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# Power electronics assignment 2

Q1)
a) The buck-boost converter is the best choice. This is because, the buckboost converter operates at steady state. The inductor current is continuous
and the converter operates in continuous current mode. Moreover, the
capacitor value is sufficiently large so as to assume that a constant supply
voltage is supplied thus being possible to have a output voltage ripple as
negligible and as small as 1% and lower. This type of buck converter also can
have an output voltage that is either higher or lower than the source or input
voltage. Hence, the buck-boost converter absolutely matches the design
requirements of the converter that is needed to be designed.
b) For Vs = 26V & Vo = 24V, D = |Vo| /[Vs + |Vo|] = 24/[26 + 24] = 0.48
For Vs = 22.5V & Vo = 24V, D = |Vo| /[Vs + |Vo|] = 24/[22.5 + 24] = 0.516
0.52
For Vs = 24V & Vo = 24V, D = |Vo| /[Vs + |Vo|] = 24/[24 + 24] = 0.5
Thus, the duty ratio range of the switch is: 0.48 <= D < 0.52
c)
We first determine the value of the load resistance;
P = Vo2/R
30 = (24)2/R
Thus, R = 576/30 = 19.2
Now we find the value of inductor, L;
For D = 0.48, Lmin = (1-D)2(R)/2f = (1 - 0.48)2(19.2)/[2(50000)]
= 51.9168uH
51.92uH
For D = 0.52, Lmin = (1-D)2(R)/2f = (1 - 0.52)2(19.2)/[2(50000)]
= 44.2368uH
44.24uH
For D = 0.5, Lmin = (1-D)2(R)/2f = (1 - 0.5)2(19.2)/[2(50000)]
= 48uH
Now we find the value of capacitor, C;
For 1% voltage ripple, thus, Vo /Vo = 0.01
For D = 0.48, Vo /Vo = D/RCf
Thus, 0.48/[(19.2)(50000)C] = 0.01
C = 0.48 / [(19.2)(50000)(0.01)] = 50uF
For D = 0.52, Vo /Vo = D/RCf
Thus, 0.52/[(19.2)(50000)C] = 0.01
C = 0.52 / [(19.2)(50000)(0.01)] = 54.167uF 54.2uF
For D = 0.5, Vo /Vo = D/RCf
Thus, 0.5/[(19.2)(50000)C] = 0.01
C = 0.5 / [(19.2)(50000)(0.01)] = 52.083uF 52.1uF

d)
For 4.8 Duty Cycle

## For 5.2 Duty Cycle

The output voltage is of the opposite polarity as the input and can be lower or
higher than the input voltage depending upon Duty Cycle. This clearly shows
that the circuit design chosen meets the required specifications that is to be
able to produced the desired output given an input lower than or even higher
than the desired output.
Q2)
f = 50Hz, R = 12, L= 20mH, Vdc = 150V, Vamp = V1 = 120V
a)
(i) For bipolar PWM with mf = 21,
The harmonics are 21, 19 and 23 (from mf 2)
Computing the frequencies;
For n = n, fn = n x f1
For n = 1, f1 = 50
For n = 19, f19 = 50 x 19 = 950 Hz
For n = 21, f21 = 50 x 21 = 1050 Hz
For n = 23, f23 = 50 x 23 = 1150 Hz
Computing the voltages;
V1 = ma x Vdc
ma = V1 / Vdc
= 120/150
= 0.8
V21 = 0.82(150) = 123V
V19 = V23 = 0.22(150) = 33V

## Computing for currents, In;

In = Vn/Zn = Vn / sqrt(R2 + (nw0L)2)
I1 = 120 / sqrt((12)2 + (1 x 2pi(50) x 20m)2)
= 9.788723
9.8 A
I19 = 33 / sqrt((12)2 + (19 x 2pi(950) x 20m)2)
= 0.014548
= 0.01455 A
14.55 mA
I21 = 123 / sqrt((12)2 + (21 x 2pi(1050) x 20m)2)
= 0.0443897
= 0.0444 A
44.4 mA
I23 = 33 / sqrt((12)2 + (23 x 2pi(1150) x 20m)2)
= 0.009928315
= 0.00993 A
9.93 mA
Computing for currents, In,rms;
In,rms = In / sqrt(2)
I1,rms = 9.8 / sqrt(2)
= 6.9296A
6.93 A
I19,rms = 0.01455 / sqrt(2)
= 0.010288A
0.0103 A
I21,rms = 0.0444 / sqrt(2)
= 0.031396A
0.0312A
I23,rms = 0.00993 / sqrt(2)
= 0.007022A
0.007 A
Computing for power, Pn;
Pn = (In,rms)2R
P1 = (6.93)2x(12) = 576.3W
P19 = (0.0103)2x(12) = 0.0013W
P21 = (0.0321)2x(12) = 0.0124W
P23 = (0.007)2x(12) = 0.0006W
Computing for impedance, Zn;
Zn = Vn / In
Z1 = 120 / 9.8 = 12.245
Z19 = 33 / 0.01455 = 2268
Z21 = 123/ 0.0444 = 2770.3
Z23 = 33 / 0.00993 = 3323.3
n
1

fn(Hz)
50

Vn(V)
120

Zn()
12.245

In(A)
9.8

In,rms(A)
6.93

Pn(W)
576.3

19
21
23

950
1050
1150

33
123
33

2268
2770.3
3323.3

0.01455
0.0444
0.00993

## (ii) For bipolar PWM with mf = 41,

The harmonics are 41, 39 and 43 (from mf 2)
Computing the frequencies;
For n = n, fn = n x f1
For n = 1, f1 = 50
For n = 39, f39 = 50 x 39 = 1950 Hz
For n = 41, f41 = 50 x 41 = 2050 Hz
For n = 43, f43 = 50 x 43 = 2150 Hz
Computing the voltages;
V1 = ma x Vdc
ma = V1 / Vdc
= 120/150
= 0.8
V41 = 0.82(150) = 123V
V39 = V43 = 0.22(150) = 33V
Computing for currents, In;
In = Vn/Zn = Vn / sqrt(R2 + (nw0L)2)
I1 = 120 / sqrt((12)2 + (1 x 2pi(50) x 20m)2)
= 9.788723
9.8 A
I39 = 33 / sqrt((12)2 + (39 x 2pi(1950) x 20m)2)
= 0.0034531
= 0.00345 A
3.45 mA
I41 = 123 / sqrt((12)2 + (41 x 2pi(2050) x 20m)2)
= 0.0116455
= 0.01165 A
11.65 mA
I43 = 33 / sqrt((12)2 + (43 x 2pi(2150) x 20m)2)
= 0.0028405
= 0.00284 A
2.84 mA
Computing for currents, In,rms;
In,rms = In / sqrt(2)
I1,rms = 9.8 / sqrt(2)
= 6.9296A
6.93 A
I39,rms = 0.00345 / sqrt(2)
= 0.00243952A
0.00244 A
I41,rms = 0.01165 / sqrt(2)

0.0103
0.0312
0.007

0.0013
0.0124
0.0006

= 0.00823779A
0.00824A
I43,rms = 0.00284 / sqrt(2)
= 0.0020082A
0.00201 A
Computing for power, Pn;
Pn = (In,rms)2R
P1 = (6.93)2x(12) = 576.3W
P39 = (0.00244)2x(12) = 0.00007144W = 71.44uW
P41 = (0.00824)2x(12) = 0.00081477W = 814.77uW
P43 = (0.00201)2x(12) = 0.00004848W = 48.48uW
Computing for impedance, Zn;
Zn = Vn / In
Z1 = 120 / 9.8 = 12.245
Z39 = 33 / 0.00345 = 9565.22
Z41 = 123 / 0.01165 = 10557.94
Z43 = 33 / 0.00284 = 11619.72
n
1
39
41
43

fn(Hz)
50
1950
2050
2150

Vn(V)
120
33
123
33

Zn()
12.245
9565.22
10557.94
11619.72

In(A)
9.8
0.00345
0.01165
0.00284

In,rms(A)
6.93
0.00244
0.00824
0.00201

Pn(W)
576.3
0.00007144
0.00081477
0.00004848

## (iii) For unipolar PWM with mf = 10,

The harmonics are 19, 21, 17 and 23 (from 2mf 1 and 2mf 3)
Computing the frequencies;
For n = n, fn = n x f1
For n = 1, f1 = 50
For n = 17, f17 = 50 x 17= 850 Hz
For n = 19, f19 = 50 x 19 = 950 Hz
For n = 21, f21 = 50 x 21 = 1050 Hz
For n = 23, f23 = 50 x 23 = 1150 Hz
Computing the voltages;
V1 = ma x Vdc
ma = V1 / Vdc
= 120/150
= 0.8
V19 = V21 = 0.31(150) = 46.5V
V17 = V23 = 0.14(150) = 21V
Computing for currents, In;
In = Vn/Zn = Vn / sqrt(R2 + (nw0L)2)
I1 = 120 / sqrt((12)2 + (1 x 2pi(50) x 20m)2)
= 9.788723

9.8 A
I17 = 21/ sqrt((12)2 + (17 x 2pi(850) x 20m)2)
= 0.01156464
= 0.0116A
11.6 mA
I19 = 46.5 / sqrt((12)2 + (19 x 2pi(950) x 20m)2)
= 0.0205003
= 0.0205 A
20.5 mA
I21 = 46.5 / sqrt((12)2 + (21x 2pi(1050) x 20m)2)
= 0.0167815
= 0.0168A
16.8 mA
I23 = 21 / sqrt((12)2 + (23x 2pi(1150) x 20m)2)
= 0.00631802
= 0.0063 A
6.3 mA
Computing for currents, In,rms;
In,rms = In / sqrt(2)
I1,rms = 9.8 / sqrt(2)
= 6.9296A
6.93 A
I17,rms = 0.0116 / sqrt(2)
= 0.008177435A
0.0082 A
I19,rms = 0.0205 / sqrt(2)
= 0.014495901A
0.0145A
I21,rms = 0.0168 / sqrt(2)
= 0.011866312A
0.0119A
I23,rms = 0.0063 / sqrt(2)
= 0.004467515A
0.0045A
Computing for power, Pn;
Pn = (In,rms)2R
P1 = (6.93)2x(12) = 576.3W
P17 = (0.0082)2x(12) = 0.00080688W 0.0008W
P19 = (0.0145)2x(12) = 0.002523W 0.0025W
P21 = (0.0119)2x(12) = 0.00169932W 0.0017W
P23 = (0.0045)2x(12) = 0.000243W 0.0002W
Computing for impedance, Zn;
Zn = Vn / In
Z1 = 120 / 9.8 = 12.245
Z17 = 21 / 0.0116 = 1810.34
Z19 = 46.5 / 0.0205 = 2268.3
Z21 = 46.5 / 0.0168 = 2767.86

## Z23 = 21 / 0.0063 = 3333.33

n
1
17
19
21
23

fn(Hz)
50
850
950
1050
1150

Vn(V)
120
21
46.5
46.5
21

Zn()
12.245
1810.34
2268.3
2767.86
3333.33

b)
(i) bipolar PWM with mf = 21

In(A)
9.8
0.0116
0.0205
0.0168
0.0063

In,rms(A)
6.93
0.0082
0.0145
0.0119
0.0045

Pn(W)
576.3
0.0008
0.0025
0.0017
0.0002

Voltage spectrum