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Electronics Mini-Project

Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project

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Contents
Introduction
Application of Technology
Example: Remote Controlled Buggy with Light and Sound
Brief
Specification
System diagrams
555 timer circuit
Buzzer circuit
Computer simulation
Prototype board layout
Stripboard layout diagram
Component list
Connecting to the receiver
Develop, build and test
Evaluation
Appendix 1: Infrared Remote Control
Support materials
TEP remote control system
Infrared remote controllers
Modulated signals
The controller
The receiver
Remote controlled toy
The brief
Motor connections
Latching

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Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project

Introduction
This project can be used to help students prepare for the Application of Technology
assessment. It is an example of a possible mini-project that will stimulate students in
their study of technology. It gives them an opportunity to explore further areas of
technology that are not compulsory and to go beyond the specified content of the
course.
This project should not be confused with the assignments that SQA will issue for the
assessment of the Application of Technology element.
The project gives added value and interest to Standard Grade Technological Studies as
well as being a suitable vehicle for preparation for assessment. This mini-project will
allow students to engage in an interesting project that will cover the requirements of
the internal assessment; that is, to:
complete a specification from a given brief
create appropriate diagrams to illustrate the problem parameters
produce graphical representation of a proposed solution
identify appropriate components from a pre-prepared list or from data sheets
perform a computer simulation of the proposed solution
build and test the proposed solution
evaluate the solution against the original specification.
Students will be given a brief to extend or enhance a selected mini-project (in this
case a remote-controlled buggy). This will become clearer when the initial part of this
mini-project nears completion.

Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project

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Application of Technology
Application of Technology is an assessment element of Standard Grade Technological
Studies. It is included to reflect the requirement for students to apply knowledge,
understanding and skills in a purposeful way in order to solve technological problems.
Students are required to undertake two structured assignments for this internal
assessment. The SQA will provide centres with a detailed structure for each
assignment each year. It is envisaged that teachers will prepare their students for these
tasks by teacher-led examples. This mini-project is one such example.
This project uses the Technology Enhancement Programme (TEP) remote-control
system. The transmitter is a hand-held type normally used to control televisions in the
home. The receiver is a small circuit board that thinks that it is a Sony television.

Transmitter

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Receiver

Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project

Example: Remote-Controlled Buggy with Light and Sound


Brief
Use or build a three-wheeled buggy that has sound and flashing light.
Specification

The buggy must move under control.


The buggy must be steerable.
LEDs fixed to the receiver must flash on and off.
The LEDs must flash automatically once the signal is given from the transmitter.
A warning buzzer must be attached to the buggy.
The warning buzzer should be on the same circuit board as the LED circuit.
Different channels must control the LED circuit and the buzzer.

System diagrams

E le c tric a l
E n e rg y

L ig h t
So u n d

P ro c e s s

S y s te m B o u n d a r y

E le c tric a l
E n e rg y

E le c tric a l
S ig n a l

E le c tric a l
E n e rg y

5 5 5 Tim e r
C irc u it

L ig h t
E n e rg y

Bu zze r
C irc u it

So u n d
E n e rg y

In f ra - re d
R e c e iv e r
E le c tric a l
E n e rg y

Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project

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555-timer circuit
This circuit includes alternate flashing LEDs and uses a 555-timer integrated circuit
acting as an astable device.
+ 6 v o lts

270 R

1K

7
6
22 K

8
IC 1
555

3
5

270 R

47 uF

0 v o lts

Buzzer circuit
The buzzer can be added to the circuit board later. It will be connected straight to the
receiver output.
+ 6 v o lts

220 ohm s

Bu zze r

0 v o lts

The 0-volt line in both circuits will be connected to the negative terminal of the
outputs on the receiver. The positive voltage in the circuits will be connected to the
positive terminal.

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Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project

Computer simulation
The circuit was tested using Crocodile Clips and it worked perfectly. The size of the
input resistors (to pins 6 and 7) can be increased to decrease the frequency of the
flashing.

If the supply voltage is reduced to three volts then the protective resistors for the
LEDs can be decreased to 100 ohms.
Prototype board layout

+ ve

O u tp u t 1
f ro m re c e iv e r

270R

1K

555

22K

LE D

220R

B u zze r

O u tp u t 2
f ro m re c e iv e r

270R

- ve

47uF

LE D

Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project

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Stripboard layout diagram

+ ve

+ ve
X

X
X
X
X

-v e

-v e

The component values can be taken from the circuit diagram.


Note: X marks where the track has to be cut on the track-side of the stripboard.
Component list
Item

Quantity

Value/type

Stripboard
Resistor
Resistor
Resistor
Resistor
Integrated circuit (IC)
Light-emitting diode (LED)
Capacitor
Buzzer

1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

12 strips 25 holes
270
22 k
1 k
220
555 timer
5 mm
47 F (16 volt) electrolytic
Miniature 6 V (max)

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Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project

Connecting to the receiver


The connections would be made as follows.

Motor to channel A
Motor to channel B
555-timer circuit to channel 1
Buzzer circuit to channel 2

555
Tim e r
c irc u it

B u zze r
c irc u it

M o to r
M o to r

The connections will be made through a connecting block to prevent damage to the
receiver circuit board.

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Develop, build and test


This section will test the physical circuit and its operation. Diagrams or graphics of
the buggy layout would appear here. If the buggy were supplied in kit form then some
graphics would be provided.
Students would be expected to keep notes on any problems encountered and on
adjustments and improvements made to allow their circuits to operate effectively.
Notes on reasons for failure would also be useful.
Evaluation
This section would put together logical notes on the operation of the project. Notes
taken during the developing, building and testing would be extremely useful. The
final circuit has to be evaluated to each of the specifications. This should be in depth
for credit students. A photograph of the working solution would add to this evaluation.

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Standard Grade Technological Studies: Applied Electronics Electronics Mini-Project