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Progress Report 1 :

Theoretical Study and problem Definition

Student Number


Name & Surname :

Phathutshedzo Mulaudzi

Course Name & Code

Progress Report

01- 886382

Industrial Project IV (IPR4701)

I Mulaudzi Phathutshedzo, declares that the progress report 1 of the project titled
Electrification of a small village using Stand Alone Solar PV System is my own work
for B-Tech Electrical Engineering specializing in Computer Systems at UNISA and
hereby submitted by me and not previously being submitted at this or other



Mulaudzi Phathutshedzo

Date: 20/05/2016


Energy is a basic need for the overall growth and improvements of peoples living
standard. Like any other developing countries, South Africa (SA) has some areas
where there are no electricity grid lines.

Limpopo province is one of the SA

provinces which is taken as a rural province, due to the fact that the province is still
in development stage. Most of the people are unemployed and depend on the small
scale farming. Currently the government has started some initiative on renewable
energy projects, to promote the use of renewable energy and electrification of
remote rural villages. South Africa and especially Limpopo province region has huge
solar energy potential and therefore it should be exploited for the benefit of its
The current study will focus on a standalone photovoltaic power station for
electrification of a small village in Limpopo Province of South Africa.

Its impact on

the environment and socio economic development at the village will be evaluated.
The electrification will focus its studies in the typical households, small scale
business centres, public services and a room for the development of the village.
For the systematic study, interviews from the village, load of electricity needed will be
determined, the estimation of the system and its storage will be performed using
computational software like, Matlab, HOMMER, SAM and any other softwares are
used to calculate the energy demand and cost of the electrification.
At the end we hope to design the stand-alone PV Solar system, which will supply the
energy to the village and improve their life. The teaching and learning process of
schools will improved due the presence of electricity. The solar power areas will
reduce the time required for fetching woods and give girls time to focus on the

1. Statement of the research problem

Like any other developing country, South Africa is also embarking on developing
its people living standard by bringing electricity to the rural villages that are not
having electricity, as it is costing and taking time to provide coal electricity to
every rural village, they now focusing also on the renewable energy to electrify
the rural villages.
As there are many source of renewable energy, stand-alone Photovoltaic Solar
system is one of those sources that has potential in the Limpopo Province rural

Objectives of the Research

The main objective of the research improve the living standard of the

To elaborate how the electrification of the village will using Photovoltaic

system will help in terms of the socio-economic and environmental

development of the village.

Social and economic benefits of electrification of rural village

Allow activities to occur after daylight hours, including education. In

impoverished and undeveloped areas, small amounts of electricity can free
large amounts of human time and labour. In the poorest areas, people carry
water and fuel by hand, their food storage may be limited, and their activity is
limited to daylight hours.

Reduce isolation through telecoms

Improve safety with the implementation of street lighting, lit road signs.

Improve healthcare by electrifying remote rural clinics.

Reduces the need for candles and kerosene lamps and improves indoor air

Improve productivity, through the use of electricity for irrigation, crop

processing, and other activities.

Background Theory
The developing nations of Africa are popular locations for the application of
renewable energy technology. Currently, many nations already have small-scale
solar, wind, and geothermal devices in operation providing energy to urban and rural
populations. These types of energy production are especially useful in remote
locations because of the excessive cost of transporting electricity from large-scale
power plants. The applications of renewable energy technology has the potential to
alleviate many of the problems that face Africans every day, especially if done so in a
sustainable manner that prioritizes human rights.
Access to energy is essential for the reduction of poverty and promotion of economic
growth. Communication technologies, education, industrialization, agricultural
improvement and expansion of municipal water systems all require abundant,
reliable, and cost-effective energy access.
The following study is going to focus on building the photovoltaic solar power station
for the electrification of the rural village using the stand-alone photovoltaic solar
Development of a country boost its economy, then by electrifying the rural village will
also bring opportunity to it expand the wisdom and knowledge of the learner and
everyone in the village to be technological advanced.

The Literature Survey

Definition of Photovoltaic Solar System:
A photovoltaic system, also known as solar PV power system is a power
system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaic. It consists
of an arrangement of several components, including solar panels to absorb and
convert sunlight into electricity, a solar inventor to change the electric current from
DC to AC, as well as mounting, cabling and other electrical accessories to set up a
working system. PV systems convert light directly into electricity and shouldn't be
confused with other technologies, such as concentrated solar power used for heating
and cooling.
PV systems range from small, rooftop-mounted or building-integrated systems with
capacities from a few to several tens of kilowatts, to large utility-scale power
stations of hundreds of megawatts. Nowadays, most PV systems are gridconnected, while off-grid or stand-alone systems only account for a small portion of
the market. Operating silently and without any moving parts, PV systems have
developed from being niche market applications into a mature technology used for
mainstream electricity generation.

technology has seen much wider use in the field. As of 2013, PV

systems outnumber concentrators by about 40 to 1.

Photovoltaic Power Station
A photovoltaic power station, also known as a solar park, is a large-scale
Photovoltaic Systems (PV system) designed for the supply of merchant power into
the electricity-grid. They are differentiated from most building-mounted and other
decentralised solar power applications because they supply power at the utility level,

rather than to a local user or users. They are sometimes also referred to as solar
farms or solar ranches, especially when sited in agricultural areas. The generic
expression utility-scale solar is sometimes used to describe this type of project.
In some countries, the nameplate capacity of a photovoltaic power stations is rated
in megawatt-peak (MWp), which refers to the solar arrays DC power output.
Most of the existing large-scale photovoltaic power stations are owned and operated
by independent power producers, but the involvement of community- and utilityowned projects is increasing. To date, almost all have been supported government
for the development of the country and its economy. It also involves providing of any
South African Constitutional Rights Basic needs of Health facility and basic


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