The

in Diesel

admission

14
:

III.

"

The

Relation

Motor.

17

motors

of combustion

17

injection

18
18

space

18

economy

Diesel

Diesel

15

cycle
of card

of

operations

19

to

cycle

19
vii

CONTENTS

Viu

IV.

Chapter

Comparison

"

of

the

Cycles.
PAGE

The

Automobile
Marine

20

motors

21

motors

Comparative

development of

power

Comparative fuel
The

20

four-cycleprinciple

and

two

four

cycle engines.

21
...

22

economy

Diesel motor

22

Chapter

V.

Practical

"

Operation.

Starting a stationary engine

23

Stopping

24

stationary engine

automobile

Starting an
Stopping

automobile

an

marine

or

marine

or

Care

engine
engine

25
26

of Engine.

Cooling of engine cylinder

27

Ignition point

28

The

bearings

29

The

valves

29

The

circulatingwater

30

Proper

of governor

care

Proper mixture

30

for successful

operation

Troubles

Failure

to

and

Remedies.

31

start

Cylinder flooded
Carburettor

out

Spark weak

or

32
of

adjustment

32

wanting

32
33

Engine stops
cold

Ignitiontube
Mixture

too

31

rich

"

34
Back

firingin

exhaust

34

firingin compression stroke


in cylinder
Water

34

Engine smokes

36

Back

Valves

Engine

leak
races

35

36
,

',

36

CONTENTS.

Chapter

VI.

XX

Starting

"

Devices.
PAGE

Methods

starting

of

37

Starting cams

40

Chapter
Methods
The

VII.

of

Carburettors,

"

Vaporizers,

and

Injectors.

securingexplosive mixture

42

carburettor

42

for successful

Requirements

carburettingof fuel

42

'.

Carburetting alcohol

43

Carburetting petroleums

43

The

vaporizer

43

The

injectorprinciple

44

The

Hornsby-Akroid

method

of fuel

The

Meitz

and

method

of fuel

The

Diesel

The

Daimler

valves

Mechanical
Surface

Weiss

method

and

44

carburettor

45
45

47

The

Holley

Alcohol

48

valves

Schebler

49

carburettor

52

carburettor

53

carburettors

56

design

57

Carburettor

Chapter
Pressure

available for

"

Producers.
58

in pressure

use

producers

60
61

of gas

from

distilling
producer

producers

Combustion

Quantity

VIII.

producers

producers
Distilling
Quantity and heating value
and

suction

heating value

of gas

from

combustion

producers

producer

of steam

analysisfrom

62
62

of the suction

Comparison

61
62

available for suction

Operation
Gas

injection

ebullition

The

Fuels

44

carburettor

Mixing

The

of fuel

44

carburettor

Spray

Fuels

injection
injection

producers

producer

and gas producer power

suction

62

producer

63

plants

64
65

CONTENTS.

IX.

Chapter

Fuels

"

Combustion.

and

PAGE

Gaseous

66

fuels

Advantages

of gaseous

Natural

compared

Blast

gas

furnace

Heating

fuels
with

66

producer

67

gas
of fuels

values

(tabulated)

68

Volumetric

analysisof Pennsylvania

Analysis of

gases

gases

(tabulated)

68
69

fuels

Liquid

71

distillates

Petroleum

71

Propertiesof petroleum
Composition
Gas

66

gas

of crude

distillates (tabulated)

oils

72

(tabulated)

72

oil

73

Gasoline

73

Kerosene

74

of combustion

Heat

75

Measurement

of heat

Air necessary

for combustion

Air

75
76

of different fuels

required for combustion

77

Vaporization

78
for

Requirements
for

Laws

Vapor

complete vaporization

78

perfectgases

pressure

Avogadro's

law

Temperature
Acetylene

78

of saturation
as

78

applied to
for

necessary

pressure

80

perfectmixture

81

vapor

82

Alcohol

82

heating values

Relative

derived

Power

from

of

gasolineand

alcohol

alcohol

compared

as

with

82
that

gasoline
Cost

of alcohol

to

which

as

compared

with

compression

X.

may

gasoline

"

83

Compression.

be carried

84

Compression temperatures (tabulated)


of high compression
Ignitionobtained by means
Derivation
The

of the formula

theoretical

from
83

Chapter

Limits

derived

card

for the ideal indicator

85
86

card

86

87

CONTENTS

Chapter

XI.

XI

The

"

Indicator

Card.
PAGE

What

constitutes

perfectcycle in any

given cylinder
"

How

puted
com-

89

The

cams

Values
The

related

as

general

in

for

use

ideal indicator

of values

Determination

of the

of

Chart

engine

for

91
for the ideal card

related

as

ideal card

to

XII.

of

95

pressure

General

"

Dimensions.
97
97

mean

of bore

and

98

stroke

98
98

efficiencyof

Location

of the
of

Transmission
with

Cams

multiple cylinderengine

XIII.

"

The

Cam

102
to valves

motion

cam

102

lever transmission

103

bring startingcams

into

operation

classified

Method

of

double

laying

of

Material

singlecam

105

107

cam

to vertical

cam

double

laying out

necessary

for

gearing in

Types

of

Speed

ratio in skew
gear

gearing

engine

109
110

cam

Ill

cams

The

Adjustable

104
105

out

Application of double
Method

101

Mechanism.

cams

Shiftingof lever to
Cams

93
94

effective pressures

Chapter

Fiber

curve

fuel factor

Mechanical

The

expansion

pressure

values

Determination
The

for the

constant

92

efficiency

effective

Average

91

determining compression

mechanical

Mean

89

Chapter
The

card

card

Computation
Design

the

to

use

gearing

Reduction

Gearing.
Ill
113
113

114

xil

CONTENTS

XIV.

Chapter

"

The

Valves

and

Ports.
PAGE

Mushroom
Effective

valve

valve

The

of

in

121
121

inlet valve

124

two-cycle design

125

The

exhaust

The

third port

of

two-cycle ports

126

port lead

127
128

XV.

Chapter

The

119

opening

settingvalves

Design and location

The

117

passages

dimensions

suction

Ports

exhaust

of effective valve

Determination

Methods

117

opening

of inlet and

Design
Minor

115

valves

The

"

Cylinder.

air-cooled

cylinder
water-cooled
cylinder

Thickness

Depth

of

129

cylinderwall

130

jacket

131

of water

Thickness

129

of outer

water

jacket wall

132

jackets

Copper

water

Length

of water

132

jacket

133

Design of cylinderto facilitate boring


Openings for inlet and discharge

133

Grinding of cylinder

134

Bolts

135

Material

cylindercastings

for

Chapter
Function

Table

of
of

The

"

Flywheel.

of

137

weight of wheel

138

flywheel

140

keys

141

Chapter

Purpose

XVI.

136

flywheel

of

Calculation

Design

133

of frame

Advantage

of

heavy

for horizontal

Frame

for vertical

crank-case

The

sub-base

"

The

Frame.
143

Frame

The

XVII.

frame

engine

engine

engine

143
143
144
145

146

xiii

CONTENTS

Chapter

XVIII.

"

Engine

Foundations.
PAGE

Drawings

for foundations

Advantage
Material

Design

of

XIX.

of shaft

Oil

shaft

(the bolt template)

The

"

and

Reciprocating

and

151

length

of

bearing

152
153

of necessary

bearings and

weights

155

brasses

156

rings

156

connecting

rod

157

Piston, Wrist Pin,

wrist-pinbearing

The

outer

diameter

Design and

and

Piston

159

of

piston

160

of

160

construction

Chapter

ring

of

161

XX.

Governing

"

Devices.

162

governing
controllingmechanism

governor

163

Design of centrifugalgovernor
The simple fly-ball
governor
The

loaded

Devices
The

Rings.

two-cycle piston head

Methods

for

164
166

governor

166

throttling

167
168

inertia governor

Chapter
Methods

Parts.
151

The

The

Shaft

shaft

The

The

Crank

150

weights

Determination

The

149

foundation

out

balance

Crank

148

bolts

Style of piston
Strength of crank
Design

147

of foundation

Chapter

The

147

for foundation

Foundation

Laying

good

147

foundation

of

XXI.

170

Jump-spark ignition
system

Ignition.
170

ignitingcharge

Make-and-break

"

of

ignition

171

xiv

CONTENTS

PAGE

Non-inductive
Connections

commutator

how

"

igniters

175

constructed

179
179

of commutators

spark plug

174
174

of make-and-break

Types
The

173,

four-cylinderengine

for

173

coil

Ruhmkorff

of commutator

Types
The

172

condenser

singlecylinderwith

for

Wiring diagram
Use

and

resistance

181

Insulation,etc

"

spark plugs

182

ignition

183

The

Apple igniter

183

The

Bosch

The

Motsinger sparker

187

The

Remy

187

of

Types
Dynamo

Flame

185

dynamo

magneto

igniters

Barnett
The

of

type

189

ignitioncock

189

hot-tube

igniter
Auto-ignition

190

Time

194

of

191

ignition

Firing order

for

multiple cylinders

Chapteh
Methods
The

of

196

belt

196

of brake

formula

Prony brake

197

(tabulated)

200

brake

202

of test

204

Testing of gasoline,alcohol,and

Chapter

and

"

engines

Report

206

of

Tests.
207

heat
specific

of gases

209

planimeter

Determination
The

XXIII.

oil

of report

Weight
The

200

dynamometer

Testing with Prony

Form

Testing.

testing

for

Factors

Log

Engine

"

Prony brake

Derivation

The

XXII.

195

heat

of the

211
mean

effective pressure

balance

Determination

of brake

212

212,

horsepower

213
214

INTEKNAL

COMBUSTION
ENGINES.

INTRODUCTORY.
The
is

internal-combustion

the

result
of

years

than

more

experiment,

however,

no

produced

in

used

of

the

In

force

his

in

work

the

the

exactly

the

de

as

same

cooling of

of heated

Two

work

and

became

which,

after

cool

atmosphere,

and

results

were

of

gunpowder,
His

condensation

Huygens
in

the

of
the

motor,

operation

Shortly

after

Papin
to

operation

of

seemed

show

steam

required

vacuum

and
of

the

pumping

this

time

that

down

the

no

gas

of the
the

by
well

as

as

flattering

very

process

continued

find

which

the

was

powder
gun-

use.

1690,

to

forced

and

of

closed, the

apparatus

crude

arranged

air into

less than

be

to

attempting

Huygens,

experiments

producing

year

having

The

its

heated

of

pressure

piston

from

the

the

explosion

pressure.

obtained

Later, about

which

the

lished
pub-

savant,

suitably

exceedingly

was

subsequent

apparatus,

valve
a

Dutch

volume

the

the

causing

operation

an

fell to

soon

atmospheric

excess

1680, Huygens,

force

to

and

modern

gas.

valves, in

made

cylinder,

in

describing

cylinder
was

the

later,

years
a

with

volume

power,

the

as

way

engine, by the expansion

time,

Hautefeuille

motive

internal-combustion
a

which

original device

Abb6

gunpowder

to-day,

use

twenty-five

of

part

over

year

of

it in
and

greater

made

that

have

we

hundred

the

was

1678.

as

two

during

advance

explosive

deriving

engine,

very

was

was

substitute

ments
experifor

suitable
the

used

the

method

operation
to

the

uncertain.

very

conclusively that

most

for

the

some

of

of
the

extent

engines.
discoveries

the
1

of

Watt

turning

INTERNAL

the attention

COMBUSTION

of the

public

along the lines


until about

not

was

made

which

John

In

1794

of

air.

This

named
In
out

This

1799

year

of

operated

the

The

by

this

closed

of

the

covering
of

liquid and

English inventor

an

principle as

well

took

the

of

coal

for

the

motive

as

gas
on

for

the

machine,

of

production

of

power.

pump

and

mixture

explosive

construction

the

as

patents

out

engine,

Brachay, France, took

electric

an

igniting the charge.


of

career

after

by

of

also

compression

for

mixture

one

means

out

Philip Lebon,

the

on

inventor

spark

by

by

vapor

engine using the explosion

an

of

use

name

Street.

patent

followed

was

also taken

was

the

on

de

Abb6

of

engine

were

"exploder."

an

explosive

patent

the

air in

suggestions

English inventor, by

an

it

ceased, and

any

the

on

patent

patent

an

Robert

that

ment
develop-

the

engine,

combustion

1791

year

out

and

gas
this

production

this

took

hydrocarbon

internal

improvements

In

Barber,

the steam

to

the year

were

Hautefeuille.

of

ENGINES

time, and

what

terminating abruptly shortly

this inventor

might

had

he

before

been

have

developed his inventions,


epoch-marking

an

period

in

gas-engine development.
From

successful

engine

schemes

1833

was

standpoint,
mixture

of

and

devised

for

former

in its

which

on

formed,

it

the
to

of

use

had

have

been

being

cooled

unbalanced

acting during

the

was

and

return

to

the

vary

work

being

charge.

by

Johnston,
two

oxygen,

been

in the

theoretical

the

of the

cost

and

parts

somewhat

for the

of

unique
of the

fuel

quite extensively. The

used

with

oxygen

precipitated and
force

different

to

latter,was

it not

several

in connection

produced

of the

part

one

practically

from

proportional

hydrogen

first

by Wright

out

developed

being exploded, formed


the

built,

regulate the compression


engine

the

year

brought

being used

make

to

doubtless

hydrogen

well

governor

gas

which

One

very

operation, and

would

then

in

designed and

was

double-acting

the

to

1860,

advanced.

were

year

done

until

1799

of the
stroke

water

partialvacuum

atmospheric
of the

vapor

piston.

pressure

INTRODUCTORY

In
the

to

them

took

ground

same

used

into

so-called

of

use

sparking
In

current

with

rack

meshing

the

and

the

The

explosion

rack

internal

the

on

the

equal

vacuum

piston

In

1858

gases

were

forced

was

engine

an

with

in

difficulties it did
idea

although the

was

in the

and

sequence
con-

of

the

result that

the

force.
in which

of

success,

any

the

of

engine

the

the

because

with

meet

in

cooling of

with

forerunner

revolve.

to

cylinder, but

not

the rack

the

by Degrand

the

was

point where

considerable

devised

was

shaft

The

pawl engaged

atmosphere

formed.

down

the

the

this vacuum,

compressed

mechanical

the

which

to

piston upwards

it to pass

to

was

exploded charge increased


the

the

motor

fly-wheel shaft

and

gear

charge drove

was

piston

stroke

spur

the

1850.

pawl allowed

return

in

devised

the

on

gear

its inertia caused

force

producing

for

Matteucci

explosion stroke

of the

pressure

then

produced by

was

by Stephard

and

spur

caused

cylinder,and

air and

medium

as

long cylinder fitted with


On

being

pumps

ignition cock, later described

Barsanti

with

two

and

gas

suggested

was

freely, but

run

Lebon,

explosion

Barnett

magneto

1857

very

attached.
to

of

"Ignition."

on

the

the year

that

cylinder. The

Chapter XXIII
The

patent covering substantially

separately the

the

of the

out

did

as

compress

means

in

Barnett

1838

present day.
The

capable

of

machine

constructed

engine, the

spark, and

as

engine
per

of

in the
oil.

was

gas

in

Ruhmkorff
was

view

coil

engines

to

up

steam

four

times

of these

as

engine of like
several

the

engine

that

much

by

of

means

time.

piston be kept

difficulties the

the

But

for

The

all

over

100

water

jump

advance

power.

The

double-acting

producing

decided

very

first

an

efficient work.

obtained

was

cylinderrequired that
In

and

the

was

uneconomical, requiring about

hp.-hr.and

used

was

ignition

altogether it

existing forms
Lenoir

it

marked

1860

along the lines of

and

battery

primary

in

motor

comparatively regular

was

steam

Lenoir

gas-engine construction, as

in

epoch

of gas

of the

appearance

cu.

ft.

cooling

great heat

flooded

Lenoir

with

engine

in

disappeared
stirred the
the

the

which

attempted

cylinder by
This

engine

of

means
was

than

of

temperature

80

the

exhaust

of the

of

spray

hp.-hr.,and

per

appreciably

was

gases

water.

of gas,

consumption

ft. of gas

cu.

in

motor

temperature

in the

economical

more

the

injection of

the,

requiring a trifle more


the

introduced

keep down

to

activity along

engine.

1860, Hugon

year,

it had

before

not

renewed

to

internal-combustion

same

he

time, but

inventors

of the

lines of the

In

short

very

minds

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

diminished.
Several
them

other

ideas

being either

advanced

were

of

minor

previous attempts.

In

took

patent

out

best
His
in

method

the present

at

use

The

the

working conditions
cycle of operations

The

in

was

all respects the

in the so-called

Greatest

possible expansion.

4.

Greatest

pressure

forth any

set

in

honor

of

to

means

patent became

was

filed,but

it.

In

that

not

year

now

appears,

this

time, about

Langen,
engine,

was

placed
of

they

the

the

smallest

theory belongs,

for

producing the theoretical

Rochas, he did

until

the

1878

was

Otto

first

placed

that

its
to

it

attention

his patent

proposition
proceedings,

after the

soon

on

the

application

again called

market.

1872, Otto,

market
to

in

engine, substantially

gas

year

the

not

irregularity in the

to

public property

enabled
fact

the

de

the
on

promulgating

M.

which, due
were

that

beginning of working stroke.

at

practice, and, owing

his

as

piston speed.

doubt,

same

surface.

3.

beyond

engine.

in his patent:
with

capacity

Maximum

the

Rochas

Otto-cycle engines.

embodied

were

2.

While

de

internal-combustion

an

largest cylinder

circumferential

Beau

setting forth, theoretically,the

for

day

repetitions of

or

M.

1862

year

following propositions

1.

importance

time, all of

this

about

the

in

so-called

Previous

connection
Otto

and

comparatively economical

sell
was

quite a large number,


of

the

exceedingly noisy in its operation.

gas

it

as

to

with

Langen
tion,
opera-

standing
notwith-

free-piston type
Its

to

and

consumption

INTRODUCTORY

about

was

26

produced

ft.

cu.

somewhat

was

and

hp.-hr.,

per

less

than

the

with

of

cost

energy

existing

the

steam

engines.

Continuing
placed
on

the

on

the

Otto

his

Beau

the

de
This

of

In

1879

Dugald

engine

have
the

and

and

been

formed
In

the

adopted

exploded

once

every

of

designers.
produced

was

by

present-day

for

engine

the

the

two-

charge

revolution,
in

revolutions

the

motor,

engine

Clerk

the

as

immediately

basis

the

two

known

problem

this

and

operating

engine

commonly

but

the
of

every

four-cycle

internal-combustion

modification

explosion

as

was

against
of

engines

the

type.
Since

have

has

produced

1878,

almost

was

of

practice.

compressed

Otto

engine

which

Clerk

cycle

first

cycle

type

in

Otto,

the

Rochas

standard

perfection

one

market

cycle.

as

experiment,

the
been

placed

on

modifications,

the
and

disappeared,
four-cycle

several

1880

year

market,
at

the

two-cycle

and
hold

motors

the

field.

but

present
types,

of

greater

without
time
with

or

value

less

they

exception
the

greater

engines
or

of

less

CHAPTER

THE

BEAU

Reference

cycle, the

Otto

or

ROCHAS

DE

1 will

Fig.

to

I.

four

CYCLE.

fully the

explain

strokes

of

which

Beau

de

Rochas

designated

are

as

follows:

Suction;

1.

The
the

four

2.

Compression;

strokes

above

as

"four-cycle"

term

enumerated

applied

as

4.

Explosion;

3.

to

form

Exhaust.
basis

the

gas-engine

for

practice.

Hr%W-

Fig.

the

In

the

inlet

card

has

figure,

comprising

the

path

of the

has

points
drawn.

also

crank
the

ordinates
On

the

the

Principle.

the

cylinder,

exhaust

valve.

directly above

piston
of

Four-Cycle

The

represents

placed

explanation

the

as

and

valve,
been

1.

cycle of

the

pin
path
have

has

of

the
been

indicator

piston.
erected
card
G

in

part

into
From
and

reference

the

piston,

ideal

indicator

of

the

order

to

The

operations.

divided

been

An

that

displacement,

this

the

cylinder
facilitate

projected

equal

ten

latter

indicator

points

have

spaces,
set

of

card
been

INTERNAL

it is obvious
to

maximum

dead

at

pressure

d, Fig. 2, it would

at

as

igniterlead

charge sufficient

the

give

the

that

is not

center.

The

of

indicate

reached

line

correspondingly higher,
line,but

that

the

in

piston is
diminished

affect the

a'

value

V
,

e, and

at which

curve,

nearly
to

point
which

different

showing

The

adiabatic,a loss

that

in full

to

crank

circle the

the exhaust

In

port

that

to

to

ordinates,

of

indicator

pin

opens,

of the

from

moves

diagram, from
from

moves

to

ec,

allowing the expansion

exhaust

to

takes

release, e, varies

engines, the

that

highest, they

Thurston, is

drop off quite suddenly


the

in

most.

point, according

effect, then,

location

is

piston again

the

fact

until after the


the

as

pressure

ordinate

on

the

Ignition.

developed

the

is
the

of

shown

decreased, owing

Late

release

at

comparison

with

the

stroke

not

the maximum

an

stroke, and

mean

shown

as

or,

up

makes

ignition was

pressure

by

is not

where

the

adiabatic,

an

/.

of

the

on

atmosphere.
e

Card

expansion

toward

The

is

stroke

shape

length by this late ignition, appear

the

the

d to

being nearly

ordinate

working

its

engine has passed its dead

Fig.

pressure

the

in
of

portion

On

mean

maximum

the

of

curve

the

reach

shows

of which

shown

as

card

that

until the

expansion

expansion

If

and

burn

to

center.

necessarily results.

energy

dotted

time

in order

increased

be

must

in consequence

advanced,
sufficiently
pressure

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

nearly

to

place from

considerablyin

theoretically correct

point

THE

being
dead

located

so

nearly

to

of back

that

on

the

other

in

the

expansion

the

as

the

Changing
the

If

heat

expulsion stroke, as

the

line of the

a', the

to

all the

the

completes

This

much

distorted,owing

which

take

higher in
the

This
a

heavier

be

may

be

Spring.

made

the

basis

is not

and

from

moves

tend

to

phere
atmos-

cycle of

sudden

due

be

spring.

When

the
in

to

guard

inertia

part

in

be

of

found

the

remedied

is

in pressure

theoretical

the

the

operations

variations

maximum

to

but

gas-engine card

explosion line will


the

effects

produce these results.

practice the

the

on

b' back

slightlyabove

it necessary

theoretical

to

of

amply

atmosphere,

appreciable extent,
makes

In

early

too

engine.

valve
to

may

may

trouble

place

of Governor

down

an

would

than

gases,

the

piston again

to

The

cases

some

burning

parts.
of

place.

amount

well-designed engines these

four-cycleengines.

the

great

seriouslyimpair the

would

exhaust

occurrence

that

against conditions

fall very

(see Chapter XXII).

be

the

In

possibilityof their

no

take

not

Effect

the

not

encountered

seldom

are

use

must

Inertia

card, fa,

way.

be

of
efficiency

of

point,/, will

large,then

should

point of release

area

would

pressure

engine passed the forward

this

as

showing

effective

CYCLE

beginning of the expulsion stroke;

type of governing device

one

of

there

stroke,

Card

3.

Fig.

the

the

as

hand, the release

well

as

that

at

ROCHAS

cylinder

just

in order

pressure

DE

the

atmosphere

center

power

BEAU

to

run

pressure

indicator

by

explosion pressure

the
as

10

indicated

appearance
stroke.

the

by
ragged

spring

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

in

card

outline,
the

overcoming
may

is

continue

ENGINES

the

too

high,

due

to

the

effect

of

until

well

expansion
harmonic

the
into

motion

inertia.
the

line

next

This

will
of

sume
as-

the

ragged

compression

CHAPTER

THE

The

Clerk

two-cycle

of

the

compression

revolution.
the

into

in the

present

his
modern

piston

compressed

two-cycle

used

its

on

expelling

charge

practically the

same

later

engines.

two-cycle

cylinders,

of two

primary

compression
in

which

in

line

exhaust
The

Day

the
with

addition
this

of

type

in

added

the

weight
of

its

all

against

the

two-cycle

stroke

impracticable

light

principle

practical improvements

is

motor

must

and

the

the
be

is

for

Day
honor

application
11

with

that

the

of

under

the

feature

the

pression),
com-

consequent
which

general
and

as

type,

the

to

type,

piston.

with

to

the

nearly

very

charge

accorded

municated
com-

present

as

of

the

the

of

top

port

same

required;

the

over

Nevertheless

the
a

in

cylinder

of the

of parts

complexity

construction,

it.

of

in

other

uncovered,

is the

engine

number

and

engine

especially where
gained,

downward

the

the

from

the

composed

was

at

through

(i.e. introduction

two-cycle
but

differed

of

combustion

primary

port; it being

Clerk

the

of

theory

cylinder

is introduced

the

port, by

of

motor

explosion
herein

uncovered

inrush

cylinder and

power

exhaust

the

of

type

exhaust

accomplished

The

and

charge

is

cylinder.

the

space,

This

the

one

this

is the

as

The

the

products

as

manner

compression
with

the

of obtaining

case,

pump.

stroke,

downward

every

is done

as

wall, being

cylinder

first

introduced

Instead

crank

auxiliary

the

impulse

compression,

the

the

was

inventor

engines.

in

an

in

its

under

compression

arranged

were

the

by

of

types

and
an

the

as

first introduced

was

1879,

year

motor

cylinder

practice, he

ports

the

Clerk

the

primary

mentioned,

built, receiving

motors

the

In

charge

about

known

commonly

more

previously

as

Clerk

by Dugald

CYCLE.

CLERK

engine,

cycle

engine,

II.

first
Clerk
later

made

use,

more

nothing

is

balance

is

describing
and

the

inventors.

12

INTERNAL

The
A

Robson

of the

forerunner

Day

engine, manufactured
In

patent.
and

used
used

was

in

into

the

in

necessary

admitting

the

and

one

The

engine

charge

of

was

engine

present

market

either too
use,

the

the
of

Day

engine

originalClerk

the

cylinder

for

cylinder.

not

nearly

as

idea.

for

were

the

has

proper

motors

primary

most
to

was

of the
pression,
com-

cylinder.

power

evolved
the

engine

and
of

placed
them
with

meet

almost, if not

on

were

eral
gen-

quite,

types.
Day

is the

be

cycle

for the

utilized

not

was

The

complicated

too

cycle

engine

it will

used

time, but

earlier

and

valves

valve

power

design and

engines

or

Day

Otto

description of

of

was

of

this

engine

the

piston and
Two

two-cylinder opposed

other

types

the

Day

the

compression.

The
As

charge

production.

end

cumbersome

displaced these

of the

was

Stockport Engine.

the

to

about

and

This

an

compression chamber

into

neat

thus

gas

piston

automatic

cylinder being used

other

the

motors.

an

space

the

open.

primary

this

primary

one

while

the

cylinder

exactly similar in principleto the Robson

design

day,

Several

ends

both

at

compressed during

stroke

engine,

Clerk

was

the

in

wide

return

the

the forward

obtain

similar

the

to

The

to

Robson's

of the

when

operated

rather

the

as

engine, but

Robson

cylinder through

power

valve

this

opening from

cumbersome

This

end

ordinary two-cycle

in the

as

closed

and

stroke

the

exhaust

compressed by

exploded
were

forced

and

then

was

under

explosion stroke, and

lift valve, which

out

the

was

Tangye

forward

the suction

on

was

automatic

fully

The

part of the

compressed

motor

obtaining the primary compression, the charge

for

greater

of

type

by Messrs.

piston rod.

being drawn
the

Engine.

engine the cylinder was

this

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

we

Engine.

analogue, in two-cycle
in

four-cycle design,

given.
are

In

the

tion,
construc-

complete
description of the
a

describing,in principle,the

CLERK

THE

CYCLE

Referring to Fig. 4, A represents


C

inlet

the

this

in

case,

valve, and

the power

instance

cylinder.

directly above

the

the

connection

cycle

of

of

part

the

pin has been


the

of

have

divided

erected
card

indicator

into

by the

crank

same

circle

letter

another

with

Directly above

indicator

crank-case
of

reference

suitable

the

card

has

is

crank

c.

the

crank
of

path

On

the

referred

are

Outside

the

which

the

on
on

still larger
is shown.

case

crank

constructed, the
letters

the
small

by

circle

shown;

the

been

by

of the

indicated

crank

projected path

being indicated

subscripts.

in

the

explanation

also the

larger circle is drawn,

cycle of operations

placed

drawn.

subscript

cycle of operations in the cylinder


circle the

been

points ordinates

card

are

the

the

and

space,

the

has

of

set

points
on

as

spaces,

indicator

reference

crank

Principle.

latter

letters;corresponding points
to

the

has

projected path

equal

the

and

card

facilitate

Two-Cycle

the

From

piston.

been

The

4.

between

cylinder comprising

to

The

operations.

Fig.

the piston,

primary compression

piston displacement, in order


of the

cylinder,B

ideal indicator

An

that

the

13

and

pin

the

points
y

with

14

INTERNAL

On

shown

as

or,

suction

the

Just

y.

the

the

as

inlet

stroke

forward

valve, C,
in the

produced

the

starts

carburettor, F,

in the
the

crank

stroke

return

the

crank-case

opening

indicator

the

piston

the

by

crank
head

not, in all probability, allow


in the

compressed charge
its pressure
of

the

down

crank

the

crank-case

pressure

falls,until, when

uncovers

port, C,
has

vacuum

port, C,
in

the

the

C, is

the

should

in.,in

port

of

equalized

its return

case

both
stroke

the indicator

Since

the

back

card

the

of

card,

rise

to

be the

rise

less than
the

continues
sides

D.

From

of

should
5 lb. per

to

the

do

to
at

again closes valve,

until
or

port,
y2 will

the

lb. per

this

At

card

pressure
10

to

the

the

the

on

point,

line

pressure

piston,

If

when

xt
xl

from

so

should

point

x1

sq. in.

piston,

stroke,

y2.

at

the

pressure

necessarily affect

y2

be

through

card

the

will

which

regularly until

which

by

but

compression

port,

in

the

at

the

piston

forward

as

case,

the

considerable

as

the

on

will

stroke

enlarged,

charge rushing

when,

crank-case

fall,and
on

the

end

atmosphere

will not

being opened

the

the

of

enough

being

crank-case

that

to

cylinder to bring

on

forward

The

about

maximum,
no

Then

on

tend

stroke,

again completely covered, the

should

to

or,, on

line of

uncovers

pressure
be

the

slight vacuum,

maximum

piston head

on

is

small, this

still show
the

on

produced.

pressure

too

of

the

space

the

is increased, and

port, C,
a

at

the

causes

case

show

sq.

been

to

case

on

cylinder, when

the

passage

atmosphere.

to

piston,

the

At

fact

the

to

its forward

on

piston

the

line would

and

case

vacuum

port, C.

the

due

atmosphere,

in from

rushes

until

or

suction

the

piston
when

until the

flow

to

covers

card

the

point, by
of gas

entirelybalanced

between

uncovered

continues

been

has

in consequence

charge

open

point P,

vacuum

this

to

up

completely

slightly above

be

open.

a',

toward

piston passes

cylinder,and

and

is

case

of the

case

to

commences

card, from

indicator

to

in the

b' toward

piston travels from

end

crank

traveling upwards
this port

the

the crank-case

on

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

mences
com-

pressure

until

(shown

is

the

piston

at

point,

card).

displacement of the piston

is the

same

on

the

16

INTERNAL

been

exploded,
to

commences

the

such

B,

the

on

the

point

at

in

indicator

the

card

cylinder commences

that

the

should

of

fallen

is known

that

this very

For
the

exhaust

of

the

the

varying

the

to deflect the

it may

that

port closes and

the

from

place and
In
for:

two-cycle
1.

Unrestricted

inlet

to

as

expansion line
sacrificed,to
The

others.

several

the

As

5.

to

of
or

little

these

a.

be

must
a

points will be

taken

of

must

the

the

large
and

card

will

necessarilybe
attain

to

shortened

the

in order

shortening of

later in the

port.

compression

the

of

satisfactory arrangement
up

striven

As

4.

opens.

corresponding shortening
most

be

compression

less extent, in order

period, and

speeds by

greater than

study

points

point of

large exhaust

pressure

long

exhaust

explosion takes

/back

inlet port

expansion line

The

the

to

Crank-case

3.

possible. A

greater

produces
line.

the

some

gases

The

different

consequent

primary

possible.
as

to

from

port.

the

give sufficient exhaust


line

with

when

that

show

to

make

for

cylinder,

commences.

up

fill

piston

burned

following points should

exhaust

pressure

ports

the

work

exhaust,

Quick

cylinder

From

expansion follows

the

high enough

serve

is varied

course

spark-timing device.

the

2.

of

point, d,

to

the

on

point, d, the

cylinder compression

charge is compressed
ignition,which

At

itself.

indicator

of the

the

over

two-cycle

port, D,

top

out

cause

lead

the

on

plate,G, is placed
to the

the

loss of power.

given

through

effectivelyforce

more

and

case

cylinder

otherwise

in different
b to

incoming charge

being exhausted

without

From

baffle

is

port

charge rushes

cylinder space.

head
so

crank-case

the

crank

cylinder

the

case,

extent

some

into

case

the

consequent

exhaust

to

in
make

to

as

the

point,

At

point, b, it is obvious

crank

into

designs (see Chapter XVI).


card

point, then,

crank

gases

extent

an

the

at this

firing,with

reason

inlet port,

head

piston

is indicated.

as

open;

back

back

as

the

At this

E.

port from

the

cylinder will exhaust


what

card

port,

the

such

to

less than

pressure

the

on

card

to

pressure

have

ENGINES

expansion line falls off rapidly, forming

break

exhaust

uncover

of the

pressure

some

COMBUSTION

design.

to

sion
expan-

the

pression
com-

of these

CHAPTER

THE

While
the

the

DIESEL

all

sense,

internal-combustion

has

the

This

outward

of

air

following

and

the

of

refined

petroleum.

When

of

the

compression

stroke

of

vaporized
of

means

but

cooled

to

fuel
air

the

temperature,

or,

as

nearly

curve

of

maximum
It

of

fuel

rise

the

to

about

fuel

above

the

by

to

running

that

of
of

It

per

sq.

in.,

is the

intention

constant

at

the
to

pressure
at

make

combustion

the
this

constant

being

the

internal-combustion
to

obtain
very

this

in

result

nearly normal
and

governor,

compression,
17

top

charge

expansion

under

the

or

cylinder

the

is overloaded

engine

the

and

lb.

800

an

impossible

crude

incandescent

isothermal,

an

for

means

the

pressure

of

opens

allowing

words,

possible

is

first

on

reached

combustion

for

as

engine

two

charge

and

form

has

valve.

laws

other

is increased

will

into

economy

the

the

which

at

any

valve

thus

in

When

conditions.

fuel

of

the

obviously

is

when

except

the

compression,

curve

engine.

injected

with

Diesel,

cylinder

in.,

sq.

piston

the

compressed

accordance

fuel

cycle requires

the

ignite

to

temperature

of

temperature

it

its

Rudolph

mixture,

per

the

before it reaches

maintain

fall in

is

while

completion;

into

has

piston this charge is compressed

lb.

500

engine

obtaining
of

its

of

its construction,

for

The

for

line

the

which,

for

combustible

is sufficient

its temperature

basis

draws

of the

about

market

in

cover,

other

invention

shaft

of

stroke

return

as

Clerk

along

one

method

piston

instead

pressure

by

the

on

inventor.

crank

of the

least

at

the

was

and

practice

different

engine

stroke

pure

placed

scientist

revolutions

to

of

use

German

of

and

Rochas

modern

four-cycle principle

made

charge.

de

engines,

produced

utilizes

MOTOR.

cycles of Beau

broadest

been

III.

the
the

order

amount

ture
temperathat

the

18

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

effective

mean

load

the

10

valve
of

of the

closes

the

claim
for

The

which

the

the

in

of

the

nearly all
almost

cycle there

of

conditions

the

the

burned.

air

to

to

seem

compression.

cylinder

not

are

doubtful

if

harmful

than

will

lower

be

to

about

possible

secure

with

the

by

tear

the

for

the

that
any

the

suddenly
on

the

Otto

actual
is

some

resultingfrom

the

long-sustained high
the temperature

much

longer period

this temperature

as

of

internal-combustion

parts subjected

to

appreciable extent, and


applied

the

theoretical

There

causes

in most

eject

to

during

long-sustained compression would


the

7 per

charge of

case.

and

wear

than

damaged

high compression

combustion

combustion, but
true

engines operating
5

to

high compression

probably

the

the

approximate

of

the exhaust

injected until

space,

it

and

necessary

to

stroke

necessarily be high, and

the

to

is much
is

with

The

economy,

this to

as

This

temperature

Fig.

load
over-

expulsion

is not

fuel

make

gases

fuel

prove

made

parts

engines, it

the

compression

support

The

question,however,

heat

at

opportunity whatsoever

no

working stroke.

attained, would

combustion

is

explosion, since

stroke.

working

the

creased
in-

charge.

cylinder volume,

pure

the

sq. in.

lb. per

operated

was

cycle is the

the

correspondingly small

heavy

pressure

necessarily be

would

engine

point

manufacturers

35

piston, traveling upwards

beginning of

results

be about

to

ejects the burned

for premature

in

commences.

cent

per

the

relieve

to

90

which

at

The

pressure
as

stroke

Diesel

the

cent

order

exhaust

at

diminished

open,

In

and

stroke

load, which

fourth

valve

in

completed,

fuel

the

stroke, is completed,
been

about

running light.

or

during

has

opens

their pressure

or

the

stroke

expulsion

normal

the

to

comprises

ignited charge expands until

valve

exhaust
the

working

the

and

working

before

fall,due

period of fuel injection,which

cent

the

will

pressure

light

being less.

fuel

the

per

and

with

higher, while

be

may

temperature

quantity of
After

pressure

ENGINES

pressure

be

induced

this
it is
more

in

principle.

explain fully the cycle

of

operations taking

THE

place

in

the

diagram

xa

Diesel

has

described

DIESEL

been

19

MOTOR

engine.

followed

The

in

this

of

arrangement

same

in

as

previously

the

cycles.
the

represents

clearance.

ab represents the stroke.


The

stroke

shown.

as

is divided
In

the

the

inlet,exhaust

ward

stroke

pure

air, valve,

be

the
on

of the

forward
v3

5.

The

vlt

being
air

is

of the

occurs,

as

80

per

takes

At

e, the

place.

pressure

falls and

cent

of

cd

On

the

on

valve,

the

curve

second

card, the fuel


cd,

curve

from

at

as

d to e,

a
or

stroke, expansion

being opened, the

6; and

second

of combustion

the

isothermal;

v2,
at

of

stroke

following the

working

atmosphere

piston,the products

first for-

backward

injected. The

the

exhaust

reaches

the

is closed ; and

during the expulsion stroke, on


of the

On

approximate

an

the

tively
respec-

the suction

being closed.

the fuel valve

during about

On

b, occurs

compressed,

is

are

r3

0-10,

Principle.
to

open.

fuel

previously described, h
break

Diesel

ordinates

v.,, and

vu

piston, from

opening, the

the

fuel valves.

card, all the valves


stroke

valve,

and

piston, from

piston the
the

parts by

engine diagram

Fig.

of

into ten

from

backward
are

6 to

stroke

discharged.

CHAPTER

IV.

COMPARISON

The

general

and

public,

manufactured.
in

almost

In

There

gaining

of

general

tending

within

reasonable

valves

of

fuel

universally

that

of

all

in

is insured

important

with
with

by

with

the

all

quality
resulting

the

unvarying,

as

fuel

parts reduced

working

on

is

which

engine

of

operations,

depended

inducement,

no

three

type

the

weight,

economical

These

parts,

part,

controlled,

most

and

of

stability and
is

not

four-cycle.

important

readily
and

ignition

is

somewhat

greatest

and

the

they

engine

the

basis, when,

engines

have

use

that

lightness

weight

four-cycle

be

adopted,
in

but

as

the

may

manufacturers

low

two-cycle

seems

as

no

the

most

cycle

automobile

to

is

design

of

means

vided,
pro-

perfect

device.

sparking

try

As

mechanical

the

of course,

cases,

this

two-cycle

of

toward

controlled

and

delivered,

In

plays

precedence.

in

the

question

operation,

gains

known,

power

the

be

can

in

scientific

it

and

the

widely

most

some

are

readily

strongly

mechanically

to

there

for
as

bounds.

found

are

been

practice

work,

reasons

engine,

more

consumption,
points

of

popularity

which

certain

most

class

good

complete

engine

although

engines,

design

the

this

several

the

has

engine

with

favor

most

headway.

stationary

or

found

consequence

use,

some

are

has

stationary

for

use

gaining

For

in

universal
in

engines
are

engine

four-cycle

CYCLES.

THE

OF

power

make

the

possible.
suction

the

used

the

weight

inlet

in

the

modified
striven

To

four-cycle

to

least
of

form.

weight;
the

20

Here

in

this
not

to

per

many
as

the

other

not

of

majority

machine

engine

accomplish
valve, but

large

very

create

while

type,

different

with

words,

horsepower

the

they
as

manufacturers

large

an

extent

as

OF

COMPARISON

being looked
due

the

to

that

fact

the

and

two

cycle engines

four

other

any

is

water

it

While

in the

the

for the

power

if the

bore

being the

gas

speed of

for

the

and

as

the

and

sec.

admit

full

for the

In

stroke.

made

the

full

nominal

than

speed, with

increased
where

enter

the

charge

it is

increased,

than
even

to

of

the

the

no

work

speeds, stroke and


The

for

reason

for

ft. per

90

must
800

at

sec.

necessarily
rev.

per

min.

is, with

the

properly adjusted

crank

result

very

that

half
less

that

case

the

on

the

that

motor
as

amount.

the

does

are

their

speed
At

full

to

suction

for

even

when

obtain

charge, and

than

be,

greatly diminished.

two-cycle

previous charge and

they should

the

charge is

probable

more

found

much

as

conditions, that

four-cycle engine would

the

and

majority of two-cycle engines the ports

smaller

much

all

ports

sufficientlylarge and
to

twice

inlet and

the

favorable

charge

more

work

proportion the ports

that

the

to

will be

four-cycle engine.

finds

most

carburettor

allow

impulse,

the

more

This

produce

cylinder completely scavenged


the

more

up

properly proportioned; but

are

tries to

one

to

produce

reason.

ft. per

100

exhaust

under

tion,
revolu-

every

hotter, due

of revolutions, at

when

quite large

two-cycle type

cylinder heats

grows

built could

ever

same,

this is found

same

ports

number

same

cooling

cool.

two-cycle engine
the

than

revolution,gives the cylinder

other

every

sold.

use

of

at

occurs

the

marine

in the

Since

that

two-cycle engine

case,

factory
unsatis-

and

amount

necessary

explosions, it should

steadier

cases,

equal number

an

four-cycle type, in which

once

to

the

frequent

much

quite

was

manufactured

explosion

or

naturally follows

chance

more

the

as

impulse

an

occurring only

gas

fact

are

readily available.

rapidly than

be

in

time,

present

not, in all

satisfactoryfor

more

purpose,

more

motor,

for

inlet has

exhaust

instances.

two-cycle type is

The

be

suction

and

the

at

marine-engine practiceprobably about

In

for

inlet

favor

more

satisfaction, and

in many

of

with

upon

given universal

of

controlled

mechanically

formerly, the

21

CYCLES

THE

is

speeds

charge of

not

obtain

speed is further
It

is

doubtful

22

if the

two-cycle

average
work

more

than

The

type, and
due

to

the

crank-case

large

inlet

by

measure,

the

miner's

The
in

of

Diesel

its

efficiency of

for

Its

from

and

the

extraordinary

an

serious

most

from

reports

inlet

Davy

that

so

passage,
be

may

actual

fuel

as

in

equal

prime

far

known,

as

accompanied

by

horsepower-hour,
The

question

parts possibly inducing


as

are,

rule, the

general

purchasers.

too

none

are

high

are

tend

operation
is

mover

exceptionally

per

prospective

to

their

in

fit,however,

of installation.

wear,

guarantee

claim

the

engines

date

of

in

close

the

consumption

amount

plants

as

necessarily heavy

manufacturer's

operators

The

the

obstacles

of

favor

some

claiming

fuel

to

as

principle

passes,

performances,

cent.

per

year

of first cost

the

38

one

gaining

manufacturers

guarantee,

good

is

motor

the

sure
pres-

itself.

port

plants.

power

excellent,

the

gas

when

case

in

in

inclined

frequent,

plate

be

must

the

is

cycle
four-

obviated,

be

may

the

plate

which

both

cylinder

the

baffle

on

be

size,

the

crank

the

than

screen

acts

must

into

This

cent

than

explosions

lower

opens.

baffle

through

that

to

area

The

effective, and

meshes,

the

is

placing

same

fuel

of

crank-case

following back

screening

lamp.

be

wasteful

with

port

the

of

per

30

conditions.

more

compression

the

passage;

to

trouble

explosion

the

as

is

motor

than

more

motor

favorable

most

two-cycle

does

motor

four-cycle

under

operating

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

high.

to

show

In

the

waterworks

plant

of

have

not

to

that

fact,

below

consumption

be

However,

some

facturer's
manu-

guarantee.
The

municipal

Ohio,

from
of

runs

that

report

trouble

*The
information

in

their

at

regard

to

or

time

is indebted

to
the

and

motors

regulation

month

author

lighting

and

wear,

without

Mr.

S.

practical

given
that

the

they

Bryan,
slightest

have

made

stopping.*
L.

Folk

operation

of

Bryan,
of

the

Ohio,Diesel

for

motor.

the

24

INTERNAL

If

hot

in

valve

possibly

is

to

get

too

much

the

down

the

on

and

the

discharge

running

stop.

While

mechanism

may

closed,

and

igniter mechanism

is used.

turned

is at

water

into

the

thrown

being
of

out

governor

be

thrown

until

jacket

the

deg. fahr.

160

of low

engine

ignition

may

of from

regular

is

or

unless

high-compression engines, a somewhat

For

be

spark

engine

mixture;

valve

water

temperature

the

the

the

position,

water

its

at

rich

too

running

to

open

impulse,

an

rapidly, or

too

deg. fahr., for stationary engines

180

to

is

and

engine is well started, the load

the

When
on

cam,

full,or

until the

in consequence

and

relief cock

engine

continue

valve

and

gas,

advanced

and

supply

open

slow

the

or

acting

the

cycle of operations, commence

valve

gas

its maximum
not

its

begins

the

open

soon

device

If

the

of

on

relief

one-quarter

give the

Now

opened, the relief valve


gear,

as

starting position and

proper

more.

it

as

Do

speed.
it will

acting

cam

relief cock, instead

supply pipe about

gas

little

getting

will

the

soon

as

slowly

temperature.

purpose

same

cherry-

starting position.

into

igniter to the

the

and,

(a double

serving the

thrown

this

maintain

to

to

cock.

the

the

and

provided with

is

Set

flame

starting cam

be

it should

engine
open

has

valve

exhaust

cock),

the

adjust

engine

If the

the

igniter is used, bring the tube

tube

and

heat

red

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

compression.

lower

temperature

is necessary.
If the

engine is provided with

several

make

revolutions

(See later chapter


As

and

soon

make

as

the

sure

Stopping.

"

To

friction
press
or

Turn

the

brake,

against

other

hot

in

tube

the

opening

gas

valve.

gas

running well,inspect all oil

the

engine

off the gas

turn

of

momentum

shape

of

plank,

the

may

valve, and
flywheel, a

be

made

rim, by placing the stick against the

oil and

and

fulcrum,
water

igniter,if

one

cups

feeding properly.

are

stop the

to

available

off the

they

stop

its

is

engine

if it is desirable

before

to

"Starters.")

on

that

startingdevice, allow it

prying against the

supply and
be

used,

or

turn

off the

if electrical

to

floor
rim.

flame

in

ignition

PRACTICAL

is

used,

of the

off the switch.

turn

jacket

length

of

time, drain

Starting

the

prevent

crack

Automobile

an

starting of

nearly all

jacket.

general rules apply in


the

If there

due

by

over

in their
the

to

carburettor.

mixture,

conditions, varies
machine

day,

or

even

started

with

the

carburettor:
connection

be

personally the
than

more

50

of course,

author

skin

from

that, where
the

the

day

one

another

on

adjustment

same

all.

at

always be due

not

be

may

the

or

be

may

batteries

encountered

to the

battery

poor,

has

of

out

be

may

grade;

poor

gasoline containing

although

this condition

fillingthe gasoline tank

gasoline passes

be

to

atmospheric

infrequently, is of

lined, this

cycle of

obtained

not

By

funnel, chamois
as

start

in

are,

stationary engine,

single cranking,

of water,

cent

per

the

in

as

they

different

points corroded,

extreme.

obviated,

mixtures

starting may

gasoline,

The

the

under

same

always found

broken, the sparking coil

the

or

than

wiring connections

may

adjustment
weak.

in

trouble

course

The

"

machines

until

are

later,with

of the carburettor, it will not


Of

jacket.

However,

extent

an

minutes

few

such

to

be

may

action

varying

This

they

in this direction

Engine.

hand

be left any

to

care

starting of these

turned

cases,

largely

slightestdanger

water

stationary engine.

erratic

more

little

Marine

or

the

in the

operations is established, and


far

is the

freezing,or if the engine is

water

will often

25

OPERATION

latter

through

the

be

difficultymay

and

through

was,

does

water

not.

In

carried

out.

beyond

dead

open

Retard

See

or

if the

four

that

procedure should

spark advancing
which

if

it is thrown

out

the

machine

is

lever
the

to

engine

point
runs,

arrangement

an

supplied with

is

give

pump,

clutch
a

foot

or

transmission

clutch

mechanism

lever

is in

is used,

neutral
see

that

of gear.

sparking circuit,either by insertingthe

by throwing

be

strokes.

the

position,or,
Close

of

gasoline supply valve, if such

the

it three

the

center, in the direction

provided, or,

or

following mode

starting, the

the switch.

plug

26

Now

oil

give

the

engine

if it fails to

and,

few

start

at

usually solve

will

this

supply valves.

the

Open

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

with

turns

is sufficient.

drops

shows

attempts,
rich

gas,

order.
in

to

Failure

that

the

is flooded,

or

two

are

the

way,

its

up

flywheel back
with

and

the

the

until it
The

operation.
forth

to

When

to

of

difficulties in
in

the

the

running

be

the oil
too

in

later

is

and

the

and

way,

the
work

is to

against the
it

dead

over

found

one

the

cylinder,
in

is

which

reversible),

compression,
center.

in the

two-cycle

spark, and
a

be

To

apply

an

in

these

given, but do

not

open

to

"catch

up."
is good

properly; too much

the

transmission

oil

is not

used, and, if the

time,

remove

automobile

oil is

engine, throw

supply, shift the

gas

engine, close the


the

quantity

and

bad,

worse.

stop

the

the throttle to

open

variable

can

marine, is well

or

engine circulation

supply is working

close

or

four-cycle

direction

the

automobile

the

this

as

that

sure

"

as

engines,

startingare

fixed rule

little oil is

Stopping.

the

of

out

engine.

charge into the

back

engine, either

position;

Always

neutral

get

same

other

quickly; give the engine time

too

spark

too

four-cycle type.

types of engines, no

but

The

turning

started,gradually advance

that

getting

part is

(a two-cycle engine

run

sparks, instead

as

the

in small

flywheel sharply

same

engine

out

is

these

fullydiscussed

more

over

sjDark retarded

engine is

turn

after

once,

other

some
are

is turned

frequently employed

then

at

starting a two-cycle marine

of

ways

engine

until it takes
most

start

few

gasoline; a

cylinder either
that

or

much

usually

cup

chapter.)

There

the

to

priming

the

too

use

(Troubles and remedies

this

One

not

care

carburettor;

if it still fails to

difficulty;but

start, prime the cylinder, through

provided, using

the

try priming

once,

the

starting crank,

the

transmission

brake.

supply valves, if
machine

plug from

is to
the

be

coil

off

After
a

force

into

stopping
lubricator

left any
or

the

length of

throw

off

the

switch.
In

stopping

marine

engine, the propeller acts

as

brake,

PRACTICAL

and

it is

only

supply.

gas

valves

and

throw

to

necessary

The

off the

spark

general rules apply

same

leaving everything about

closing the oil

to

the

close the

or

engine ready

to

again.

start

Care
As

of

matter

gas-engine

statement,

Engine.

plant of

steam

owner

engine requires no

the

into

statements,
attention

size.

same

should

operator

or

similar

or

of

fact, a gas-engine plant requiresless

by far, than
the

27

OPERATION

and

However,
this

confuse

not

that

meaning

will

tion,
atten-

gas

itself"

"run

after

starting.
A

stationary gas engine should

who, while he need


should

be

condition.
well

oiled

as

of

of from

temperature

jacket

water

uniform

to

the

head

This

circulatingpump.
first to

the water
from

there

to

an

be

may

elevated

tank

engine and

the

then

of the

pressure

One
the

lowered

be
to

use

three

by which

device

the

as

rapidly

cooling

the
as

water

and
to

of the
water

circulations through

the

and

readily
tain
main-

to

water

best

is, the lime

or

other

ways

of

from

the

allowing it to circulate
the

pump,

which

for

cooling

means

of

cooling

of the

It is

over,

from

always

tower

water

may

advisable

since, after

two

or

jacket, it will be "broken,

impurity contained will have


of the jacket water
precipitated;frequent renewal

that

at

pressure

pressure

temperature

possible.
over

kept

accomplished by pumping

Suitable
again pumped to the tank.
should
be provided, either in the shape
other

It is of

be

In order

it is

or

uniform

may

of direct

instead

of water

always have

cylinder be

engine.

the

temperature,

as

engine running electrical

be kept constant.
jacket must
accomplish this is to depend on

uniform

the

in temperature

operation of

in the

detected

the

variations

as

of

and

deg. fahr.

180

to

engine,

clean

as

maintain

to

deg. fahr.

170

the

to

always in good running

it should

importance that the temperature


of an
uniform, especiallyin the case
machinery,

regular attendant,

always be

engine, and

steam

that it is

see

engine should

supply

sufficient

to

on

gas

its

give his entire attention

not

depended

have

"

been
will

28

INTERNAL

quickly
lodge

cause

at

crust

to

form

point,

at

which

some

COMBUSTION

ENGINES

in the

jacket

place

sediment

or

to

"hot-spot"

will be

is

provided

produced.
If,as is sometimes
with

for

means

The

drilled

be

to insure

order

their

remaining

starting,the engineer
of

out

adjustment,

point

engine
is

latter

its

to

where

center

engine,
in

are

This

is,it

the

explosion

and

we

all

are

valve,

raise the

engine

the

we

over

set

to

is

suction

which

at

distance

from

be

sure

suction

we

stroke.

inspecting the

valves

closed,

are

just commencing

stroke

and

until

must

the

to

turn

reference

point the sparker

may

snap.

their

marks,

engines, when
and

valve

together

with

spark

they leave

the

shop, should

positions marked;

and

printed instructions, should

mechanic

average

any

in the

by

cam

be

igniter is

the

the

both

possible.
time,

any

must

complete revolution

one

All first-class
have

are

if the inlet

again correspond,

marks
be

right; but

then

down,

are

cams

if

piston

cycle
here, in the four-

we

in

not

sponding
corre-

the

on

at

readily determined

most

If both

cams.

and

stroke

or

but

us:

the

turn

part, make

the exact

ignitionoccurs;

it for

point the spark

though
to

become

slowly

may,

even

sion;
explo-

remove

desirable

most

the

ignition system,

frame

engine

be turned

the

to

any

and

that, in

so

reason,

which

at

difficultyconfronts

be

may

the

may

some

follows:

being

sparking point,

that

removed;

expect

electrical

moving

way

to

necessary

flywheel

obvious, then, that

turned

dead

the

on

known,

be

ignitersnaps,

in

week

be

for

as

without

Now,

once

water

circulation.

when

determined

until the

over

cylinder,the
is

to

as

may,

it may

or

be

may

points
It

open

make-and-break

produced.

and

often

know

may

sparking device

the

repairs. With
this

as

out

valve

through it, the

water

point of ignition should

exact

also

the exhaust

case,

circulatingthe

should

passages

the

to

reset

the

valve

or

these
enable

igniter

mechanism.
The

part in
if

care

the

properly

of

the

ignition mechanism

operation of
cared

gas

is

engine.

for, give excellent

an

all-important

Electrical

devices,

satisfaction,while

if

allowed
very

poor

clean

and

allowed

satisfaction.
close and

to

be

may
If

the

last

into

action
a

care,

good.

too

none

replaced

of

the

tube

of

few

every

another

may

be

kept

the

very

at

practice,some
than

others

lubricated

ignition and
should

producing

should

valves

they

may

strength.
the

reverse

should
so

The

that

few

The

always

seat

small
for

in the

suction-inlet

so

to

in with

ground
if

The

valve-

they become

replace them, but


to

increase

the suction
the

case

valve

spring
valve,

the

cylinder,will

open

it

must

their

inlet observe

seat

valve

thus
The

power.

little.

strong;

possible

area,

of

and

oil

valves

properly

to

the

passages

any

effective

in their

strong enough
vacuum,

use

be

premature

cause

the exhaust

stretched

engines that

the

prevent

necessary

and

oil, but

prevent

ever

In

readily

more

carbonized

reduction

and

stiff

of this rule, and

only be
a

be

removed

be

the

their

oil,if they leak

it is not

weakened

to

will

gas

gas-engine cylinder oil

frequently examined

should

springs

stem

the

be

engine should

gas

event

any

and

pressure

be
and

flour,emery

incandescent,

reducing

back

In

one,

cherry-red.

passages,

occasionally

from

accumulation

to

poorer.

otherwise
the

firing.

cleaned

be

which

inflame

or

with

or

choke

soon

back

richer

always

should

tube

good grade of machine

seating,and, becoming

from

The

to

needs

of accident

at

will

tube

should

tubes

case

running parts of
a

iron

than

found

lubricated

be

will

in

be

can

substances

an

Several

hotter

be

high flashing point,

produced

these

while

that

best, and, with

gases

of

that,

will be

with

cylinder should
of

and

either

quality is

the

as

either

stands
porcelain with-

alloy or

temperature

never

bearings and

The
well

heat

so

material

Nickel

days.

lowest

gases

of

sets

of which

means

quickly substituted.

should

ignite and

two

not

circuit.

kept readily available

be

switch, by

are

used, is

be

one

good practice to have

comparatively long time,

be

to

with

up

if

battery,

igniter is used, the best

purchased is
ordinary

the

connections

the

that

sure

It is

thrown

tube

that

adjustment they will give

of

out

Be

down.

run

cells connected
set

dirty or

become

to

29

OPERATION

PRACTICAL

quickly.

always be perfect,

30

since the

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

spring is

of the

pressure

sufficient to exert

not

any

appreciable grinding effect.


Never

sudden

the

rapidly, or
the

that

result
the

of

its

until the

repaired only by reboring and

cylinder,

the

engine is ruined

of the
is

cylinder

surface

inner

in

started

once

compression
When

gone.

power

ring cut,

expanded, with
the

cuts

too

them

cause

may

and

is still hot

piston

cylinder

hot

walls

of the

piston sticks and

the

cylinder.

will grow

cooling

the

contract, while

to

into

circulatingwater

the

turn

badly it

cut

providing

and
be

can

piston and

new

rings.
The

governing device
its

prevent

to

and

becoming

of

in

this

For

it would

reason

in

governor

act

governors

closing a

it and

releases
until

the

it to

allows

engine slows
to

is not

enough,

open

connect

the

impulse the first time


down

slow

until

allow

long enough

to

hit-and-miss

governor,

of the

opening

gas

again.

If

the

engine

will

not

the
a

charge

gas

get

connects,

aperture
to

opens

valve,

govern

a
or

closed

the

valve

supply

valve

charge and

and

the

wide
the

enter

properly adjusted,
valve, should

the

allow

to

and

speed beyond

it will remain

enough

it

hit-and-

opening

closes

close,and

the governor

The

to.

and

they

leave

to

by

the

place the

to

even

engine increases

down

in

dirty grease.

design

supply

catches

governor

mechanism

will

the

as

of

amount

itself,or

gas

grease

where

case,

easily attended
the

on

valve;

gas

limit, the

certain

be

crank

better

by

with

up

especially true

great

be much

it may

is

the

apartment

an

exposed where
miss

in

positionto accumulate

gummed

or

This

contained

governors

frequent attention

receive

clogged

losing its sensitiveness.

case
are

should

engine

enough

or

cylinder.

and

with

the

engine

proper
very

closely.
There
of

are

different

general
With

of the

number

design

principleof

on

due

governor
to

the

called hit-and-miss

market,

closing off the

the hit-and-miss

after the

the

so

governor,

all

gas

acting

governors

the

on

supply.

the first impulse

connects, is always stronger than


fact

that

all the

hot

same

exhaust

received,
the

gases

mal,
nor-

have

32

much

too

wide, allowing
and

until

or

engine

the

turn

used,

Weak

engine

the

surplus

all

running,

but

batteries

the

it may

be

to

certain

insulated

If the

"

the

the

spark plug

if there

see

spark is

If the

air, it

will

is

weak

spark
When

are

set

to

batteries, but
and

clean

should
If

be
an

all between

the

some

1/32
free

cleaned,

extra

set

the

spark plug

the proper

will vary,

are

at

be

distance

extent,

cylinder; then
uncertain

see

apart; the size


with

age

or

Be

sure

right.

from

soot;

from

time

of cells is

the

to

to

of

insure

time,

with

carried, throw

the

exposed
under

there

these

that the
this

that

the

will

tions.
condi-

points

spark

strength

this

the

between

probability that
out,

means

turn

when

points under

be

may

when

weaker

much

is taken

in. is about

spark

closer

holding it,by

and

and

the

no

may

set much

be

good fat spark

cylinder compression, with

open

trouble

The

strong.

are

very

be

any

is not

weak, the

grows

This

points should

be

the

engine

the

spark

old.

or

wire, against the

to

over

points.
to

attempt

to

approximate adjustment,

its

to

produces, on

it

adjustment

with

himself

familiarize

while

is

carburettor

every

extent, by adjustingthe points of the

batteries

by removing

engine

cylinder.

It is useless

poor

batteries
the

when

the

set

probably

coil;for weak

of

As

"

carburettor

Wanting.

or

are

remedied,

tested

ignite the charge.

of the

must

results.

of

Weak

Spark

than

igniter is

is known.

that

once

fails,go over
under
heading

satisfy yourself that

to

out

find in what

best

adjustment

fine

starting

to

tube

hot

to

times

of Adjustment.

the

average,

cylinder,

If this

if the

worked

been

and

clear the

the valve

enough

engine operator

special one

entirely

described

as

or,

enough

over

out

different,the

the

to

the valve

Partiallyclose the gasolinesupply and

"

has

gas

Carburettor

his

open

is hot

the tube

Cylinder Flooded.
turn

then

Wanting,"

or

that

see

occurs;

thoroughly,

ignition system

"Spark

twice,

try starting the engine.

position and
the

or

once

over

explosion

an

be true, close

to

of

If either

taken.

be

to

charge

is found

conditions

these

full

too

too

if it is open

cylinder, or

the

into

leak

to

gas

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

of

gap

the

points

condition, they

gasoline.
them

into

the

PRACTICAL

circuit and

if the

see

spark is improved.

produced after these trials,look

not

through
make

that

sure

well-insulated
and

grease,

clean

as

the

reason

neither

the

all found

of batteries

set

high-tension wire
of

required of

common

Stops.

has

If

it slows

overheated, the

revolution.

charge
there

or

of the

result.

open,

or

the

cylinder oil.

The
The

The

stops, the

too

to

may

be

of friction
lack

to

or

inlet
in

weak

engine

bearing
The

of poor

or

amount

unable,

stems

relief cock

starting cam
is

exhaust

or

the

if any

power

sticking,with

the

wholly

running hot, ascertain

may

be

If the

pump.

to

consequence,

partially or

be

of

be in gear.

be

to

be

may
may

may

good; there

line to
see

and

valve

engine is found

circulation

spark is

abnormal

an

and

wiring

properly, thus spoilingthe compression and

same

If the

the

overheated

an

obstructed

be

engine.

suction

to

suitable

or

be

may

point, due

itself

rapid work

gasoline low

every

seat

for the

down

explode the

may

this

but

down,

suitable

not

right,or

valve

tion
the insula-

that

or

is

There

Open-circuit cells,or

is not

sufficient

dition
con-

good spark, they

broken

quality, the mixture

some

good

suddenly, in all probability

is broken.

overloaded,

in

of renewal.

occurrence.

If

"

cylinder is either

at

always be kept

sparking battery.

connection

gives

in need

polarizerapidly, are

Engine

oil and

with

to be

the coil is poor

that

course,

is not

cells that

if covered

wiring should

are

probability, both

possibility,of
of

broken.

contact

or

tions,
connec-

circuit,to

the

complete

ground

wiring connections

in all

trouble

will often

wiring

the

is

good spark

possible.

and
are,

wire

If

over

is grounded

wire

no

for this

as

If the

batteries,and

the

33

OPERATION

obstruction

an

water

seems

part of the cylinder seems

to

if the
in

be

hotter

the

lating,
circu-

than

the

rest; if the engine is vertical,that part of the jacket opposite


lation
circuinlet usually heats up first,due to the poor
the water
at

from
the
same

the

that

point, and
If the

water.

the

engine is horizontal,the hot part of

cylinder will usually


reason.

If

"

resulting deposit of impurities

be

found

at

the

bottom,

for the

hot-spot" is located,it is usually due

to

34

the

of

presence

removed.

be

deposit

must

into

the

deposit; and

jacket

plug, and, using

the

the

then, with

bent

If

jacket until it is clear.


engine continues
found

drill and

to

necessary

such

no

provided, and

overheating, it

from

tap

through the

water

is

plug

remove

deposit and

the

up

hole

to

necessary,

equipped,

so

closed, force

give trouble

to

is

engine

wire, break

outlet

water

when

removed,

be

ing
open-

an

opening with

fit the

points and

If the
a

engines provide

Many

may

jacket.

the

out

improve the circulation,this

to

these

at

pipe plug, which

flush

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

for

be

may

1-in.

the

pipe

plug.
Cold.

Ignition Tube

charge, then

every

into

the

does

not

exhaust

If the

"

unburned

some

and

passages

fire the

ignitiontube

too Rich.

in the

back,

in

which

the

passages,

When

"

number

speeds,

as

on

of dead

is

its maximum

to

reached; it is doubtful

reached.

There

gasoline

the

cylinder becoming
the inside of the
their
the

the

spark

may

of low

firingmay

overheated,

from

one

or

become
be

too

engine is running.

ignited
the

to

mally
abnor-

point

of the

dition
con-

ignitiontemperature,

also be

charge.

far advanced

siderably
con-

center

caused

by the
fins, on

by projections,or

incandescent

low

gas

dead

with
for the

holding

and

explosion, long enough

partially compressed

next

likelihood

more

to

at

this critical

cylinder becoming incandescent

heat, derived
oil may

The

ignite before

in

be too

were

pressure

fires

due

may

allow

to

if,unless

Back

vapor.

be

be

by the time

in gases

engine.

firing,except

in order

be

sions
explo-

direction

compression

pressure

would

being encountered
as

the

in

the

firing may

result in back

high, the charge would


was

Back

center

the

up

exists,the charge

high speed the charge should

ahead

expand

not

of

stroke, against the

of causes;

high, but this should

stopping

this condition

engine is running.
a

usually results

in

or

keep

tube

stop.

condition

compression

the

of

one

any

exhaust

Firing.

Back

This

"

If the

to

fire

to

discharged

there.

explode
will

cold

will be

gas

charge frequently enough

cycle of operations, the engine


Mixture

is too

to

ignite

particle of
the

result.

same

speed

bonized
car-

at

which

PRACTICAL

In the

has

as

two-cycle type

in the

occur

crank

been

of

motor, premature

due

case,

35

its

to

explosions may

compression being

poor,

previously explained.

Premature
the

OPERATION

explosions are

accompanied

engine bearings, although

necessarily

indicate

place, as

bolt

that
nut

or

pounding

bearing pounding

explosions

premature
be

may

by

loose

and

does

of
not

taking

are

produce the

same

result.
Water

in the

introduced

"

in the

mixture,

the

engine is made

the

gasket blowing from

The

is

condition

usually the

case,

mechanism,

if

is to

remedy
wrong

way

should

be

those

and

gasket

Cut

all

openings

head

insert

position and
cold, draw

using
for 3
the

or

min.,

rubber,

allow

position.
will

or

Failure

mean

to

all the

to take

cracks

so

up
as

to

only

done

the

to the

to

others

any

place when

be

sure

through

pass

as

them

freely,

they

are

size

exact

With

they will
and

jacket dry,

good and

on

be

material

last

takes

go,

as

the
in

engine

of

course

twisting

not

the

engine

this will soften

in

tightened
this

the

run

warm;

gasket will blow

engine is hot, it sometimes


the screw,

the

perform

the

that

and

judgment

cementing
to

The

packing, which

bolts.

or

of

with

screws

igniter

holes, making

nearly

as

tight

as

until it is

other

or

bolts

the

or

The

is

as

convenient; place the head

amount

Now,

off.

or,

asbestos, should

to

of

out

screws

bolts

reasonable

heads

the

the

up

the

space.

gasket carefully in place

is most

cylinder, as

or

the

place

possible. Now

The

spaces

bolt

the

up.

engine.

all bolt

cut

drawing

power,

grounded.

water

the

permit

to

water

cylinder head, being

the

Carefully

when

case

operation often

an

the

for

of

wire-woven

fitted to

openings

large enough
screwed

by loss

inexperienced.
of

the

cylinder into the

accompanied

being

water

cylinder head, from

by stopping of the

occur.

without

the

good grade

detachable

electrical, becomes

by

provide the
may

with

from

is sometimes

as

or,

result

may

repack the head,

carefully cut
that

This

Cylinder.

the
up

gasket, and
to

their final

tightening

tion
opera-

again, as, when

three-quarters of

turn

the
on

into
gasket and squeeze the cement
produce an absolutelytight joint.

the

36

INTERNAL

Engine

Smokes.

rich

the

front

due

mixture

of
the

to

the

being
be

has
Valves

worn

or

running

already

been

Leak.

much

indicates

cylinder,

may

issuing

too

or

rings

engine

the

Smoke,

"

too

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

See

crusted

previously

been

faster
that

the

give

If

if
if

the

the

be

can

is

spark
to

Smoke,

the

hot.

cylinder
The

is

piston

the

from

issuing

of

out

round,

for

remedy

leaking,
or

these

ditions
con-

the

stems

sticking,

are

is

spring

The

weak.

if

or

the

seat

has

remedy

suggested.

it

fed

oil.

indicates

exhaust,

mentioned.

"

than

being

or

Races.

Engine

or

cut,

or

the

that

"

is

from

the

engine

engine,

supplied
far

advanced

cylinder.

The

too

more

mixture.

running
with

light,
it

gas,

for

remedy

the

is

races,

an

to

retard

runs

indication
of

amount

is

or

mixture
the

spark

CHAPTER

VI.

STARTING

There

are

starting

of

that

exploded,
results

dangerous
started

throw-out

automatic
the

clutch
the

engine

have

placed

the

starting

2.
even

It

is sometimes

at

times

igniting
the

before

the

3.

The

cycle
Electric
the

of

of

the

which

the

containing
stopped.

was

the

large engine

less
of

which

turned

operator.

by
often
may

this

used
be

to

37

with

apparatus

spark

it takes

and

up

of

for
a

in

drawn

tight cylinder.

source

advantage

provided

start, after

successfully

the

until

external

some

to

charge

with

starts

engines, and

sparking

do

over

is to

the

To

of

efficiency,

to

to

out

engine

of

an

when

the

part

stopped

with

as

the

be

to

are

crank

or

tight fit, insuring

be

may

operations
are

be

engine

maturely
pre-

which,

cylinder,

one

be

operator

but

object

stop, by retarding

cylinder

engine

but

taken

be

accompanying

the

greater

immunity

of

engines

piston rings be

motors

throws

disengage

insuring

engine
that

demands
that

crank,

engine

not

possible in multi-cylinder

short

moderately

and

or

in

starting

Hand

starting

provided

enables

to

will

Engines

market,

crank

fires, thus

back

or

the

less

the

must

charge

which

devices,

on

or

starting

or

firing, with

automatically

Several

been

cause

the

the

that

care

generally

collar

starts,

connection.

the

are

with

shaft

for

1.

cocks

starting,

back

in

requires

operator.

method

use

more

follows:

as

relief

that

set

the

used,

extensively

of

causing

to

this

by

about

method
so

in

demand.

compression

ignition is

the

methods
are

size, and

this

using

In

which

most

moderate
with

provided

cams.

is' used

which
of

of

enumerated

be

engines

be

all

different

requirements

as

may

starting,

of

engines,

extensively,
They

number

gas

DEVICES.

this

its

energy.
purpose,

starting

engine

38

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

small

enough

power,

when
An

4.

be

to

turned

running,

by hand

over

explosive mixture

of gas

auxiliary air-tightchamber.

an

by

the

On

stopped.
into the

is admitted

supply pipe.
its

up

5.

air may

to

The

the

and

dead

center

in the

valve

charge will generally be

of this

give the engine enough impulse

it take

make

to

cycle of operations.

The

last-named

air pump,

method

into

the

to

either

In

methods

if the
be

the

electrical

an

starter;

by

or

The

of

ignition
match

the

in

been

used

charge

7.
in
6.

cylinder, and

the
in
a

treatise

his

on

The

Gas

the

auxiliary chamber,

closed, passes
As
the

long

pressure

into

in
to

chamber

is

in

valve

the

explosion chamber

as

soon

the

the

flame
as

gradually

the

the

shown

to

Hutton,

in

such

Fig.

7.

A, through the supply

gas

prevent

it; but

is

valve, C,

poppet

and

illustrates

the

on

through the cock, D, where

out

the

as

high
back

the

and,

pipe, B,

exploded

cylinder.

Engine,"

operation of which

enters

be

conveyed

pressure

engine

starter, the

Gas

the

"

extent.

some

may

means,

auxiliary chamber

an

resulting

Igniter.

Match

to

tube,

exploding it by mechanical
has

spark,

inserting an

explosive cartridge
into

may

6.

method

opening

of
of

means

Fig.

see

an

last two

charge

electrical system

used,

6.

of these

named,

exploded by

by using

charge of explosive

compress

cylinder.

be

varied

be

may

operated by hand,

mixture

Fig.

it is

ture
explosive mix-

cylinder by opening

explosion

accomplished

over

the

charge of

in

stored

receptacle before

this

be

be

may

startingthe engine, it is turned

explosion stroke,

sufficient to

and
This

engine itself charging

sufficient

of

and

large engine.

the

start

to

ENGINES

engine
it is

ignited.

supply pipe is kept


at

the

is maintained

jet,D, from

supply is

consumed

at

cut

the

being

open,

ciently
suffi-

running

off,the

gas

in

jet until the

40

INTERNAL

operate

intermediate

an

matter
to

make

to

lever

in turn, operates

mechanism,

shaft, which

on

rod, it is

valve

which

the levers

an

easy

mounted,

are

bring the starting mechanism

to

as

way

mounted
the

shaft,on

the

shift in such

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

into gear.
Such

is shown

arrangement

an

figures show

the

in

the

of

arrangement

Figs.

9, which

and

for

cams

three-

"toite=^

Fig.

Compressed

8.

In the illustrations

cylinder,four-cycle engine.
the

are

three

exhaust

all mounted

cams,

levers,H,
On

the

the

9.

Detail

on

the

which

the

valve

double

eccentric

made
with
while

to

starting

one-half

the

once

open

other

and

the

are

shifter

inlet

The

G.

hardened

the

Starting

Cam

Cam

shown,

every

the

shown

impinge.

stems

cams.

of it with

the

on

A,

mission
trans-

shaft,7.

steel contacts,

X-X

of

portions, as

shaft,

cam

are

and

D,

mounted

levers

Section

J,

one

shown

are

transmission

Fig.

and

cams,

on

Starting Cams.

Air

so

A
that

in

Cams

is

half is concentric

the

of the
to

the

8.

and

are

provided with
exhaust

revolution, while
outline

Fig.

valve
D

cam

at

is

is made

regular inlet
shaft

two

all

cam,

points,

STARTING

it

will

closed.

the

double

some

manufacturers

This,

however,

economical
exhaust

With
is

air,
of

stroke
the

to

the

maintained

not

it

the

of
is

and

and

close

absolute
shuts

lever,
in
the

necessity,
off

piston,

the

the

when

air

the

shifter

direction

is

of

opened.

provided

by

poppet

valve.

although

more

supply

the

in

the

cock

air

until

is

K,

air

an

will

over

control,

shaft,

cam

valve

turned

D,
the

portion

inlet

is

moved

the

open
an

as

and

position
on

to

the

H,

concentric

engine

means

levers,

is
of

by

mounted

cam,

the

cams,

starting

the

to

arrow

open

then,

the

on

consequence,

the

the

carrying

shaft

which

stroke;

explosion

acts

starting,

In

cylinder,

the

H,
in

and,

raise,

not

remain

lever,

the

when

that

so

41

DEVICES

exhaust

during
valve

the
is

atmosphere.
air-starting
in

the

system
storage

tank.

pressure

of

from

200-300

lb.

CHAPTER

CARBURETTORS,

The

general

same

fuel

requisite
types.

Thus,

operate

on

are

form

some

for

to

engines

the

operating

solid

gas

is

producer

on

of

available

from

for

different

the

in

steps

fuel

from

fuel,

in

although,

the

use

which

engines

the

known

apparatus,

an

gas,

the

intermediate

no

form,

distill

to

gas,

fuel,

gaseous

or

necessary

state,

as

is

power

several

is, the

transformation

vaporous

producer,
a

of

the

that

engine,

gas

of

the

on

obtaining

for

with

vary

operate

generation

the

pursued

form

the

engines

oil

as

methods

gaseous

in

necessary

liquid

in

the

in

and

far

as

INJECTORS.

AND

alcohol,

principle,
but

concerned,

VAPORIZERS

gasoline,

gas,

VII.

as

it appears

as

internal-combustion

engines.
different

The

devices

alcohol,

gasoline,
which

after
will

taken

be

There

three

mixture

The

carburettor,

and

supply
To

air,

up

and

on

the

in

bustible
com-

be

cussed,
dis-

producer

gas

the
for

is

or

of

into
a

an

manifold

from
or

42

on

the

of

the

form.

gasoline,

engine

"hot-box,"
the

by

vapor

especially

find

device

vapor

necessary,

warm,
we

suction

carburetting

be

reason

portion

in

liquid

absolutely

not

is

forms,

across

the

when

gasoline,
this

exhaust

securing

(3) Injecting.

transformed

particles

their

for

use

its many

through,

although

as

of

one

operation,

the

leading
either

first

suction

methods

fuel

taking

well

weather;

will

the

liquid fuels:

any

over,

better,

as

in

either

facilitate
much

of

(2) Vaporizing,

liquid

the

air

passing

of

production

mixture

operation

from

Carburetting,

which

oil

or

general

(1)

by

is

the

the

for

up.

are

explosive

used

cylinder

that
in

it
the

cold

facturers
manu-

located

base,

or

where

the

circulate

water, from

warm

carburetting alcohol

circumstances, that
is

liquidin

and

fuel

the

that

In

air to

proper

it is

heat

residual

of

another
it

method

and

thereby driving off

has

sufficient

pressure

sufficient air is mixed


The

oil to

chamber

to

with

other

types,
the

cylinder,and
the

same

Still

satisfactorymanner.

heating the fuel oil, by passing


action

of the

where

explosive

by causing the

plate, thus causing it

hot

its heat,

to

proper

is also obtained
on

gases,

air nozzle

an

produce the

it to

exhaust

which, due

it past

carry

time,

or

mixed

In

the

to

oily vapor

an

result

at

less

the

to

with

same

fall,a drop

heated

vaporized and

direct

in

consists

through coils exposed

mixture.

to

the

to

oil is thus

the

previous explosions produces

general results,although in

pulverize

or

up

explosive mixture.

vaporized fuel is carried

the

break

forced

be

pressure

it, in suspension,

of

is carried

coils where

the

for this

reason

especiallywith

engines, after

many

through heated
form

under

it may

portion

mixture

the

up,

the

all

under

necessary,

is necessary,

air

the

order
a

carry

engine cylinder.
broken

to

Chapter IX.

grades, that

the

through

is

warmed;

carburetting petroleums it
heavier

the

it

fuel be

the

in

fully explained
In

made

be

may

it.

around

When

jacket,

the

43

INJECTORS

AND

VAPORIZERS

CARBURETTORS,

to

vaporize.
vaporizer (and it

The

applicable,
always has

supply

mixing valve, makes


charge,

required.

as

reality,improved
be said that

of gas

on

hand, while

only enough

gas

amount

necessary

mixture

for the

of which

of them

for each

the

air

quality of the

gasoline

fuel to

supply

latter

the

vaporizer, or
revolution

in

or

in

are,

fact,it

may

are.

gasoline valve, of

being adjusted

required, and
the

that

the

types of mixing valves, and

of the

of

only

are

so-called, carburettors

Many,

majority

they

use

in

the carburettor

design, capable of

needle

vary

the

the

to

vaporizer consists,essentially,of

The

means

be said that

ordinarily designed,

as

naphtha) differs from

or

here

may

to

deliver

the

produce the requisitevapor


adjustable air valve, by

an

may

mixture,

as

be

regulated

so

as

requirements demand.

to

44

INTERNAL

COMBUSTION

gasoline is dropped

The

made

rise in

to

air, which

made

the

on

cylinder,or

fuel mixed

with

with

chamber

ignition of whose
make
Diesel

the

At

is

valve

by
per

the

of

in.

unique; the
the

The

construction

of the

fuel

enters

consists

of

means

as

the

closes

the

of the

oil,as it falls

divided

chapter

spray
on

to

is made

the

suction

stroke

the

into the

valve

the

as

of

fuel

der
cylinlb.

800

is somewhat

pipe,

and

B.

The

washers, C, drilled with

at

F.

The

washers,

when,

on

the

oil is carried

"Ignition," the

heated

vaporizes and

of nickel

capillary attraction
it to fillthe

causes

working

with

cylinder where,

the

cylinder completely
stem

the

on

valve, F, is opened,

the

on

are

charge,

pressure

air, through

valve

and

mentioned,

above

valve

parallelto the spindle, D, which, by


acting through the bell crank, E,

governor

and

air

fuel

Fig. 10,

through the pipe, A,

of concentric

shown,

opens

valve

the

forced
a

motor.

to

fuel

working

compressed

proper,

holes,

small

the

tion,"
"Igni-

Diesel

the

cylinder

charge of oil is

auxiliary compressed

valve,

allows
the

enter

The

under

also the

valve, and

the

method

This

Referring

air under

means

sq.

to

the

the

Weiss, the injection and

follows.

as

beginning of

opened and

injecting into

later described

air valve

previously described,
stroke.

and

are

exhaust

The

in

cylinder is practiced quite

the

Meitz

is

air valve, the

are

device.

air.

of

principle,as does

method

plainly marked.

feed

float

oil-engine manufacturers.

charges

of this

use

exception that they

requisite amount

and

the, so-called,

of

adjacent thereto, a quantity of

different

Hornsby-Akroid

the

the

produce

throttling device

implies, consists

name

the

the

largely by

the

automatic

an

introducing the fuel into

The

it is

or

spray,

it to

majority

the

to

market

the

Injecting, as

of

fuel with

supplied with

all respects similar

supplied with

the

of the

enough

are

carburettors
not

finely divided

mixture.

Vaporizers
in

of

nozzle, placed in the path of the entering

carries

necessary

and

path of the entering air and

in the

along in the form

carried

ENGINES

as

air

the

steel,as it has been

stroke, the

air in

described
contained

ignites it.
found

holes

The

finely
in

the

in

the

valve

by experi-

CARBURETTORS,
that

ence

moved
to

where

back

be

VAPORIZERS

the

and

packing abrades

forth, it

method,

of fuel

as

and

with

used

could

on

be

probably

as

Fig.

Returning
Fig. 11,

we

is obtained

ebullition.

have

and

worn

in the

the Diesel

applied

it is

requires

to

10.

Diesel

example

In

method

engines of lower

pression
com-

Valves.

and

carburettors
in

is sometimes

the illustration
the

ical
econom-

satisfactoryresults.

subject of

an

motors, is very

which

in

engine; B, the

spoken

of

thence
as

to

air
the

mechanical

question,A represents the


screened
openings,through

auxiliary air supply is drawn; C,


float,
E, through which

referring to

carburetted

the

by passing it through the fuel and

pipe to
the

the

to

This

engine.

which

spindle, as

replaced.

This

suction

the

becomes

soon

45

INJECTORS

AND

the

the carburetted

ting
tube, terminaair is drawn

4G

D,

shield acting

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

the

on

principleof

separator and

when

they impinge against its surface; F,

gauge

by which

the

height

gasoline in

of

always
it to

move

engine, air is drawn

of the

the

tube,

and

C,

the

with

mixes

carried to the
This

in at

There

Fig.

Daimler

the

amount

heat

to

the

liquid, from
the

continues,
until

it may

all of its
of this

outside

temperature
become

so

of

cold

in

different

difficultyencountered
Added

to

liquidnaturally rose

to

of the

liquidto

be

As

was

is, the

it will

vaporization

also

in the

fall

nearly

description
the

was

this

to

lost

have

for detailed

of

as

supplied

be

great

type of

burettor.
car-

experienced from

lighter portions of the

the top and, in the process

passed off first,leaving


part of the fuel.

IX

use.

liquid a

any

liquid continues

fluids.) This

this, trouble

that
distillation;

this

that

its

vaporization, is

as

operation

in the

in

very

of

heat

the

Daimler.

heat, known

unless

sources,

volatility. (See Chapter

condition

fractional

now

was

of

Carburettor.

lost;

is

in the

two

vaporization of

latent

the

however,

disadvantages

certain
11.

used

was

Gottlieb

by

were,

marked

B,

obtained

engines and

Daimler

first devised

the

cylinder of the engine.

carburettor

earlier

In

thus

mixture

stroke

through

auxiliary air supply drawn


and

liquid

the suction

On

the

as

of the

of the surface

changed.

is

tube,

surface

the

down,

or

up

elevation

of

float, E, causing

liquid; the

of the

may

positionas

just below

be

to

end

such

in

and

carburettor

The

C, terminates

vapor

indicator

an

the

determined.

be

the

from

surplus particlesof gasoline to separate

the

causing

carburettor

result of this condition

was
vaporized,or distilled,

of

the heavier
the

of poor

naturally affectingthe operation of the engine.

zation,
vapori-

last part

quality,

48

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

flannel

felt,reaching down

or

capacity of
the

above

of

air currents

surface

evaporates

the

Experience has
results

best

8 in.

wick

full of the

gradually becomes
the air

its functions

perform
To

supply

film

drop

to

the

over

the

Of

on

the

contained

fine wire

very

and

foreign matter,

open

in

in

large majority

method.

These

"spray

type,"

which

which

of

carburettors
and

finelydivided

the

fitted with

have

we

On

engine.
in

nozzle,

is

the suction

fuel, supported
unbalanced
As

must

has

they

are

the

this

use

spoken of

the

as

nozzle, in the form

is

in the

that

of

the

on

air passage

the

the
In

spraying

consequence
and

atmosphere,

nozzle, is thrown

the

to

way

is formed

over

vacuum.

nozzle,

partial vacuum

air, rushing

fill this

follows:

as

it

over

previously noted, these

been

cylinder,and
one

in

in

examples;
designs

situated

pass

the

to

by

off into

it

the

by the

pressure.

capacity of but
their

thin

aptly chosen, the fuel being

so

stroke,

is less than

its pressure

mist.

valve, is

needle

attempting

is

liquid fuel

fabric,is easily

many

commonly

carburettor

carburettor, and

the

of

use

is carburetted

modern

are

or

spray

entering air

the

that

the

the

of the

the air

the

name

operation of the

The

to

ceases

and, forming

injected into the entering air, through


a

with

gauze,

spaces

gasoline,

fact, the

of

fuel,and

taken

entering air.

the

over

the

is that

carburettor

in the

designed

carburettors,

passing it

the wick

to

are

wires

evaporated by

liquid to be evaporated.

difficultyconnected

wicking, carburettors
is made

this type,

of

properly.

the

overcome

of wick

carburettor, if about

the

clogged with
or

The

air.

the

carburettors

when

part

fuel.

large expanse

saturates

that, in

obtained

are

the

with

this

fuel and

principalobjection

in with

capillary attraction, the

across

shown

deep, is half

The

the

in the

liquid,serves

the

liquid is kept saturated

passage

the

into

wick, and, by

ENGINES

are

little

than

one

really improved

distinctive
almost

more

feature

being

carburettors

have

complete charge for the


types of mixing
the

universallyequipped.

float

feed, with

If not

valves,
which

equipped

with

CARBURETTORS,
a

float

feed, an

and

open

Their

VAPORIZERS

aspiratingvalve

close the

49

INJECTORS

is necessary

automatically

to

spraying nozzle.

arises from
greatest difficulty

particlesof foreign matter


and

AND

lodge

to

this fact necessitates

great

the

tendency of small

in the
in the

care

spraying nozzle,
of the fuel
filling

supply tank.
In

the

valve

carburettors

is used

in

in

which

place of the

encountered, especiallyon

Fig.
the

valve

spring
of

amount

is not

of

power

the

of

number

on

fuel.
flexible

engine is

As

gives, as

For

time,

on

its

every

requisite
of, the

spoken

high speeds, the


the

to

of

increased

the

reason

rule, a good deal

as

ordinary

difficultywhen

poppet

may

be

restricted

held

to

its seat
the

nearly all the

is shown

James-Lunkenheimer

the
a

which

manufactured,

are

essentiallyof

through

this

of

Valve.

commonly
on

inertia

two-cycle engine of the three-port type.

carburettors
is known

the

secure

proportional

generic patent, under

The

to

enough, and,

not

difficultyis

from

Mixing

entering air

impulses 'received.

mixing valve
used

high speeds,

aspirating

some

allowing sufficient

not

vaporous

carburettor

float feed,

James-Lunkenheimer

13a.

stroke, for the

suction

automatic

an

by

by the

port, D, and

of the

spring, C.
the

Fig. 13, and

design.

valve, A, the

means

in

It

The

B, and
air

consists
of which

movement

screw,

modern

which

supply

is

enters

gasoline through the nozzle

50

in the

valve

seat

gasoline supply is regulated by

The

E.

at

needle

of the

means

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

of which

valve, the handle

is shown

f"

Mixing

F, and
by

the

is shown

the amount

of

pointer, G,

and

at / and

the

Fig.

Figs. 14,

15

mixing valves
of

14.

and

opening

The

engine connection

16

Generator

represent

manufactured

Cincinnati, Ohio.

needle valve

of the

Pattern

Fig.

three

is the

is indicated

gasoline connection
at

J.

Valve.

different

by the Lunkenheimer
14

T^S

Valve.

the dial, H.

Plain

at

types

of

Company,

plain pattern generator

CARBURETTORS,

valve, Fig.

15

opening of the

15.

Fig.

shows

16

is

varying the
tension

of

Generator

16.

valve
air and

the

poppet

Fig.

Fig.

VAPORIZERS

valve

valve
and

with

the

Valve

Generator

with

of the

Adjustable

Valve

with

Air

spring, and

Poppet.

Throttle.

connections,

gasoline supply

51

varying the

for

screws

tension

having throttle
spring.

INJECTORS

AND

and

for

means

for

changing the

52

INTERNAL

These

valves, especiallythe

give excellent
the
With

motor

when

they

is due

in

and,

too

Fig.

is

17

by Wheeler

cut

"

quite dearly in
the

follows:

chamber

the

17.

upwards
of the

trol
con-

valve

best

Schebler

the

air

constant

past the

explosive mixture,

liable

is

mixture

to

passes.

where

thus

It is of the

parts

figures and

shown

are

letters

opening, through

the

P,

to

at

9,

mixing

auxiliary air supply,

valve, A, is mixed
formed,

the

are

which

air,entering

The

spraying nozzle

carburettor,

is

freely than

more

working

the

carburetted,

float

lack of the

carburettor, manufactured

Reference

cut.

stove

Carburettor.

Schebler

type, and

results

highly volatile gasoline.

entering through the poppet


the

to

ordinary

on

the

the

more

The

of the

is the

air,to be

passes

into the

run

the

Schebler, Indianapolis, Indiana.

spray-floatfeed
as

fact that

consequence,

rich with

Fig.

operated

are

the

to

the fuel to

necessary,

connection,

is able

operator

nearly all types of mixing valves

allows

become

the

throttle

closely.

very

gasoline. This
feed

with

one

and
satisfaction,

obtained

are

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

is

drawn

with

it,and

into

the

VAPORIZERS

CARBURETTORS,

engine cylinder.
F, J, H, and
air

the

of

feed

mechanism

is shown

float,F, surrounding the

shown, which

as

the

H, through
that

'float

consists

supply tube,

such

The

53

INJECTORS

AND

at

constant

operates the needle

valve,

lever, J, maintaining the level of the fluid

it will

just overflow

carburettor, from

the

the

Gasoline

nozzle, P.

enters

supply tank, through the

supply

pipe, G.
nozzle, P, is fitted with

The

for

adjusted permanently
knurled

is raised

mechanism
of

the

causes
or

supply

is

by

lever, Q,

of which
and

tension

the

of

is used

by

for

needle

opening
valve

knurled

rich

very

is

which

usually accumulates
it also accumulates
be removed

Fig.

shows

18

sectional

two

manufactured

time

from

incoming air

with

b,

valve
as

fiber valve

openings

constant

The

proper

shown,

adjustment

a,

tension
means

spraying nozzle, D,

of

situated

starting.

pet-cock, at
of

its

gasoline,

gasoline contains
chamber,

of the

tor,
Holley carburet-

Company,

Detroit,

through port A, which

its seat
of

for

type, and its operation is as

through which
to

pin U

time.

BC; situated

is held

the

by

enters

or

producing,

of the float

by the Holley Brothers

follows:

If the

views

It is also of the spray

the

and

grade

poorer

to

Michigan.

by the

the needle

mixture, suitable

in the bottom

ished;
dimin-

or

Push

opens

overflow

there.

Z\,

starting the engine.

the float and

off the

Y,

increased

M.

usually provided with

point, for draining

may

be

screw

to

means

valve

its seat

to

may

when

valve

auxiliary air

increased

held

the

point, T, thus

damper

be

A,

lowers

lowest

and

The

tension

of the

float chamber

water

point.

may

valve, H, causing the nozzle, P,

The

the

is

mechanism,

cam

valves,

two

poppet

pin down

momentarily,

of

means

about

priming the carburettor

the

Pushing

the

the

revolve

to

the

means

by

throttle,the needle

open

spring 0, which

diminished

throttle

actuates

provided with

means

valve, E, which

lowered, by the operator, by

or

lowering

raising

low

for

lever, P, which

the

and

then

button, /;

needle

the
the

in the

around
air is

by

the valve

is provided
the

are

constantly passed.
of the

means

spring,

spring being capable


adjusting

path

screw

of the

c.

of

The

incoming air,

54

be

may

The

opened

mixture
may

by

of

means

closed

by

of

by the

is set

18.

openings,

but,

raises
A

carburettor.
as

Fig.

or

partial
and

the

Carburettor.

height

spraying

supply the

to

of the
nozzle.
the

pet-cock

at

formed,
extra

an

is used

On

low
air

constant

openings
the

supply
to

The

liquid such

of

requisite amount

vacuum

allows

drain

to

not

air

auxiliary
enter

the

the carburettor,

already described.
19

is

later

design of the Holley carburettor

varying mixtures

necessary

less trouble

variation

is

supply, owing
closes

valve, /, being raised

speed increases, these

principlehas

or

or

Holley

the

entirelynew

an

opened

is

which

entirely through

the

as

the

BC

Type

maintain

enters

being large enough


overcome

Old

requirements,
the carburettor

enters

H,

needle

overflow

just

a,

the

to

air

valve

Gasoline

suit

to

float, G, acting through the lever, J.

speeds the

to

closed,

d.

valve,

butterfly throttle,

the

engine past
or

the needle

of

means

gasoline connection,

it will

that

the

opened

means

mechanism

by

lever, F.

the

Fig.

lowered

to

be

the

through

closed

or

passes

E, which

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

the

is encountered

accomplished
to

been

for the
with

by

derangements

auxiliaryvalve.

made

use

of to

in which

produce the

changing speeds.

carburettors,
means

of the

Frequent

of

an

in which

More
this

auxiliary air

spring device, which


adjustments

of

this

56

INTERNAL

spring

are

The

have

to

this

overcome

difficultyby
gasoline,

evaporating surface of the

of

amount

method

of

the air enters

operation is

at A

and

U-shaped tube.

is

gradually constricted

there,

size

the

carburettors, by

through

passes

through
and

the

has

an

At

of

and

the

cork

valve,

area

in

surrounds

float,J, which

engine

the

to

controls
K.

at

most

mixture

The

E.

and

float chamber

possible to maintain

the

as

the

U,

the

needle

The

lower

tube, and

part of the U is,in principle,a venturi

constricted
it

being adjusted,

lever, N, pivoted

the

through

up

of this tube

point

butterfly throttle
The

then

gasoline orifice,B, is located

the

orifice

outlet,C.

illustration,

in the

and

of the needle

means

valve, L, through

makes

the lowest

this

annular

follows:

as

downward

passes

high air velocity over

very

gasoline orifice B.

The

gasoline level, in the float chamber,

that

it will

not

operating, this
but

overflow

started,

is

engine

speed increases
velocity of the

the

Drain

orifice.

The

results

condition

will

suction

and

the

air sweeps

of the lever,F,

than

in.

"

to

buretting of alcohol
sufficient

the

lift the

line
gaso-

the

As

away,

to

increased

and

high

on

from

spray

prevent

engine

the

puddle

engine is throttled

of this carburettor

is

as

the

by

shown.

good, and

justifyit.

in

Carburettors.
the

already mentioned,

air shall be

to

opened, the

by the
The

engine is

When

operating the butterflyvalve,

principleof operation
seem

is

provided

the

so

top of the puddle, and

puddle

the

is

have

not

is carburetted

pipe

when

evaporation.

throttle

Alcohol
As

does

is maintained

maintain.

it off the

surface

growing deeper

means

$ in., and

by

speeds the mixture


from

about

merely evaporates

carburetted

is

tered
encoun-

changing the quality of the mixture.

The

the

is often

trouble

then

even

speeds.

Holley claims

varying the
thus

and

necessary,
different

at

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

an

only requirement for the

ordinary carburettor

of sufficient warmth

quantitiesto produce

to
a

is that

vaporize the alcohol

properly saturated

car-

the
in

mixture.

VAPORIZERS

CARBURETTORS,

However,

it has

that

suction

the

alcohol, owing
produce the
In

extent.

sufficient

found

should
the

to

same

Germany

some

been

in many

increased

France

The

engine is started

has

in the

Other

double

been

heat

and

to

state

it is mixed

It is apparent
must

gases

doubtful

for

with

generated

alcohol

air and

that carburettors,

and

there

is

hold

are

more

be

less the

good

no

of

with

are,

is

there

It

was

of

show

valid

an

The

should

be, according

f in. and
be
a

in. of
-J-

about

speed

be, in the

In

use

of

gases

should

be

about

to

for

220

secure

cylinder and

since

government

the

of alcohol

use

complicated.

more

is

alcohol,

on

between

to

operating

on

generally sufficient.

into the
sec.

should

gasoline,

passing the spraying nozzle

ft. per

have

good spraying

operating

carburettor

alcohol

not

entering

starting,this value

gasoline, about

satisfactorily
spray

in the

authority, equal

in. of mercury

of the

the

should
give satisfaction,

and
a

should

rule

Design.

to

best

to

to

them

carburettor

mercury,

doubled.
of 0.1

vacuum

The

in

vacuum

heated

gasoline carburettors

most

velocity at the jet sufficient

effect.

it is

in their case,

so

same

Moreover,

making

jet carburettor, in order


air

and

conclusively, by

was

temperature

Carburettor
A

the

that

for

reason

the exhaust

the fuel is not

slight alterations, adaptable


no

vaporous

engine.

alcohol, for the hotter

range

to

the

to

proven

why

developed.

power

in

as
efficient,
producers of power

as

reason

use

seemed

have

tests

when

gasolineengines, that this

charge, the less the


the

perfect

gasolinesupply

less cumbersome

or

temperature.

in the

true

the

through which

high

on

to

use

utilize the exhaust

passes

to

made

the

out

engine cylinder,as those in which

tests

in

are

insure

to

cuts

with

use

the

they would

to

gasoline and, when

on

at the
as

used

fuel

carburettors

vaporize the fuel and

pass,

if

of

alcohol.

carburettors

gases

fact

power.

heat

cuts

the

carburetting

when

amount

and

operation of the alcohol,a valve


and

be

to

cases

increased

be

57

INJECTORS

AND

80

ft. per

sec,

should

while

to

passing air the velocity

VIII.

CHAPTER

PRODUCERS.

Producer
with

operating

apparatus

The

first

by

producers

almost

and

type

anthracite.

of
due

the

to

pressure,

in

which

the

had

pressure,

to

and

Dowson

producer

gas.

producer

their

be

they

the

of

were

hard

be

to

came

They

grade

quite complicated,

cooling
it

stored

used

were

gas

were

since

gas,

duced
intro-

were

operation

plants

suction.

by

or

marketed

name

for

generated

be

may

Dowson,

required

The

and

made

necessity of scrubbers,

gasometer,

varying

under

the

with

synonymous

pressure

engines,

named

that

extent

an

gas

be

to

Londoner,

such

to

fuel, for

gas

and

apparatus,

somewhat

under

was

being

before

fed

the

to

engine.
There
that

are

than

for
of

through

the

used

connection

piston

the

producer,

the

operate

in

use

suction

be

system

pressure

apparatus

in

however,

cases,

many

in

fact

with

of

pressure

and

to

for

it is necessary
other

any

engine,

gas

the

produces

which

flow

necessary

air is necessary
the

convey

purpose

where

to

gas

the
of

air

in order

the

to

required

point.
Nearly

20

The

retort

grate

scrubber,

represents,

or

arranged

provided

at

or

copies

are

generator

the

blowing

for

Fig.

generators

include

off from

generator;

fire brick
so

and

is driven

apparatus
the

pressure

idea

Dowson
gas

all

fuel;

of

diagrammatically,

producer

consists

of

such

metal

clay, vertically mounted.


that

the

the

top.

The

which

the

through

is

producer

bottom
ashes
58

and

steam

purifier, and

gas

of

the

fall,the

original
the

fan

or

air

through

other

gasometer.

plant.

shell, lined
charging

opened

never

the

retort, in which

or

air-compressor

an

mixture
a

of

to

air and

hopper,

the

producer
steam

with

air, is

rests

on

being

59

PRODUCERS

passed through these

ashes

is

the

provided, in which

air

and

end

open

the

producer,

or

generator sits,and

is introduced

steam

protects the

to

under

of the

pipe from

mixture

the

of

which

hood

conical

seal

water

becoming

clogged

drijtj^

Fig.

with
if

ashes

coal.

The

in

order

that

be lost in

mixture
no

should

walls

the

of

openings
and,

if

should

must

be had

retort;

be

carefully distributed, and

for

Distribution

with

hopper conical

coal

large surface.

air blast

80

be

may

different

direct from

sq.
a

mechanical

fan

compressed

air.

be

must

tight
means

boiler

or

The

to

maintained,

inducer

spreads

producer in

the

pressure

in. pressure;

draft

in form, which

(See Fig. 21.)

supplied

ways.

steam

lb. per

principle of

provide tuyere

charge is accomplished by making

the

the

on

seal, suitable

water

fuel

of the

over

of the

drop grate

of several

formation

cleaning the grate.

the

The

clinker

manufacturers

some

provided

not

is

than

energy

accomplish this; the apparatus

to

superheated

be

heat

more

provided for breaking the

means

at

Producer.

heating the entering air.

entering fuel

The

Pressure

and

possible,

necessary

20.

a
or

as

may

be

nearly

as

any

obtained

possible,

blower, operating

injector; by

centrifugal blower;

or

by

on

the
of

means

the

one

use

of

60

INTERNAL

blowing with

When

encountered

be

the

from

for

producer

varying

steam

The

but

gas,

ing
produc-

pressure
blowers

be

may

in connection

with

compressed air
a
good even
quality of
the cost
of production
of

use

results in

likelyto

than

more

engine, if used

engine.

gas

is

Mechanical

gas.

the

directly from

driven

steam, trouble

qualitiesof

different

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

is,necessarily,high.
The

leaving the

gas

the

to

passes

is cleaned

sprays

that

it

coke, calcium
sawdust, placed

or

moss,

filteringor purifying material

the

of

removable

on

which

being filtered

and

beds

hydrate,

Producer.

for

dust

it

by passing through

of water

through

Charging Hopper

21.

Fig.

scrubber, where

of any

contain

may

producer

trays

arranged

so

may

be

cleansed

purifierthe

gas

passes

ready

use.

The

or

renewed.
the

From

it is stored

gasometer, where
in the

acts

sufficient
the

capacity of
capacity

production of
producers

In

combustible

the

combustion

extent

refuse,

"

grades

of

compacted

Since
coal

materials

the

the

are

not

be

may

gas

be

may

used
the

cases

material

for

under

any

produce

to

over

economy
a

boiler

steam

produced from

producing

these

in

the

gas

sawdust,

either

by

form

burning
pressure

is

producer; hence, without

available

production

of gas

distillation process,

for suction

from

some

distillation
the
rather

required

etc.

or

cheaper
closely
to

drive

exception, these

producers.

wood

the material

to

vary

products and

waste

the

have

system,

pressure

nearly all

considerable

mass,

the air through

the

on

same

peat

or

should

possible stopping of

any

being obtained

gas

gasometer

sweepings, garbage, lignite,peat,

street

used

the

the

to

on

brief time.

material

the

for

regulator and
of

care

in

This

combustion.

In

volatile

of

methods

The

for

gas

marked.

sawmill

pressure

take

to

fuel, and

gaseous

operating

or

the

is very

and

scrubber

is

or

wood

placed in

refuse, by
a

cast-iron

61

PRODUCERS

crucible

which

is

subjected

volatile part of the


crucible.

The

fuel distilled

walls

of

the

Fig.

its diameter
is

22

by Mathot
Gas

from

The

the

through the
into

the

surrounds

retort

and

out

to the

stack

C.

The

with
in

this

and

the

then

be

top closed
of

to

the

raises

and
the

the

top, the
the

to make

way

to

an

From

the

crucible

the
the

to

The

gasometer.
in the

crucible
of

the

distilled

and,

pressure

is

outlet

no

must

gases

cooler

distilled,

purifier and

products being
since there

charged

is led

generated

heat

and

pieces of wood,

case

scrubber

Producer

pass

up

is

fuel to

generated

gas

Engines and

trated
illus-

as

through port,

air-tight joint.
bottom

in.

around

pass

crucible

the

degrees

1700

distilling
producer
Gas

shown;

circulate

the

12

to

B, which

space,

then

and

in the

heated

be

the

opening, A,

the retort,as

the gases

and

heated

furnace

flue

flue

exceed

not

Riche

furnace

should

degrees

in his "Modern

Plants."

gases

the

of

off,leaving charcoal

1600

should

of

cut

heat

crucible

cherry-red heat, between


fahr.,and

the

to

22.

The

Distilling

Riche

Producer.

the

at

from

pass

part past the hot

the scrubber.

Fig.

This

part of the
has

apparatus

tendency

to burn

on

the

out

the

impurities contained.
Producers
about
and
value

operating

1 lb. of coal

produce from
of about

of coal, whereas

10,000 B.t.u.

340

the

on

to

every

2S

to

B.t.u.

1 lb. of

35
per

2.5
cu.
cu.

distillation
to

principle burn

3 lb. of material

ft. of gas
ft. or

9860

having

distilled,
a

B.t.u. per

heating
pound

good coal will produce of itself about

62

INTERNAL

The

produced from

gas

composition and
residual
The
the

used, also has

be

weight of charcoal

is

original weight of the wood


extent

like elm

containing

Combustion
of

in

combustion

the

of

pound

acid

approximately
Inverted

in

ft. of gas

cu.

The

gas, free from

permanent

The
As

draws

air

the

suction

charge through

type, it is readily

plant takes

up

is much

be

clean

and

more

than

will

less than

small
carry

produce

piston, with

15
an

fuel

for

producer

fuels,as

too

reduced

"

as

per
over

small
cent.

seen,

by

has

can

use
or

less than

and

Undue

these

the cost

The
size

of back

loss of power.

size.

same

coal,

anthracite
and

"

resistance

suction

tion
of installa-

only anthracite

pea

fact,

plants.

the

plant of the

coke.

the

greater elasticity

percentage of ash

of

of this

in

use

producer

means

conditions, but

pressure

amount

consequent

suction

consequence

for

charcoal
not

the
fuel

less floor space

much

suction

carbonized
not

different

the

meeting

part of the fuel,are

the

The

pressure

from

products,

available

are

down

distilled volatile

mentioned,

only certain

The

heating value

Producer.

fuels

in

reducer,

ft.

engine piston and, in

of the

coke,

tar, is obtained.

Suction

already been

has

and

reactions.

necessary

producers operate by forcing the air


fuel.

steam,

contains

having

cu.

they reach the incandescent

and

the

combustion

ciates
disso-

monoxide,

reducer

of

products
in

carbon

The

B.t.u. per

the

wood

reducer, which

to

gas

waste,

10
115

top, through

when

The

contained

oxygen

wood

wood,

to

by the combustion

gas

incandescent, produces the

produce about

the

in the

water.

to

on

hydrocarbons.

which, when

will

and

the

of

passed

carbonic

depending, however,

of water

presence

hydrogen

one-fifth

large percentage.

very

then

produces the
One

the

are

the
reduces

value.

some

approximately

"

producers produce

fuel

the

the amount

on

The

transported long distances.

if wood

quite an

of

wood, however, is of permanent

the

be

can

charcoal,

residual

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

must

it must

be

possible,not

as

in the

suction

or

on

producer

the

engine

64

INTERNAL

Fig.
D.

R.
an

illustrates

23

Wood

hundred

producer manufactured

suction

Co., of Philadelphia. It is

"

of 15 by 35

area

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

being sufficient for

ft.

horsepower,

compact,

very

plant of several

plant, of

smaller

by

requiring

course,

less space.

Fig.
a

24

shows

producer and

gas

Fig.
The

24.

as

plant.
of

steam

The

The

suction

cost

used

is of

man

time

No

indebted

producers, and

closelyin keeping
engine

is

one

of attention

plant.

author

engines and

resultant

marked,

very

with

and

Producer

Plants.

producer plant is approximately

the

of Steam

Efficiencies

for first-class steam

horsepower, but
are

of

plant.*

steam

Comparative

first cost

same

clearlythe comparative efficiencies of

very

the

the

to

economies

in fuel and

being able

to

is from
is
R.

results

boilers of the

50

75

to

required, as
D.

Wood

shown

results of modern

"
in

Co.

their

for

care

with

tion
attena

the
the

diagram

practice where

non-expansion, non-condensing type.

same

large
that

cent

per

for

the

steam

cuts
are

on

very

the steam

65

PRODUCERS

plant,

to

get
for

stopped
shut

head

up

of
of

length

any

time

when

and

steam,
the

engine

the

is

also

producer

may

plant

operating

be

down.
The

obtained

gas
fuel

good
The

has

following

dioxide,

Carbon

monoxide,

Hydrogen,
gas,

Nitrogen,

For

with

equally

cu.

per

approximate

CO;,

0.24

to

0.28

0.16

to

0.20

CH4

0.04

to

0.06

0.45

to

0.49

plants

CO

well.

or

of
less

moderate
floor

for

but
size

space,

and

engines

several

operating

advisable,

is

unit

plants

ft.

composition:
0.9

occupies
as

the

B.t.u.

145

to

single

cheaper,

about

with

0.7

producer
a

gives

of

large

pressure

suction

value

heat

analysis

Carbon

Marsh

from

use

the

serves

in

connection

suction

plant
the

purpose

the

is

CHAPTER

FUELS

the

For
any

which

oil,

or

without

the
is

There

driven

products
gases

obtained

from

in

always

greater

is

This

about

fuel

than

boiler

per

per

and

becomes

than

manufacturers'

engines
1

hp.-hr.

units
cu.

gas
on

that

11

in

ft., according
are

producer

natural
to

.about
gas,

to

the
160

then,

all

of

this

fuel

fired

that

ft. of

gas

units

heat
the

same

66

gas

is from

the

of

per

cu.

engine

the

rized
vapo-

must

be

much

boiler.

will

The
gas

produce
The

gas.

gas,

10

of

stationary

from

is

engine

case

natural

is

engine.

part

engine

range

of

nature

steam

the

under

their

cu.

used

so

then

burned

were

combustible
in

gas

power

and

engine

true

engine,

of

steam

the

of

gas

fuel

drive

their

as

the

cases

accompanying

12

of these

cylinder

into

to

the

when

insures

from

on

contained

there

all of

guarantee

usually

in

of the

especially is

"

economical

more

that

nearly

the

efficiency

heat

it is obvious

"

used

which

efficiency,

amount

same

it into

one

internal-combustion

steam

while

in

gas

its gaseous

have

Any

converted

an

the

As
gas

fuels

the

cent,

cent.

of

if the

because

true

25

12

to

cylinder

the

first

substance

less

that

of

transforming

rather

or

less,

or

true

fuel

any

burned

greater

is furthermore

It

engine.

under

is

efficiency

cylinder

the

of heat.

greater

By

gas.

gasoline, petroleum,

of

or

action

with

into

in

gas,

fuel

other

any

combustible

no

the

off, by

as

as

step

into

used,

be

may

calorific

intermediate

absolutely

such

used

be

may

transformed

be

not

fuel,

any

well

as

transformed

or

engine

internal-combustion

an

available,

mean

which

gas.

may

we

alcohol,

engine
a

fuel

is

vaporized

be

vaporized

in

power

fuel

may

COMBUSTION.

AND

motive

gaseous

IX.

heat

900

to

1100

and

in

producer

ft.
would

'

per

Running
require

FUELS

11 X

of

75

bituminous

coal

used

in

engines yield but


If
a

could

we

find

that

would
or

as

gas,

the

and

operation, the

available

surplus of

gasometer

Gas

in

rapidly

getting up

lean

too

with

when

under

Blast-furnace

under

Company,

value

of

largely dependent
it

gas

a
on

used

as

the

considered.

lean

gas

cylinder with less air,and


than

of

gas

different
heat

Natural

on

power.

in

British

burned

value.

is

gasv

shops
York.

New

thermal

gas

units
also

must

completely in

to

seen

more

value, is credited

This

fact

rapid

in the

to

with

the

about

rate

gasoline vapor

following table

The
per

be

of gas,

larger amount

consequent
and

the

at

use

two-

gas-engine cylinder is

of

pound

ignite

to

large

Buffalo,

be

heat

is due

be

must

cubic

foot

have

the

for the

greatest
with

value, but, notwithstanding this,gasoline vapor,

its lower

being

fuels.

per

in

of the

high thermal
units

gives the heat

in

above,

richness
may
a

time

gas-engine cylinder.

being

number

contains, although the

in

engine started

of the

of the
The

tion.
atten-

hand,

on

boiler is found

in

this gas

Steel

kept
boiler

cycle engines operating on


Lackawanna

requires less

of steam.

example

an

and

the

compression
is

gas

used

be

to

head

in

is used

cheaper and simpler

steam

producer

vaporizing the

in

always be

tank, and

notice, while

consumed

boiler

may

storage

or

moment's

gas

This

regards plant construction

As

the steam

of

heat

and

coal,

boiler.

comparison

producer is much

gas

than

apparatus

fuel.

to

expect
lb. of

steam

gas

and

gas-engine cylinder,

require

in the

of

amount

steam

gas

would

we

under

used

in the

contained

in

gas,

producer in distillingoff the

water

an

certain

efficiencies of

comparison,

used

be

not

may

heat

coal, as

when

lb.

1.5 lb. of coal.

hp.-hr., it would

trifle more,

comparison
the

1 lb. of

produce

basis of

that

best

very

in

and,

gas

require

The

pound

one

ft. of

cu.

producer.

relative

the

as

where

the

75

Now

hp.-hr. would

hp.-hr. on

use

engine

steam

produce

produce

to

be

approximately.

will

coal

consequence,

of

ft.

cu.

67

COMBUSTION

AND

11

of flame
than

per

cent

more

propagation
in the

use

of

("S

INTERNAL

natural

in the

with

gas,

the

more

COMBUSTION

the

aspect of

that

The

constituent

localities.

Table

VALUES

I.

OF

gives

analyses of Pennsylvania

DIFFERENT

FUELS.

gases

of the

some

in

vary

different

different

volumetric

gases.
TABLE

VOLUMETRIC

corresponding increase

parts of natural
II

assumes

results.

pressure
TABLE

HEATING

combustion

the

explosion.

an

effective

mean

result

ENGINES

ANALYSIS

II.
OF

PENNSYLVANIA

Burn's

GASES.

Harvey's
Leech-

Constituents.

Butler
Co.

Hydrogen,
Ethylene,

Butler

burg.

Well.

"XH4
Marsh
gas, CH4
(unnamed).
Hydrocarbons
Carbonic
acid, C02
Carbonic
oxide, CO
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Heat
value, cu. ft

Pittsburg.

Co.

Well.

22.00

4.79

5.00

4.39

67.00

89.65

1.00
0.34
Trace

0.66

.60
0.60

.66

Trace

0.35
0.26

0.80
3.00

1,151

892

959

1,051

FUELS

natural

Many
have

much

Oil Gas.

plants,is

heat

values

Oil gas,

"

especiallythose

gases,

lower

of the

69

COMBUSTION

AND

than

those

manufactured

as

from
here

tabulated.

municipal lighting

for

following approximate

composition:

Hydrogen,

39.5

Marsh-gas, CH4

Nitrogen, N
Hydrocarbons
Carbonic

The

8.2

(unnamed)

6.6

CO

4.3

1.4

H20

vapor,

heat

units per

37.3

oxide,

Oxygen,
Water

2.7

of this

value

Producer

is

gas

slightlymore

than

Gas.

so-called

compositions,

The

vary.

The

"

volumetric

following

producer

their methods

as

be taken

may

as

Hydrogen,

Marsh

CH,

Carbonic

of

12.0
2.5

57.0

55.3

CO.

27.0

27.0

acid, C02.

2.5

C?H,

0.4

Oxygen,
Heat
value,

0.3
ft.

cu.

0.3

137

156

..

of

presence

the

hydrocarbon

the bituminous

in

2.5

extent

Bituminous.

1.2
.

Ethylene,

The

tion
producvalues:

average

12.0

oxide,

Carbonic

of different

are

gases

Anthracite.

gas,

heat

600

ft.

cu.

Nitrogen,

fields,

western

producer

element

gas

to

makes

greater

its heat

value

correspondingly greater.
Gas.

Water
of

large

play

very

it is

gas

action

of

in the

steam

R.

D.

The

"

of energy

amount

important part
very

jet of

Wood

of water

production of this

rich

and

steam

on

Co.

itself.

and

reason

taken

It

theoretical

the

it does

loss
not

is made

by the

fuel,the hydrogen
up

give the following data

gas, the

entails

gas-engine field,although

incandescent

being dissociated
"

for this

in the

in energy

gas

by the
on

composition

the
of

gas.

tion
producwhich

is

70

INTERNAL

equal volumes
the gas

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

of

hydrogen

generally contains

and

nitrogen and

some

although

monoxide,

carbon

carbonic

acid:

Pounds.
500
500

cu.

ft. of H

cu.

ft. of CO

Total

Now,
carbon
of gas

16

of

of

is 15.81

is derived

The

the

degrees) is

composed

of

12

weight of carbon

in

36.89

of oxygen

it

When

lb.

21.08

(steam)

liberates,as

developed and

heat

the

lb. C

absorb,

in

to

from

of heat

absorption

develop

15.81
heat

over

4,400

163,370

69,564

ment
develop-

absorption

be

must

made

indirect

the

dioxide

carbon

to

combustion

this amount

double

burned

theoretically,but in practice,owing

and

water

this

lb. of carbon

this heat,

The

to

units.

93,806
in

up

some

other.

or

90 per

1800

Heat

water,
=

to CO

loss due

that

the

say

6.47

these

elevate

to

atmosphere

in dissociation

burned

Excess

way

lb.

26.35

absorbed

2.635X62,000

The

lb.

follows:

as

15.81

parts

this oxygen

above,

required

energy

of

temperature

lb. of H

635

39.525

is

the

oxygen,

(disregarding the

from

ft

cu.

monoxide

water

hydrogen.

coal

1,000

lb. and

from

reactions

of

carbon

to

36.89

weigh

weight

as

2.635

weigh

is

of the

sum

and

required.

cent, the remainder

Besides

being

following is the

average

fect
imperthan

more

this it is not

and

carbon

supply

the

to

radiation,

monoxide

carbon

would

often

hydrogen exceeds

dioxide

and

volumetric

nitrogen.

analysis of

gas:
Carbonic

oxide, CO

Hydrogen,
Carbonic

Suction
with

.48

acid, C02

Nitrogen,
Heat

.41

.6

.5

value,

cu.

ft

producer plants
the

operation of

291

are

quite largely in

gas

engines.

They

use

are

in

tion
connec-

applicable

72

INTERNAL

boiling points, and


to

considerable

than

flashingpoints. The

variation

and

should

PROPERTIES

are

be taken

subject
as

more

OF

III.

PETROLEUM

TABLE
COMPOSITION

Table

B.t.u.

not

values

averages.

TABLE

The

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

"Oil

heating value

IV.
OF

CRUDE

t Mabery,

Engler.

from

DISTILLATES.

OILS.

Noble

County.

Engines," Goldingham.
of this

oil,per pound, is about

20,500

FUELS

Gas
Gas

fuel

or

oil is

the

kerosene

driven

have

engines, but

of

for

fuel

constituent
as

in

use

the

oils

oil is much

heating value

in

slightlylower

than

oil and

units

heat

subject

unless

crude

be
is

pound

per

oil,that

to

being

made

wide

tion
varia-

oil is known

an

engine it should

gas

is little,if any,

oil, both

are

be

may

provided

are

There

gas

parts,

means

oil

in

used

deposit

carbon

suitable

fuel,and

gasoline, and

benzene,
The

fractional

of

process

heating the fuel.

in their value
suitable

off.

cylinder, unless

between

various

in

products
heavier

the

vaporizing and

difference
up

with

in the

expected
for

been

Oil.

procured,

distillation, after

73

COMBUSTION

AND

is, about

be

to

The

analyzed.
usually taken

as

lb.

18,000 per

Gasoline.

Commercial
to

variation

0.74, the
in

hydrogen
about
its

gasoline varies

160

its

liquid

bulk.

test, of

by

being due

The

gal. or

little

run,

equal

to

composition,

gasoline
alcohol

on

of

1,100 times

than

more

0.65

amounts

is

vapor

following is the ultimate

tests, recently

government

specific gravity

0.71

varying

the

to

Gasoline

composition.

ft. per

cu.

specific gravity from

in

as

and

in

used

gasoline

fuel.
Carbon

85

Hydrogen

14.8

Not

0.2

named

100.0

Table

also

V,

experiments,
Alcohol

of
show

fuel.

"Tests

of

Bulletin

Fuel,"

distillation

taken

sample

from

the

of

results

Internal-Combustion

191,
of

is

the

gasoline.

conclusively the

Engines

result
The

complex

government

of
range

mixture

on

fractional
of
of

peratures
tem-

this

74

INTERNAL

COMBUSTION

ENGINES

TABLE
FRACTIONAL

At

final

the

V.

DISTILLATION

OF

there

temperature

GASOLINE.

still 5

were

cu.

not

cm.

vaporized.
A

lighting gas

gasoline

about

vapor,

gallon of fuel, is
illuminant.

or

carburettor, and
in. to

actuated

by

of

means

operating principle of the


the
the

mixture

by

illuminating

gas, when

good fuel for

gas

Seventy-one

test

27

units

heat

outdoor

an

is

by

valve

of

balance
of

of the

automatically
obtained

with

wet
trols
con-

between

gasoline vapor

properly mixed

to

The

motor.

inversion

an

due

air pump

an

suitable

mixing
a

that

to

tank

and

air.

air,becomes

gasoline weighs

5.91

is obtainable

pound

per

lb. per
and

gal.; about
"

^"

703

27

ft.

cu.

per

in

is obtained

pump

quite extensively

equivalent

or

from

engines.

ft. of its vapor

cu.

is stored

mixture

the

being obtained
is used

weight

means

and

atmosphere

This

principle.

meter

gas

and

pressure,

in. of water,

1.5

ft.

gasoline

the

equal parts of air and

about

cu.

explosive

The

an

320

not

as

from

of

composed

Kerosene.

oil has

Kerosene

weighs,
trifle

for

0.80

higher than

lb.

The

oil

and

flashes

specificgravity of from

test, 6.7
that

of

ignites when

at

about

120"

lb. per

gal.

It has

gasoline, about
heated
fahr.

to

0.77 to 0.82

from

heat

value

22,000 B.t.u.
130"

to

and

140"

per

fahr.

FUELS

AND

of

Heat

The

heat

of combustion

of

calorimeter,

means

known

amount

of

water.

The

standard

the

of

countries, where

required

the

in

calories

The

as

liquid

When

that

fuels

has

the

have

heat

an

of

average

from

two-thirds
shown

the

thermal

that

value

of

significantas
efficiencies

the

is converted

quite

are

which

appreciableamount

an

Since

make

the

effective

heat

value

obtained

the

that

of

fuel,when
lower

by calorimeter

test.

For

as

coming

and

the

gasoline,as obtained

fuels.

heat

by

water

value.

of

in

than
this

in the

the

heat

cylinder

theoretical
it is

reason

of

test,was

the

the

consequence,

as

customary

condensation
obtained

Supposing the heat

calorimeter

perature
tem-

condensation,

resultingvalue

The

at

in

boilingr water,

burned

deduct, this latent


low

and

to the

cylinder

heat

and,

value

comparing engine

is known

latent

compute,

vapor.

products of combustion

measures,

of the

engine, is of

an

water

of heat

leave

of the

use

calorimeter

the

into

less

or

calorimeter, this steam,

gas-engine cylinder always

engine does

greater

the walls of the calorimeter, is condensed

with

calorimeter.

the

in

in

hydrogen

considerably above

of

the

Heat

obtained

two-thirds

relative

burned

fuel is tested

contributes

when

used, heat

approximately

or

about

contain

when

which

in contact

to

is

is

20,000

weight, these figures are

same

show

to

amount,

of

European

equal.

All

In

of

ethyl alcohol, as

12,700,

fuel

gasoline for the

of

temperature

petroleum oils varies from

lb. and

per

for pure

value

ethyl alcohol

about

that

is

country

kilogram.

per

petroleum oils;as experiments

of the

serving

fahr.

is five-ninths

of the

B.t.u.

22,000

experiment, is about
that

to raise the

in calories

of combustion

to

value.

given weight of

in this

40"

in B.t.u.

heat

18,000

to

by

generated by

centigrade thermometer

of

The

39"

heat

by

heat
from

fuels is obtained

the

measurement

is measured

combustion

which

is absorbed

of combustion
combustion

in

of

of water

pound

one

Combustion.
of different

fuel

is the

B.t.u.,which

75

COMBUSTION

value

21,000 B.t.u.

76

INTERNAL

COMBUSTION

Taking the chemical

symbol
6 X

H, by weight, would
with

combustion
and

the

found, from

the

latent

lb. the

21,000

gasoline of
chemical

heat

would

hydrogen

in the

ratio

of

above

be (0.194 X

the

low

actual

heat

securing its volumetric


of

amount

0.194

being

and
1680",'

heat

value

for

composition.

Since

the

is

value

subject

wide

such

to

only be obtained

can

determine

analysis, to

in its

hydrogen

965.5"
low

the

composition of gasoline

ranges,

8,

965.5", then, for 1.746

1.746

chemical

8)

atmosphere

at

be

to

B.t.u.,

1 to

(vapor) produced in the

of water

be

19,320

the

since

water

tables,

steam

0.194, and

gasolinewould

latent

heat

1680

12

weight of

of 1 lb. of

1.746,

the

C6H,4, the percentage of

produce water,

to

oxygen

by weight, then

be

to

be
14

unites

ENGINES

composition, and

the

by

actual

proceeding

then

above.

as

Air

air

The
definite

for

fuel such

determined

approximately

be

of

fuel of

accurately determined.

be

can

made

be

may

Combustion.

complete combustion

composition

known

only

can

for the

required

calculation

This

for

Necessary

alcohol, but

as

for

the

petroleum

fuels.
For

ethyl alcohol

molecular

weight

have

we

formula

the

C2H5OH.

Its

is:

Carbon

Hydrogen

6X

Oxygen

12

24

1=

1 X

16

G
16

46

For
the

the

of carbon

atoms

two

of

complete combustion

require

produce C02 (carbon dioxide) and


require
vapor).

three

There

alcohol

and

outside

sources

the

atoms

of 1 lb. of

of

atoms

is

hence

of

atom

one

the

is (3 +
is 6 X

oxygen

16

four

"

C2H-,OH requires:
"

46

of

of

atoms

to

produce

oxygen

in

must

be

2.086

to

hydrogen

H20

(water

molecule
derived

The

complete
lb. of

alcohol,

oxygen

of

the

atoms.

Hence

96.

molecule

the six atoms

which

oxygen

4)

one

of
from

weight of
combustion

oxygen,

and

FUELS

AND

77

COMBUSTION

since in 1 lb. of

dry air there is 0.230

2.086

require

lb. of oxygen,

to obtain

2.086

lb. would

lb. of air.

9.06

If the

air is

0.230

quite damp,
hence

air would

more

Assuming

the

of

amount

pound

one

air

determined

would

be

contain

less free

required.

composition

of

gasoline

to

be

C6H14, the

required for complete combustion

in like

and

oxygen

The

manner.

molecular

would

be

weight is:

Carbon

Hydrogen

14

12

72

14

86

The
14

6 atoms

of

atoms

since

of carbon

hydrogen

all must

of oxygen
of the

require

derived

be

required is

from

12

would

be

pound

of

oxygen

require
7

19

of

atoms

304, and

and

the

amount

molecular

^"=

the
Now

oxygen.

sources

The

19.

of oxygen

atoms

outside

16

12

weight
lb.

3.534

3.534

of oxygen

per

gasoline,and

15.37 lb. of air

0.230

required.
Table

VI
of

chemical

gives the
one

of

pound

formulas

be

to

of air

amount

different

COMBUSTION

FOR

REQUIRED

bustion
com-

fuels, assuming

their

correct.

TABLE
AIR

required for the

VI.
OF

DIFFERENT

FUELS.

Cu.

Ft.

Pounds
Formula.

Substance.

Air.

Air.
60"

9.06

Fahr.

118.57

Alcohol, ethyl
Alcohol, methyl

C2H"OH
C2H402

4.63

60.60

Gasoline

C0Hl4

15.37

201.17

C2HU

25.91

339.13

Gasoline

vapor

Kerosene

6.52

85.34
174.60

Benzene

CaH"

13.34

Acetylene

C.,H2
C'fL

13.34

174.60

17.39

227.61

C2H4

14.87

194.63

Marsh
Olefiant

gas
gas

(methane)

(ethylene)

78

INTERNAL

The

of water

mixture

of air necessary

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

for

with

alcohol

the

The

complete combustion.

denatured

alcohol

the amount

reduces

ordinary

mercial
com-

10 per cent of water.

generallycarries

Vaporization.
order

In

that

combustion
thus

engine, it

obtained

For
with

the

mixed

heat

air in the proper

fuels with

Alcohol, kerosene, and


the

in

According
hold

is

measured

be

containing
of

mercury,

of

60"

weight of

the

of space

proportionalto

by it.
any

and

maintained

fahr., during
of the

of

mm.

is

saturation

temperature,

at

point the
and,

as

will be
per

of

that
illustration,

of

gasoline, and
mm.

of

to 20

fitted

rise but

with

for any

is

will

there

degree of

every

the

vapor

constant

We

would

the
then

pressure

find that

vapor
vapor

Suppose,

constant.

being compressed

carried

we

this

beyond

will remain

remain

again

vapor

decreased, a part of the


of
liquid, but the amount

space

that

mercury.

pressure

if this volume

to

mm.

compressed, by

compression is carried

into

for

160

cylinder

originalvolume, the
But

may

temperature

be

now

cubic

and

pressure

to

is

vapor

constant

is further

condensed
foot

given

constant

assume

present in

corresponding

will not

pressure

we

corresponding

and

mercury,

if the

the volume

cubic

half its

pressure

and

at

its vapor

will rise to 80.

halved, its pressure

which

gases,

experiment,

the

piston,to

will rise to 40

given temperature.

vapor

pressure

tremely
ex-

which

vapor

Illustratingthis, imagine
at

vapor,

require greater

of their

vapors,

any

perfectly tight piston. If the


means

oils

boiling

ordinary temperatures

at

perfect

in

ordinary temperatures.

at

at

of these

case

kerosene,

as

Gasoline, being

amount

space

for

laws

in the

true

the

to

vapor

proportion.

the crude

liquefy

given

any

the

to

temperature
foot

limit

definite

exist

may

to

which

the

greater heating

lighter hydrocarbons.

substances

internal-

an

comparatively low

volatile,is easilyvaporized
have

in

vaporized, and

high boiling point, require much

than

All

used

be

may

first be

must

with

vaporizer, than

point.

fuel

complete vaporization, fuels, such

their
a

liquid

was

that

that

to
a

of

part of

80

INTERNAL

other, does

not

air

and

in

the

combustion,

the

of

vapor

Avogadro's

law

due

vaporized

the

to

under

when

able to
fuel.

Since

and

of

that

the

mixture.

pressure

temperature

is

the

as

the

is to

That

23.

"

in

confined

given

and

space
of

air

the

at

being
lb.

9.06

necessary
of 9.06

'
-

relative

is 2

density

complete combustion,

then

be

0.0435

as

considered

which

amount,

'

alcohol
The

0.627.

density

have

the

to

air

are

93.5

atmospheric
per

sq.

760

cannot

0.065

is

pressure

of 760

vapor

49.

the

mm.

alcohol

which

mm.,

temperature

carrying an

temperature.

nearly always the

the

that

the

vapor,
r

find
trifle

from
more

of
air

case,

71"

air may
is

would

be

the

table

responds
cor-

than

71"

and
a

fahr.

alcohol

fahr.,although

exist

damp

carries

is,14.7 lb.

of air and

of less than

'

ordinary

alcohol

mixture

excess

If

of mercury,

we

of

temperature

Under

0.670, of

dry air.
of

pressure

perfectly combustible

exist at

mixture

lower

is clue to

in., the

to

Hence,

cent

per

as

may

0.670

and

the

pressure

0.627

Then

and

vapor

total vapor

is due

part

hydrogen.

0.0435

to

cent

per

The

same

comparison, then

would

of 1 lb. of

equal

as

6.5

of

the

to

previously determined,

as

of the

pressures

or

"

14.44

basis

same

pressure

in

temperature.

for

'

23

the

on

vapor

equal

pressure

confined

hydrogen

constant

ethyl alcohol

vapor

air, the

of the vapor

of

relative vapor
"

has

of

same

14.44,

lb. of

say,

space

one-twenty-third that

as

to

basis of

weight of hydrogen

is 46, then

maining
re-

proportional

is taken

gas

of

means

vapor

and
gas

portion

46

"

is

for

derive

By

the

Pressure

molecular

ethyl alcohol

air and

compute

weight. Hydrogen

comparison.

dry

product,

pressure,

the

from

constant, the density of any


its molecular

of

hydrocarbon

fuel in the

are

mixture

previously determined,

as

pressure

the

we

of

vapor

will,

vapor

Then

action.

proportions,

portion of its

from

or

vapor,

proper

complete
a

affect their

alcohol

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

at

the

certain

much

alcohol,
per

cent

FUELS

of water, then

the

AND

81

COMBUSTION

be

must

temperature

already partially saturated, due

higher, as the air is

the

to

of

pressure

water

vapor.

All

this shows

from

liquid

of

amount

by direct
for the

result

will

carburettor,

or

in the air

surfaces, or
heat

produce

supplied
rich

too

incomplete combustion,

mixture

humidity

of

gasoline

used

as

previously determined

alcohol

formula
the

and

as

the

is

mixture.

C6H14, and

of air

amount

neces-

(The molecular
decimals

the

of the

weight

1.0873, the

of

is

relation

lb., then

gasoline vapor

the

1 ^
:

"

0.0233

as

due

The

1.064.

equal

as

cent

per

to

the

to

In

*37
:

"

"

14.44

is to that

gasoline is 86.)

considered

being

pressure

is 15.37

43

pressure

vapor

as

air of

combustion

for complete
*

saryJ

well

as

vapor

for the

its chemical

that

consider

have

we

in

relativelylarge

mixing valve

much

changed

be

to

efficiencyof the engine.

heat

relative

will

the

heated

Too

considering

same

in

alcohol

receive

must

vapor

with

mixture.

Now

as

contact

lowering the

We

to

heat, either

mixture, and

the

conclusivelythat

of air.

of

terms

total vapor

0.0233

gasoline

1.064

is

vapor

0 0233
2.14

"

cent, and

per

the

due

cent

per

to

the

air is

1.0873
97.86
find

Now

cent.

per

from

the

760

0.021

corresponds

table

32"

only be

considered

as

different

compositions of gasoline,but

at

ease

with

This

less than

comparative

fahr.

to

15.96

which

be made

for any

one

because

gasoline may

be

Similar

we
siderably
con-

computation

serves

of the fuels used

engines, if the chemical

latter

it

ordinary temperature.

any

of

temperature

approximation

an

which

mm.,

to

can

of

the

show

the

vaporized and

computations

may

in internal-combustion

composition is known.
Acetylene.

Some
from

known

experiments have
the

action

as

lighting gas.

of water

acetylene and

been
on

is

made
calcium

in the

use

carbide.

of gas derived
This

quite extensively used

gas
as

is
a

82

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

Acetylene liquefies,at

ENGINES

atmospheric

high temperature, about


compression of

higher than

the

by
available

fuel for internal-combustion

complete combustion

the

One
the

of calcium

pound

gas

One

and

will

pound

lb. of gas

14.5

Acetylene

Results

The

rate

of

cost

process.

ft. of

cu.

pressures

is

consequence,

show

to

seem

acetylene, mixed

that

with

it

air in

hp.-hr.

propagation is high, the temperature


the

is

gas

also

the

or

such

an

The

produce

if the

use

of

the

cost

of the

cost

extent

of

the

that

of

liberation

dangerously

acetylene
of

as

production

other

make

to

as

high, but
twice

of work.

general unless

considerably lessened

is

than

more

amount

same

very

to

derived

energy

is doubtful

It

increased

lower

at

and, in

gas,

closed vessel, may

pressure.

fuels

in the

high-compression engines.

high, and

fuel will become


is

lb. of

0.35

pressure.

natural

or

for the
a

yield about

ignites spontaneously

production of the

of the gas, in

lb. of air

atmospheric

of flame
is

per

at

5 to

gasolinevapor,
high

will

proportion, to produce

combustion

very

of gas.

pound

one

lb. of water

0.5

18,000 B.t.u.

requires 10.78

foreign experiments

requires from
proper

it

carbide

be

liquid acetylene, evaporated, will produce

for

of

It is suggested

of

gas

available

not

air.

engines.

of about

of

about

use

gasoline vapor

than

the

heating value

being C2H2, and

lb., its formula

of

liquid acetylene would

that

some

paratively
com-

liquefiesat temperatures

lb. it

700

to

fahr.,while under

"116"

ordinary temperatures

Acetylene has
for

600

at

pressure,

available
its

use

comparatively economical.

Alcohol.
We
its

have

the

already shown

action

vaporizationand combustion,

from

that

alcohol

of

gasoline. The

is about

11,000

their

heating values

are

be

alcohol,in regard

to

considerably different

heat

B.t.u., while

than

gasoline is slightlymore

low

to

of

value

of

that

denatured

of commercial

18,000; it is thus apparent that

approximately

as

3,

or, in other

FUELS

words,

the

thermal

two-thirds

that

consider

value

of

that

values

ratio

consumption

under
It

their

the

same

gasoline
the

in

same

with

with

and

more

slightly

other

The

exhaust
of

that

an

Alcohol

Alcohol

organic
The

the
very

unless

the

alcohol

of

will

engine

an

with

than

gasoline.

unmixed

inherent

no

alcohol

with

tendency

to

the

the

hotter

much

than

latter.

stored

both

in

with

the
is

handling,

produced

is

alcohol, and, in consequence,

on

its use,

engine

less
of the

matter

much

from

anywhere

much

exhaust

pleasant.

more

the

danger

distillation

of

products.

waste
cost

gasoline

and

be

still

cylinder.

used

can

than

results

best

requirements

alcohol

has

be

in

possible,

burn

composition,

fire in

and

of

and

used

may

arranged

with

operating

and

is

It

the

secure

the

to

from

may

products

to

danger

gasoline,

than

but

water,

the

from

engine

is less

there

and

of

1.00.

practically

is

be

may

and

and

compression

design

chemical

than

interior

higher

the

alcohol

efficiency.
a

that

0.64

as

of

the

on

engine

same

engine

ignition

power

known

the

operation

properly

more

of

being

the

in

shows

approximately

adapted

When

vaporization.

foul

hp.

ordinary

success,

be

tests

we

engine.

of

engine

must

impurities

b.

than

less

significant when

alcohol

and

use

earlier

less

or

carburettor

Alcohol

to

trifle

government

thermal

smooth-running

deliver

the

alcohol,

gasoline

the

regards

gasoline,

produce

that

is

internal-combustion

with

however,

was

is

fact

the

per

conditions

an

as

of

gasoline

of

show

to

seems

alcohol

This

average

comparative
of

of

gasoline.

the

83

COMBUSTION

AND

alcohol

of
the

price of

price of alcohol

rapidly

is still much

into

is

the

latter

decreased,

general

use.

more

than

increases

it is doubtful

that

of

gasoline,

considerably
if it will

come

or

CHAPTER

X.

COMPRESSION.

The

compression
varies

engine
in.

sq.

or

above

of

nearly

by

the

used,

in

from

150

it is

possible

lb. per

the

ignition

this

produces

stroke,
are

for

built

give
speed

the

to

the
with

excellent
of

the

from

engine which
with

min.

and

from

premature

In

speed

the

the

in

question.

satisfaction
800

to

operated
the

900
at

same

as

when
rev.

per

speed

sq.

cylinder

high

compression

ignition.
84

the

operating
min.,

such

while

from
gave

300

in.,

as

in

speed
a

take

not

point
place

compression
engines

lb.

95

low-

engine

automobile
as

fuel

sufficient

to

does

Many

of

the

lb. per

ignition, in

of

previously

as

the

500

compression

of

As

as

motor

of

compression

compression,

lead

the

increased

be

may

of

compression

85

the

charge.

high

as

injection of

exceed

be

producer

type

air, and,
the

entirely

of

use

Diesel

The

in

the

during

pure

not

compression

of

ignition point

is carried

the

by

should

proper

in

high

cylinder.

to

until

temperature

high

that

fact

obtained

ignite

ignition, due

previous

as

in.

compression

the

increases,

high,

temperature

to

cases

some

that

is

gasoline engine

speed

cylinder is

incandescent

this

with

extremely

to

the

sures
pres-

increases

gases

per

increased,

is

pressure

compression

sq.

the

use

in

gas

described,
into

to

in., owing

sq.

stroke

the

lb. per

200

be

may

engines

to

fuel

compression

which

these

engine is governed

of

type

any

If

conditions.

lb.

500

in., both

attains

gas

of

is incandescent.

in

compression

the

gas,

and

the

compressed

lb. the

500

fahr.

1000"

The

of

pressure

the

limit

sq.

As

atmosphere.

temperature

with

lb. per

60

to

more

internal-combustion

an

high

extreme

an

trifle

being
the

from

of

pressure

at
a

to

gage,
an

and

average

two-cylinder
400

constant

rev.

per

trouble

85

COMPRESSION

The
with

natural

not

as

the

of the

of the
a

rule the

that

of

and

which

is not

burns

compression

would

and

temperature

10 to

15 lb.

gas

gasoline vapor
the

engine

ignited at
the

case,

ignition

permit of less lead

rapidly would

more

be

gasoline

in consequence,

for

ignites

vapor

it burns

into

Taking

at

rapidly, we

more

engine with

gas

higher than

and,

necessary.

(2) that

safely design a natural

from

of

space

lb. gage

120

being considerably lower, the fact that

latter

consideration, then, (1) that

may

to

gasoline engine of the

if gas

engines operating
60

ignitionin the compression stroke

lower

lower

from

compression

from

However,

gasoline vapor

in gas

use

fuel varies

temperature,

same

point

common

much

vary

speed.

same

as

gas

and

pressure,

does

in

compression

compression

gasoline engine of like

speed.
TABLE

TEMPERATURES.

COMPRESSION

Compression
per

sq.

in., and

depending
used.

oil

engines operating with

ignition devices

electric
gage

in

Several

oil

VIII.

may

be

carried

large

extent

engines,notably

the

85

or

on

the
Mietz

or

90

higher, the

possibly somewhat
to

to

hot-tube

lb.

pression
com-

grade of fuel
"

Weiss

and

86

INTERNAL

the

COMBUSTION

obtain

Hornsby-Akroid,
and

compression

their

residual
their

engines compress

ENGINES

ignition by

heat

charge

in

the

200

lb. per

210

to

high

These

vaporizer.

about

to

of

means

sq. in.

The
with

efficiencyof
its

We

compression,

have

the two

volume

and

Supposing

as

be shown.

may

at

stant
con-

pressure.

dH

Cvdt +

pdv

dH

Cpdl

vdp

"

(1)
the

without

expand

to

gas

absorbed

heat

equations for the


constant

the

engine increases

internal-combustion

an

of

transmission

heat
dH
.".

=0.

Cvdt

Cpdt

(a)

pdv

"

....(")

vdp

Dividing (b) by (a) gives


dv

CP

dp

idv_
_

Cv

p
heat

ratio

of

specific

constant

at

the

(y being

to

pressure

the

specificheat

ioge

fey

at

constant

volume).

Integrating

have

we

ioge ei
which

In

px

and

general limits.*

the

the initial limits and

are

vx

equals

perfect

the
or

pressure,

will increase

the
as

is

gas

In

an

the pressure.

pressures

end

of the

and

volumes

exhaust

OC

at

stroke.

which

are

the

increase

the

(2)

rate

of

if under

the

expansion
constant

temperature

Then

ty SAUl

diagram

indicator

vy

=C

being constant,

volume

PyVy
*

in

one

of temperature

rate

and

Then

Vfv=V?l
Now

pu

the

J3XV "X "X tX.

limits

px

beginning

of

and
the

vx

correspond

compression

to the
or

the

88

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

Now

the

as

fraction,

is

compression

will

t-5

ENGINES

since

decrease,

initial

the

value

the

increased,

pressure

of

the

is

p3

that

of

the

then

atmosphere,

and

approach

equal

1, then

value,

which

Equation
application

1,
the

will

limit.

efficiency

value
2

as

is

is

never

that
be

fully

would

even

of

the
discussed

If
be

it"

indicator

ideal
in

the

to

theoretical

maximum

approached

will

for

possible

were

the

of

value

The

increases.

p4

in

heat

card

following

engine.
and

chapter.

its

CHAPTER

THE

As
of

the

of

the

card

operations
arises

cylinder

would

what

constitute,

and,

perfect

the

nearly

that

the

is

the

as

less

means

perfect,
the

cylinder,

cycle in

it

by

or

knowing

cycle,
as

more

within

perfect

obtained

as

record,

place

approximate,

to

engine,

test, is

to

as

CARD.

an

taking

theoretically

designer

of

indicator

question

this

INDICATOR

indicator

actual

an

XI.

particular

operations

of

of

attempt

the

be,

this

any

particular

may

ideal

condition.
The

theoretical

engine

the

by

basis

indicator

the

known

expansion.

By

compute
in

obtained

these

and
in

inlet

valves

the
of

by

I, II

be, and

In

the

possible

the

draw

to

to

pressures

cycle, and

or

points

close

having

the

which

at

have

been

will

operation

the

ten

in

Fig.

"Compression,"

for

the

points

on

curves

the

exhaust

determined

affect

the

the

several

I,

we

relation

exact

the

stroke

clearance,

equal

the

their

26,

piston

indicator

on

III, describing

and

Chapters

into
of

means

the

in

divided

the

and

shown

are

piston.

As

is

or

and,
card

at

point.

cards

ab.

them

plot

cams

open

Chapters

the

the

their

known
In

it

representing
in

its

as

compression

formula

points

has

expansion.

of

consequence,

which

under

gases

values,

to

for

formula,

this

different

or

design

some

of

values,

the

In

of

of

at

compression

of

action
means

cylinder

is obtained

general

one

number

the

of

use

card

II

by

formula,

will

be

curves,

cd
89

able
and

be

the

derived
to

in

compute

ef, intersected

stroke

represented
by

space,

stroke

ordinates

card

the

to

compression

or

III,

and

parts

may

cycles,

is
to

shown

10.

the

By

chapter

the

by

values
these

90

INTERNAL

ordinates.

general

The

pV
In which
p
v

volume

constant
the

above

pressure

all

for

that

we

of the

The

consideration

approximately
value

this

and

stroke
the

If

is the

of

cylinder fitted
at constant

If the

produced

by

this

then

pressure

According

to

of the

the

the

lb.

14.7

and,

into
is

having

formula

for

ke,

expansion

to

were

gases

in

the

release

at

perfectly tight

value

its

and

retained,

of y is the

specificheat

become
all the

then

the

at

1.

heat
value

ratio between

is under

gas

compressed

of y would

value

is

whatever

and

which

explosion

the

rapidly compressed

The

specificheat of air,or
constant

if the

compression

y will increase.

of

of the

of ke takes

throughout

be

to

value

solve

is contained

air is

of

is taken

perfectly tight piston and

sidering
Con-

by ke.

g.

temperature,

volume

compression

compression,

may

of

air

with

venience
con-

atmosphere,

pressure

the

constant

stroke,

volume

the

we

value

For

cylinder at the beginning

for the

times

remain

the

curve

the

which

and

fact that

four

of the

end

in the

pressure

determined,

will

which

of

pressure

determination

the

will

curve.

for

expansion

which

cylinder as unity, the value

compression stroke

sq. in.

per

but

same

constant

the

the

be the

to

assume

the

of the

kc will be

conditions

upon

points of the

for

the volume
constant

(5)

p.

will denote

by kc and

is

ef

vacuum.

depending

same

pression
com-

curve

at

we
curve

expansion

the

remain

for

the

for

equation

of

pressure

form

also

and

cd

curve

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

the

compression,

at

volume.

constant

Rankine,
S
T

For

the

engine the
is

curve

heats
to

gases

value

in
of

common

1.408

use

for

the

considerably lower, due

being

different

from

those

leakage past the piston and

through the cylinder walls.

For

for

in

air.

the

cylinder of the

compression
to

the

and

to

gas

expansion

ratio of the

for air and

valves

and

specific

the losses due

the

loss of heat

general practice the values

of f may

INDICATOR

as

1.3 for the

taken

be

for the

THE

expansion

produce

results

working

pressures

and

curve,

these

obtained

value

1.3 is very

Fig.
it may

is

said

be

designed

under

ideal

The

Ideal

the

the

value

fact

that

the

between

the

temperature

jacket water, with

values

to

by

up

in

Before

as

gas

engine

fuel and

of

results in

acting

of

of

the ideal indicator

the

the

gases

cylinder and

greater loss of

formulas,

in

curve

greater difference

of the

contents

the

points

expansion

higher temperature

just how

means

we

compression

the

heat.

card

will

in

be

may

the

compute

and

expansion

Fig. 26.
laying

it is necessary
or

compression
one

so

Card.

for the

consequent

show

for several

curves

gas;

internal-combustion

is taken

=1-35

during the working

built

efficient

on

samples of natural

of natural

stroke

In order

actual

of results obtained

average

Indicator

average

basis

to

engines.

nearly the

26.

found

the

tests

1.35

conditions.

of the

view

that

on

keeping with

of y for different

by computation

and

curve

will be

values

by indicator

types of internal-combustion
The

compression

closely in

very

91

CARD

out

to
to

decide

assume

space

stroke, and

the

diagram

to

that

to solve

some

upon
some

for

or

ratio

computing
pressure

for

the

displaced by the
the

any

values,

for the
volume

pression
com-

of

the

piston during

compression pressure.

In

92

INTERNAL

this model

card

which

result

will

The

will

we

in

total volume

stroke

then

will

For

compression

using

Now

formula

the

14

14.7

or

k,

have

we

the

of

cylinder

the

of

we

of

v.

0.21261-3

is

"

"

pvV3

piston

percentage

represents the value

0.2126, which

"

The

volume

total

suction

computations

the

unity.

as

the

to

in

pressure.

the

times

1.27

convenience

space

0 27
"

0.27

1 +

0.27:1,

as

of the

cylinder at the end

this volume

assume

then

be

be

to

high compression

rather

ratio

the

assume

of the

will

displacement.

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

"

"

(0.2126)1-3
to solve

In order

the

equation it is

above

to

necessary

use

logarithms.
1.167317.

Log

14.7

Log

0.21261'3

in

the

is obtained
of

table

logarithms

Since

1.327563.

the

(number
1.327563

may

Then

may

we

right

to

be

found

as

the

tabular

log), is

negative

teristic,*
charac-

has

log

log by subtracting the

true

of decimal

written

Log 0.2126,

is

(that

tabular

find the

must

we

follows:

as

point) from

1,

tissa
man-

follows.

as

9.327563-10.

subtract

10.000000-10
9.327563-10

True

log 0.2126
Multiplying by

0.672437
1.3

raise to

1.3 to

that

power

2017311
672437
0

log 0.21261-3

True

874168
.

Tabular

1.125832
Now

14.7-

log

11.167317-10
9.125832-10

log 0.21261-3
log 14.7
log 0.21261'3
Tabular

2.041485
*

and

The

characteristic

is 1 for any

hundreds

place,

tenths,

for any

as

number
as

0.165; "2

number

in

for

3
the
any

thousandths,

the

to

place,

for

p.

p.

number

in tens

165.32;

log

log

is the

decimals,

For

1653.2, etc.
in

log 0.21261-3

any

as

number

characteristic
number
as

left of the
2 for

16.53;

in

0.00165,

any

"

for

hundredths,
etc.

as

point

number

thousands

in
is:

decimal

in

place,
any

as

number

0.0165;

"

INDICATOR

THE

From

the

logarithm
lb. per

find the

we

2.041485

is in

much

In

on

operating
quality of

poorer

practicalpurposes

assume

order

obtain

to

the

true

to

solve

it is necessary

natural

in

use

most

Engines

gas.

producer

as

in

this

outline

gas,

use

may

instance,

0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and

0.8

of

other

points

where

piston is

the

1.27

1.27-0.2
,

,.

volumes

L27

0.8425,

"

L27
=

'

"

"-6

0.685,

volumes, and

found

are

0.4

by

"

the

increased

the

18.36, 24.03, 33.75, and

be

to

obtained
for

compression

any

allowance

proper

"

which
0.37,
'"

1.27

1.27

formula, making

the

"

""8

0.5276, and

sufficient for
points will generally prove
The
are
curve.
corresponding pressures
same

at

nC/10K

respectively

are

and

compression stroke

the

on

will be

calculations

the

those

are

compression

of the

for several

points for which

The

curve.

made,

(This

=110.

mobile
high-compression auto-

on

gas,

of p in

higher compression.)

curve

the

all

the

to

is the value

high for general

is too

stationary engines

to

in the

use

common

engines, but
operating

For

vacuum.

close
sufficiently

be

of p

corresponding

number

110.025, which

be

to

in.,above

sq.

it would
value

table

93

CARD

53.53,

respectively.
The

pressures

approximate explosion

the

110

follows:
Then

"

95.3

4 X

14.7
+

14.7

we

are

able

or

395.9

0.21261"35

log 395.9

log 0.21261-35
log ke

considering

working

to

obtain

ke

ke

2.597585

pv1-35

ke

atmosphere).
the

value

ke:

constant

Then

as

(explosion pressure). By

395.9

application of the formula


of the

(pressure above

95.3

found

be

may

mined.
deter-

absolute,

sq. in.

lb. per

pressure

be

now

may

curve

110

compression being

The
then

expansion

for the

48.955
the

stroke.

lb.,the terminal

exhaust

valve

to

1.092210
1,689795

pressure
open

at

in the

the

end

cylinder
of

the

94

INTERNAL

Hence
in

the

COMBUSTION

equation for

question is pv1,3i

corresponding

found

0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and

at

pressures,

by subtracting

logs of the different values

the

previously determined, raised


log

of 48.955.

They

Sufficient
drawn

are

in this

diagram

the

is

in Fig. 26.

from

to

be

to

diagram represents

We

which

would

exhaust

valve

vertical

line

condition.

to

opened
to

At

(J

due

the

to

vertical

compression,
stroke

to

the

use

be

used

any

point

By the
points
Fig.

27

determine

to

use
on

the

on

of this
the

the

ideal
sary
neces-

1 and

supposed

of

arc

circle,

of

pressure

this

straight
and

curve

effective pressure

mean

Chapter

XXIII.

found,

been

of any

of

c.

diagram.
in

described

the

The

designer

proposed engine
the

compression

compression

the

on

an

is

increase

the

drawn,

the

compression

also shows

purely

the

dimension

of like

of

bore

proposed horsepower.

the

curve

dropped

the

be

Fig. 27, representing the compression


be

cdeg,

it becomes

card

intersection

determine

for any

volume

intersectingpoints/and

having

may

height

cylinder if

ignition,is drawn.

horsepower
he

or

the

would

1 and

been

pressure

in

diagram

pressure

should

the

as

length

unit

point the exhaust

completes

computed

be

compute

and

spring

intersection,/, of ordinate

curve

the

from

point

effective

mean

may

of

diagram having
may

the

representing the

curve,

advance

10 to

in

actual

ordinate

line drawn

ordinate
The

This

c.
on

slight

and

which

at

curve,

having its center

the

and

theoretical

action

the

from

curve

point

to

complete

expansion
open,

at

the

Plainly this

c.

To

to pass

the

the

represent

curves

the

inch

every

the

in.

completed

have

now

Then

lb. pressure,

140

represented by the length

in. and

lb. per

140

is 4 in.

the

scale of indicator

The

as

187.38.

determined,

been

of v,
from

power

81.58, 116.06, and

having

is taken

1.35th

the

to

61.70,

are

now

shown

as

diagram

of the
on

points

working stroke, are

of the

0.8

compression

computed

the

curve

working

intermediate

The

to

expansion

the

point of

any

4S.955.

pressures,

ENGINES

curve

space

from

computation
curve

terminal

pvu3

curve

20

up

of the

is rendered
pressures

and

k,

to

to

may

locate
500

values

lb.
for

unnecessary.

of the

expansion

96

INTERNAL

As

stated

in

mechanical
the

to

hp.

obtained

is

It

from

limits.

chapter

the

general

actual

an

in

cards

taken

from

under

supposedly

than

favorable

as

it is apparent
the

cards

actual

mean

In

the

mechanical
of

the

It

was

in

size

if

designed
uniform

Hopkinson,

read
and

Engineers

his

he

was

cent.
water

able
It

to

obtain
be

order

also
to

added
be
secure

that

maintained
the

best

the

of

Civil

1908,
these

the
as

to

Mechanical
in

found
the

and

The

results

shows
1

pressure

of

the

results.

they

Bertram

by

within

nearly

as

taken

care

to

correct

were

obtained

be

gives

lines

cent.

per

increase

of
be

engine

however,

paper

may

results

and

Institution

along

80

could

January

diagrams

from

showed

to

tests,

used

which

experiments

may

should
in

for

only

tends

results
was

of

excerpts

extensive

their

the

from

20-hp.

these

engine

pressure.

before

Magazine

Engineering
of

gas

quence,
conse-

engines

of

that

any

indicator

in

obtained

as

while

efficiency

accurate

very

engine

gas

engine

5-hp.

cent,

Continuing

that

maintain

small

of

steady

Institution

the

committee

efficiency

The

internal-combustion

per

be

cylinder.

the
of

an

and

hp.

as

to

considerably

vary

of

90

the

increases.

properly

of

under

from

i.

mean

in

showed
to

the

demonstrated

may

that

out

manifest
as

test

efficiency

type

same

the

committee

efficiency

error,

its

the

the

on

that

hp.

this

conditions,

developed

of

tests

brought

was

power

Engineers
it

in

taken

taken

i.

exercised.

not

hp.

b.

reasonable

proven

running

those

the

the

within

was

engine

of

that

has

care

proper

less

much

vary

ratio

correct

experience

steam

is the

is

the

Testing,"

supposition

card

where

tests

"Engine

on

engine

any

Unfortunately

erroneous

load

the

efficiency of

i.

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

uniform

that
2

or

per

cooling
as

sible,
pos-

XII.

CHAPTER

GENERAL

The

is

to

the

mean

in

the

four

conditions

during

duration
the

number
stated

thus

in the

obtained

power

horsepower

commonly

more

its

The

the

mechanical

the

to

i.

hp.

i.

Since

hp.

The

of

explosion,

is

directly proportional

explosion.
cylinder
of

the

of

the

fuel

dependent
and

the

explosive

explosion,

but

power

while

indicated
or,

method

ratio

used

being

of

of

it

as

(b. hp.), is

the

in

some

the

i.
b.

expressed
is

horsepower

hp.

have

and

varying

explained,
the

to

the

Hence
is

i.

already

as

exerted.

the

the

cent

or

in

hp.
hp.

terms

the

b.

equal

hp.,

the

to

friction

or

hp.
fuels

different

is

horsepower,

per

the

ratio

friction
the

b.

"

90

the

on

between

to

is

the

or

cent.

difference

75

upon

stroke

Card,"

the

to

the

piston, and

pressure

horsepower

from

'

hp.,

per

brake

of

horsepower,

due

of

acting

designated

delivered

efficiency

of

The

usually

value,

is

either

of the

area

theoretical

test

condition

dependent

Indicator

designated,

determination,

smaller

the

of which

use

length

the

"The

on

by

(i. hp.).

the

be

may

power

pressure

minute

is termed

computed

the

is

chapter

the

is

type,

stroke, the

per

chapter

engine,

any

pressure,

times

this

desired

effective

mean

applied

of

of

working

the

of this

certain

combustion

the

"

in

dimensions,

power

external

or

piston

As

The

engine.

internal

fundamental

produce

to

necessary

discussed

dimensions

general

taken

DIMENSIONS.

two

cylinder

mixture

since, in the

values,

varies

cylinder

with

general

factors,

97

The

affect

computation

the

of

the
the

force

fuel

and

before
in

pressure

compression.

naturally

the

compression

effective

mean
on

heat

the

any

quality

proportions
force
power

of
to

the
be

98

delivered

by

the

factor

obtainable

the

by

second; then

quality of
The
per

then

in

natural
above

97

Diesel

the

values

The

sq.

An

65

the

theoretical

effective

mean

used

produce

given

Let

diameter

revolutions

"p

Pb

value

heat

mean

brake

the

explosion

For

poorer

for

per

described,

as

card

from

this

and

stroke

the
now

may

to

necessary

in inches.

minute.

horsepower.
fuel

used

four
fuel
a

is

supposed

gasoline

or

gas

be

to

gases

Then

formula.

the

natural

to

upon

effective pressure.

this formula

The

sq. in.

cylinder in inches.

of

of stroke

length

"

bore

for

hp.

b.

"

In

the

determine

to

being

determined

been

constructed,

obtained

pressure

lb.

readings.

pressure

card

40

value

average

70 lb. per

to

cylinder compression having

and

poorer

in.,the latter values

engines.

all gage

are

the

from

range

pressures

gasoline is from

or

gas

oil

of their

blast furnaces.

the

lb. per

98

and

gas,

close

gas

order

in the

is

pressure

natural

producer

gas,

effective

or

effective

mean

be

to

considered

be

not

illuminating gases
from

mean

need

gasoline, with

water

derived

gas

in. to

found

be

the

average

sq.

of

use

come

candlepowers,

highest

The

design.

is assumed

mixture

cylinder, the

any

theoretically correct, this


in

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

times

the

factor

must

and

to

the

pressure

compression
be

equal in

be

of

pressure.

introduced

in the

four-cycle engine
cPpln

800,000
And

for

two-cycle engine
d2pln

(7)

=
"

'

'

'

600,000
For
same

an

engine operating

compression
0.7.

the

Producer

fuel
gas

on

factor

producer
may

be

gas
taken

and
as

with

the

mately
approxi-

engines, designed particularly

for that

generally

purpose,

higher.

(See

operating

chapter

compressions

their

carry

For

"Compression.")

on

blast-furnace

on

99

DIMENSIONS

GENERAL

gas

fuel factor

much

engines

of 0.5

is

0.6

to

necessary.

The
the

above

formulas

dimensions

designed.

of

For

be

now

may

engine of

any

determining

for

used

compression

like

example, supposing it is desirable

single-cylinder,
four-cycle engine capable

40

hp. and

the

effective

mean

70 lb. per

at

the

that

sq. in.

equation, that but

of the unknown
if the

to

is

run

we

be unknown.

must

assume

As

the

solve

speed

which

at

generally known,

we

the

length of stroke,leaving the

formula

In

the

this

rev.

case

min.

per

would

and

result in
the

will

we

assume

the

piston speed

for

value

correct

to

of 600

two

mine
deter-

to

the

value

be

proper

be

to

ft. per

and

solved

engine speed

length of stroke

for

to

engine is expected
this

assume

order

value

is in

solve

to

equation

value

unknown

mined
deter-

been

In

the
the

delivering

in order

value

quantities and
remaining

proportion.

It is necessary,

one

accomplish this result

has

pressure

build

to

of

be

to

for
be

to

18

the
d.
200

in. which

min., approximately

zontal
stationary,low-speed, hori-

engine.
70

d2 X

Then

40

18

200

800,000
or

cP

158

and

12.6.

percentage of compression

The
volume

the
of d.

length of the

lb.

was

space,

an

easy

to obtain

necessary

found

of the total

be

to

23,

or

matter

having determined

example, supposing that the

For
space

65

it becomes

being known,

of the entire

space

the

mean

per

cent

effective

compression

cylindervolume.

Then

In which

0.23

the total

V.

cylindervolume

piston displacement.

and

cylinder
to

mine
deter-

the

value

of compression
pressure

space

was

of
0.23

100

Solving

obtain

we

compression
its

the value

being known,

space

this ratio should


that

square,

they
the

bore, and

per

min.
In

the

follow

been

made

are

often

at

run

engine it is often

an

of

by the card

in., and

18

30

b.

unknown

an

190

at

operating

applying

mean

per

rev.

for

value, the value

Calling this value

fraction.

natural

on

formula

our

uniform

expedient

ratio

gas

the

has

which

satisfactory.

cylinder diameter

of

effective pressure

as

has

to deliver

min.

and

as

fuel.

found

been

four-cycleengines
of the

to

dimensions

of

and

lb. per sq. in.,which

of 60

give good satisfaction


when

be

to

ft.

800

as

operation of

engine with

an

to

hp.

the

high

as

that

times

1.2

1 to

found

general

type,

same

take

stroke

in., a

from

piston speed

mobile
Auto-

bore.

requirement

the

to

being made

even

the

to

their stroke

by experience

example

Then

equal

closely as possible the

found

shown

stroke

with

engine of the

an

engines

some

engines, owing

design of

as

some

as

determine

to

two-cycle engines

For

1.5.

or

be decreased,

marine

low,

set

1: 1.3

is, with the

and

12

able

are

we

of the

area

length of stroke is,for stationary

ratio of bore to

proper

four-cycle engines, as

As

the

V, and,

of 0.23

length.

The

of

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

have,

we

denominator

formula

of

written

be

may

the

follows:

as

60

o0_122 X

IS

190

Solving

for

the

Then

find its value

we

equation

horsepower would

for

the

similar

operation

Formulas
to

special

is determined

way
of

6 and

as

similar

984,960.

engine

of

desired

any

d2Pln

which

may

be found

for any

engine

is known.

7 may

600

"

984,960

formula

only.

cases

be

be

b.hp.=
^

In

to

or

be
That
700

simplified and
is, when
ft. per

made

the

min., the

to

apply

piston

speed

diameter

of

GENERAL

the

cylinder

be

may

101

DIMENSIONS

found

by

of

means

the

following

simple

formulas.

Similar

formulas
found

Having
determined
the

to

this
of
the

of

units;

thus

should

be

as

for

are

much

designed

At
the

four

the

power

error

as

power

first

of

owing

the

secured

that
with

of

single
the

to

large

fact

the

single

is

from

less

in

of

the

than
of

engine

to

owing

diminution

to

mind

that

individual

one-quarter

the

reader

This

power.
horsethat

one-quarter

conclusion

is in

efficiency

10
to

engine

same

exactly

cent

per
the

of

better
the

in

design

the

mechanical
5

the

four-cylinder

cylinder.

cylinder,

consequent

size

have

the

given

In

borne

appear

may

that

engine
a

slightly

each

should

proportion

only.
be

of

single-cylinder
it

be

may

formulas

the

govern

develop

thought

cylinders

multiple-cylinder
than

cylinder

cylinders

to

speed.

stroke

proper

the

it should

must

individual

the

of

the

and

engine

cylinders

piston

described.

single

length
in

length

given

any

d, the

described

computations

number

for

previously

as

multiple-cylinder

of
its

making

diameter,

chapter

derived

value

the

by

The

be

may

of

greater
balance

friction

loss.

CHAPTER

THE

Probably

design

the

of

valves

line

mechanical

important

internal-combustion

an

motion

mechanism

of

motion

with

the

crank
for

necessary

or

cam

the

the

ism,
mechan-

cam

controlled

mechanically

the

transforming

for

basis

as

in

feature

is the

engine

engine

every

this

uses

rotary

MECHANISM.

CAM

most

nearly

as

XIII.

shaft

of

operation

straight-

the

into

the

mushroom

valve.
The
the

in

cams

cam

The

at

since

and

fast

the

as

cam

shaft

be

devised,

to

the

is

the

of

valve

types
the

cam

than

end.

in

that

revolutions,

but

during

once

work

must

half

is

eccentric

An

as

been

and
may

themselves

half-time

mechanism
shaft.

crank

previously

mechanically

some

gearing

present

the

on

use

mechanism

may

eccentric

has

which
reduction

represents

an

as

methods

28

practice, and
the

of the

In

mentioned,
the

operated,

adhered

one

large engines,
by

of

means

smaller

to

in

to

transmit

the

the

only

inlet

being

engines

of the

push

rod

it is not

good

design
102

allow

the
the

motion

member.

automobile

between
to

manufacture

cam

intermediate

an

interpose
"

two

open

shaft.

type.

stem

majority

cf

valve

good

most

Fig.

engines,

suction

makes

valves

designed

crank

consider

manufactured

suitable

means

exhaust

It

of

by

the

we

mechanism

are

this

other

designer.

small

the

engines

or

shaft

inlet

of

that

is

on

shaft.

attain

to

operated

of

and

it

because

when

crank

principle other

mechanical

the

half

operating

crank

Occasionally

many

to

exhaust

cycle, their

this

equal

the

cycle

the

called

located

commonly

are

so

is apparent

this

Otto

engine

shaft,

speed

for

reason

complete

four-cycle

half-time

or

revolve

to

valve
valve

to

The-

and
stem
stem

marine
and
even

104

INTERNAL

venient, owing
entail

making

or

the

roller

the

Fig.

starting; pin

move

30.

must

steel block
into

of Cam

make
to

Cam

be

move

with

wide

into

Lever

enough

mesh,
face

the

to

It

is

shifting medium,

the

proper

position for

Transmission.

replaced either

of sufficient

of

movement.

necessary
d

out

Rod.

Push

to

shaft

shaft would

cam

partly

gears

its

gear
to

to shift the

pinion with

Relation

cam-shaft

and

to

half-time

29.

easy

hardened

that

the crank-shaft

comparatively
cause

fact

the

Fig.
allow

the

to

throwing

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

length

for starting and yet


position

by
to

two

allow

maintain

pins
the
a

or

lever
contact

a
e

THE

between

b and

CAM

The

c.

air will be described


Cams

universal

starting by compressed
"Starters."

on

(1) Spring,

"

return,

yoke

or

gravity, return

or

The

cams.

gas-engine practice is the

in

use

of

chapter

classes:

(2) Positive

cams.

method

in the

of two

are

105

MECHANISM

style in

spring

return

system.
In

laying

will

out

produce

will

be

determine

valve
where

the
to

The

concentric

of

the

to

the
cam

the

at

and

the

of

the

completed

shaft,and

the eccentric

points

above

be

we

able

are

determined
mentioned

the

which

point in
of

valve

consist of two

to

which

the

exhaust
the

cycle

corresponding

have

will then

portion is
two

cycle

the exhaust

piston has

From

case.

from

illustration

0.85

Fig. 31

Lay-out.

also

the

completed

has

close when

stroke.

For

Cam

in

slight modifications,

every

data

open

We

cycle in which

piston

eccentric

close.

inlet valve.

will take

Single

to

with

nearly

point in the

commence

it should

for the

31.

diagramed

as

and,

obtain

we

the

should

for

"

Pig.

to

method

results

suitable

"Valves

on

the

cam,

accurate

found

chapter

design

cam

is to open

working
0.05

portion
and

the

when

suction

portion
egge,

the

from

we

stroke, and

of the

parts,

data

ee,

which

location

lift of the

106

INTERNAL

valve

required.

valve

The

is in terms

stroke

and
On

stroke).

motion,

before

0.15

after

0.05

the

crank

of

opening
the

1.2

the
180"

the

suction

shaft, then, the period would

cam

216"

explosion

of the

end

beginning of

the

exhaust

be

equal

108".

"

the

opens

closes

ENGINES

period of

of

(since the valve

to

COMBUSTION

Having

determined

proceed

follows:

as

determine

the

diameter

diameter

b of the

portion of the

not

be

explained later.
shown.

as

the
In

cam.

to

tangent

by

c,

pass

tangents

order

to

draw

these

b, the angle
of the

means

Substituting:

Angle

circle,

the

lines

54"

circle

through
and

mined
deterline xx,

center

of

and

be determined

may

angle

of

action
co.;-i

rA*

["(90")
-^54"cos-1^]

[(90")

(8)

(54"

17")]

the tangent

being known,

through points

readily drawn

be

lines

The

b.

been

the

to

out

following formula:

/qq

proper.

having

be known,

must

cam

for this will

reason

e, where

circle

"dwell,"

this latter

on

cam

and

or

than

either side of the

on

points

the

Through

intersect
the

angle of the

108", lay off 54"

as

The

b.

the

"dwell," lay

is to be laid out

cam

make

the

greater in diameter

in.

The

being known,

cam,

on

shaft,

cam

and

a,

b of the

the circle of diameter

on

for

finish

good

diameter

tV

c,

shaft

cam

used

the

on

portion of the

for

the

circle of diameter

and

be

to

concentric

determined

eccentric

size of the

the

enough larger to allow


Having

period of opening

the

38"

surfaces
From

e.

of the
the

cam

may

formula

for

T
*

In

the

above

trigonometrical formula,

the

term,

cos-1

"

means

the angle whose

f|.

In

cosine

decimals,

table

of functions

about

17"

r,

we

is -1

In

the

0.6875,
find

that

(It is really 16" 57'.)

cam

0.7187,
the

in

question

and

angle

whose

r,

=0.9565.
cosine

"$

andr

From
is 0.9565

the
is

CAM

THE

effective valve
for

the

the

lift to

which

valve
have

this

circle intersects

this

Corners

completed.
machining,

rise

tangent
without

for

reason

that

there

be

may

most

allowed

taken

be

Added

open.
to be

pins

to

or

circle

of

wear

the

encounters

rise, and

to

commences

when

angle of action is laid out,

of fact

matter

play, and

for

smaller
been

in

months,
the

Some
and

manufacturers

inlet valves

rocker

and

valve

arm.

the

by

this

the
the

to

means

Fig. 32
mechanism..

in the

and

the

the amount

circle
much

inlet

the

way

sees

cam

as

for

the

opening of the

the

of a double

c.

to

the
As

allow

fit,to

be

may

arm

exhaust.
exhaust

in connection

cam

gives the general idea


Rocker

point of

angle of operation of the

same

obtain

it

cam

which

on

cam

be at all excessive.

cam,

the

the

old

if,after the engine has

J$ in. would
exhaust

in

roller passes

little too

bearing

justcommencing

until the

probably

of
true

of

as

almost

are

on

circle c,

be

the

commence

to looseness

should

open

manner,

same

being determined

cam

the

there

roller passes

it is doubtful

but

laid out

Having
drawn

few

possibly

this clearance

reduced, if the designer

be

may

amount;

run

in. is

can

is

and

stem

cam,

tangent surface

of the other

intersection

there

the

assumption

our

remain

should

and

open,

the
and

during the

up

portion

is correct, the valve

of lost motion
to

if

take

cam

itself is

cam

traveling

tangent

of this tangent

intersection

the

allowed

roller

the

possible,

as

portion of the

(Especially is

parts.

will be

the

valve

slightlosses,due

when

Now

engines.)

this clearance

to

other

some

the

valve

and,

of roller from

mechanisms

cam

the

before

up

the

than

it and

centric
con-

opening.

to

between

in

gradual

as

gg

interposed between

member

sure

in

As

slight clearance
must

movement

lost motion

no

outline

slightly round

diameter

in

circle

cam

the eccentric

out

larger

angle of action.

to

the

"dwell"

laying

in.

circle ^

be

materially affectingthe valve

The
on

make

the

to

than

lines Oe, the

should

to

as

so

in.; lay off

greater diameter

in.

Supposing

actuate.

0.25

as

the lift necessary

on

is to

cam

determined

been

circle of 0.25
when

determined

have

we

areas

107

MECHANISM

a,

of this

pivoted

at

with
cam

6, is

108

INTERNAL

provided with

and

exhaust

push rod is connected

at

restricted

spring

by

the

be identical

may

coil
with

need

not

be

compensating,
curve

g,

that

Double

described.

The

engine,illustrates the method


as

outline

of

cam

shown,

as

shown
it

be

to

the

in

sectional

of double

the

spring

across

While

plainly reduces

follows:
open,

cut

Fig. 33.

later described.

The

the

on

view

follows
of

valve

cam

in

chord

this reduces
mean

cam,

mechanism
The

of the

cam

noise

opening,

the

inlet
lever

valve
a

to

cam

circle,

of operation,

operation of the double

having caused

general

depression

the

the

the

vertical

practice the

effective

the

made

be

must

engines.

position shown,
h

at

dropping suddenly into

of

mechanism

its center

A, Fig. 32, but

is made
in

as

is shown

outline, instead
as

joint

automobile

at

is

Cam.

applied to

been

it has

The

/.

ordinary simple

an

binding,

Fig. 33, showing

xx.

for

and

push-rod

The

h.

operate,

its movement

shown, and

as

used

prevent

to

valves,

inlet

32.

Fig.

and

d, which

bearing points, c and

two

respectively, the

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

cam

as

will
is

as

/ is wide
move

about

THE

b and

to

act

follows

the

on

stem

the outline

Fig.

33.

Section

CAM

109

MECHANISM

of/.

The

of A.

cam

When

of Vertical

Motor

roller,in

point

the

1 is reached

"dwell," from

roller

about

to

1 to

engage

2, both
the stem

valves

the

Mechanism.

push rod is raised,until valve /is completely closed.


the

time,
mean-

remain

of valve

e, and

During

closed, with
just out

of

110

INTERNAL

with

contact

the

COMBUSTION

of

stem

cam,

about

exhaust

b, causing the
until

open
into

the

the

point

3 is

/.

Fig.

Fig.
this

That

cam.

circle c,

laying

the

out

diameter

circle

is
and
on

supposed
remain

angle

immediately
shown,

open

the inlet

to

of

than

same

to

in

In

the

of

the

after

90".

portion from

It

is

method

draw

of

circle of

construction

of

mined,
being deter-

exhaust
or
we

closes

trifle more,
will

keep the

it to open

cause

closes),lay off angle

obviously impossible

Ce without

on

circle b, the

cam

the

particular cam

exhaust

out

cycle (the inlet valve

through exactly 180", and


the

is laid out

inlet

the

period of 180",

this

The

for the

as

operation

during

after

equal

the

open

laying

of

follows:

as

immediately

circle.

already described.

open

open

method

starts

again

h to

remain

point the roller

from

portion is

lever

and

open

the

Lay-out.

cam

its location

as

to

the crank

inlet valve

been

being

well

as

of the

inlet

this
The

c.

Cam

reaches

rotates

spring

the

in- less in diameter

ts

for

reason

allows

Double

to

which

at

shows

34

34.

part

has

as

valve

1, and

to

roller

the

2, the push rod

at

reached,

depression 3

inlet valve

When

/.

tangent portion of the

ENGINES

cutting down

to

y,

as

lay off

the effective

112

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

the

cut

on

the

shaft

shaft

periphery of

that

of

is neither

Fig. 35 shows

these

of spur

the

and

gears,

the

is half that
reduction

marked

gear

2 the

of gear

2,

required.

the
the

making
bevel
of

two

bevel

plane and,

same

As

in

the

is made

secure

the

skew

gears,

large

shaft

cam

but
to

is

or,

one
an

use

at

the

as

most

gear.

in which
abnormal

valuable

direct

have

from

in

the

gears,

skew

the

gears,

due
wear.

one

on

to

the

line

center

shaft, and

shaft

gear,

that

lie in

gear,

is shown

the

crank

pair

shaft

of

be
gear

the

of drive

action, are

subject

design of gearing

several

gears

to

may

quiet method

author

shaft

larger than

case,

the

the

right angles.

at

in order

the

of

crank

their

if the

time

same

speed reduction

which

Cut
or,

for

gears

shaft

As

written, the
it details.

speed

one

bevel

at

At

affords

of

pinion

crank

frequently is the

The

pinion

size of the

cam

maintain

manufacturers

to

particular example,

time

amount

been

space

cam

the

and
subject by itself,

works

the

of which

same

the two

pair

shaft

size of

The

speed reduction.

by the

plane.

same

The

and

on

of the

the

gear

of Gears.

is the

spur

half that

proper

and

this

in

of the

use

pinion

secured

is carried

is shown

pair of

motion

4, which

gear

secure

reduction.

one

pinion 3, which

the

as

to

to

Types

of

of

the

at

shaft gear.

cam

35.

direction

in

gears;

b is shown

At

teeth

the

angle with

an

being the crank

in order

Pig.

changing

with

types of

such

at

parallel nor

three

marked

one

disk, but

they will mesh

which

ENGINES

comprehensive

will
are

output

not

consume

usually bought
of

concern

THE

it is unnecessary

case

bevel

or

number

of

In

such

pair of

pitch diameter

of smaller

pitch diameter

of

will mesh

that
the

be!"-"

such

with

between

of the
crank

shaft

gear.

gear.

shaft

distance

centers

of the

their

pitch circles.

of the crank

shaft

shaft

cam

and

cam

leave

instance,

For

in.,then

gear

the

shaft

crank

must

care

apart that

that

and

a.

larger gear.

shaft

cam

cos

larger gear.

of smaller

pitch diameter.

pinion

were

the distance
lines should

center

-i- =6^fin.
32

Whether
should

the spur,

be made

minimum

bevel, or skew

small

in order

of back

amount

rule, but

rough

use

on

this may

of the valves
tooth

at

to

On

small

than

time, the

may
cam

to

as

make

engines

and

to 7

used, the pitch

quiet running and

secure

larger engines
be increased

is

gearing

lash, as well

change the valve timing.

is the

of

any

gear.

crank

pitch diameter

the

between

to

and

cam

keep them

s\ in. clearance
4 in. and

locating the

supposing

cos

smaller

spiralangle
spiralangle

of

the

being absolutely

pitch and

face

either

give the speed ratio,the

the
::

of

teeth

gears

width

velocity of larger gear.

gear

than

more

to

maker

velocityof

shaft

skew

gears

In

taken

the

teeth,the face,and

In which

In

insure

pair of

is installed.

pitch, and

to

gear

For

accurate.

give the

to

diametral

pitch diameter,
spur

113

MECHANISM

it, a gear-cutting machine

warrants

be

CAM

on

8.

or

it

10

or

possible
pitch

12

those

for

For

finer

general

ment
adjust-

be secured

by shiftingthe

shaft

is sometimes

gear

gear

made

be placed in
adjustable,so that the cam
may
desired positionin relation to the crank shaft.
Fig. 36
any
In the figure, a is the
shows
such
an
adjustable gear.
which
the ring carrying the teeth is placed,
central disk, on
with

as

the

rim

shown, joint cd being

ring is secured
is secured

to the

by

disk

means

close

machined

by bolts

e, as

of the

slots

/.

fit.

The

shown, and
To

further

outer

ment
adjustinsure

114

INTERNAL

quiet

running,

rawhide,
two

the

and

brass

COMBUSTION

shaft

cam

brass.

plates

The

and

ENGINES

the

is

gear

fiber

are

is

rawhide

or

three

made

often

bolted

or

of
held

fiber,

or

between

together

riveted

^^AAA^f,

Fig.

and

then

cut

constructed

being

as

in

brass,

36.

piece.

one

this

fiber,

Adjustable

way,
and

parts
brass,

Geax.

Spur

The
of

shown

gear
the

rim

respectively.

marked

in

Fig.
1,

2,

36

is

and

CHAPTER

VALVES

THE

The

valves
and

type,
the

latter

two

kinds
The

be

in

since
in

order

is most

37.

that

the

of

the

being

illustrations

available

of

Types

compared

lightness

valves

most

of

of

these

valves.

valve

Fig.

mushroom

of the

are

"

for

37

using this type

engines

light weight,

seated

Fig.

See

PORTS.

engine

gas

angle

or

mushroom

flat seated

valve

fiat

variety.
of

AND

standard

of the

may

XIV.

to

of

inlet, as

moving

is

parts

the

as

the

suction

comparatively

is

valve,

desirable,
feature

important

an

reduced

be

may

use

Valves.

Mushroom

angle seated

an

inertia

for

to

minimum

amount.

The

angle seated

mentioned
at

an

is

far

angle, tends

firmly;
greater
collect.

tendency

there

is

less

to

flat
warp

for

superior.
to

tendency
The

valve

for

itself

tendency
the

valve,
leak.
115

than

carbon

being

out

one

its
seat

collect

to

grind

to

the

meeting

place and

into

for

valve

other

valve,

The

wedge

seated
and

all purposes

what

lighter, has

seat
more

and
may

greater

116

INTERNAL

Valves
then

should

machined

the head.
be

If

made

whether

clumsier

and

Fig.

stem.

tapped

be

order

in

riveted

or

into

give sufficient

to

illustrates

38

tends

must, of necessity,

riveted,the head

or

piece, and

one

two-piece valve

any

stem

in

cast

or

size,as

the

tapped

the

tapped and
The

finish

heavier

for

body

drop-forged

be
to

pull apart,

to

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

two-piece valve

riveted.
of which

material

the valve

considered; the exhaust

valve

particular should

in

of

metal

be

made

be

easilyaffected

not

heat

the

by

it will

which

to

continually subjected.

be

The

metal

best

valve

for the

is nickel

alloy is

This

should

be made

is to

burned

alloy.*
easily

not

will

and

haust
ex-

produce

satisfactoryresults and
a

The

long life to the valve.

inlet

valve, while

subjected, except
Fig.

38.

of

steel for the


The

tough steel.

inlet,with

is

in

manufacturers,
material,

with

more

both

engines have

instances,

many

less

or

the

inlet

cases,

give excellent
of

manufacture

the

not

from

successful

and

ordinary drop-forgedsteel stock,


some

nickel

use

good for the valves

too

none

exhaust

results.

engine; unfortunately,however, this does

gas

in

manufacturers

excellent

of material

best

Many

its

should, nevertheless,

gases,

be made

not

on

surface,to the hot

Valve.

Two-piece

sure
in-

exhaust
but

while

results for

of

prevent the

using

inferior

results.

Many

valves
these

made

valves

time, their

of
may,
in

use

strictly high-class engines should

be

discouraged.
size of the

The
*

So-called

Alloy
from

alloy

valves

may

manufacturers,

who

suitable
the

nickel

effective

for

alloy,containing
copper
corroding material.

1.25

is

valve
the

not

be
use

per

openings and
German

manufactured,
their

cent

of

own

silver
or

formula.

aluminum,

of

the

of

commerce.

purchased
A

is also

inlet

direct

manganese,
a

tough

non-

THE

and

exhaust

VALVES

6000

of the

min.

ft. per

inlet gases,

exhaust.

the gases

and

be, based

passing through

safely assumed

ft. per

5000

min.

the

entirelyon

will attain in

be

may

117

PORTS

should

is, or

passages

probable speed which


them

AND

the

as

the

as

speed

speed in the

at
assumption is that the exhaust
are
gases
of fact, their pressure
atmospheric pressure, but, as a matter

will be
The

The

nearly in the neighborhood of

more

speed

ft. per

of 5000

min.

is then

lb. per

30

safe and

sq. in.

tive
conserva-

estimate.
It is

an

matter

easy

accommodate

to

these

is liable to be

proportioning it.
method
Let

of

design the

to

speeds, but the

restricted
The

unless

large enough

passages

port

valve

or

especial care

following formulas

determining the size of the

ing
open-

is used

will

give

in

short

passages.

Length of piston stroke, in in.

Rev.

Piston

min.

per

of the crank

shaft.
2RL

speed,

ft. per

min.
12

Number

of

Diameter

Area

of inlet passage,

Area

exhaust

Area

of

Diameter

of inlet passage.

dY

Diameter

of exhaust

a,

Then

cylinder,in

of

in.

in sq. in.
in sq. in.

passage,

piston,in

2'

min.

cycles per

sq. in.

passage.

"
.

(9)

6000
It is

apparent that if the piston speed

speed,a would,

of

necessity,be

large

as

equal

were

to

the gas

A.

as

Substituting for S
2LAR
=

6000

12

J^_.
.

36,000

...

(io)

118

INTERNAL

COMBUSTION

ENGINES

And
S
a,

(11)
5000

2LAR
.
'

5000

12

LAR

(12)
30,000
In

the

case

section,
d and

we

inlet

exhaust

and

simplify

may

formulas

the

circular

are

passages

order

in

to

in

obtain

dt directly.
Trrf2
a

'

4
4a

Then

"P-

or

Also

dx

v/4f

Substituting
6000

And

7T

0.00527

\ZftL

(13)

0.00577

VRL

(14)

If the

engine being designed is of the stationary type, for


600 ft. per min. would
be a good value of "S,then we

which
may

use

the

following values:
a

but

one

last named
class

of

4,

ax=

0.12

0.316

D,

0.346

D.

a\
These

A,

0.1

values

are

design, and

clearlyspecial cases,
should

not

be

taken

a,

a"

covering
as

general

values.
Table

IX

gives briefly the values

piston speeds of from

500

to 1200

of

ft. per

min.

and

dt for

120

INTERNAL

Considering
values

to

COMBUSTION

ENGINES

unity, the following table will give the

as

be used

for b for

angles of

40"

45", 50", 55", and

60".

The

effective

opening is, of

continuing entirely around


equal

to

the

this annular

the

annular

the

valve, and

the

of b and

product

course,

its

area

circumference

mean

space

will be
C

of

space.

Then
a

bC

(Inlet)

(16)

bC

(Exhaust)

(17)

And
at

Then

C=^
And
ai

The

diameter

valve

of the

D1

may

be

found

as

follows:

Ort substituting
D

4-

(Inlet)

(18)

(Exhaust)

(19)

lib
And

=-^

rtb

Then
b sin

D-

a
-

b sin

(Inlet)

b sin

(Exhaust).

nb

And

D,

^
=

nb

THE

VALVES

121

PORTS

AND

Simplifying,

=0.316^-

b sin

(Inlet)

(20)

"%-

0.316

b sin

(Exhaust)

(21)

In

the

valves
the

and

valve, rather
Some

the

formulas, and
of

use

flat seated

is deflected

tends
the

at

produce

to

lift

great

as

order

diameter, the

in the

do

to

dimensions

be

can

for

as

well

as

choking, it is advisable
angle seated

an

done

with

Referring

valve

Fig. 37, we

to

the

designers
exhaust

the

with

away

collect

and
all

carbon

ideal

in average

0.23

A-

Short

stems.

0.28

D,.

Long

stems.

0.01

A-

0.09

A-

x
x

best

cylinder in

however,

agree,

inlet valves

exhaust

explosion chamber

other

minor

can

be

the

best

given.
that

practice and
far wrong.

not

in the

would

be

is

pressure
a

place both

to

cylinder head
their

products, and
the

judgment

common

pockets which, aside from


and

larger.

variety of different

and

arrangement

radiating surface, weaken


An

and

same

make

may

be set in the

tells us, that

will vary,

A-

may

fixed rule

no

1.18

be

and
make

to

the

of

head, and

judgment, will give results

ways;

conditions

of

give sizes used

is to

these, used

stem, thickness

as

the

right angle in striking the valve

details for which

are

Valves

be

to the fact that

valve, owing

swirls and

size of valve

Materials

should

they

so

be

course,

application

capacity, although the effective opening would


The

lift of the

would, of

used

be

considered

the

its

exhaust

understood.

thoroughly
In the

in

to increase

formula

should

judgment

been

increase

to

of b in the exhaust-valve

larger.

gas

than

have

seats

it be advisable

Should

exhaust

of

angle of their

the

same.

value

formulas, the lift of the inlet and

above

on

to

the

sphere, the

and

do

to

tendency
increase

to

the

piston head.

pressure

at

all

122

INTERNAL

points on

its interior surface

chamber

is

impossible in

would

space
of such

several

of

being equal. Such

compression

the

engine because

gas

explosion

an

altogether too large and the radiating surface

be

extent

form

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

to render

as

such

impracticable.

the idea

explosion chamber

an

manufacturers

of

being in the shape of

and

cone

fied
modi-

tried

been

by

piston head

engines, the

small

re-entrant

has

cylinderhead

the

arched.
The
a

setting of the valves


practice,but

common

adhere

to the
41

illustrate these

Fig.

40

shows

of

at

described
have

in

the valve
In

the

In

cam

cages

mechanisms
the

must

be

designed

In

into

it

this

head
as

opening

the

operated by

previously

as

cam,

design

valve

no

cages

separate and

cast

shown.
valves

operated

and

let into

in Head.

being

engines both
and

be

to

double-acting

inlet valve
an

valve

Setting Valves

cylinder

gas

in

of

XIV.

ground

41

Fig.

there

the

Rathbun

exhaust

and

and

arm

Chapter

seats

cylinder head
separate

Method

40.

used,

been

methods.

angle and

an

rocker

designers who

still many

are

two

inlet

the

Fig.

means

is,however,

cylinder head

practice of setting the valves in pockets. Figs.

cylinder head

As

there

and

40

in the

by

are

let into
of

means

the
two

levers.
is let in, in
x,

cage,

greater in diameter

as

shown.
than

the

THE

exhaust

valve

place, the

VALVES

head, in order
forms

cage

an

further

of

the

explanation.

malleable

iron.

making
and

cage

The

The

cap

Inlet

Valve

the

and

easy

bushing this opening and


Details

that

valve

both

valves

and

yoke should

method

cap

of

ible.
readily access-

and

shown

are

put in

be

may

convenient

cap

cage

123

PORTS

AND

both

may

be ribbed

need

and

no

be

of

strength-

MetValve

Cage.

Fig.
ened

much

as

Method

41.

as

Cap
of

possible,as

high-compression engines
dimensions
The

author

SettingValves

will not

stand

has in mind

an

the

in Pocket.

experience has

shown

drop-forged yoke
strain

instance

to

which

where

of

it is

three

forged yokes, of different sections, failed,and


that a yoke of manganese
bronze
in this case

in

ordinary
subjected.
four

or

it

that

was

gave

dropfound

the

best

satisfaction.
The

method

of

inserting the inlet valve

in

cage

may

be

124

INTERNAL

used

good

to

suction

inlet.

increase

in

engines operating with

in

advantage

only difference

The

the

height of

placed in the

be

to

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

cap

cage.

design would

in
to

Fig.

illustrates

42

be

the valve

in order

allow

the

such

an

spring
valve

assembled.
The

spring for

possible, so

suction

that

should

inlet valve

it

cause

to

for

correct

diameter

sectioned

42.

Suction

Valve

The

in

in this

valves

the exhaust

placing
it is

in

valves

the

in

to

some

been

both

used
in

set

An

exceedingly close

to

increased

of the extra

engine

has

all the

increased
without

cylinder head.
shaft

cam

cylinder,
extent.

similar

manner

with

double

to

cam

disadvantages

more,

on

inasmuch

of
as

compression

space,

running

piston

the

Added
makes

this, the

to

this method

design undesirable.

of

shown,

or

it may
much
and

direction

placing the valves

is shown

as

box

of

method

pocket,

the

pockets,

separate

to

the

parallel

placing the

of

has

high compression

expense

in

singlepocket and

impossible, owing
a

method

the

pockets
a

long dimension

of

41.

in.

0.042

opposite sides

are

Fig.

exhaust

two

obtain

to

design

valve

and

shaft

Cage.

rectangular

axis.

valves

Inlet

facturers
manu-

in.,winding the spring

the

The
Fig.

coils

outside

Some

spring wire

0.068

to the

six

an

f in.

of

prefer

with

and

of

inch, loose, is approximately

the

by

spring

open.

T^-in. spring wire


to

light as

as

cylinder will

in the

slightestvacuum

the

be

in

the valve

making
be

more

cast

Fig. 43.

side

This
box

by side, and

construction

detached

may

from

the

single

be

used

cylinder,

integral,the last method, however, making

complicated casting.

The

arrows

through the exhaust

o,
as

and

indicated

passes

by the

enters

gas

cylinder through the inlet valve,


of the

in

shown

as

out
arrows

of

the
b.

the valve

by the
cylinder

THE

Gas

engines have
of the

not

were

class

being the
extensivelyat

VALVES

been

AND

manufactured

mushroom

Otto

time.

one

in which

type, the

slide-valve
The

125

PORTS

the

valves

notable

most

engine, which

of this

used

was

quite

greatest difficulty
experienced

YZZZZZZZZ2ZZZZl

43.

Fig.

in the
hot

sticking, and,

cheaper
has

of slide valves

use

and

than

become

The

and
the

and

similar

to
no

The

crank

case

further

in

two-cycle

carefully proportioned,in order

speed, the cylinder may

receive

previously explained
the

inlet
short

type the inlet and


stroke.

full

this

the

be

burettor
car-

designed

charge during

valve

is

exactly

four-cycle motors, and

discussion.

cylinder ports in

motors,

should

of

design

two-port

between

"

valve

cylinder inlet valve

is of the

engine

is used

the

to

The

stroke.

the

type, it naturally

three-port type, makes

This

case.

supply

to

suction

every

As

other

any

if the

valve

poppet

the

large enough

be

as

is

popular.

whatsoever;

one

Cylinder.

poppet-valve construction

the

as

from

liabilityof their becoming

is the

efficient

most

valves

no

variety, but

needs

as

Separate

Cast

two-cycle engine, if of the

of

use

Pocket

Valve

and
space

exhaust

It is obvious

that,

full

under

exhaust
of

are

are

open

that, in order

reasonable

any

of gas.

head

time, whereas
ports

at

charge

the

ports

must, however,

motor

open

in

of

two-cycle

but
the

paratively
com-

four-cycle

during
to

secure

one

plete
com-

full

126

INTERNAL

charge, or
larger than
of

Considering
although

the

piston when
the

exhaust

it has

The

piston

other

uncovered

traveling

was

the

but

port would

1 in. of its stroke.

uniform

during its complete stroke,

opening

of the

total time

port would

required

be

the

piston
of the

ing
open-

ing
travel-

was

piston

stroke, but

one

were

period of total

the

then

wholly

not

of the

approximately one-fifth

complete

to

during

length of

average

speed

If the

port is

the

be while

part,

in. of the

partially open

be

piston travel; but, since


entire

in

expulsion stroke, or,

of the

port would

working

open,

remaining

the

first inch

be

by the

the

in. of

about

during all this time, the

of the

uncovered

port, then, would

words, the

in. of the

speed.

same

design the piston and

to

port will be

completed

exhaust

working stroke and


in

at the

operate

two-cycle engine of 5-in. stroke,it is common,

cylinder that

while

to

universal, practiceso

not

stroke.

designed

be

must

the effective valve

size and

same

proportionatelymuch
opening in a four-cycleengine

two-cycle engine

products, the

exhaust

the

complete discharge of

ports of

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

the

piston,

during the period of opening of the port, is traveling at its


minimum

speed and

during about

open

single stroke
Since
valve

of

follow

to

should

but

open

one-fourth

be four times

as

ports, both

four

times

the

large.

the exhaust
effective

four-cycle engine having the

time

completely

is

required for

piston.

the

make

two-cycle engine
of

the

port

as

long

four-cycle engine, it naturally follows

a
area

of

one-fourth

of the

the

consequence

the port remains

effective
to

in

same

area

It is

that

and

the

as

safe

its
rule

inlet,of

of the

valves

bore, stroke,

and

piston speed.
The
and

above

it is well to

ports should
order
not

to

open

too

the

of the

is,of

subject to

course,

in mind

bear

be too

increase

in the
power

rule

that

large than

the

it is much

modification,
better

that

area,

the

exhaust

port does

early in the working stroke, allowing the


cylinder
engine.

expansive power

to

fall and

The

average

of the

gases

the

small, provided that, in

too

effective

some

materially weakening

sure
pres-

the

two-cycle engine utilizes


during about

four-fifths

128

INTERNAL

head.

Fig.

small
As

in

it

is

smaller

the

rings

crank

than,
same.

the

forcing

the

vacuum

is

its

great
to

same

of

used

for

crank

and

port

through

into

possibility

that

fall

the

in

the
the

inlet

cylinder,
case

will

port

opens.

the

there.

or

period

encountered

case

charge

its

effective

preventing

the

to,

at

several

port,

catching

equal

into

opening

required

introducing
be

is

large

one

the

slipping
the

across

surface,

and

around

rings

the

area

bearing

inlet

before

cast

openings

difficulty
the

be

in

should

area

piston

instead

the

port

More

into

very

into

cylinder

charge

bars

forming

bars,

third

case,

that

aggregating

slipping
a

the

gases.

distance

the

clearly,

exhaust

the

quite

prevent

forming,

ports

opening,

to

necessary

thus

intervals,

If

order

of

for

methods

two

paths

continue

ports

cylinder,

these

the

showing

the

them

illustrates

44

arrows

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

into

gas

slightly
of

the

larger

introducing
third

port

and

full

than
there

because
leak

the

opening

allow

in
is

the

CHAPTER

THE

There
The

air-cooled.

The

water-cooled.

I.
II.

air-cooled

The
radiation

surface

the

from

radiating
into

holes

first

named

of the

cost

to

castings would

of

the

holes

and

cylinder

have

be

the

the

class

the

of

annular

driving

pins

wall.

allowing
and

in

the
the

reducing
in cost

the

drilling

illustrates

valve

The

although

up

Fig. 45

in. in

difference

made

with

radiating

to

cylinder

direction

every

this

and

by

use,

by

cylinder

advantages,

pins.

first

the

in

than

more

the

0.75

or

However,

setting the
of

its

freely in

casting.

the

head,
of

that

casting

of

commonly

most

circulate

to

of

an

and

cage

airhead

integral.

cast

Fig.

is

46

and

this

through
order

to

the

at

is

will

keep
best

very

it

valve

the

the

pocket
cooling

highest

essential

for

at

point of the

the

thus
and

water

circulation.
129

gases

enough;

that

In

the
this

water-jacketed.
cool

cooling effect

water

perfect

the

cool

completely,

integral.

shown

as

necessary,

cylinder with

cast

is

valve

outlet, it is advisable

off

draw

the

pocket

inlet

not

valve

secure

and

valve

outlet

is

however,

water-cooled

valve

the

particular example
This,

of

example

one

jacket, head,

water

to

outside

is claimed

air currents

cooled

the
is

the

effect

order

from

bottom

of

in

and

apart

the

to

In

possible

as

namely:

cooling

large by

center

method

pin method

first

the

great

in.

top

drilled

air.

is made

0.25

cylinders,

the

secures

as

cylinder

from

height,

the

be

fins, about

or

gas-engine

surrounding

may

the

of

rings

the

effect

of

cylinder

into

cooling

CYLINDER.

classes

two

are

XV.

about
water

making
thus

jacket,
By

rushing

however,
the

exhaust

jacket
it

in

round
sur-

possible

maintain
which

drawing

the
tion
condithe

130

off at a,

water

as

and

its

45.

Fig.

box

jacket

the
the

of Air-

Type

cooled

be

the

jacket to reach
placed on the top of

were

valve

the

shown,

circulating system

through

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

so

to

speak,

and

pass
a

would

box

Type of Water-cooled
Cylinder.

Cylinder.

sidetracked,

the

if the outlet

valve

cylinder,the

46.

all

must

water

outlet,whereas

Fig.

into

is thrown

obtain

but

limited

very

circulation.
The

thickness

pressure

to

of the

which

cylinder walls

it is

subjected

to

resist the
be

may

internal

found

the

by

formula

2^.0.1

t=

(22)*

2/
In
in.

which

in.,/

considered

thickness

(four times
in

be

the

the

See

in.,p

pressure

in

lb. per

compression approximately),
allowable

16,000 lb.
*

in

Unwin's

per

tensile
sq.

"Machine

strength, which

in., and

0.1

Design."

is

sq.

eter
diammay

constant.

THE

In

somewhat

heavier

than

indicate, in order

to

the

side, and

one

allow

to

is cast too

thin, water

into

cylinder. In

the

under
to

the

bore.

from

actual

0.05

D, in which

The

cylinder wall
made

be

is the

diameter

of the

lightest cylinderpermissibleand

the

with

cylinder of 5-in. bore


manufacture

concerns

lighterthan

the

uniform
tend

course,

being

no

to

up

depth of the

The

to

seems

it would

be

and,

value,

be

cylinder walls, the


temperature
not

water

in the

at from

to
160

good practice to make


/=

We

find that

of D, due

to

the

best

the

0.16

the
D

automobile

limited

amount

the
170

complex
of

the

and

the

it would

for the

depth

of

practice of different
with

of

amount

ing
regulat-

entering

just enough

water

temperature

of the

of the

water

engines
of

approximate

deg. fahr.

depth

to 0.10

fact,

considered,

find that

pump

used, the

to

be
an

value

of the

make

of

matter

combustion,

nicely regulated until

through the jacket

an

which

over

conductivity

of

circulation
be

would

average

an

passes

It is

duce
pro-

hand

somewhat

the

we

The

may

constant

they

other

pump

probable heat

water

discharge

as

even

derived

supply pipe

be

that

dimension

at

consideration

If then

manufacturers.
valve

j is

arrive

to

having

be

foreign

limit.

of the inlet water,

jacket would

cylinders, weight

the

on

question, and

some

all conditions.

meet

but

jacket

water

formula, taking into

find

Some

claim

heavier

of

use

certain

impossible
after

the
use

to

common

wall.

capacity of the circulation

the

unless

the

to

casting. Stationary engines, of

in

especial drawback

advantage
there

toward

it is

and

dimension,

results

cylinder

cylinder of steel casting somewhat

above

0.1 D

manufacturers

0.25-in.

jacket

water

Automobile

1.2 1.

cylinder wall,
from

the

through

to pass

thickness

tt, from

thin

cylinder wall

If the

practice the
in

seem

wall too

the

making

jacket is liable

jacket, varies

water

flange, may

the

made

good casting, to guard

reboring.

for

is

would

formula

fallingand

against the jacket core


on

above

produce

to

cylinder wall

the

practice,however,

actual

131

CYLINDER

jacket
(23)

use

the

larger value

circulatingwater

carried

132

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

and

the

its

of

fact

being

is also

made

small

water

in the

which

to

The

become

the

than

casting; in small
It
for

is

of the

designer
in

greater than

jacket should

safe

6-in.

or

means

of
of

Jacket.

the

but

additional

The

the

the

side

type.
the

the
on

outlet

If the
of

the

the

if the

the

the

stagnates and

water

result.

the

placed at

inlet

in

deteriorate

the

by the

or

to

calked
and

first-

and

ably
prob-

use.

The

into

place

the

head

place with

the

proper

jacket the

copper

in cost

is

than

more

offset

the necessary

jacket
the

labor

jacket,
produces

As

the

produce premature
cylinder itself.

its lowest

at

point,

highest point
of

engine be

jacket

top of the cylinder, which

it is liable to

copper

cylinder.

leaves

water

in

jacket and

enter

be

should

saving

of the

should

water

cylinder is
the

on

opposite the

height

which

place it

inlet water

and

cost

in this

cylinder casting-is reduced,

of the

cost

water

joint. The

oakum,

With

even

accomplished by

be

must

securely

gaskets.

Copper

or

made

is effective

and

lead

fastened

-J

D,

copper

be

expensive

least

0.04

generally about

be

may

method

jacket

with

tl

the

must

expansion

an

copper

to

relatively

corrugations. Fig. 47,

the

required

good

unequal expansion of
This

mentioned

the

be

0.03

is

thickness

Provision

iron.

and

engines using

In

and

use

by

would

thickness

the

for the

case

Water

thicker

no

produce

to

cylinder bore,

5V in-

47.

the

that

possible in

as

made

be

necessary

make

to

jacket the

Fig.

pump

engines of larger bore.

less,for larger cylinders.

I,

time

cylinders this thickness

to 5

up

much

as

consider

may

probably

engines

in order

reason,

have

may

passing

cooled.

wall

outer

same

after

circulation

the

capacity of

for the

radiator

partiallycooled

but

through the jacket. The

ENGINES

at

the

pocket

so

"

formed

point is heated
explosions and

on

vertical

point lower

pocket is

steam

and

than

formed

hot
is

in

spot in

usually

the

most,

rapidly

to

THE

The

133

CYLINDER

that part
jacket should completely cover
cylinder subjected to the heat of the burning gases
should

continue

from

position which
engine

was

inclined
the

the

make

to

stroke, is
if the

relieved

which

if the

the

or

c,

dead

the

and,

To

it

ring

if it

the

as

parts

of the

the

of either
the

On

allow

engine

other

either

edges

the

and

be

marked

become

worn,

will, in time,

travel

the

lower

passes

result

partly overtravel

of their

by

edge b, will be

the

not

case

in the

entirely

entirely passes

does

b.

center.

readily imagined.

to

half

will result

case,

piston

is the

pass

dead

conditions

of the

in

becomes

D
the

different

conditions.

by

for

openings

size

naturally varies

water

ring, which

the outer

on

be

D,

this is

knock.

will result.

"knocking"

different

in

by the edge

half

ring should

this

ring, if

respectively,the end

The

oil

an

crank

the

may

lower

shoulder

out,

run

shoulder

cylinder

compression chamber;

hand, if the travel


or

the

will pass

center,

these

into

conditions

of these

to

the

upper

off in the

pulled

b, Fig. 46,

at

point that the top piston ring, when

observe

to

are

be

engine is

the

valves

consequence.

will result in

condition,

piston carries

ring dropping off

and

if the

should

latter

inner

when

jacket the valve

to

shown

as

previously

boring, allowing the tool

well-designed engines,

Failure

by

As

jacket.

relieved

condition

such

on

Likewise,

upper

of its outward

the end

complete jacketing is a natural


be

are

this,contending that

placed in pockets, and

are

this

at

is

engine

edge

require

to

the

designers

guard against the piston rings wearing

accomplish

in all

than

piston has reached

facilitate the

cylinder:

edge

shorter

even

the

to

when

assume

Some

center.

it

or

cylinder down

good practicecompletely

their

to

to

the

dead

cylinder should

in order

and

the

valves

in the head
The

it

it is

top of the

top of the piston would

sufficient

not

mentioned,

the

forward

on

heat, when

box

of the

water

far the

If

most

"broken"

tank

(24)

in

inlet

of

makes
and

has

discharge

engines and

cooling tower
method,

desirable
and

and

no

lime

as
or

water

under

be used,
the

"

cooling

sediment

to

134

INTERNAL

deposit in the jacket,


"

made

at

engine

is

hydrant
inlet

water

The

order

outlet

if the

the

engine

area

outlet

to

marine

| in. and

the outlet
is

there

case

with

cooled

were

equal in

should

due

water

engines
to

1-in.

area

larger in

the

be

cases,

expansion of the
and

be

openings

J-in.wrought-iron pipe

pipe should, in all

Automobile

the

ordinary stationary

the

For

openings, it being good practice

smaller

In

that

equal in

for the

to allow

absorbed.

it is necessary

pressure.

while
sufficient,

pipe.

ENGINES

larger than

somewhat

water

COMBUSTION

the heat

to

somewhat

use

make

inlet

the

f in.
tendency for

through the jacket

without

the

to

water

directly

pass

cooling all parts of the cylinder

Copperjacket

^packed

Fig.

wall,

baffle

48.

enough

to

done

finished

their

When

as

the

Cylinder.

machines

chattering

cylinders bored

its proper

or

and

ground,

number

cylinder walls and

best

of

as

when

this

in

"work

to

with

found

heavy

The

vibration.

engine is marketed

engine for

extreme

be

must

considerably less time


an

into

water

operation in which

by boring alone, it is always

using the

increases

the

and
all

prevent

it takes

cylinder."

Jacketed

in.

be cast

is necessary,

engines have

after

Copper

boring of the cylinder is an

accuracy

is

of

plates, for deflecting the

channel, should
The

Type

here

to

the
be

months,

piston rings are

the

cylinder

true

that,

its power
worn

to

136

different

of

cylinders, and

fully covering

all

conditions,

suggestions

enable

good

forms

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

to

working

Cylinders
form,
from

eight

by

not,
should

they

sufficient

offer

draftsman

average

means,

any

design

to

cylinder.
with

best,

at

the

while

to

the

jacket and

water

fourteen

cast

integral
in

cas'ting,usually ranging

expensive

an

head

the

cents

imperative

is

It

pound.

cost

for

^-Exhaust

V%77ZBZZZ2ZZZZZZZZZZZl

%ZZZ^

//////////,

f n Ik f passage

wzzzzzzzzzzzm.

50.

Fig.

this

casting

simple

as

engines,

automobile
four

jacket

the

supporting
of

suitable

that

reason

the

together,

be

means

and

core

often

in

in

pairs

properly

the

making

Cylinders,

cast

patterns,

for

provided

thereby

possible.

as

are

Cylinder.

Two-Cycle

problem

especially

or

three

even

being

consequence,

for
or

very

complicated.
castings should

Cylinder
that

they

should

tested

be

and

foundry

be

may

manufacturers

that
found

20

of

per
to

be

cent
so

tough

as

under

again

be

after

the

the

best

One

has

engines

faulty that

they

the

the
in

in

order

casting

leaving

of

made

cylinders
are

each

before

pressure

machining.

finished

iron

gray

possible, and

as

water

marine
of

of

their

"scrapped."

the

leading

statement

shop

are

CHAPTER

THE

The
it

to

the

during

this

another
It

flywheel is

to

store

portion of

received

its

of

FLYWHEEL.

impulse

thus

energy

remainder

of the

function

XVI.

of

cycle

imparted

energy

cycle, and

any

the

to

up

machine

operations,

the

during

until

or

restore

to

it

receives

impulse.
possible

is

minimum

to

design

so

the

amount

Rankine

the

treats

it will

flywheel that

of

fluctuation
of

fluctuation

of

speed

speed

as

this

designates

coefficient,

the

to

engine.
of

coefficient

and

fluctuation

reduce

"

which

In

"

2E0
AE

is the

is the

of energy

excess

actual

fluctuation

fixed

generally taken

is

sV

or

about

1.5

machine.

the

is 200

rev.

would

rev.

suppose

per

min.,
Its

min.

per

for

cent,

speed

per

by

full load

be

considered

the

of

be

the

nature

on

an

=6

rev.

203

its

of

average

the

rev.

speed

per

min.

must

not

trating
Illus-

engine.
at

speed

no

load

was

195

was

these

min.,

per

flywheel

engine

from

cent, will vary

the

between

rev.

two

loads

cent.

But

195

205
then

might
6

may

speed,

and

min.

of the

variation

0.03

governing

at

speed

average

effected

speed

on

of 3 per

200

is its

the

while

depending

variation

rev.

speed

in

whose

speed

as

the

for

variation

197

with

this:
rev.

machinery

min.

per

speed regulation

confounded

finely regulated

lowest

between

vary

The

205

200

of

machinery

per

min., with

coefficient

ordinary

engine, then,

An
per

since

and,

to

highest and

between

be

cent

per

which

the

say,

and

this

and

^,

impulse,

during

flywheel reduces

amount,

at

is to

that

55!

energy.
to

received

as

per

200

the
way,

regulation
be

controlled

of

effected

by the

this

by the

variation,

weight

governing

plainly, could

of the

apparatus
137

flywheel

not,
but

(Chapter

in

should

XXII).

any

be

138

INTERNAL

The

steadiness

dependent

of

the

on

flywheel alone.

speed regulation, as
units

utilize

dynamo.
well

the

in lesser extent.
made

to the

engine,

even

is

actual

obvious

only method

of

flywheel required is
the

forces

resultant

method

This
to

wheel

very

for

of

is tedious

the

pamphlet

derived

equalize
and

revolution

ditions
con-

where

acting

as

on

to

the

from

the

used

to determine
the

within

to

obtained

from

gives

the

a
an

in

the
of

the

unbalanced

common

crank

weight

portions.

reader

may

refer

Reciprocating

serving

acting

as

it has

use,

University Technic

in

the

reciprocating parts, and

practical designer. For

Michigan

showing

complicated and, while

"Dynamics

on

accurate

Machinist

of the

empirical formulas

empirical formulas
be

favorable

weight of the flywheel

the

cylinder

effect

description of this method

are

gasoline

or

graphical diagram

the

will

which

great value

revised

gas

clearly the theory of the flywheel and

show

basis

make

diagram thus

the force

the

they

actually calculating the weight of the

to

the

pin, together with


from

be

comparatively large.

be

The

that

two,

should

to which

most

per

web,

or

proportion of idle

large,in

so

impulse

one

engine receives

must

the

two-cycle engine under

getting only
steam

is

strain

the

common

weight but

arms

or

portion

arms,

their

exert

that

strokes

and

the web

reason

possible to resist
It

subjected.

strokes

this

For

light as

as

are

of

hub

balancing factor, although they

is the heaviest

the

of the

mined,
flywheel is deter-

revolution, it is

its axis of

other

tail shaft

the

largely,from its rim, which

in

direct-connected

balancing effect of the

practice to disregard the weight of


as

potent factor

Some
on

not

direct-connected

pulleys,shafting, and

connected.

from

engine is

an

is

armature

also the

are

In

auxiliary flywheel

farthest

as

the

belt

an

As

most
as

when

in

speed obtainable

electric-generatingunit

machinery,

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

to

a
no

detailed
a

small

Engines,"
of 18SS.

as

The

general practice give results that

few

per

actual

cent

of those

diagram.

The

which

would

American

following formula:
1K

ff

"

"26"

THE

In

which

firing charge
of the

The

weight of rim,

revolution

every

and

piston in

of

area

stroke
rev.

48,000,000

for

engines

for

engines

min.

per

diameter

minute

per

given, is good

sq. in.

in ft.

outside

revolutions

as

=24,000,000

four-cycletype,

designed being known,


a

139

FLYWHEEL

in ft.

speed for which

or

the

for

of wheel

above

engines

formula, with the

average

but,

purposes,

are

constant

as

have

we

AS

observed, the
from

1.5

value
cent

per

varying conditions
this
a

allowable

the value
and

of

from

to

3 per

we

should

and

should

introduce

be taken

from

of fact the

for

care

of

We

constants

figures,and

average

to

20,000,000

60,000,000.

that

factor to take

are

suit different

to

it is obvious

matter

48,000,000

to

for different purposes,

vary,

cent; hence
As

40,000,000

modify the formula

may

^p-

variation.

24,000,000

of

30,000,000

then

are

conditions

as

able

follows:

2AiL.x

W=

to

(27)

R2D2
which

In

consider

we

two-cycle engine, and


engine, and
shown

in the

Portable

Driving
Driving

looms

Driving

electric

Driving

cotton

low

cubic

cycle
four-

conditions,

as

1.1

use

1.2

textile

or

machinery,

machinery,
spinning,

in these

inches

1.3

etc

1.4

etc

1.5

etc

motor-boat

engines permit, and

lighter flywheel than


engines

we

0.60 for automobiles

Having determined
in

for different

constant,

for

cases

for

cases

tools

and

demands,

as

all

all

1.0

ordinary

and

Automobile

as

in

in

engines
machine

and

20,000,000

40,000,000

as
a

as

following table:

Pumping

usage

is

the

may

and

weight of

is determined

for

stationary

safely use

value

their
poses,
purof

0.75

for motor

boats.

rim

necessary,

its content

by dividing the

weight by

140

INTERNAL

0.27, which

thickness

Now

as

of

weight,

possible. The

be

may

plus its inside


The

two.

diameter
thickness

known,

its width

it may

contain

inches, above

produce

to

the

must

the

the

will,

diameter

of

rim

be

such

being
that

of

number

by

ference
circum-

and

determined,

cubic

necessary

required weight.

in.
-J-

nearest

rim

of the

of

diameter, divided

mean

and

its center

its outside

to

the

" "

dimension,

far from

diameter

mean

rim

its minor

as

then, be equal

for the

possible,be

gravity

inch, for

cubic

per

thickness

some

should, wherever

rotation

ENGINES

approximate

assume

its center

that

so

is the

iron.

cast

COMBUSTION

above

the

Use

calculated

width.
Most

engines

Flywheel.

while

engines

marine

wheel

showing

equations, s

flywheels used

the

with

the majority

the webbed

use

made

are

of

six

in

spokes,

automobile

Fig. 51

pattern.

dimensions

average

stationary

on

good

is

and

spoked

In

use.

the

diameter.

crank-shaft

Then

The

dimension

formula,

be

may

computed

B
n

rf

diameter

d=

of

pulley

breadth

of rim

number

of

0.6337
V

flywheel

0.798

J"

flywheel transmitting

in in.

in in.

arms,* thus:

(Singlebelt)

(28)

(Double belt)

(29)

Unwin's

in which
D

For

from

no

power

smaller

value

may

be

used.

THE

Some

141

FLYWHEEL

design their flywheels in

manufacturers

provide notches, in the rims, in which

and

inserted

wheel; the
shrunk

rings

outer

and

leaving the

on,

bar

parts,
be

may

Fig. 52 representssuch

turning the engine over.

for

two

are

in

space

iiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniim

which

the

notches

shown.

as

bind

is

per

min.

cut,
bolts

firmly together.

maximum

rim

been

rings and

The

the wheel

The

have

velocity of

generally
Then

taken

6000

at

6000

the
ft.

nRD.

Whence
6000
D

1910:

tzR

The
XIII
a

(30)

size of
and

Fig.

key

should

necessary

be

of

strong

as

tight drive fitin order

may

TABLE
OF

OF

in

Flywheel.

Tables

as

tendency

to

FLAT

IN

KEYS,

work

loose.

INCHES.

XI.

SQUARE

KEYS,

IN

INCHES.

of shaft.

Diam.

Breadth

Depth

keys
keys

of
of

TABLE
OF

DIMENSION

Diam.

SLIDING

XII.

FEATHER-KEYS,

IN

INCHES.

of shaft.
.

Breadth

Depth

of keys
of

Kent's

keys

"

Mechanical

Engineer's Pocket

Book,"

pages

to

possibleand

X.

TABLE
DIMENSIONS

found

cross-section

lessen the

to

DIMENSIONS

be

52.

821-822.

142

INTERNAL

Table

should

motion.

used

be

These

keys

are

MM"

parts

against

tapered

and

"bear

all

flywheel,

This

in

could

safely

be

the

found

53.

the

Flywheel.

shaft

cause

The

If,

crack

after

form

to

this

machines

of

in

Some

the

this

will

John

be

found

Richards,

spoked

well

metal

be

wheel,

where

they

otherwise,

may,

joint.

accurately
is

the

found

and

be

heavier

in

side

heavy

webbed

turned
to

manufacturers
in

web

will

web

spokes

of

most

one-fourth

In

the

mass

side

one

diameter.

the

be

drilled

are

difficulty.
face

at

must

finishing,
holes

large

the

as

flywheel

other,

the

rim,

the

In

approximately

fillet

always
join

be

to

the

as

probably

spokes.
of

thickness

thin

as

would

six

as

0.5

computed,

web

poured

be

strong

as

cases

Fig.

wheels,

small

mobile
auto-

from

be

not

for

in

engines,
need

and

should

53,

varies,

marine

in.,

0.75

thickness

thickness

and

over."

small

key

endwise

Fig.

comparatively

web.

as,

the

the

to

wherein

work

fixed

webbed

use

its

all

holds

I"

ENGINES

for

also

but

drives,

only

not

COMBUSTION

go

wheel,

order

so

but

unnecessary.

in

Cassier's

Magazine.

far

except

balanced.
than

to

as

the

overcome

to

finish

for

finest

144

INTERNAL

shaft

be

may

studs.
maximum

forward

the design shown

may

be

of the

cap

Frame

be made

of

liners,a,

used.

They
clear

to

B.

30-gage

the

cut

shaft

S. and

"

take

to

liners,made

are

In

Engine.

used

are

bring the

bearing.

of the

for Horizontal

the

by the frame,

it would

as

bottom

five of these

or

and

the

that

such

be

received

desirable,

near

brass

Four

brass, should

shape

too

against the bearing

of

will not

45"

will be
be

not

54.

Fig.

shaft.

of

thrust

joint in the brasses

instead

frame

angle

an

greater angle would

in the

the

against

While

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

of

in.

play

light-gage

Two

the

to
or

three

of about

like number

the

conform

to

up

40-gage.

good

rule

make

to

their

diameter

for the

diameter,

of the

Some

follow

to

the

0.25

the

projection of the frame

out

the

carry

cylinder, on

if this is

which

lugs

air

from

the

quiet

as

The

of the

hollow

Vertical

usually becomes
cheaply
purposes,

to

Engine.
a

but

the

the

"

crank

of

order

secure

gearing. There
constructed

the

on

bolts

cylinder.

are

unequal expansion
loosen

these

is

It

bolts

of
or

cylinder alignment.

in

base,

cast, and

are

either

supply for this type

possible and

cam

will

frame

distortion

The

and

good design, as

cylinder and

cause

thread,

of

base

passed through corresponding lugs


doubtful

is

shaft-

manufacturers

under

the

at

bearing studs

size of the

In

to
a

this

case,
are

engine is generally drawn


make

warm

type

the

as

dry suction.
of

engine, the frame

completely housing the shaft


exceptions, of

single-cylinder engines
modern

operation

high-class vertical

in

course,

for

general

engine

as

THE

rule

has

apply

closed

to

In

chamber.

proportioning and

type, whether
similar

crank

the

frame

construction
the

made

in two

which

are

The

designing

consists

to that

crank-case

145

FRAME

type

used
of

as

in the

closed

horizontal

case

engine the

engine.

half

the upper

is

case

is of

or

in the horizontal

halves, the lower

independentof

of

general rules

same

generally

carrying the bearings,


The cylindersare
half.

Squared fa
vtrenchp

65.

Fig.
fastened

the

to

Frame

for Vertical

half, and

upper

the

Engine.
halves

two

are

fastened

securelytogether.
Fig. 55 gives a good general idea of this class of design.
The
formula
for the cylinder studs, a, has already been
given and
the
or

by

b.

screws,

cap

the

of the

shown.

the

As

fastened
The

half.

lower

means

further

no

shown

are

case

with

needs

as

be

used

described

The

wedge,

their

the

engines
adjustments.

horizontal

together by

means

halves

two

of the

of

bolts

play in the bearings is taken


c, which

bearings in this

instead
in

The

bearing pedestal,as shown, is integral

it is desirable

play

discussion.

of

that

case

placing liners
use

on

are

this method

horizontal

also

acts

the
more

of

between

screw,
or

d,

as

accessibl
less,in-

taking up
the

up

the

bearings,

of the
best
type. Some
the wedge and
to secure
screw

146

INTERNAL

and

Plate

/.

well

inserted

being

removed

i,

in

to

use

bearing

long

it

in

make
the

dynamo

an

above

cap

the

screw

continue

would

be

or

of

fastened,

the

that

them.

C,

with

it

through

plate

would

design
to

top

act

of

be

the

on

the

crank

accessible.
horizontal

and

plate.

machined

units,

bed,
their

engines
is

Especially

direct-connected

and

The

h.

at

better

as

bushing

side

the

the

valve,

shown

shoulder

vertical
bed

and

push-rod

shaft,

cam

plates

of

means

cam

the

require

easily

both

sub-base

by

case

if used;

reach

to

the

covers

shown,

as

accurately
are

of

shown,

g,

of

interior

mechanism,

manufacture

forming
and

as

and

Manufacturers
often

/,

order

cap,

where

case,

the

at

studs

bearing

to

starting

the

as

be

had

is

Access

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

onto

perfect

the

which

alignment

this

true

sub-base

the

engine
assured.

CHAPTER

XVIII.

ENGINE

The

foundations

engine

owner

builder.

The

drawing
in

of

the

consist

location

of

template

be

to

sooner

working

loose

The

the

from

foundation
of the

of

bed

the

plate

applied cylinder

by

the

on

solid

bed

plate and

engine

floor
the

of

in

other

to

transmitted

vibration
in.

the

felt, or

placed

should

not

be

used

absorb
has

been

below

water

used

be

the

air

swell.

with

good
147

transmission

the

or

used

and

vibration

Cork,
owing

bed

results.

of

the

material,

deadening

as

layer

be

may

foundation

the
such

of

reduce

to

between

as

insulating

some

foundation

and

of the

independent

foundation.

the

floor

absolutely

substance

may

the

to

next

tions
condi-

no

furthermore,

necessary

placed

be

cork

of

large

job, and

the

of

bearing

to

Under
the

the

absorbed

building, except

becomes

soil.

surrounding

thick

the

of

good

given

effect
not

to

as

be

governing,

prevent

layer

thick, should

felt,horsehair

to

of

it

get

directly

be

concussion

still further,

to

order

When

considered

necessary.

should

engine

of line.

out

forces

soil

give

to

it should

It should

temporary

parts

the

by

ground.

of the

for

building

the

foundation,

vibrations

bottom

bolts

the

inertia, the

quality of the

except

room,

be

may

engine be fastened

an

from

getting

crank-pin

or

of foundation

depth

should

and

its

by

frame.

the

ground,
the

extent,

and

also

is bound

or

frame, in that

or

absorb,

to

settling

engine

suddenly

or

dimensioned

locating these

engine

foundation

mass

engine

bolts, and

for

an

later, from

or

sufficient

of

made

the

by

the

by

accurately

foundation

foundation

good

trouble,

the

built

furnished

of

the

always

foundation.

Without

part

drawings

drawings

plates showing

almost

are

from

contractor

or

FOUNDATIONS.

to

or

10

in.

however,
ency
its tend-

dry sand

as

148

If it becomes
floor where
crib

of

support

should

foundation

of

engine

an

ground

the

on

timbers

heavy

install

to

necessary

bearing

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

the

below

upper

floor

to

will

foundation

This

concrete.

an

obtained,

be

cannot

built

be

on

absorb, by its inertia, a great deal of the vibration.

engine foundation

An
in

cement,

part good Portland

one

and

four

2-in.

ring. The

than

parts broken

is

layer

next

floor

brick.
be

mentioned

mortar,

foundation

may

should

have

be laid up
the

any

tendency

of about

stone

foundation

The

weight

as

of

extent
cases

that
were

condition

the
of

be

in

and

formula

or

outline.
in

Fig. 56.

nected
direct-con-

to
to

be

brick

dynamo,

take

soil

is seldom

subject

are

unbalanced

bed

plate

would

be

surrounding conditions
the

as

prevent

same

engine is

designed

sure

should

the foot, and

general, the

the

so

should

to

as

so

design is shown

engines
their

from

frame

any

foundations

cap

in the

bearings.

differently designed

weight of their

3 in. to

This

regular steps, being

engine foundation

an

degrees of shock,

or

above-

cement

engine directlyconnected

outboard

and

concrete

to

up

foundation

foundation

case,

should

foundation

dynamo

in

of standard

unit,that is,an
the

Stone

on.

the

brick

granite, or

or

and

be hard-

brick, in the

or

be

cement

should

of concrete

the

should

fill all voids.

to

engine.

follow,

frequently is the

If, as
then

should

foundation

concrete

before

laid in

more

good foundation,

good level bearing,

slide.

to

batter

put

mortar,

have

the

not

of brick

of brickbats

built up

be

may

stones

given

layers of

brick used

being taken

be

be

through

pass

part Portland

one

very

of limestone

cap

in cement

that

receive

to

way,

of

The

made

care

then

1 ft. in thickness

composed

line,may

ordinary

to

made

Foundations

mortar

foundation

burned
the

in.

parts clean sharp sand.

to two

should

layer being thoroughly tamped

put

laid in cement

enough

be laid in

should

concrete

in., each

small

stone

laid

parts sharp clean sand,

two

cement,

mixture

the

If of concrete,

stone.

or

of concrete, brick

made

be

may

may

varying, it would

to

different

forces, and
vary

applicable
the

computed,

same.

be

to

to

the

such

an

but

few

With

the

impossible

to

FOUNDATIONS

ENGINE

derive
with

universal

even

formula

that

reasonable

building foundation

found

this rock

the

building.

amply

heavy;

foundation
be

cases

that

of concrete.

not

of foundation

engine, in

no

bolts

the

engine

to

foundation

Foundation.

line

its

and

give the

weight will in
equal

is about

used

to

varies

with

four

and

being less than

case

eight. The

than

more

found

the

most

in the foundation, it is well

ft. of brick

cu.

the

1 cu.

ft.

(See table of weights.)

number

of the

1.25

cases

When

of

make

to

and

is used

in all

rock, it is often

on

frost

the

base

If brick

rest

Engine

below

broad

good

ample.

to remember

The

well

go

Standard

used

vibration

good practice

56.

be

accuracy.

both

carries the

It is

Fig.

could

degree of

engine and
that

149

approximate

the

size

usually

number

may

be

by the formula
P
N-

Where
nearest

The

size of the
1.5

to

advisable

in.

engine frame
to

1.75

or

the

of their
should

absorb

used

bolts

foundation,

together

of

the

engine always

use

the

of bolts.

to make

good chance

of the

horsepower

number

even

engines

is the

(31)

the

in. for

being twisted
to

that

from

than

shocks.

and

combined
For

0.75

off in

all intents
their

0.75

in.

for

large machines.

bolts smaller

be,
so

varies

this

small

It is not

in.,as there is

tightening. The
purposes,
inertia

reason

the

may

part
act

founda-

150

INTERNAL

tion

bolts

COMBUSTION

should

be

in

ample

ENGINES

of sufficient

size and

number

accomplish this result.

to

In

laying
firm

good

to

out

ground,

carefully;in
to

If it is found

should

bed, locate

that

template

the

foundation

in

such

point.

in the

will

the

when

assume

from

suspended

pipe slipped

the

be

may

in the

large enough

to

the

The

pipe is supported

and

its upper

engine.
anchor,
of

top
be

the

around

brick

receive

the

the

bed

done

be

mortar.

with

has

engine

plate is
Y

been

they

bolts, before

being

pipe should

the

be

is

now

either

which

This

is to

leveling
After

accurate.

filled with

cement

2-in. standard

the

the

may

surface

be

must

use

by

the top course,

pipes should
to

end

foundation

be

setting

just below

perfectly level.

good size of pipe

piece of iron

come

When

level and

set the

excavation

its lower

at

that

sure

place

of the bolt in

The

pipes.

concrete, is laid, be

or

should

these

good

position which

This

should

foundation.

finished

built up

end

foundation

the

have

slightmovement

concrete

engine, and

The

set.

template, should

allow

The

secured

over

them, Fig. 56, A.

over

30-in.

on

suspended, by their nuts,

template,

engine is

localities.

the

Having

position

bolts

through the holes

bolt

piles and

off

necessary

driven

level.

accurately the position of the

bolt

that

the

be

some

be

ground-water

from

in

piles may

necessary,

up

it may

except

be filled in between

started

level this bottom

ground is marshy

off at

cut

then

proper

be

Dig down

follows:

as

and

pan,

this is unusual

to

and

centers

proceed

hard

or

the

case

piling,but

use

the

foundation

gas

pipe.
Foundations
for

be
as

least

at

used

dry
It

sooner,

in

not

This

described.

prevent

built

unless

circumstances

to
a

make

case

secure

assumed

foundation

the

as

be

being

which

possible to

as

insulate

to

month,

should

is such

after

is done

good
that

with

only

when

it desirable

nuisance.

the

should

allowed

demand

to

set

them

should

concrete

be

to

made

mixture.
it is

common

shock

that

be

the

practice

absorbent,
location

every

as

of the

to

above

engine

precaution be used

152

INTERNAL

Let

DB

Dc

ENGINES

the diameter

of the shaft

the diameter

of the

"

Pm
For

COMBUSTION

the maximum

cylinderin

in.

cylinderpressure.

drop-forged steel shaft the

in in.

practice is

average

to

make

D,
For

malleable

values

These

keeping with

For

be

found

VPm
"

0.06

Dc

VK

to

produce

(32b)

practice when

1.5

(32a)

"

iron,

results

the

gives the

closely

stroke

is

equal

following formulas

the ratios of the

than

"

stroke

the

to

in
to

for

cylinder

1.

wrought iron,
D,

Da

VPJL.Dc2

0.056

(33a)

....

steel,

For

he

remarks,
the

larger than
this is
the

Roberts

where

is other

bore

As

W.

shafts

crank

Ds

average

E.

Dc.

1.5

wrought

or

will

De

0.05

(33b)

....

the

will be

formulas

will be

found

For

found

marine

automobile

engines

larger than

much

be

to

and

give results

to

stationary engines

for

practice,but

average

good fault.

values

VPJL.Dc2

0.052

average

practice requires.
length

The

determined,
formula

of

once

the
the

crank-shaft

bearing

diameter

is known,

which

Dc

T)2
Uc

much

by the
I

following

rP

use

2.5 Da.

(34)
K
'

Ds

length of the bearing.

cylinder diameter,

Ds

as

above.

Shaft

diameter,

Mean

effective pressure.

practice,however,

made

the

1018

In

from

readily

In

is

necessary

longer

as

determined.

the crank-shaft

than

of this formula.

the

value
A

which

good rule

bearings
would
to

follow

are

be

usually
obtained

is to make

THE

CRANK

The
the

SHAFT

crank-pin diameter

diameter

of the

be determined

is

crank

from

the

usually made

shaft, and

153

PARTS

RECIPROCATING

AND

its

1.1

from

length would

then

followingformula:
DC2P
lp

Dp
I

Z)p

the

of the crank

length of the crank

and

Dc

crank

The

diameter

should

arms

illustrates

57

given in

are

be found

to

sufficiently
large

be

forces

which

to

relative

The

57.

Fig.

arms

formula.

they

good design of crank

slow-speed engine.

pin.

pin.

in the above

as

suddenly applied

Fig.

(35)

"

"

508

In which

Crank

Oil

with

the ends
shafts

crank-pin brasses

of the

be

finished,as

crank

the

at

b.

the
as

crank

will

This

as

for

allows

^V

indicated

the

automobile

to

finish for

m-

at

In

a.

~fa in.

fillets for the

facing both

or

larger
A

like

brasses

surfaces

of

throws.

balance
crank

the

diameter, and

leave

to

shown, without

Single-throw cranks
with

of

Ring.

increased

this finish is sometimes

finish is allowed
to

is customary

It

stationary

closelyin keeping with stationary-

produce values

engines.

subjected.

for

of the crank-shaft

terms

withstand

to

are

dimensions

engine practice,although slightlyheavy


marine

1.3

to

high-speed engines

weights in order
and

arms

rotative.

for

It

that

to

neutralize

are

provided

the

weight of

part of the connecting rod regarded

is customary

weight of the connecting rod

to
to be

assume

centered

two-thirds
in the

of the

crank

pin

154

INTERNAL

and

hence

balance

the
for the
throw

and

in this

tight

weights will increase


will
a

cause

in the

groove

retains
the

end

no

rivet

screw

balance

weights

the

crank

may

be

force

When

their

introduces

increased

greater

place, as

in

Fig. 58,

engines
the

on

their

distance
of

amount

when

good job

rivet

the

and

cap

carry

the

side

in this latter
to

and

run

babbitted

are

shown,

Some

flywheel and
located

in

arms

weight firmly, and

manner.

smaller, owing

but

rotation,

the

on

pin.
much

same

crank

indicated

joint is machined

the

in the

weights
as

arm,

in

When

by babbitting

engine is

the

as

the

are

pin.

the

slightest play in these


the

crank

secures

screw

When
used

are

and

cap

either crank

on

weights and

The

When

location

securely fastened

be

rapidly

very

weight and

and

is secured.

fit.

of trouble.

babbitt

the

one

opposite to

the

ing
comput-

usual

perfect bearing secured

by machining both

perfect and

place them

to

they should

manner

pins, and

joint or

to

weights is

The

necessary.

the side of the shaft

on

place with

weight of the pin when

to the

weights

balance

located

the

added

be

to

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

opposite

position they

increased

radius

of

from

center

of

the

wear

the

on

engine

bearings.
In

balancing
is the

be

single-throw crank

weight, considered

balanced

the

by

two-thirds
rotative.
to

" Wr+Wp

the

connecting

weight

to

be

first

thing

in the
As

mine
deter-

to

crank

pin, to

previously
is

rod

balanced

tioned,
men-

considered

would

be

as

equal

x.

which

In

Wr

Wp

Then

the

centered

weight.

counter

of

the

Weight of connecting rod, brasses, and


Weight of crank pin
to the pin.
Weight of
centered

The
value
rather

values
of

x,

Wr

the

remainder

in the

and

crank

Wv

are

that part of the

of the crank

the

moment

equation.
of Wr

tric
concen-

arms

arms

considered

pin.
easily determined, but

accurately computed,

complicated

determine

and

bolts,etc.

would

Hence
and

WP

the

possibly require
it is
and

customary

then

to

to

balance

THE

CRANK

them

with

SHAFT

weight

10

per

Wp)

in

cent

155

PARTS

RECIPROCATING

AND

calculated

of the

excess

value.
Then

balance

moment

of

from

center

of the

center

(I being the distance

necessary

of

(Wr

1.1

weights

of shaft to center

pin).
Now

the

taking the

crank-shaft

balance

distance

center

to

and

rod

the crank

be

would

1.1

lu the

gravity from

of

weight

to

necessary

be

(Wr+Wp)l

(36)

h
Half

of this

gravity lt distant
balance.

To

and

"cut

the

from

Fig.

Lay

58.

weight with
shaft

would

value

of

the

determine

try."

in

shown

in each

amount

the crank

out

Then

cut

Machine

nearly produce

lt

and
a

centers

it is

customary

balance

weights,

of
a

to
as

template of cardboard

ffr/sjornf

babbit

or

out

their

en

aotteet

indicated

/mea

Fig.
the

58.

shape of the weight

exact

Crank.

Balanced

drawn;

as

gravity of this template by balancing it on


then

the

determine
shaft

when

the

in order
to

of
to

make

template

lu

make

them
should

of

pencil point and

distance

center

of

the

weight is in place. Using this value

in

half of this amount


value

center

the

of this

equation (36) gives the total


and

find the

determined,

as

the two
thicker
be

of balance

amount

is to be

the

point from

placed in

is found

to

each
be

so

necessary,

weight.
small

If

that,

weights equal to W, it is necessary


than
the crank
then
a
larger
arms,

laid out

and

larger value

for

lx deter-

156

INTERNAL

Crank

which

from

mined,

COMBUSTION

with

shafts

smaller

since the different rods


is it customary

and

balance

to

value

than

more

ENGINES

throw

one

each

the crank

of the

found.

balanced,

not

are

balance

arms

will be

for

other; neither

cheaper industrial

engines.
The

expensive engines

more

ground in order

then
The

and

shaft

insure

to

to

cut

should

they
the

carry

smooth

and

be

finished

made

are

the

to

"scraped in" and

lubricant.

Fig.

turned

and

bearing.

connecting-rod bushings

good bearing metal, turned


after which

their shafts

have

of

some

size,

proper

the oil grooves

59 illustrates such

bushing

^j_

"t

Fig.
with
are

oil grooves

the

in

cut

preferring
use

although the babbitt

metal,

of

the

best

very

as

to

crank-case

means

must

the

crank

be
case

engines

provided

bushing;

the

rod

revolution, enough
through

the

slot to

is

best

being phosphor-bronz

between

is

made

of

the

two,

with

bronze

of

the

crank

splash lubrication

when

This

of the

rod

pin

is often
cap

and

the

and

works

into

in

plished
accom-

through

passing through the oil during


up

in

is used,

oil contained

conducting the

picked

keep

while

metal,

Rings.

in the end

end

facturers
manu-

facilitate the lubrication.

to

for

some

rule,requires less lubricant.

pin bushing.

the

to

by millinga slot
the

the

good lubrication

secure

closed

bearings

poured in, in order

order

of

one

There

manner.

market;

little choice

Oil
In

the

on

"

is very

babbitt

customary

grade of babbitt

bearing bronze

There

One

the

good

Bronze.

Bearing

good bearing metals

many

others

59.

the

its

pin

bearing fairlywell lubricated.

THE

CRANK

better

outside

of the

RECIPROCATING

and

however,
is to

use,

crank

duct, shown

The

AND

method,

general

more

oil

SHAFT

arm

it out
the

into the rim

duct

the

to

aluminum,
it should

The

oil

securely screwed
made

be

the

the
a

crank

shaft

the

oil

no

general proposition it

through

acts

as

of

and

arm,

produce

perfect

oil cup

an

ring is required.

Rod.

imparted

energy

carries

rule, made

engine transmits

gas

to

certain

oil and

provided with

are

Connecting

connecting rod of

to

it is forced
as

An

ring to the pin.

the

which

the

A.

at

oil up

up

just heavy enough

The

the

ring is,

connecting-rod end, and

The

Fig. 57

into

on

the face of the crank

to

casting. Open-crank engines


on

picks

ring from

of the

pin.

in

in the

centrifugal force

the

coming

is

ring located

lines,leads from

ring is continually immersed

point and

oil

an

shown

as

in dotted

which

one

provide

157

PARTS

the

to

strut, the

directlyto
piston.

As
at

component

right angles to its axis being comparatively small but greatest


in long-stroke engines using a short
rod.
This
transverse
strain

is at

when

the

Connecting

rods

its maximum

working

stroke.

different

shapes, the

crank

is

made

are

popular design

most

in

right angles

at

end

from

the crank

this

design does

the

point

toward

not

the

to

the

produce

"wrist
rod

tapering
While

pin" bearing.

with

its stiffest section

point, due

strain,which

of greatest transverse

its greatest

pin and

crank

several

stationary

for

engines being of rectangular cross-section, with


dimension

in the

midway

at

to

the inertia of the rod, is

of its

length from

the

very

satisfactory

approximately 0.6
to
found
produce

piston end, it is

results.

Fig.

place. This
and

screw

60

rod

for

such

illustrates
is

of

taking

adjustable

feature

bearing, but

some

is

the

up

rod

"strap"

the

often

method

with

the

at

both

omitted

at

the

taking

up

the

provided for the crank-pin bushings. On


lightness of parts
engines, and engines where
be

the

adjustable feature

brass

placed

between

consists
the

rod

of metal
and

the

end

pattern, with

bearings
of

rod

wedge

ends.
"wrist

The

pin"
should

wear

the

cheaper

is

essential,

liners of
cap,

in

which

light-gage
latter is

158

INTERNAL

held

in

COMBUSTION

place by studs

bearing becomes
liners taken

and

the

as

"I"

and

web

section

rod

and
and

lock

automobile

is made

flanges being formed

of

in

and

rod

As

nuts.

is removed

cap

Fig. 61 illustrates

out.

engines of the marine

on

castellated

the

worn,

ENGINES

the

pair of

in

commonly

use

It is known

type.

drop-forged steel,the

the

dies.

The

cap

and

illustrated

the

~w

Figs.
liners

dimensions

general

given

are

the

in

shown

are

in

and

60

In

both

on

good

place.
based

"

of

terms

Connecting

61.

Rods.

rods

practice

average

crank-pin diameter.

the

following simple formula

Kent

gives

rectangular section

for

"

necting
con-

rods:
t

In

which

Thickness

Diameter

Maximum

Having
at

pin end
varies

centers
1

is

based

end

equal
on

consequence,

to

the

between
the

VP

0.6

(37)

cylinder as given above.


in

pressure

the

is made

1.5 t.

oi rod in in.
of

determined

the crank

wrist

0.01

value

equal

The

for
to

length

the

surplus metal

at

is found

and

the

depth of

the

connecting rod between

of
2

length of stroke.

depth of the rod

t, the

2.25

ratios

required section

cylinder.

and

The
the
at

above

surge

the

3:1,

in which
formula

is

point and, in
crank

end.

160

shown

are

fit

in

is

given the

should

fit in

to

loose.

bushing,

tightly

as

as

its

have

its size.

on

without

be

may

The

it should

in.,depending

to 0.003

piston

tight

as

working

its

the rod

as

made

be

piston drawing, but while

the

0.001

the

should

prevent

same

fit of from

running

ENGINES

screw

beside

is shown

pin

diameter

It

This

place.

possible in order

as

wrist

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

danger of cracking the shell.


The

outer

the

from

is very

diameter

of

toward

the

head

from

apparent

subjected

the

to

piston should

the

end.

crank

the

and

end
this

and

is liable to stick
should

taper

good

average

0.998

Dc

increase
is to

rule

crank

the

and

Piston

expands much

of metal,

amount

63.

end

rapidly than
the

cut

with

the

the

equal

piston should approximate


wrist pin located practicallyat its
The

pistons

best

rings,although
or

even

1.5

of the

are

rings should

ring

ring and

piston.

its dimensions

The

oil

an

the

The

also

terms

stroke

ones

the

with
are

crank

to

length

with

provides

of the

of the best

four

made
end

piston ring is shown

given in
be made

at

equal
The

Dc.

the

center.

cheaper

of the

some

diameter

usually provided

rings. The

two

capacity of
end

are

piston diameter.
0.999

to

the crank

cylinder. Obviously

head

the

of

"oceOc

Ring.

more

make

end, being

head

the

OC("

Fig.

for this

reason

containing the greatest

and

greatest heat

The

that

fact

taper slightly

eccentric
with

three
in the

serves

bearing for that


in

Fig.

63

and

cylinder diameter.

grade of gray

cast

iron

THE

CRANK

and

SHAFT

in

cast

generally

AND

so-called

made

inside

rings
in

turned

electric

an

they
have

the

the

to

used

with

rings ground,

The

rings
to the

machine

their
a

positions and

fixed

pin is placed

dowel

pin hole

the

fitted

their

to

enough

for

This

the

obtaining
been

as

same

the

discussed

in

the

chapter

on

just small

by

the

the

to

gases

in

with
then

are

with

cast

are

piston

lead

rings
them

in

or

as

shown

piston

type

The
B

cylinders.

suitable
of

top

of

means

four-cycle engines.

exhaust-port

rings in

binding.

Fig. 64, A,

of

the

correspond

The

without

accomplished

in

to

making

dimensions

general

The

maintain

groove

incoming

see

engines

best

joints properly staggered,

two-cycle engines

be

may

To

grooves,

by casting the

manner

remain

in

use

The

or

Head.

shown.

as

expand

top of the piston,

the

B.

and

deflecting the

for

cylinder.
on

respective

their

piston

in the

ring slot

contract

to

Pistons
means

in the

with

cylinder bore,

ring perfectly round

Piston

cylinder.

into the

compressed

the

be chucked

then

may

finish.

Two-Cycle

when

more

or

outside, and

the

on

exact

this insures

as

eight

out

eccentricity,after which

ground
the

turn

is

"piston pot"

required

proper

and

161

PARTS

pot."

to

size

slotted.

chuck

be

may

the

to

off and

cut

are

"piston

large enough

rings; it is finished
the

RECIPROCATING

web

Fig. 64,

and

rings

method
has

cast

factory
satis-

more

at

the

of

already

CHAPTER

XX.

GOVERNING

There
of

speed
the

methods

principal

four

are

DEVICES.

internal-combustion

an

(2) By

charge;

off the

cutting

the

keeping

exhaust

(4) By

strokes;

valve

closed

the

interrupting

hit

as

or

open

(1) By

throttling

one

or

miss;

or

during

more

(3)

one

By

more

or

if electrical

spark

the

governing

during

supply

known

for

viz.

engine,

cycles, commonly

complete

used

ignition

is used.

Greatest
obtained

the

by
in

driving

the

the

throttled

of gas

being
the

narrow,

total

volume.
in

air

has

Clerk,
A

volume
that
govern
The

limits

of

of

of
gas

governors

between
mixture

loses

and

acting
these
itself

Engine,"

for

the

limits
may

gas

of

explosive
throttling
able
allow-

mixtures
to

are

-jV of
of
no

unburned,

its

is

Fig. 65,

change

it and

away

the
coal

more;

there

combustion."

"

226.

page

inflammability
on

of

burn

less

containing

gas

See

\ of its volume

pass

as

charge

the

of

from

to

present
Oil

its

will

gas

oxygen

air

ranging

slight

the

explosive

gaseous

containing

of

and

limits

formed
per-

combination

for

reason

work
be

properties

the

oxygen

of

off.

cut

"The

mixture

Gas

then
The

present

gas

increase

mixture

and

show

just sufficient

"The

which

governor.

air will

insufficient

being

in

used

the

undoubtedly

must

uneconomical.

variation

is

economy

nature

machinery.

been

proportions

further

any

and

the

very

gas

has

it is

the

to

speed

electrical

electric-light

mixtures

in

the

poorest

but

charge,
owing

certain

to

up

Otto

method

of

methods

two

the

when,

engine,

but

operation

the

throttling

by

satisfactory

most

of

regularity

than

altogether.
supply

should

-fa

of

its

It follows
be

set

to

only.
be

throttled
162

without

altering

the

GOVERNING

ratio

of

mixture

greater

mixture.
the

at

This

Keeping
fuel and

the

less

before

cut

or

off for

valve

valve

one

economical

closed

miss"
or

wasteful

course

in use,

the

as

greater

of

range

Light

or

five per

cent

as

is

entirely

the

course

most

Governor.

charge is
force

or

varied

never

at

none

all.

governing admits

miss"

to

governor

up.

supply

speed variation, although it

properly adjusted
or

the fuel

explosion of full

an

ing
Keep-

of unburned

again be taken

Electric

Otto

of

completely exhausted

complete cycles is of

The

65.

can

four

of

mixture

be

must

apparent, however, that "hit

within

is of

type in which

more

method

is either

quality of

same

force

produces

is

with

the

open

cylinder which

Fig.

there

cycle of operations

"hit

inferior

an

economical, as is also stopping the spark.

in the

the

The

maintains

the

of

of

explosion and
uniformly explosivecharge.

reduces

exhaust

the exhaust

products

less amount

or

method

time

same

producing instead

air, thus

to

gas

163

DEVICES

against two

is

obtain
per

and
It
of

possible

regulation

cent

with

the

throttlinggovernor.
The
devices

mechanisms
are

of two

used

to

control

the

general designs, viz

different

(1) The

governing
centrifugal

164

which

governor,

of

modification

of

one

these

inclined

with

of these

tendency

connected,

are

fastened
which

bell crank

in

and

arrows

resisted by

will be

until

below

the

so

s, the

the

the

of which

the

and

device

returns

is of

is

shaft

by

to

is

the
is

adjusted by

limit

collar d

push rod /

Valve

movement

be

may

h throws

This

This

certain

shown.

As
indicated

as

tension

stem.

Collar

d.

move.

collar d.

as

and

carrying the swivel /

lift the

speed decreases

valve

and

free to

speed reaches

stem

the
their

as

fly balls

two

separate

until bell crank

valve

closed

collar d,

and

the

collars

to

plane

same

dulum
pen-

of

B, illustrate the principle

fastened, is

doing

spring

raised
the

from

h is

When

collar i.

while

e,

balls

the

revolved

shown,

as

shaft

to

and
At

less

or

being taken

in the

revolve

centrifugalgovernor.

more

revolving

essentially a

Figs. 66, A

points of support.
of the

to

arms

governing device.

advantage

arms,

governor

governing.

methods,

two

is

inertia

miss"

or

every

centrifugal governor

tioned
of the above-men-

one

(2) The

"hit

to

involved, is the principleof


The

for any

governing;

of

applicable only

is

which

be used

may

methods

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

then

away

remains
its

to

the "hit

place
miss"

or

variety.
To

speed
known

determine
their

"

"

the

weight and
have,

we

lift of the

for

governor

the resistance

of the

simple pendulum,

weight

for

given

any

spring

being

the ratio

_w_ _qr

__

centrifugal force

balls

wv2

v2

9r

or

Substituting

for

8?

its value

9.788-

2 nrn,

"

"

35.237
or

"

-JfT

in.

"

/00.

(88)

GOVERNING

165

DEVICES

I?

166

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

In which
h

distance

from

plane of

line of balls

center

the

to

plane of their points of suspension.


r

radius

32.2.

velocity of

center

number

of

rev.

per

number

of

rev.

per

N
The
does

of circle described

with

revolve

the

at

the

is loaded

For

the

loaded

force, due
value

the

weight

balls

Let

length

of

center

lx

point of suspension
v)

load

weight
in

balls to

of

its

the

h=W[1
the

ratio

being

of half the
and

"

point of suspension

half

point of suspension of

let the

the

to

length of the

arm

the

to

value

from

of the

its

ball;

spring

plane of revolution

from

of

y; then

2$j)]

spring

sidered
con-

gravity of the balls.

point of attachment

height

but

combined

the

to

length of the

ws=

ugal
centrif-

of the

spring load

the

ball, and

the

ball;

pounds; h=

the

the

be

to

one

from

the

balls, unchanged,

of

of

defect

weight.

or

equal

center
y

the

value

the

arm

of

this

value

the

becomes

now

gravity of

link

suspending

of

spring

have

we

the

isochronous; that is,it

remedy

To

of

and

nrn.

speed, since the speed changes

weight

directlybelow
the

is not

means

the

to

min.

arms.

governor

of the

of

weight

by

sec.

sec.

uniform

angle of

governor

the

of balls in ft. per

simple fly-ballgovernor
not

by balls in ft.

"

load

the

to

"

weight of

"

"

ball

one

the relation of its suspension point to the center

of

gravity

are

equal

of the

in

ball

being

as

length, this relation will

being determined, the bell crank


the

Since
it mustthe

governor

be

engine.

the governor

run

If

is

or

the valves

to

governor

is

designed and

not

hold

other

set

for

this

the

engine speed is increased


be

true.

necting
con-

out.

certain

speed

speed regardless of that

geared down

or

up

as

or

the

lift

The

mechanism

easilylaid

at

must

normal

the links y and

Unless

-j.

of

diminished,
case

may

be.

168

INTERNAL

effective

Fig.

i, and

space

tling
throt-

mixture.

principleof
The

68.

pivoted
to

ENGINES

port openings into the annular

the
The

COMBUSTION

the

turn

weight

the

to

by

inertia

crank

in

spring d,

rapidly the inertia of the


resistance

and

the
the

separated when

direction

Governor

but

bell crank

to

tendency

the

Centrifugal

67.

the

The

c.

is illustrated

governor

is connected

push rod

bell

Fig.
resisted

the

and

the

as

of

of

the
the

is

arrow

Throttle.

push

of

and

weight

is

rod

moved
this

weight partially overcomes

engaging parts
speed reaches

in

valve

the

limit.

certain

strength of the spring required is determined

gear

by

means

are

The
of

following formula:

the

WV,
9

(41)

h
In

which
W

Capacity of the spring in lb.

Wa

Weight of

ll
V

the

In

the

of

arm

about

Velocity attained
32.2

above

pendulum
moment

Lever

in lb.

is

ft. per

weight

by push rod

the

neglected.

weight

To

be

the weight should

onto

b in ft. per

sec.

sec.

formula

of it and

c.

the

rod,

as

of the
accurate

rod

carrying the
the

be used, but

shown,

resultant
ing
by thread-

adjustment

may

be

GOVERNING

secured

used,

are

as

rule,

is

operation

the

above-mentioned
the

to

is

current

is

the

the

In

order

to

mechanism
variations

the

possible
the

in
The
is

the

constantly

oil

soon

stick.

found

be

result

the
e.m.f.

to

time.

and

If

reason

ism
mechan-

the

and

causes

splash

the

dirty

the

parts
t"8.

electrical
is
a

and

is

it

location,

to

governing

it

this

this

engine

in

mechanism,
purpose

shaft,

The

to

to

is unfortunate.

subjected

gums

deemed

separate
the

the

governor

as

the

in

crank

the

For

case

when

of

one

some

or

sensitive

placing

crank

device,

from

to

of

practice

the

without

speed

it.

make

to

off

governing

as

of

switching

type.

be

must

one

runs

well

operate

cost.

the

speed

miss"

or

the

adapting

of

regularity

the

for

engine

governors

devices

Electrical

"hit

of

by

When

off, and

impulse.

an

by

certain

cut

cycles

more

accomplished

governing

attains

engine

to

system

requirements.

where

engines

consideration
is

ignition

Inertia

required.

as

industrial

on

governing

for

out

or

secondary

Electrical
current

it in

moving

by

169

DEVICES

governor

will

be

then

poorly,

and
is

installations
advisable
chamber

Inertia

Governor.

to

and

in

fluctuation

inclose

should

inspected

be

the
used

cleaned

the

governing
for
from

this
time

CHAPTER

XXI.

IGNITION.

There
the

three

are

ignition of the

(1)

By

mechanically

in

either
of

means

heat

by

of

the

effect

(2)

By

cylinder

surface;

(3)

ignite the

to

By
is

charge

alone

compression

of

means

compression

of

securing

for

gas-engine

heated

or

sufficient

means

combined

the

in

spark;

flame

which

employed

charge

electrical

an

operated

auto-ignition,

methods

compressed

of

means

produced

general

by

or

and

residual

heat.

ignition devices

Electrical

be

these

may

spark

system;

subdivided

(2) The

Jump-spark
causing

metallic

two

of

space

the

operated

and

jump

generally
latter

the

known

as

having

name

is
a

charge
which

ignited

the

engine

confusing
to

very

its

so

is

origin from
that

the
to

running.

inasmuch

as

by

This

spark

the

fact

that
be

at

closed

spark

device

advancer,
that

point

the

to

the

by

at

is
the

mutator
com-

means

which

the

speed
be

may

regulation
or

being

cause

operator,

statement

speed

advancing
170

will

to

be

must

shaft

or

the

proper

contact

circuit

correspond

the

the

at

cam

value

engine

change

it may

compression

make-and-break

commutator

that

large extent,

or

in

between

contact

cycle the

This

gap.

the

spark

crank

in

igniting the

circuit, this

sufficient

lever, is able

is

the

operating

arranged

so

suitable

of

generated

across

the

electrical

the

produced

make-and-break

the

means

every

e.m.f.

an

to

of

by

point in

some

in

somewhere

placed
so

cylinder

thus

produce

jump-

consists

spark

to

in

placed

spark

To

implies,

high potential

of

The

(1)

and

system.

name

conveniently

charge.

in

the

as

cylinder, the

the

classes:

two

make-and-break

current

points

compressed
instant

into

ignition,

induced

an

extensively used,

most

are

at

what
some-

is obtained,

retarding

the

time

171

IGNITION

of

ignition. Nevertheless

correspond
at

starting the

beyond
the

speed

which

at

dead

and

center

explosions

to

the

attains

engine will either

sufficient

ignition up
their maximum
The

speed

dead

to

to

at

point slightly

stroke.

and

As

soon

into the

into the

center

stop

pound

or

before

compression

the

If the

compression

badly

itself from

as

spark is

gather speed.

to

must

running.

regularly the

carry

center

the

burning

until

it

point of
reach

gases

pressure.

make-and-break

in the

This

to close and

space

be

may

ignition consists

points or

two

means,

compression

electrical circuit.

of electrical

system

causing, by mechanical

located

set

center

dead

over

cycle

smooth

secure

occur

past dead

the

engine is operating,

in the expansion

commence

spark is rapidly thrown


stroke

to

giving the engine time

stroke, thus

in

the

engine the spark is

gradually advanced

in

point

particularinstant, in order

any

In

the

to

the

electrodes

then

the

open

accomplished by causing the

points to

rub

together and

known

the

"wipe spark,"or by forcing the points together

and

as

causing them
called

contact

the

to

then

separate by

"hammer

inertia of the electric circuit

or

of

means

break."

intenselyhot spark

an

separate, producing what

When
is

arc

is

times
spring, some-

the

points break

produced, due

the

to

producing, momentarily,

very

high potential.
spark and

of

enough
contact.

much

ignite the

to

On
wear,

the

for the

hand,

other

manufacturers
on

the

are

these

substitutes.

points

the

the

wipe

being

jump
most

almost

other

If

subject

are

spark, and
platinum

alloy is

alloys,which

well.

as

"Casalloy"

"

or

meteor-

by their

been

wire"

the

Within

it is claimed

satisfaction,have

to

quently
conse-

usually quite expensive, and


is troublesome

give better

market.

ignition,it

quite rapidly.

points they

years

the

good condition, a spark hot


at
charge will be produced
every

necessity of replacingthem
the past few

than

in

especiallywith

deteriorate

hotter

speed engines is the

electrical

that, if the points are

certain

is much

reasonably slow

on

satisfactory form

used

spark

make-and-break

The

is

placed
one

of

172

INTERNAL

points of

The

and

care

be

renewal

in

too

high the

very

short

resistance,as
terminals

In order

cells may

With

be carried

should

the

potentialat

of

cells of

with

the

high internal

sufficiently
large number
emergencies and

for all

or

battery of low internal

less than

that

long

plugs will require adjustment

time.

be much

to last

hand,

other

storage cell,the difference

should

resistance.

the

on

proper

low, unsatisfactory

is too

pressure

ignition will result, while,


pressure

with

ignition may,

strength, be made

of proper

electric

the

ENGINES

make-and-break

current

If

time.

COMBUSTION

of

ary
prim-

allow

to

for

nil

-cna

69.

Fig.

The

Non-inductive

depletion,the destructive
by placing

into

introduction

inductive
a

in

potential without

fall in

end

closed

the

on

substance, and
indicated
wire

is thus
in

action
used

The

neutralized

by

other.

the

suitable

If the condenser

all

meet

or

attention

box

resistance

method

requirements
will

be

is used
is

wire

about

an

exactly

with

that

able
non-magnetizthe

bobbin

action

similar

and

in

must

further

be

as
one

equal

if this method

condenser
no

coil.

wire, placing

varying resistances

conditions
and

causes

sparking

electromagnetic

provided,

necessary.

other

or

apparent

itself to varying

accommodate

to

is

It

the

non-

unbalanced

any

by doubling
the

winding

circuit in series

affect

of wood

bobbin

69.

A, Fig.

at

would

by

or

resistance.

methods.

two

the

coil is made

resistance

points

the

producing

which

electromagnetic action
Such

into

thrown

be reduced

non-inductive

clearly these

resistance

Condenser.

the

points may

parallel with

circuit of

the

illustrates

69

Fig.

at the

action

condenser

and

Resistance

is
to

provided.

large enough
adjustment

178

IGNITION

The

ordinary

tin foil
with

the

alternate

for

current

in B,

shown

as

commercial

the

condenser

Fig. 69, insulated

sheets

connected

potential secondary

in

For

the

current

small

from

by

of

current

momentarily

primary

coil.

ignition system

primary-secondary jump-spark

secondary

The

inducing high

dynamo

induction

an

of

means

of

another

one

terminals.

to

ignition is obtained

cells,storage batteries, or

of sheets

consists

extremely high potential

Ground'

70.

Fig.
is

induction

of this coil

construction

Tl and

T2

platinum

point

being grounded by
circuit with
the

vibrator

circuit

at

arrests

the

applied to

p;

when

the

of

soft
F

the

contact
one

points

iron

opens

minimizes

screw

terminal

in contact;

are

and

condenser, which
and

closingthe primary

commutator

the

current

coil of which

of

shaft

which

the

shows

single cylinder.

commutator,

own

so-called

the

Fig. 70

battery; C the

the

of its

Single Cylinder.

of

means

vibrator.

or

as

means

point p;
primary

by

battery terminals

the

are

ground terminal;

is the
with

coil

for

Connections

required; this is obtained

Ruhmkorff

and

Coil

Ruhmkorff

The

the

closes

the

momentarily
break

spark

174

at

INTERNAL

(the condenser

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

is not

and

essential

made

and

coil of

heavy wire carrying battery current;

coil of

heavily insulated

terminal

of which

terminal

being connected

end

of

the

annealed

Fig.
for

71

shows,

By
is made

71.

of

four

of

to

one

opposite

of very

core

soft

Bt.

By

and

all

the

in

using

turn,

the

to

is wired

the
the

single coil

ground

same

to

primary

units

for

which
two

the

tion.
connec-

current

1, 2, 3, and

4,

which

it is connected.
of

sets

batteries,
either set

primary circuit,so

insufficient

an

the

three-point switch

into

produce

Cylinders.

high-potential current

cylinder

thrown

ignition. The

with

commutator

of the

means

is found

wiring connections

for Four

coils identical

shown

as

be

that

spark the other

if
set

be used.
coil is

very

makes

are

of coils

reasonable
case,

to

important

jump-spark

operation of

in any

secondary

the

to

jump-spark

unit

charge in the

of coils may

very

iron

the

alternatelythrough

pass

system

The

Connections

Wiring

means

to

fires the

may

through the ground

diagrammatically, the

producing in each,

one

primary

secondary coil is connected, the other

the

previously described

and

the

are

wire.

coil consists

the

spark plug,

/ the

wire;

secondary coil,and

Fig.

The

fine

four-cylinder engine with

it); G

operate successfully without

coils

many

marketed,

in cost, but

purchase

element

in

the

ignition system.
many

of which

it is doubtful
coil and

are

successful
Numerous

apparently

if it is advisable,

consider

its low

cost

as

176

INTERNAL

push rod

B.

collar

washer

when

spring
the

this

On

adjustment

points

up

is broken.

the

motion

in

contact.

are

p,

against the

impinges

circuit

stop and

the

located

is

push rod
which

takes

and

the

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

flat compensating

The

push rod

of the

fiber

after

spring F, acting

Coil

,6V
Fig.

G,

lever

on

apart

plug H,

point of

those

sparking device
in

In

brass.
and

brass

the

the

plug

marked

are

exceedingly simple, the

grounded

on

the

battery connected
that
to

the

time

cap

in series.

of

the

the

as
are

The

plug

free
and
H
be

as

the

entire

plate

being

of

the

coil is

free terminal

shown.

or

on

The

battery

terminal

varied

trip early or late,thus advancing

equally

wiring connections

and

the

structed
con-

the parts marked

insulation.

coil J

The

be

must

pu

shown

The

screws.

ignition may

push rod.

cylinder head

engine frame
to

leaves

insulating material

other

held

up

sparking points sharply

battery terminal

and

connected

is set into the

place with

Igniter.

the

cam

porcelain, or

good, and
are

throws

carries the

which

of
as

Hammer-Break

shown,

as

the

as

72.

of the

It is apparent

by causing

retarding the

cam

spark.

177

IGNITION

This
as

may

be

accomplished by making

shown

at

L, Fig. 72.

direction

of X

the

tripping sooner

spark

toward

spark would

Fig. 73

hammer-break
that

in

be

advanced, the

in the

push rod

be

tarded.
re-

water-cooled

the

on

shaft

cam

shaft

igniter, similar

use

the

of the

Y, in which

position the

shows

edge

by moving

may

if the

than

shifted

were

Then

the

to

Rathbun

gas

engines.
Fig. 74
of

shows

type

common

wipe-spark ignition mechanism.

The

point

mounted

oscillating device
breaks

point

This

p.

is

push rod

of

be

spring

trippingpoint
be

alloy, and

of the

means

turn
re-

by

Timing

B.

Fig.

may

73.

Water-Cooled

Igniter.

by changing the

of the

located

electrode

The

spring

shown, the

as

described.

as

cam

nearly

as

possiblein

as

gases

the

being obtained

accomplished

should

and

ment
oscillatingmove-

movement
means

makes

produced by

and

cam

with

contact

the

on

order

to

in

The

path

the
the

secure

the

made

not

this form

reason

of

incoming

greatest cooling effect.

points in this igniterare

for that

ignitionpoints

is

of

platinum

inexpensive and,

if

properly designed, efficient.


Ignition mechanisms
to

and

its

insulated

consisting of

Pennington

is

terminal
a

coiled

shown.

spring
As

the

stroke

stirrup-shaped end
shown,

surface

as

out,

indicated

igniter is

in

being tapped

as

the

piston head

Fig.

one

strikes

by the

B.
arrow,

carried

piston
of A,
If

into

the
the

on

nears

which

are

used

of

these

The

75.

tapped into the piston head,

plunger C,

as

to the

principle is illustrated

breaking device
the

The

extent.

some

attached

circuit-

shown,

as

cylinder and
end

forked
the
has

plunger C has

end

of its

inclined

an

been

only the point of

of

pulled
will be

178

INTERNAL

engaged by

required

be

Under

be

being

to

long

merely pulled

in

stirrup and
the

with

it is

another

as

the

the

it snaps

as

which

With

is
the

Igniter.
that

this mechanism

finger B

slipsoff A

apparent
as

break

contact

piston recedes.

the

Wipe-Spark

74.

sparks, one

commutator
the

out

the

on

should

will
into the

stroke

return

occurs

forms

and

mounted

description of

of

mechanism

on

the

cam

shaft

or

since

complete cycle,the spark

must

be

in connection
in

operated by

variety

typical form

one

four-cycleengines

For

gearing, it being apparent that,


in each

used

as

ignition system, is made

be sufficient for all purposes.

it is either
1

spark advancer,

or

jump-spark

different

of

If,

advanced.

explosion stroke, the spring

the

from

away

spark.

piston.

The

produce

slippast the inclined position of

ignition advanced
two

and

pushed farther in,

is

Fig.

produce

ignition will be

the

occur

to

slipoff of

piston will

of the

slightmovement

it to

cause

plunger C

made

too

only

conditions

these

however,
can

and

to

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

geared
but

as

one

well

half-time

as

to

it with

explosion
the
shaft.

valve
In

179

10N1TI0N

two-cycle engines the


the

crank

shaft

is either

commutator

mounted

geared directlyto it without

or

on

tion
reduc-

any

in time.
A

other

essentiallyof

piece of fiber, or

tough insulatingmaterial, carrying

another

the

consists

commutator

terminal,

ground, which

cycle

connected

insulated

to

in every

once

in contact

comes

terminal, and

one

with

terminal, thus

the

,J

tarily
momen-

closingthe electrical circuit.

ri^fce;-)

VSTf*

33
?-

m
Fig.

75.

The
Pennington
Igniter.

Fig. 76 shows

cylinder engine.
as

shown

shaft C
cam

on

by

shaft

engages

E.

As

the

shoe

primary coil,and
electromotive

drawing,

for

commutator

is

fiber

may

Shaft

C,

ring

mounted

be rotated
which

two-

may

about
be the

auxiliarytiming shaft,carries the ground

an

mechanism
E

the

of

of the lever D.

means
or

form

flanged sleeve B, which

for Two-

Cylinder Engine.

common

In

Commutator

Fig. 76.

the

force

producing

to

the

F,

shaft
the

current

be

spark.

circuit is closed
from

the
in the

the

tact
con-

through the

battery

causes

an

ing,
secondary windapparent that by shiftingthe

generated
It is

revolves, and

tact
con-

180

sleeve

retarded

meets

the

shoe

may

be

increasing

the

be

may

F.

bearing

of

77.

in

the

Means

provided by

about

the

Fig.

78

shaft

lever

represents

the

may

C,

cam

form

be

means

Fig.

is secured
of the
79

commutator.

which

mounted

tor
commuta-

the

on

end

of

point being

contact

Two-Cycle

of

Engine.

retarding the

or

the

rod

used

of
to

The

fiber may

be

spark
moved

of

advantage

single-cylinder

on

the

and
the

on

carried

by moving

commutator,

make

mounted

is

spring S which

Timing

cylinders by

of

inexpensive

for

advancing

A, by

four-cycle construction.
of the

one

Fig. 77 represents this form

Commutator

for

the

to

C.

which

means

simple and

flywheel,the ground

Shaft

contact

accordingly.

contacts

wheel.

Crank

commutator.

similar

number

any

ground

the

commutator

advanced

be

ignition may

flat fiber disk

the

next

spring pin

Fig.

of

the

for

number

ENGINES

point where

made

made

the

two-cycle engines

For

is

shaft

by varying

described

the

the

around

or

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

in

break

struction,
con-

is secured

shaft, acting

cam

the

cheap

fiber F

fiber around

the

as

by
on

shown.
shaft

by

R.

illustrates

more

complicated

and

expensive

181

IGNITION

Commutators

are

secondary while
possible
While

to

single coil

method

reduces

vibrators

necessary,

is not

good

as

much

in which

the

to

it

making

spark multiple cylinders.

to

the

unit

of

number

coils and

system
the

is low

mutator
com-

tension

easilyinsulated.

more

Spark plugs for

with

use

spark ignition systems


porcelain

distribute

which

using the

one

current

and

the

as

multiple units

market

timing the primary current, thus

use

this

the

on

consist

lava

or

jumpof

insulated

point projectinginto the explosion


chamber
with

and

another

the

similar
the

to

proximity

in close

point

ground

are

"mr""

for sale.
far

By

point in

the

important

most

spark plug is

that

sure

through
forms

cylinder. Many

offered

nected
con-

there

is

otherwise

make

to

tion,
perfect insula-

under

the

Fig.

high

for

78.

Cam

Shaft

Pour-Cycle

Timer

Engine.

compression the spark will jump


at

across

less than

at the

with

plug withdrawn

cause

the

of serious

Fig.

80

spark plug of

the insulated

the

across

three

pieces,

brass

parts bear

as

is

be apparent

not

cylinder,it is often the

C.

gap

with

shown,
upon

necessarilyhave

the

point
The

which

A
illustration,

between

which

suitable

the

packing, where
breaking.

joints gas tight in order

leakage of the compression, and

the several

The
to

is

an

is the

porcelain insulation

it, to prevent
its

make

French

In

expensive plug.

grounded and

must

the

from

resistance

the

this may

While

gap.

where

ignition trouble.

shows

efficient but

jumps

spark

circuit

in the

point

some

spark
is in
the

plug

prevent

joints make

this

style of plug particularlyefficient in this respect.


Cheaper
The

author

plugs
has

are

had

made
the

that

give excellent

best

results

with

satisfaction.
the

so-called

182

INTERNAL

Fig.

Commutator

79.

COMBUSTION

with

ENGINES

Hammer

Break

Contacts.

J?
Fig.

80.

The

Pognon

Plug.

Spark

Fig.

81.

Ordinary

Spark

Plug

Construction.

of

184

Of
in

dynamo

the

Company,
device,

and

water

friction clutch
which

dynamo

to

4 to

batteries

surplus

5 volts

Fig. 86 shows

jump-spark
identical

used

the

except

to

up

for

that

For
there

to be

S,

means

of

see

Fig. 89,

it is

the

rev.

for

being

jump-spark

constant

e.m.f. of

min.

Storage

per

these

to

dynamos

sparking stored
for

up

and

for

the

starting.

single cylinder with

multiple cylinder the system


are

spark plugs

extra

made.

battery, Fig. 88, always furnishes


by

1200

wiring diagram

ignition.

connections

and

either

made

the

enable

to

as

to

Apple Igniter.

1000

connected

not

energy

The

85.

at from

be

may

of

shoes

the

field magnets

the

ignition,and generate

Fig.

from

in

centrifugal

Fig. 85,

placed

so

are

ignitersare

These

make-and-break

its

as

entirely enclosed

are

in

compact

well

as

provided with

direction,

either

in

run

permanent.
or

brushes

The

steadily.

run

and

neat

facturing
Manu-

engine speed increases, thus causing it

the

as

parts

shown

as

Electrical

which,

of

cost

It is

case.

governor,

release

It is

The

it.

proof

dust

Ohio.

first

efficiency,recommends
a

Dayton

commonly

most

one

the

by

Dayton,

reasonable

the

the

ignitersprobably

Apple made

is the

use

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

See
the

Fig.

current

four-point automatic

possible to read

on

the

87.

and

The

to the

is

mutator
com-

storage

primary,

cut-out

volt-ammeter

switch
the

185

IGNITION

voltage of the
of current
the

storage battery
coil

each

current

shows

90

break

ignition in

which

double

coil is not

shows

the

the

used.

"",
'""

Fig.

Apple igniter in
is illustrated

92

of

the

Bosch

stationary

armature

provided with
to

coil

to the

The

and

current

of
is

which

end

and

the

The

87.

of the

and

-WW-

produced

soft-iron

Fig. 86.
Wiring Diagram for
Jump Spark with Apple Igniter.

integralwith the hollow


D

A.

armature

and

Wiring

Diagram

also to

primary
one

shaft C and

Shaft

also

which
carries

high-tension distributor

the

primary winding
of the

joy*

an

is

secondary b forms

oppositeend

breaker

sponds
corre-

the

disk

Fig.
One

of

partially surrounds
notched

is

ing.
secondary wind-

by the rotation

the

primary winding

induction

sleeve

type.

corresponds

r~\

windings

two

b, of which
the

Commutator

"H

dynamo

and

""

section.

Fig.

and

the

make-and-

The

amount

sumes.
con-

wiring diagram for

In

instant, the

any

being put into the battery by the dynamo,


Fig.

91

at

for

Four

is

Cylinders.

grounded

continuation
a

is led to

terminal

of

E.

of
one

the

on

the

the

shaft,

primary.

side of contact

condenser, the

186

other

the

opposite

come

poles

of the

windings momentarily
is

interval

Fig.
the

as

sleeve

B.

under

the

snap

open,

primary

sparks;

90.

the

itself, there

on

of

magnetism
When

circuit

a.

winding

by

of

being connected

the
to

its

the

arm

of

the

the

b,

the

condenser
the

the

Cut-Out.

lines,a powerful

the

disk

Make-and-Break

notches

of

the

generates

H.

primary

The
as

through

the

breaker

spring,

and

being

current

by

on

high

rotating
B

the

secondary
and

comes

points

break

e.m.f.

further

described

thus

Ignition.

shown

contact

the

during

winding

is varied

breaker

contact

high-tension current

action

This

armature

Four-Point

low-tension

core

of

to

of

for

one

movable

owing

is

Connections

Wiring

of

action

between

secondary
means

the

by

89.

magnetic

contacts

together

being closed

it

The

generated.

held

are

the

cutting

the

G,

slots

the

when

field magnet

Fig.

breaker

of contact

arm

slotted, and

is

Storage Battery.

Fig. 88.

e.m.f.

moving

the

Sleeve

grounded.

are

and

of which

terminal

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

in

the
the

increased

winding
connected

187

IGNITION

through it and the ground


sparks
of

both

the

E which

91

and

opens

Motsinger

at

runs

governed
A

cut

Company

from
to

700

at

to

maintain

of the

by

closes the

Remy

Bosch

92.

1200
a

coils

rev.

of

means

utilized.

being

the

tor
commuta-

secondary coil.
is shown

Type

per

of

in

Fig.

93.

It

Dynamo.

min.

and

is

automatically

speed.

uniform

Magneto,

Anderson,

shown,

as

through Apple Igniter.

Auto-sparker

Fig.

spark plugs

cylinders,the tension

more

secondary

Section

or

accomplished

is

Distribution

and

primary

Fig.

The

in the four

produced

are

to the several

made

Ind., is

shown

by the Remy
in

Fig.

Electric
94.

This

188

INTERNAL

igniter

is

for each

so

designed

revolution

93.

Fig.
in

step

with

from

25

with

this magneto

to

30

rev.

as

to

produce

of its armature,

Fig.

be

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

the
per

The

94.

The

and

electrical

impulses

consequently

must

Jlotsinger Sparker.

Remy

engine.
min.

two

and

by cranking

It

Magneto.
will

it is easy
it in the

deliver
to

start

ordinary

spark
an

way.

at

engine

189

IGNITION

Flame

ignitersare

hot-tube

or

still used

and
engines for general purposes,
results.
Notwithstanding this they are
on

replaced

ignition systems.
the
the

flame

in

burner

gas

extent

give good

uniform

being

very

rapidly

The

hot-tube

igniters is
type

some

electrical

by

simplest of

to

directwhich

outside

the

cylinder is brought into


with

contact

by

of

means

uncovered,
instant

charge

the

port being

at the

in the

proper

stroke, by

the

piston

movement

by

valve

gear

crank

shaft.
form

or

the

on

cated
compli-

of the

flame

igniter is found

on

Otto

engine.

slide-valve

Barnett's

the

ignition cock,

Fig. 95, illustrates

the

general principle of the


flame

igniter.

In

the

is the

illustration,a

ignitionport

ing
open-

the

explosion

chamber

from

b, the port

opening

in

to

pet cock

which

turned

that

so

opposite

to

port which

is

will be

d,

port
and

e, a

be

may

is open

atmosphere
of which

hollow

c,

to

the

in front

flame,

gas

kept burning; / is

lever connected
to the

crank

by

95.

Barnett's

Ignition Cook.

of

means

shaft

Fig.

and

some

suitable

by which

half-time

port b

may

be

ism
mechanmade

to

190

INTERNAL

alternatelyopen

to

ports

in the hollow
In

pet cock

b and

ports
that

bare

Now

c.

correspond

flame

will be

Fig.

and

that

the

exposed

96.

Hot

quite rapidly,otherwise

turn

lack

owing

to

When

the

and

the flame

explosion occurs

is turned

is

on

until

over

figureit

apparent

of the

cylin-

Igniter.

the flame
a

turned

g is then

the contents

to

Tube

ports

tained
con-

The

pet cock

g will be
b

are

must

extinguished

both

g will be

closed

to b.

extinguished,

turning the pet cock back until ports b and d correspond


time
of ignition
it is again ignited by flame e.
The

on

may

of air when

in the

will ignite.

charge

jet

gas

until ports b and

over

engine

shown

as

shown.

as

if the

is

jet e is lighted. Jet

gas

lights from

and

but

d, and

and

starting,the engine is turned

correspond and

der

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

varied

be

by suitable

arrangement

of

the

half-time

device.
The

hot-tube

similar

to

In the

alloy

or

those

ignition is well illustrated by Fig.


in

use

on

the

Robey

the

chimney

and

is

engines.

figure,a is the ignitertube, which


porcelain; b,

96

with

should

be of nickel

lining of asbestos;

192

INTERNAL

pression,is found, in
makes

of

sq.

in.

more

the

above

form, in several

less modified

or

engines. Chief

In this motor

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

compression is carried

atmosphere,

and

well

nearly

it is forced

as

ignition of this engine

The

in

elsewhere

the

is sufficient to

soon

its fuel valve

as

in

reaches

chamber

ignitethe charge, as
into it.

lb. per

temperature

deg. fahr., which

1000

motor.

500

to about

the

combustion

Diesel

is the

these

among

fullydescribed

are

this

as

work,

under

their

respective heads.
modified

form

ignition,and
is not

and

the

engines,

the

principleof

both, ignition
the

the

walls
but
Fig.

97.

these

of which

surrounded

are

Porcelain

Tube.

The

e.

with

explosions, in this small

the

of

by

vaporize

oil spray

end

b,

oil and

the

opens

of which

oil.

the

stroke

air.

pure

being forced
the

same

air port
the

into

On

exhaust

products

of

the

a,

casing

outer

from

previous

is sufficient to

chamber

on

at

the
a,

the

the

are

in this chamber

mechanism,

operating the

the suction

stroke,

contains

while

the

compression

forced

out

the

vaporized

stroke, the

instant
valve

at

cylinder contains

temperature,

proper

stroke, the exhaust


combustion

heat

igniterchamber

chamber

rises until
On

The

products of combustion,

almost

compression

an

heat

directlyinto the igniter,thus utilizingthe


to

by forcing

compression, together

residual

insulated

In

A, the four-cycletype, the oil is sprayed

In

ignite the charge.

heat

B, shows

water-jacketed

not

are

two-

chamber

of Inserting

Method

the

small

Weiss

igniters.

obtained

is

"

latter

two

charge, during

cycle, into

in the

being of the

former

cycle engine. Fig. 98, A and


the

pressure

the Mietz

four-cycle type and

of

type

high, is found

as

Hornsby-Akroid
oil

this

in which

one

carried

of

due

to

ignition

d is

the

pression,
com-

occurs.

opened and

of

air

the

cylinder.

193

IGNITION

These

products will,due

remain

to

quite

large extent

probably produce
exhaust

neck

The

their

to

leading

residual

Fig.

98.

Types

cylinder
quite

of

The
the
does

engines

to be

not

at

have

b and

the

oil

it does

mixture

with

the

B,

at

against the
against the

not

mix

contained

combustion

rapidly

tests

show

the

the

in

by

lip I, and

heated

heated

surface

cylinder from
ignition would
the

a;

with

This

the

while

it

of

drawn

that

engine works

into

the

the crank
not

be

case.

crank

air

It is apparent

applicable

to

as

possibly be

throttled

better

the

as

to

the

tion
excep-

but

it enters
this

is
the

type of

engines depending

so

the

on

case

that

speed variation, except

the

a,

products of

result

the

partially compressed

igniter for their

charge might

ation
oper-

lip Z, on

of the

means

intimately with

air is secured.

fuel is not

injected into the

the fuel oil into

sprays

principle of the two-cycle three-port engine, with


that

sary.
neces-

as

quite satisfactory.

vaporizing effect being secured


hand

the

through

pass

as

of the

advantages of the vaporizing effect secured

by impinging the
other

end

the

and

Auto-Ignition.

two-cycle type, illustrated

cylinder

valve,

naturally produce

slightlyinferior mixture, but results of


of these

at

inabilityto

products

of the

ignition chamber

pressure

the

to

location

in the

slight back

stroke, due

restricted

to the isolated

on

the

fuel

decrease

the

as

194

INTERNAL

compression
variation

and

COMBUSTION

make

is obtained

There

is

the

varying conditions

gaseous

fuels

speed

with

time

burns

very

in the process.

The

ignite the charge

such

at

under

nearly

rapidly;
ical
theoret-

point

in

point

at what

different fuels and

ignitesand

more

is to

determining

point will be different with

vapor

consume

condition

of

occur;

this

Gasoline

case.

every

The

late.

occur

by varying the fuel charge.

cycle ignitionshould

the

explosion

fixed method

no

ENGINES

in the

Fig.

99.

stroke

compression
just

as

the

5"

increase

should

be

forth.

The

determined

in

about

the

on

point

at

Firing

Orders.

it will attain its maximum


dead

it may
crank

speed; thus
10", at

for Different

300

which

center

into

be said that
circle with
at

rev.

the

200
per

per

min.

engine

by opening the throttle wide

100

min.

about

runs

and

expansion

the lead

every

rev.

pressure

the

should
rev.

per

the

lead

15", and

so

best

should

be

then

advancing

no
greater speed
spark until with further advancement
to knock.
obtained
the engine commences
or

the
is

that

engine passes

increased

min.

Cranks

Approximately

stroke.
be

Four-Throw

195

IGNITION

The

firing

varies

to

of

engines

with

extent

with

the

order

some

than

more

manufacturers.
12

cylinder

engine

fired

other

no

left

the

order

be

the

fired
of

cranks,
be

may
A

the

taken

and

shown

orders

firing
only

being

and
In

It

in

impulse

is

Order

use

as

firing

of

For

apart.

firing

order

shown

as

that

be

as

cranks

the

the

B,

at

must

wiring

probably

For

99.

for

connections

practice

best

third

every

be

explosions

the

of

revolution.

The

with

1-3-5-2-4-6,

engine

overlap,

the

cranks

order

of

60"

set

is

firing

345678

12

with

1-5-3-7-2-6-4-8,
crank

number
3

In

calling
in

order

throws

the

engine

eight-cylinder

an

The

any.

given

should

is

order

crank

1-3-4-2,

Fig.

A,

be

apparent

four-cycle

being

the

identical,

are

For

at

must

(C)

or

right.

shown

as

order

six-cylinder

one

and

engine
1234

or

throws

99.

changed.

widely

as

crank

Fig.

C,

at

left

be

must

firing

for

the

from

four-cylinder

correspond.

to

be

can

other

each

1-3-2-4,

made

either

the

(B)

or

being

throws

order

99,

1-2-3-4,

from

it

fact

1234

course,

crank

firing
Fig.

(A)

in

following

1234

may

left.

to

three-

1-2-3,*

cylinders

right

from

or

in

fire

way,

right

to

should

cylinders

two

which

is

located

the
the

one

the

left

particular

number

orders
1.

the
The

cylinder

small

larger
is

fired.

45"

set

behind

45"

behind

firing
to

cranks

located

45"

above

that

is

the

apart;
1, crank

number

5, and

figures
figures

so

is,
ber
num-

forth.

represent
below

that

the

indicate

cylinders,
the

order

CHAPTER

XXII.

ENGINE

There

but

are

b.

of

recording

these

of

absorption

in

used

and

dynamometers
transmission
from

object

is to

the

its

dynamometer
the

the

the

which

from

operator

from

the

of

number

Fig.

100

of

the

or

and

bolts

as

be

necessary.

force

to

the

another,
the

speed
that

end

to

X,

at

of

revolve
which

it

it.

tension

of

mines
deter-

Transmission

self-recording

and

taken

by

obtained

is

the

arm

is

friction
the

part

of

190

to

time,

at

at

while
what

it is apparent

Now

to

absorbed

operator

one

unrestricted

attached

shown

the

as

tightly

as

time

pulley

radius

applied

determines

were

the

is

device

from

by

absorption
is the

delivers

revolving.
B

of

figure, A

tachometer,

arm

the

taken

are

lever
as

transmission

known,

form

E, where

of radius

In

lever

balance

of

means

pulley

if the

continue

point

by

its

point of delivery

pressure

clamping

readings

regular intervals,

mean

which

The

spring

that

constantly

simplest

brake.
to

the

the

the

pulley

shown,

be

as

readings.

Prony

or

drum

may

these

the

"

must

and

represents

dynamometer

kinds

two

dial

in

the

by

case

dynamometer

velocity

delivered

readings
a

its

tion
absorp-

as

differential

net

with

power

of

are

its

at

power

By-

power.

second

absorption

actual

and,

of

amount

known

velocity; while

the

gearing

or

dynamometers
in

and

force

the

dynamometer

delivered

measures

belting

those

the

(1)

are

the

and

running

of

are

in

The

transmission

absorb

record

to

case

used

those

the

transmission

first

dynamometers.

differs

and

the

in

to

different

many

methods

two

(2) By

power;

are

used

The

tests.

the

instruments

The

instruments

of

testing engines

of

there

hp., although

makes

and

designs

general methods

two

their

determine

TESTING.

A
the

it would

and

that

balance

the

E,

ENGINE

would

travel

number

at

describe

of the

circle traveled

2 nR.

Now

lever

being made

in terms

of

resistance

stationary were
weight, then

R.

would

(for one

2 nRW

revolutions

minute

per

would

then

being made

"

the

resistance,

be the force exerted

by that

would

We

revolution).

be

hold

to

This

X.

at

point throughout its complete revolution.


have

circumference

The

just sufficient

applied

revolution

each

At

by the point

over
a

suppose

arm

by A.

circle of radius

the

speed directlyproportional to

some

of revolutions

it would

197

TESTING

then
the

knowing

Now

by pulley A

at the

time

force

that

-^

"

H
T^
Fig.
the

be

in

exerted

2 nRWN

The

is taken,

reading W

would

100.

(R being

we

in

feet

clearly in foot-pounds).
of

determine

may

minute

one

Brake.

Prony

and

in

since

Now

point

the

at

the

pounds

the

by 33,000,

the above

at

be

may

the

or

result

is

foot-pound equivalent

horsepower is 33,000 foot-pounds

horsepower being delivered

minute,

per

found

the

by dividing

or

2ttRWN

(42)

33,000

Design of a Prony Brake.


engines of the
to

each

test

same

wheel

designed brake

from

H, is known
rev.

per

min.

speed
brake

design

engine before

in inches.

shop where

turned

out

it leaves

the

are

is made.

The

and

number

of

it is desirable

shop,

specially

probable horsepower,

previous calculations, also the speed in

at which

of the

In

"

the

engine is

flywheel V and
R.

H.

to

let W

run.

be

Call the
the width

Thurston, in "Engine

and

eral
periphof

the

Boiler

198

INTERNAL

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

by multiplying
the width of brake W by the peripheralspeed V and dividing
Calling
by the horsepower H shall not exceed 500 to 1000.*
obtained

Trials," tells

us

that

the

this value

we

have

the formula

K,

number

WV
K

(43)

From

which

In

the

running
the

unknown

value

brake

test

latter,where

the

in the

on

gas

by

readily found.

be

may
or

gasoline engine, especially

high, difficultyis

is

speed

produced

heat

friction of

the

tered
encoun-

brake

the

on

^
Fig.

101.

for

Arrangement

Brake.
"

wheel.

for

supplying

the

flywheel

in water
carries

as

rim

the

is

in

the

the

method

rim.

One
of

shape

an

engine is running.
out

in

the

rim

and

should

be

method
inverted
The

and

way
Boiler

tests

is to

centrifugal force

keeps it there.

design the wheel

so
"

Trials,

R.

H.

make

TJ, pouring

efficient device

more

provided

is to

satisfactory for comparatively short

good

"Engine

reason

to

longer running

used.
*

water

the water

method
for

this

For

the

Thurston,

pages

This

tests, but
should

that
272

be

running
to

279.

200

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

XIII.

TABLE
PRONY

From

the
for R

length
solution

point
The

it is

table

is 5.252

the

of

ft.,for

formula

for

horsepower

that

readily seen
the

in order

convenient

then

and

to obtain

the

the

the

decimal

horsepower.

be

may

simply multiplying the scale reading

is 0.1

moving

revolution

one

any

the most

constant

only entails

place to the left

one

FACTORS.

BRAKE

obtained

by

instant

by the

modifications

of the

at

any

constant.

The

brakes

described,

ones

which

obtain
the

The

brake

discussion
reader

to

but

of

practical use

there

the

producing
Alden

in

most

are

friction

speciallydesigned brakes

some

by

acting

is

constructed.

the

as

brake

Prony

the

hydraulic action,

pressure
so

are

cooling agent
For

the

author

Carpenter's "Experimental

water

well.

as

exhaustive

more

would

Engineering,

refer
"

the
207

pages

216.

to

The
brake

Belt

Dynamometer.

which

the belt
of

the

at

both

as

shown

ends

with

in

Fig.

the

formula, in

the

weights A

Then

flywheel. The

or

this

and

the brake

The
case

when

the

weights

used
may

engines is
is
be

acting force, analogous

is

equal

the

to

the

apparatus

difference
is in

Prony

is the

arm

belt to be

ring, to which

103.

of

testing of small

in which

dynamometer,

pulley

modification

in the

used

be

may

"

radius

provided
fastened,
to

in

between

equilibrium.

2nR(A~B)N
H

(44)
33,000

ENGINE

obtained

shown

in

To

but

103.

Strap

for

Brake.

other

on

water

during
be

the

to

an

minute

obtaining

pressure
rubber

reduce

is

this

in order

The

the

subject

gas

bag

same.

The

operator

Spring]Balances.

stiff

tutes
consti-

able
spring suit-

thermometers,
air pyrometer

an

for

of the

test, a reliable barometer;

gas
a

to

be
to

must

the

ratio

be

gage

in the

of water.
for

need

so

of the

should

should

variation,

should

the test sufficient time

pressure

in inches

engine and

air meter

pressure

some

fluctuation

the

obtain

an

water

value

to

to

the fuel consumed

required,by placing
and

with

standard

generally connected

suction.

with

tachometer,

instrument

supplied,but

supplied
on

Brake

as

taking the temperature


auxiliary scale for weighing the discharge

any

is

meter

gas

the

engine, the brake

Strap

or

for the

initial tension

remains
an

104.

Fig.

suitable

exhaust,

not

spring balances

gas-engine work, several

of the

test

recording speed indicator


or

formula

is

dynamometer

of

part of the outfit required.

small

of

have, besides,a good indicator

must

The

complete

form

being placed under

balances

Fig. 104.

run

above

substitution

the

by

weights, the

Fig.

of the

improvement

An

201

TESTING

be

air

placed

obtained,
gas

Since

extreme

supply
the

gas

accuracy

placed in the supply pipe


a

minimum.

be taken

Before

to arrange

if

to

starting

the appara-

202

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

vice,
reducing de-

tus.

consisting of pulleys
or

pantograph

("lazy tongs")
rigged

be

device

The

up.

adapted

best

testing of

the

to

must

engine is the

gas

ducing
re-

This

pulley.
is shown

apparatus
the

in

diagrammatic
Fig. 105,

consists

of

pulleys

out,
lay-

b, and

at

pair of

in

shown

as

detail at I.

The

pulley

should

wheels

be

as

light as possible,preferably
of aluminum
in

wood,
the

order

inertia

cord

and

taken

strong
around

to

being made

the

The

rim

of the

cord from

then

run

and

to

the

fastened

drum,

as

then

shown.

fastened
For

to

the

engines

cord
cord

there
at

from
on

operating

2;
the

the
at

is

piston

rigidly,as shown
pulley is

or

larger pulley

the

as

two

the

end

of

pulleys, the end

wheel.

smaller

is

top

of

wraps
are

sible.
pos-

jacket,

of the cord
fast

the

water

both

as

duced
re-

device

tapped into

three

be

may

The

shown,

that

much

as

the

or

cator
indi-

high

of

rate

high

the

speed

tension

rapidly
hooks

order

in order

to

should

be

be

for 500

set

shown

d.

at

the

in

The

engine

the

valve

placed

is

turned

on

barometer

off

but

suction

pipe.

Testing

exerted

on

this

the

the

the

of

weight

reading the

value

net

by
the

there

readings
average

is

reading
scale

of the

brake

be
two

attached

while

doing

so.

another
on

the

different, the
is the

value

the

arm

Then

scale,

being

determine

pulley and

foot
the

lower

the

readings

point
a

with

force

or

the

to

air

is

the

To

wheel

not

the

test

actual

any

is

in

on

The

at

meter

arm.

the

on

be

may

all scale

the

or

brake

is taken, raise

friction

some

will

the

spring balance

originalposition, taking
As

of W

three-way

consideration

from

The

running

impose

subtracted

e,

h, in order

placed

air

first

will

at

at

point

In

required.

be

some

"

the

itself

scale

loosen

constant
means

brake
be

at

in

ing
enter-

gas

water

as

The

Brake.

Prony

must

find

j
may

placed

be

arrangement,

which
to

the

the

which

in order

by

should

preceding

constant

near

as

is

inlet, as

of the

discharge

test.

the

gases.

tank

respectively.

exhaust

thermometer
the

in

passage,

the

brake

shown

as

placed

ute
min-

pounds,

8.0

thermometer

an

sion
ten-

per

pressure

exhaust

that

revolutions

metal

cord

Prony

as

For

the

The

and

weighing

room

with

is

parts

from

revolutions,

to

up

vibrate.

discharge,

of the

so

the

point

shown

weight

at

and

convenient

in the

free

to

300

and

at

temperature

or

the

oil bath

taken

are

to obtain

in

temperature

is located

pyrometer

For

set

of the

minute

per

diagramed.

as

be

tendency

pounds.

14

similar

also

for 400

pounds;

be

must

inertia

must

pounds.

4.5

the

revolutions

200

is inserted

another

the

the

revolutions,

oil bath

and

minimize

substantially

up

brass

cord

at

spring

absorb

The

about

it should

drum

to

possible.

as

engine running

and

indicator

in

203

TESTING

ENGINE

at

which

or

arm

more,
to

its

reading during the operation.


wheel
first
of the

at

any

being
constant

time, these
the

larger.
C.

two

The

204

sheet

log

follows.

substantiallyas

for the test


Name

determined, prepare

having been

Constant

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

Engine.

of

Manufacturer
.

Test

made

by
...

...

At
Date
.

Clearance

Stroke

Piston

Diam.

....

commencing

Before

should
be taken

nearly

as

sufficient for

the

takes

floating

will be

assistant

fourth

and

tank

to

should

Readings
the

test

any

one

lasts,and

no

an

load

hour's

an

with

readings
the

the

brake

test

three-quarter
may

be

taken

engineer

in

may
load
as

is

the

beam

Another

and

take

to

One

necessary.

intervals

should

run

the

as

should

while

latter

be

at

order

possible
be

third

being merely

made
In

for

be made

horsepower, and

also

nearly

are

weighing

generally sufficient

if desired.

charge

scale

of the

care

five-minute

removed,

Runs

test.

of

assistant

an

the

readings

at the rated

one

power,

indicator

half, and
time

at

charge

indicator

take

to

other

taken

generally

discharge water, while

adjustment of the engine.

at maximum
at

able

in

may

reading

fluctuates.

the

inlet and

is

while

power

whatever

be

engineer

handle

to

will be

take

possible. One

as

The

assistants

readings

thermometer

the

the

of

temperature

different

readings, keeping

as

able

the

or

speed indicator

scale

brake

constantly
assistant

the

two

room

run.

three

test

time

the

hour's

an

that

same

and

handle

should

the

at the

barometer

of the

test

in order

secured

be

actual

the

at

quarter,
that
the

provided

the
same

with

ENGINE

whistle, and
again

and

although

signal

as

not

the

absolutely necessary,

to the person

After

and

the

measure

center, being

Now

weigh

from

this measured

part

of

Now

inch

the

space

divided

cubic

the

contained

hence

is much

then

of water

by

fill the

the

compression
to

and

39.1

The

water.

Wt is the weight
of the

space

in the

engine.

0.036

deg. and

extreme

in.

be

cu.

.036

may

of the water

the

determined

are

formula:

very

that

dynamometers
is

the

to

say

the

that

mover

transmitted

See

the

being measured

tendency

the

is resisted

by

Mechanics,

"Engine
"

Vol.

and

Boiler

II, pages

39-73.

of this work

reader

is

is sufficient

placed

machinery

to rotate

Engineering,"
page

between

the

"

springs of known

Trials,"

standard

to

It

subject.*

by the tendency

Carpenter's "Experimental

Thurston's

the

to.

transmission

the scope

dynamometer
driven

of

forms

since

refer

embracing

dynamometer

readings is adhered

to

author,

and

transmission

different

the transmission

prime

which

works

water.

as

necessarily limited, would

engineering

"

of the

many

(45)

461

t +

series of tests with

so

by

....

general method

same

.There

is

accuracy

500-

4Bl.

temperature

taking

of

500

In

lb.,

compression

temperature

following thermodynamic

W=t

space

spillany

to

give accurately the number


If the

per

not

remaining

contained

will

0.036

sufficient

deg. fahr. weighs

at 39.1
water

higher than

Wherein

be

its upper

on

than

compression

in that space.

of the

should

carefullyseated.

are

more

weights

two

in the

required, its weight


means

valves

weigh

weight of the

inches

the

space;

water, and

cubic

diameter

quantity, being careful

between

of the water

that

quantity of water,

clearance

test, the

recorded.

sure

compression

difference

piston

handling the

clearance,place the. engine

dead

the

and

is valuable,

stop watch

completing the

engine, its stroke

fillthe

reading is taken

carefully measured
To

before

it is to be started.

speed indicator.
of

seconds

ten

205

TESTING

264,

power
gears,

resistance,
pages
or

219-234,
Weisbach's

206

by weights, suitable

or

The

method
of

making
Such

record

of

it is

The

mechanical

most

tests, as

in the

same

place

"gal.
of

of

reading

respects the

the

be

if

of

is

the

be

used

taken

run

will be

ent.
differ-

column

ing
read-

The

column

the

and
be

column

replaced by
in

fuel";

all

it stands.

as

mixing

valve

just before

fuel

perature
tem-

be

is used

the

other

The

is used, should

carburettor
or

tests, will be

gas" should
the

of

and

"

omitted,

of

be

jet

the

indicator

substituted.

water"

brake

testing

the

the

ft. of gas,

cu.

may

fuel, if

carburettor;

In

"

consumption

"

"temperature

log sheet

should

Engines.

for fuel

should
of

test

and

horsepower

majority of the other

"temperature

of the
the

Oil

column

in.

the
the

are

test

details,

of

part

performed
the

or

complete
smaller

any

is

engine

guarantee

the

cases

engine.

the

tests

the

in

gas

perform

detail.
in

an

of

all

determine

fuel"

of

reading the

as

the

way,

for

liquid fuel, while

on

well

basis

tests

and

of

the

to

every

except

run

description

common

Alcohol,

brake

as

to

to

in

performance

matter

operating

usually

not

actual

efficiency of

engines

"press,

matic
auto-

applies

engine,

gas

consideration

tests

Gasoline,

described

as

detail

into

indicator

one

the

easy

an

required.

In

is

such

every

of

test

test

naturally takes

and

either

arrangements,

engine testing

faulty design.

detect

but

recording

complete

required in
to

of

complete

where

ENGINES

dial, being provided.

or

at

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

taken

the

perature
tem-

reaches

the

valve.
In
make

gasoline automobile
talking

points

question of the

while

motor,
their

of

low

consumed

amount

derived, flexibilityof control, and


of

fact, with

the

varying

loads

fuel

is

manufacturers

many

consumption,

secondary

weight, and,

and

speeds

to

engine is constantly subjected it is impossible


very

great fuel

indicator

test

and

economy,

is all that

is

as

consequence

the

to
as

which

power
matter

such

obtain

to
a

usually required for such

the

brake
an

an

any
and

engine.

208

Prony

lever

Length
Constant

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

Brake.

ft.

(R)

arm

brake

lb.

(Correction)

Brake

load

average

(Gross)

lb.

Brake

load

average

(Net)

lb.

ft

lb.

Weight

of gas

Weight

of air per

Ratio

of mixture

Weight

lb.

ft

cu.

mixture

Average
Sp.

heat

gas

Sp.

heat

air

Sp.

heat

mixture

value

Heat

cu.

per

lb.

ft

cu.

per

to air

gas

B.t.u.

ft

cu.

Results.
ft.-lb. per

Av.

Work

Av.

Work

ft.-lb. per

hr.

Average

d.hp
Indicated

m.e.p

Indicated

hp

Av.

per

i.hp

cu.

Gas

per

d.hp

cu.

by

exhaust

Radiation

and

As

B.t.u.
B.t.u.
B.t.u.

work

B.t.u.

friction

will

probably be
by the

ratio of gas
divided
a

not,

miss"

by

in

items

some

reader, an

the

report

not

of

these

consumed

per

explanation

to

the

air is the

quantity of

air consumed.

gas

the

In

charge of air into the cylinder, whether


as

in

cut-off

the

An

type

type

obtained, except

cycle.

cent

given.

will be

take

Per

i.hp

per

readily understood

hour

B.t.u.

efficiency

there

The

Hour.

per

gases
in

B.t.u.

d.hp.

"

water

Absorbed

Thermal

ft.

fuel

Supplied by
Absorbed

ft.

i.hp.

Av.

-t-

i.hp.

loss

Heat

In

d.hp.

Av.

efficiency

Friction

lb.

Average

Gas

Mech.

or

min.

as

governed

of governor,
the

approximate

engine
result

by
the

exact

may

an

be

gas

of the

means

takes

engines which

ratio

"hit

cannot

impulse
obtained,

is taken

at

or

be
every

however,

REPORT

OF

by taking the difference

between

performed

the

hour

per

and

computed
would

and

the

cycles, and

in

would

be

not

charge of air

fuel may

be

it may

or

of the

gas

with

cycles, which

stroke.

from

the

the

analysis should

their

The

be

weight,

analysis, and

adding the results.

weights and

specificheats

the

of the

gas

pany
com-

by

petent
com-

cubic

be

may

foot

of the

in the

appear
XIV

gas,

will

gas

give the

parts of the

gas-engine fuels.

as

XIV.

SPECIFIC

AND

complete

weight

constituent

encountered

the

to

parts of the

Table

of the

TABLE
WEIGHT

ratio.

weight

performed

known

are

idle

quantitative analysis

constituent

the

commonly

the

the

of the

records

from

computed
When

times

of air in

by multiplying the weight per


by their percentages as they

constituents

most

idle

reading the

always obtaining

the suction

on

be
this

"

determined

gases

these

explosions

absolutely accurate, owing

obtained

chemist.

together

meter

product of the cylinder volume

probability of the cylinder not

gas

of

air

value

cycles

average

number

the

air used

of

actual

average

using this corrected

ratio

fresh

the

subtracting from

amount

be

This

hour

per

209

TESTS

Lb.

HEAT

per

OF

Cu.

GASES.

Sp. Ht.

Sp.

Const,

Ht.

Const.

Constituent.

Ft.

Pr.

Vol.

Air

0.08082

0.237

0.168

Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen

0.00559

3.409

2.406

0.0894

0.217

0.155

0.0779

0.244

0.173

0.0445

0.593

0.467

0.245

0.173

0.216

0.171

0.404

0.332

CH4
oxide, CO
acid, C02.

Marsh

gas,

Carbonic
Carbonic

Olefines

The

heats given
weights and specific

pressure

The

fahr.

be found

may

the

of 14.7 lb. per sq. in. and

specificheat
by the

same

percentage of the

their

heat
specific

of

the

method

constituent

is found

in the

for

are

atmospheric

an

of 32

temperature

and

gas
as

for

of

the

mixture

finding the weight,

parts being known


above

deg.

table.

The

and

weight

210

of

mixture

the

ENGINES

by taking the weight


deg. fahr. and atmosphere

weight of the

32

being known,

gas

weight of mixture

foot is found

cubic

per

be
The

14.7.

determined,

having been

or

air to

of

is found

lb. at

0.08082

the

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

ing
by the follow-

formula:

Wm
In

which

The
at

should

of the gas

heating value
laboratory by

percentage of

y the

foot, and

composition in different localities


depended
results.
times
be

Samples of the
then

and

sent

mixed;

the

to

in

recorded

temperature
basis of

of

gas

sample of

and

air

log sheet

and

atmospheric

of water

The

their

gases,

results should

be

not

computing probable

be

obtained

the

mixture

at

different

should

at

pressure

reduced

be

must

in

pressure
in

standards

use

then

The

following formula

order

and

test

standard

to

form

to

the temperature

are

deg. fahr., and


is

level, which

sea

in the

obtained

as

freezing point, 32

the

at

in. of mercury.

reduction

should

gas

I,

different conditions

basis for

the

comparison.

atmospheric

as

Table

While

laboratory.

volumes

The

30

only used

but

on,

gas

determined

be

of various

for accurate

and

subject to variation

(46)

gas.

under

or

weight of the

chemist.

expert

an

ay

always

Chapter IX, gives the heating values


is

of air, a the

is the percentage

cubic

per

(0.08082)

the

equivalent
be used

may

to

in the

49L2

pP
=

14.7

(47 )

""""""

459.2)

(2,+

which

In

tt
"p
v

at

atmospheric

pressure

14.7
This

inches

gas.

of

give an
The

water

time

at

and

at

32

derived

on

of test.

temperature.

deg. fahr.

and

pressure

of

lb.

formula, while
will

for the

volume

corrected

of test.

at this pressure

volume

time

temperature

gas
may

the

approximately
pressure,

be

reduced

as

basis

correct

measured
to

inches

of the
value
in

of

air

when
the

mometer,
ther-

used

test, in

mercury

by

REPORT

dividingby 13.62, or
in

pounds

by multiplying by
of 32

The
cards

indicated
taken

effective

If

the

distances

of

expansion
from

AB

second

sum

from

lines.

The

result

the

planimeter,
It may

areas.
mean

line

be

ordinate

so

AB

diagram.

compression

the

first and

the

name

the

space

lengths

curve

ay,

an

adjusted as to record,
irregularfigure
any
Engineering," page

the

AB

to

the

number

of

value

instrument

without

further

of given
31.

same

subtract

by the

approximate

implies, is

of

lengths of the

divide

of

"Experimental

equal

ten, from

case

the

the

be

being half

the

Add

add

106.

Card.

diagram, in this
and

be

it may

ordinates

erect

Engine

the

will

as

Fig.

see

of

means

available

not

The

minute.

by

best

last ordinates

106.

mean

piston in inches, the stroke

method,

ex,

to

product of the

explosions per

Fig.

curve

the indicator

from

is obtained

first and

in the

lines contained

cards

atmospheric

ends

is the

planimeter is

apart, the

the

lines

of

by the ordinate

From

the

number

of the

temperature.

of the

area

for temperatures

are

computed

and

of mercury

accurate
give sufficiently

to

average

test

taken

has been

to inches

ratios

found

is to be

the

the

planimeter.*
obtained

any

work

pressure,

ordinate

from

at

during the

feet, and

mean

These

will be

deg. fahr. but

of the gas

be reduced

2.033.

results if used

in

if the pressure

sq. in. it may

per

211

TESTS

OF

for

of

the

computing
calculation,

length.

See

penter's
Car-

212

in inches.

ordinate

mean

irregular, due
mean

curve

the

its

in

If the

drawn

ordinate

expansion

vibration

be

may

While
use

the

to

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

of

Fig.

right of

to

computations requiring

extreme

be

spring,

give fairly close

will

method

indicator

the

shown

as

should

curve

106.

results,
is not

accuracy

advisable.
The

effective

mean

the

multiplying together
scale of the

effective

mean

in

spring

lb. per

by

result

in.,which

sq.

of the

means

by

and

the

is known.

The

indicated

the

being known,

obtained

in inches

ordinate

mean

pressure

is calculated

is the

pressure

power
horse-

following formula

Plan
H

(48)
33,000

In

which

P
I

same

engine
number

work
of

Area

Number

applied

as

number

would

four-cycle engine.

would

The

of

impulses given
there

be

the

same

quantity

as

of

the

per

min.

half

of heat

the water

heat

consumed,

absorbed
as

in

but
If

the

as

many

be

and

engine

In

work

"hits"

impulses

in

noted.

gas-engine

the

steam-

the

regularly
revolutions

as

the

value

of

engine.

supplied by the

product of the heating value


The

formula

should

two-cycle engine, however,

steam

above

engine
min.

per

For
for

in the

steam

be

sq. in.

explosions per min.

rev.

only

in ft.

piston in

between
to

pressure.

of stroke

of

difference

cycle

every
in

The

"

formula

effective

Length

Note.

Mean

per

cu.

in

the

determined

gas

ft. times
water

per

hour

the

is the

cu.

is the
ft.

sumed.
con-

product of

in the test,and

the range

of temperature:

Hi
In which

(t2-tl)W

tl

The

t2

Temperature

temperature

Weight

of the

(49)

of the

of the

discharge.

inlet.

cooling water.

REPORT

The
The
1

result

obtained

OF

is in

B.t.u. is the heat

213

TESTS

B.t.u

units).

(British thermal

to raise 1 lb. of water

required

through

deg. fahr.
The

heat

absorbed

in work

is the

hr. divided

ft.-lb. per

by the foot-pound equivalent of the B.t.u., which


2 nrWn

rr

Hw=

is 778:

60

,,m
(50)

778

The
the

heat

carried

specific heat

off in the

of the

exhaust

mixture

having

previously described, gives

as

the

B.t.u.

required

fahrenheit.
in

Then

raise

to

in

us,

pounds, the quantity exhausted

of temperature

(obtained
the

thermometer),
class

same

that

as

derived

ft. and

cu.

degree

one

ft. of mixture

cu.

the range
and

pyrometer

itself into

of the

one

for water:
S

*,)W

(t2
-

(51)

Specificheat of mixture.

t2

Temperature

as

obtained

tt

Temperature

of

entering mixture

W
To

be

passing

Total

weight of mixture

out

with

engine, but

in

the

exhaust

subtracted

practiceit

by pyrometer.
gas.

of unburned

should

be

that

of the

from

or

hour.

per

the amount

absolutely accurate

heating value

is considered

mixture

considered, and

as

fuel

its

entering the

part of the heat

by radiation.

The

heat

by radiation

is determined

computed

losses from

by subtracting
the heat

supplied

gas.

The

thermal

heat

engine

lost

of the three

sum

by the
the

decimal,

which

In

the

of

of the

means

resolves

formula

He

lost

by

in

determined,

through

weight of

follows:

as

been

terms

pound

one

the

knowing

is found

absorbed

efficiencyof the engine is the quotient of


in work

divided

by the

heat

supplied the

in fuel:
T=

(52)
778

CH

214

INTERNAL

which

In
the

the

formula

COMBUSTION

derived

hp.

for

of

the

is

engine

prony
F

of

gas

value

Heat

the

ft.

Cu.

b.

recognized

the

as

of

numerator

(50)

The

is

numerator

ENGINES

brake,

cu.

per

found

hr.

per

by

ft.

of

means

the

formula

33,000
In

in

the

which

table,

the

page

constants

200.

for

different

lengths

of

are

given

216

INTERNAL

Horse-power.

COMBUSTION

The

"

33,000

ft. lb. per

1,980,000

ft. lb. per

Heat
Fahr.

Unit.

(from

39

Horse-power

deg.

units per

minute

heat

units

hour.

"

per
,

,
1
lb. of fuel, per
r

1,000,000 ft. lb.


Velocity.
y

"

minute,

Feet

required
to

40

550

second

to

raise

in

0.707

per
per
^

heat

heat

""-,.,
( 2545

lb. of fuel
second

SHEET-METAL

deg.

1.98

5280

2545

lb. of fuel.

lb. of fuel per


miles

per

15

XV.
GAUGES

units.

"

second

ft. lb. per

22
=

42.416

'
=

units per

heat

000

33

units

( 1,980,000

hp.-hr.
r

1 lb. of water

deg.).

TABLE
AND

horse-power

ft. lb. per

or

3600

WIRE

of

hour.

expressed

heat

Unit

of work.

rate

Heat

"

ENGINES

COMPARED.

hp.-hr.
hour.

217

MISCELLANEOUS

WIRE

AND

SHEET-METAL

GAUGES

COMPARED.

"

Continued.

218

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

TABLE

TAP

DRILL

XVI.

TABLE.

219

MISCELLANEOUS

TABLE
MACHINE

XVII.
SCREW

TABLE.

"220

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

TABLE
WROUGHT

XVIII.
IRON

PIPE.

221

MISCELLANEOUS

TABLE

XIX."

CIRCUMFERENCES
ADVANCING

AND

BY

EIGHTS.

AREAS

OF

CIRCLES

222

CIRCUMFERENCES

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

AND

AREAS

OF

CIRCLES.

"

Continued.

224
INTERNAL

CIRCUMFERENCES

COMBUSTION

AND

AREAS

ENGINES

OF

CIRCLES.

Continued.
"

225

MISCELLANEOUS

XX.

TABLE

TABLES.

TRIGONOMETRIC

To

find

the
will

example

To

function

find

illustrate

sin

81"

sin

last

values

the

table

in the

given

the

following

method:

Ay

81"

between

angle

any

the

81"

sin

Dif

of

40"

0.9894

50"

0.9899

unit

From

table

of

proportionate
5

.3

sin

Where

the

81"

angles

"

sec

table,

43'

have

we

0.98955

difference,
have

parts

The

P.,

0.9894

have

For

P.

1.5

Adding
we

marked

parts,

more

in

last
been

not

than

90"

10

for

place,

unit

but

tabulated,

cos,

tan,

cotan,

sec,

or

cosec

of

90"

sin,

cos,

tan,

cotan,

sec,

or

cosec

of

180"

of

180"

or

cosec

of

x".

sec,

or

cosec

of

270"

sec,

or

cosec

of

tan,

cotan,

sec,

sin, cosin,

tan,

cotan,

sec,

sin, cosin,

tan,

cotan,

sin, cosin,

tan,

cotan,

and
but

their

sin

versed

cosec,

values

sec

may

and
be

or

co-versed
determined

versed

(90"

x"

x"

360"

sin
as

oo-versed

sine

the

portionate
pro-

a;).
leas

(but

(270"

are

not

follows:

sin

=1

sin

cosin.

"

"

sio.

than

270")

x").

contained

cosin

cosec

than

x"

cosec

sin, cosin,

less

determined.

readily

are

sin,

is

minutes

in

the

ing
follow-

226

COMBUSTION

INTERNAL

TABLE

XX.

"

TRIGONOMETRIC

ENGINES

FUNCTIONS.

227

MISCELLANEOUS

TRIGONOMETRIC

FUNCTIONS.

"

Continued.

228

INTERNAL

TRIGONOMETRIC

COMBUSTION

FUNCTIONS.

ENGINES

"

Continued.

229

MISCELLANEOUS

FUNCTIONS.

TRIGONOMETRIC

Sin.

24

0.4067

Tan.

0.4452

d.

Cos.

Cot

2.2460

Continued.

"

P. P.

d.

0.9135
174

"0

0.4094

0.4487

2.2286

20

0.4120

0.4522

2.2113

173

0.9124

0.9112

30

0.4147

0.4557

2.1943

170

0.9100

40

0.4173

0.4592

2.1775

168

50

0.4200

0.4628

2. 1609

166

0.4226

0.4663

2.1445

0.9088
0.9075

164
25

0.9063

65

162
0.9051

10

0.4253

0.46W

2.1283

20

0.4279

0.4734

2.1123

160

0.9038

30

0.4305

0.4770

2.0965

158

0.9026

156

0.9013

154

0.9001

40

0.4331

0.4806

2.0809

50

0.4358

0.4841

2.0655

152
2!i

0.4384

0.4877

2.0503

0.8988

61

150
10

0.4410

0.4913

2.0353

20

0.4436

0.4950

2.0204

30

0.4462

0.4986

2.0057

40

0.4488

0.5022

1.9912

50

0.4514

0.5059

1.9768

0.8975
149
147
145
144

0.8962
0.8949
0.8936

0.8923

142
27

0.8910

0.4540

0.50M

1.9626

10

0.456O

0.5132

1.9486

20

0.4592

0.5169

1 .9347

139

0.8884

0.8870

63

140

0.8897

30

0.4617

0.5206

1.9210

137

40

0.4643

0.5243

1 .9074

136

50

0.46)9

0.5280

1.8940

0.4o95

0.531/

1 8607

134

0.8857
0.8843

133

29

62

0.8.29

131
10

0.4720

0.5354

1.8676

20

0.4746

0.5392

1.8546

30

0.4772

0.5430

1.8418

40

0.4797

0.5467

1 .8291

50

0.4823

0.5505

1.8165

0.4848

0.5543

1.8040

0.8816
130
128
127
126

0.8802
0.8788
0.8774
0.8760

125
1

0.8746

61

123
10

0.4874

0.5581

1.7917

20

0.4899

0.5619

1.7796

30

0.4924

0.5658

1.7675

40

0.4950

0.5696

1.7556

0.4975

0.5735

1.7437

50

0.8732
121
121
119
119

0.8718

0.8704
0.8689
0.8675

116

30

0.5000

0.5774

1.7321
1.7205

60

0 8560
116

10

0.5025

0.5812

20

0.5050

0.5851

1.7090

30

0.5075

0.5890

1.6977

40

0.5100

0.5930

1.6864

50

0.5125

0.5969

1.6753

0.5150

0.6009

1.6643

0.5175

0.6048

1.6534

0.5200

0.6088

1 .6426

0.8646
115

0.8631

113

0.8616

113

0.8601

111

0.8587

24
2.4
4.8
7.2
9.6
12.0
14.4
16.8

110
.1

0.8572

59

109
10
20
30

0.5225

0.6128

1.6319

40

0.5250

0.6168

1.6212

50

0.5275

0.6208

1.6107

5299

6249

1.6003

Cos.

Cot.

Tan.

0.8557
108

0.8542

107

0.8526

107

0.8511

105

19.2
21.6

0.8496

104

32

0.8480

1~

Sin.

58
d.

P.

P.

230

INTERNAL

TRIGONOMETRIC

COMBUSTION

FUNCTIONS.

ENGINES

"

Continued.

TABLE

XXI.

TABLE
OF

COMMON

LOGARITHMS
OF

NUMBERS

From

minus

A
true

value

in the

last

sign (" ) before


is less than

1000

or

after

the tabulated

place.
233

to

10000

tabular
log.indicates that its
any
less
than half of the unit
value
by

235

MISCELLANEOUS

LOGARITHMS

OF

NUMBERS.

236

INTERNAL

LOGARITHMS

COMBUSTION

OF

NUMBERS.

ENGINES

"Continued.

237

MISCELLANEOUS

LOGARITHMS

OF

NUMBERS.

"

Continued.

238

INTERNAL

LOGARITHMS

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

OF

NUMBERS.

"

Continued.

240

INTERNAL

LOGARITHMS

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

OF

NUMBERS.

"

Continued.

241

MISCELLANEOUS

LOGARITHMS

OF

NUMBERS."

Continued.

242

INTERNAL

LOGARITHMS

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

OF

NUMBERS.

"

Continued.

243

MISCELLANEOUS

LOGARITHMS

OF

NUMBERS."

Continued.

244

INTERNAL

LOGARITHMS

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

OF

NUMBERS.

"

Continued.

245

MISCELLANEOUS

LOGARITHMS

OF

NUMBERS.

"

Continued.

246

INTERNAL

LOGARITHMS

ENGINES

COMBUSTION

OF

NUMBERS.

"

Continued.

248

INTERNAL

LOGARITHMS

COMBUSTION

OF

NUMBERS."

ENGINES

Continued.

249

MISCELLANEOUS

LOGARITHMS

OF

NUMBERS.

"

Continued.

INDEX

Pagb

Abb6

de

Hautefeuille

Acetylene,

Calorie

combustion,

82
of

generation

value

heating

of

pressure

of

yield

pound

liquefication

per

107

82

operation
layout
effect of, on

109

82

horizontal

for

supply

double

of calcium

carbide
gine
en-

144

Alcohol,

air

combustion,

heat

80

76,

of

75

of

rate

71

composition
heat

76

of, computed

value

for

temperature

mixture,

inlet

107

material

Ill

lost

in

of

shaft

transmission

quired
re-

Aspirating

49

Automatic

engines

25

Carburrettor,
air supply

law

firing. 16, 23, 34, 35, 38,


Baffle
plate
16, 22,
Balance
weights
Barber, John
Barnett
engine
and

connecting
crank

to

adjustment

of,

42

56,83

supply

air

127
134

effect

154

flexibility

57

card

on

7
49

feed

float

Holley

mechanical

53, 54
ebullition

case

145

spray
surface

47

rod

157

type
type
two-cycle engine

of,

in

de

Carburetting,

156
shaft.

crank

152

petroleums

144

temperature

in vertical

Care

gines
en-

engines,

of

143

Circulation

144

Clearance

principle, 4, 6,

43,

of

43
of

fuel

as

fected
af-

continued

251

46
27

27, 30, 33,


mination
engine, deterof

Clerk, Dugald

17

56

....

engine

144

Rochas

21

alcohol

vaporization

35

horizontal

48

by

29

studs

46

type

53

pounding

Beau

53

43, 48,

52

lubrication

setting,

53, 54

...

Schebler

liners

setting,

25, 32

187

for

in

103

primer

shaft

length

111

32, 33, 173

adjustment

closed

102,
motion

....

storage
Bearings,

111

102,

auxiliary
design

Matteucci

102,

alcohol

80

Back

cells

cam

107

of

valve

Battery

double

motion

timing

83

valves

Barsanti

177

24, 39, 40, 103


124

78, 80

Avogadro's

105

gearing

56, 71,

heat

103

efficiency

vaporization,

105

shaft

79, 80
thermal

89

exhaust

82
.

110
card

offsetting
single, layout
sparking
starting
Cam
mechanism,

quired
re-

for

75
105

81

82
.

75

the
Calorimeter,
classification
Cams,

rate

of.

Air

Page

129

205

5,11,12

252

INDEX
Page

Coal

gas,

Page

Gas.

see

Coil

3,173

requisitesof

175

Combustion
air

31

required

76, 77
75, 82

heat

67, 71, 82, 194


174, 178

rate

Commutator

single cylinder

180

timing
two
cylinders

179

178,

two-cycle
Compression, chart
Clerk engine

effect

of valve

efficiency,relation

to
.

effective

mean

relation

Crude

oil,composition
Cylinder, air cooled

bore

1 1

bore,

133,

effect

of

overheating
99,

32
for

35

"hot-spot"

in

136

23,

proportionate equation

85

thickness

speed

84

water

cooled

relief cock

'37

water

in

relieved

23

water

jacket

....

for

of walls

33

100
130
129
35

131, 132

12

stroke,

91, 94, 99

table

85

temperature
two-cycle engine
case)
two-cycle engine

84

(crank
14, 16

der)
(cylin16

Condenser, electrical.
172,
Condensation, latent heat
Connecting rod
adjustment of bearings.
.

33

oil

fuel

for

101

flooded

to

space,

34

for

to

to

136

material
34

134
31

of

relation

ratio

100

boring

pump
relation

Robson

stroke

to

care

gasket

duced
pro-

134

98
ratio

equation

2, 11

starting
engine

129

131,

86, 88

97

72
....

135

95

pressure,

explosion
by

premature

153
151

casting, cost

to

151

size

bolts

84

156

pin

17, 18
33, 36

limits

154

156

automobile

153
153

finish

180

92

Degrand engine
Diesel engine

pin
shaft, arms
balance
weights
bushings
capacity

179

5,

curve

Crank
Crank

174

75

Day engine
Degrand engine
Diesel engine
cycle

12
3
17
19

of

economy

efficiency
Drawings for
Dynamometer,

22
22
foundations

147
.

absorption.

196
.

belt

200

157

transmission

196,

205

157

formula

158

Cooling, Hugon

spray

27, 133
cylwater, effect of,in hot inder

tower

30
heat

lost in

inlet and
inlet and

213

outlet,location
outlet,size.

132

27, 96

regulation
temperature
Cost of fuel,acetylene

131

24, 27
82
...

alcohol
oxygen

83
and

producer
Crank

case

hydrogen.

operation
66, 67
206
engines
Diesel engine
18, 22
four and two
18
cycle engines
4
Hugon engine
Lenoir
3
engine
Otto
and
4
Langen engine
Efficiency of engine, 86, 88, 96, 97,
101; 213
Electric
ignition,2, 3, 28, 170, 171,
172, 175
de
HauteEngines, Abb6
.

automobile

133

pressure

of

Economy

feuille
Barber

...

gas

64

Barnett

explosions

22

Barsanti

1
2

patent

3
and

Matteucci

3
.

253

INDEX

Page

Page

Four-cycle engine,

Engines (continued)
blast furnace

20

67

gas

205

of

12

Day
Degrand

Diesel
of.

Lebon

17, 22, 192


197, 212, 214
44, 86, 192

acting

2
.

4, 5

Otto
Otto

slide

Langen

125, 189

valve

Papin

122, 177

Rathbun
Robson

12

Stockport
Street, patents

12
146

75

value

heat

75

value

heat

mixture

23, 24, 25,

necessary,

31

26,

periodof injection,Diesel
18, 19
engine
in
fuel
question)
(see
81
acetylene
tion
air required for combus77
(Table)
78,
79,
76,
75,
71,
alcohol, 56,
80, 82
.

72

oil

crude

economy
for internal

66, 67, 206


66

combustion
.

58, 60

producers

for

73

fuel oil
heat

213

lost

18

pressure

8, 19
16, 18, 19

of

Expansion

93

curve

21, 31
90, 97

Explosion
force
ideal chamber
in crank

121

for

22

case

ders
of,in multiple cylin-

order

98

factor

Wright

time

143

weight

of

sub-base

Exhaust,

143

Fuels

44, 86, 192

Weiss.
.

and

of

purpose

low

Otto

143

patents
and

bolts

Fuel, high

Lenoir
Mietz

Frame,

Fuel

double

Johnston

74

table

5, 11

Clerk

46

distillation

Fractional

clearance, determination

horsepower
Hornsby-Akroid
Hugon
Huygens

tage
advan-

195
35

premature

73

oil

gas

gasoline, 25, 33, 71, 74, 76, 78,


79, 81
74

kerosene

hydrogen.
oxygen
71, 72,
petroleum distillates,

75

required
horsepower hour
analysis

67

and

...

amount

Gas,

blast
coal

per
.

66,

209
67

furnace
gas

as

motive

power.

66

economy
139

Flywheel, automobile
of weight
calculation

138
137

coefficient of fluctuation
finish
function

69

142
137

perfect,definition

86

of

201

uniform

pressure

producer, composition, 62, 65,

effected

speed regulation

66
68

oil

140

rim

68

Table

139

formula

210

heating value
natural, composition
heating value

by

137

spokes

140

webbed

142

heating value.

...

production

69,
61, 62,
61, 62,

71
66
63

208

150

ratio to air

drawings

147

speed

material

148

water, composition

70

148

production
weight and specificheat

70

Foundations,

on

upper

purpose

bolts.

floors

149,

147

(Table)

Four-cycle engine, 5, 6, 17, 20, 44,


86, 192

of

Gas

oil,composition

117

209
73

254

INDEX
Page

Page

Gasoline

(see Fuels,
and
distillation,
Combustion),
tion
required for combus-

air

tional
Frac-

combustion,
fractional

77,81
67, 71, 194

of.

rate

Igniter,Pennington
porcelaintube for

distillation

177
191

setting
wipe spark
171,
Ignition, effect on card
auto-ignition, Hornsby-

74

28
177
7

191

Akroid

....

lighting gas
low

heat

from

74

of,

effective

Diesel

puted
com-

pressure

produced
quality
straining
vaporization,

71, 98
25, 33
25
heat

weight
58,
for

cam-shaft,

Governing,

closeness

methods

81

of regulation

of
of

Governors,
centrifugal
electrical governing
care

30,

sparking points,

inertia

location

169
for

throttle

valve
of

uniformity
Wright
Gunpowder

as

speed

motive

24, 29, 34,

balance

Heat

losses

ignition

185

Bosch

170, 194

cylinder
Heating
Horsepower, computation

card

211

card
for card

four-cycle card

ideal card

21

of, 197.
212,

of

definition

ratio

of

97

i.hp. to b.hp..

96, 97

economy

Huygens

of card

89

work

Indicated

211

Injectors,Diesel method
Hornsby-Akroid
Mietz

and

Insulation

44

Weiss
of

engine

tube

material

17, 44
44

tion
founda147

James-Lunkenheimer
valve

engine

ing
mix49
2

23,25,28

of
break.
.

hot

91, 94

spring effects on card, 9, 10, 212


two-cycle crank case
card, 13, 15
two-cycle cylinder card, 13,15

Johnston

Igniter,care

90

engine

hammer

86,

97

theoretical

Hugon

214
216

friction

19
201

engine

...

of

Indicator, computation

166

212
wall.

of

183
183-185

187
Motsinger
187
Remy
3
Stephard
time
of, 7, 23, 24, 25, 2S, 34,

for gas
formula

212

189
194

purpose
Heat

2, 189

apple

Diesel

power

nition
ig-

of

167
quired
re-

172

cock

184
for

destruc-.

ignition,Barnett

magneto

30, 208
164, 168
164,167

of

action

tive

flame

162

169

lift of balls

171

prevention

lead

169

rial
mate-

for

163

164

miss

magneto

tion
igni-

hot-tube

exhaust
or

28, 171, 175

102, 111
113

ratio

191

170, 175

make-and-break

60, 67
113

Gearing, pitch

hit

ignition,
spark
Lebon
patent
Lenoir
ignition

193

191,

17,
jump

electric

74

Gasometer

skew

ignition

quired
re-

78, 79,

reduction

Weiss.
.

value

76
mean

and

Mietz

171, 176, 177


190

29, 191

Kerosene

ignition temperature
Keys, table of

74
74
141

256

INDEX
Page

Spark plug.
tap for

32, 174, 181,

...

Page

1S3

52, 53
starters, 23,

air

39
ber
auxiliary explosioncham-

auxiliary storage

compression
by means

of

204
207

report
Thermal

efficiency

213

Throttle

26

Two-cycle engine, 5, 11, 12, 20,

67

38

per

38

ports

of power

increase

cent

four-cycle

over

22

for

125

38

of first

charge

of

Units, definition

hand

of

215

38

pump

externally applied energy


starting
match
igniter
retarding spark
Starting of automobile
marine
engine
stationary engine
Starting troubles
Steam, condensation
of,
produce vacuum
Stockport engine
Stopping of automobile
marine
engine
stationary engine

37
.

hand

37
38
37
or

diameter

115
.

121-125

carburettor

49

28, 122,
proportion
7,

130
116

120

Diesel

44

dimensions

(Table)

119

12

effective

26

(Table)
flat seated, advantage

or

24
1

98
:

29

31

bore

43
.

of

cooling
design and

to

engine

aspirating,for

23

25

Street, Robert
ratio of, to

Valves, air, for vaporizer.


angle seated, advantage
arrangement
care

....

of

204

readings,interval

ber
cham-

cartridgestarter

Stroke

Tests, log

135

Spraying nozzle
Starting devices,

of

100

opening.

117,

119
120

of.

115
24

gas
material

116

mechanically controlled, 20,

21

mixing
43, 48, 49
needle, for vaporizers
43
Robson
12
engine
size
7, 9
....

circumferences

Tables,

and

of circles

areas

221

compression temperatures
cylinder dimensions
flywheel coefficients
keys
logarithms

233

machine

219

brake

factors

drill

trigonometric

functions
.

dimensions.

valve

weight

and

sheet

gauges
wrought iron

Diesel

pipe
cylinder

combustion

compression
Tests, apparatus
arrangement
assistants

121

139

timing,

105
for

hot

tube

niter
ig191

two-cycle, see
Vapor, pressure

200

saturation

218
225

(Table)
Vaporization

120

Venturi

209

design
Volatility as

Ports.
of gas

78,

...

80
78

pressure

79
78

119,

specific heat

of gases
and
wire

Temperature,

stems

timing

141

screw

Prony

tap

85
101

tube

in carburettor
56

affected

vaporization

metal

by
46

216
220

Water

27

Water

19
17
201

gas,

see

Gas.

jacket, copper
depth
draining

132

length

133

202

Watt

204

Wiring connections

131
25

i
23

methods

196
206

for four-cylinder
Wright engine

174

liquid fuel engines


loads

204

Wrist

159

for

pin