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Here i-St@r comes with a simple and automatic fire alarm and detection
system. This fire detection alarm circuit is based on thermistor. What is a
thermistor? A thermistor is nothing but a variable resistor whose resistance
changes with temperature. Fire detection is simply possible via this low-cost
alarm circuit.
A simple potential divider arrangement using thermistor is capable of sensing
the temperature(presence of fire) and alerting us with a warning signal. This is
suitable for your home security systems. Also school students can do this fire
detector circuit as their high school science fair projects. Here I will explain in
detail about fire alarm circuit wiring with animation/ simulation of fire

Circuit diagram of simple fire alarm

Components required
1. Power supply

2. Resistors (1k)
3. Potentiometer (10K)
4. Capacitor (10F, 16V)
5. BC548 transistor
6. High resistance thermistor (NTC)
7. Diode (1N4001)
8. 6V Buzzer

Working of fire alarm circuit

Working is based on the switching property of transistor.

The thermistor and R1 forms a potential divider network which drives the

The heart of this circuit is a thermistor. Thermistors are low-cost, easilyavailable temperature sensors widely used for uncomplicated temperature

Thermistors are temperature sensitive resistors. When temperature

increases resistance offered by the thermistor decreases and vice versa.
At normal temperature, the resistance of the thermistor is around 10k.

All resistors vary with temperature, but the semiconductor materials used
for thermistors are especially sensitive to temperature.

The transistor is turned ON by the voltage drop across the resistor R1.

Consider the temperature of the atmosphere is around 25C, and then the
resistance of thermistor is high so the voltage across the thermistor is also
high according to the basic ohms law V=IR.

The threshold voltage can be set by varying the potentiometer (R1).

At this situation voltage across resistor R1 is low and it is not sufficient to

turn on the transistor.

As temperature rises, the resistance of thermistor decreases so that the

drop across the resistor R1 increases which turns ON the transistor.

When the transistor is turned ON, the current from Vcc starts to flow via
6V buzzer which produces a beep sound.

Diode is used for enabling unidirectional conduction and the capacitor

removes sudden transients from the thermistor.

Simulation of the fire alarm project

We have used an LED instead of buzzer for the simulation of fire alarm system.