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Designing

Palm

Sugar

Maker

by

Applied Electromagnetic Principle

AHMAD SONY A., DEWI RIMBUN K., AND MUHAMAD MUSTAGHFIRIN

Abstract The Sermo dam

is

the

only the

dam in the province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. It is located in the hills "Bukit Menoreh", precisely in Hamlet Sermo, Village Hargowilis, Kokap Kulon Progo Regency, for about 5 miles west from Wates, DI Yogyakarta province. The dam was inaugurated on 20 November 1996 by President Soeharto and until now Sermo become a buffer of water for agriculture in the bottom as well as a local tourist attraction that is very interesting and encouraging in Kulon Progo. One of other livelihood besides farming that done by people around the dam Sermo is to make palm sugar. Palm sugar is a sugar made from the nira, which is fluid removed from the flowers of the palm family tree, such as coconut and palm. But people around the dam Sermo better utilize coconut as a raw material to make it. How to make it quite simple, it's just making process undertaken by the Sermo dam citizen is still traditional so that it requires more energy. Therefore we need a tool that can make the production of palm sugar more efficiently. That tool can be designed by take advantage of the application of electromagnetic fields.

I.

INTRODUCTION

According to the Indonesian Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, palm sugar or brown sugar is a sweetener which made from the nira that comes from the male flower bunches of palm trees. Palm sugar is usually associated by any kind of sugar that made from the nira, which fluid is removed from the palm family tree flowers, such as coconut, siwalan, and palm. The manufacturing process can be divided into two namely as brown sugar and a palm sugar. To make brown sugar, an interest (Virgin) that has not bloomed is strongly bound (sometimes pressed by two sticks) at the base. This was done to prevent the division of interest resulting in nutrients that should be used for the expansion of flowers piled into liquid sugar. The interest then become swollen, then after the swelling stops, the interest stems are sliced gradually to remove the liquid sugar. Fluids are usually accommodated by using a bucket that made from the

leaves

of

the

palm

tree.

Fluid

stirrer. Frying pan is used for heat

gradually

accommodated

taken,

the brown sugar, stirrer is used to

usually 2-3 times. Then it is heated

stir the brown sugar evenly when

by the fire until thick. After a really

heated to reach appropriate

thick,

liquid

is

poured into bowls

viscosity, while the furnace is used

that made of palm leaves and ready for the market. Brown sugar

are mainly used as raw material to make soy sauce. Different from the brown sugar, the palm sugar is made by the male flowers of palm trees

collected

in a bamboo tube. Then

in

the bamboo tube is added laru

or Kawo which serves as a natural

preservative. This is done in order

to

the

juice

does

not

undergo

fermentation, which makes the sap

stretcher that can’t be made into sugar.

After

the

amount

of

nira

is

sufficient,

 

then

it

is

boiled

on

the

stove

in

a

large

skillet. The best

wood

for cooking

palm sugar

is

derived from old palm wood because its calorie is higher than usual firewood so that the cooking process is faster. Nevertheless, the fire also should not be too big, fit into the skillet and burn sugar that being cooked. If this is happened, the sugar will melt and it will taste bitter and make the color becomes black.

II. TOOL DESIGN

The

tools

that

used

in

the

manufacture

of

traditional

palm

sugar are a frying pan, furnace and

as a place to burn firewood to heat the brown sugar in a skillet. Disadvantages of these tools is we have to continually stir the brown sugar in a pan when heated in order to reach the appropriate viscosity. In addition, the burning of firewood produce the smoke that could contaminate the surrounding air. From the weakness whose the traditional tools have, exactly the our new tool will be designed in such a way that these weaknesses can be rectified.

Tools

that

are

designed

to

replace the traditional palm sugar maker are composed of a heater, a stirrer, electric motors and electric bell. Heater is used to replace the role of the frying pan and stove with the firewood that are used to heat the palm sugar. Through this way, the air pollution that caused by wood smoke can be eliminated. Heater is a device that converts electrical energy into heat energy. The energy source from the electric heater can be derived from PLN or other electric source. However, the tool is designed which the electric source of the heater comes from the PLN whose have a voltage of 220 V. Its voltage is previously decreased using a step-down transformer. The heater

produces heat only without causing the smoke that can pollute the air. It is ideal for eliminating the air pollution that caused by firewood in the traditional tools.

Palm

sugar

that

heat

in

the

heater must be stirred continuously so the design tool is used stirrer that connected to an electric motor. In the electric motor we apply electromagnetics principle.

The electric motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy by utilizing the application of electromagnetic fields. The power source that used is electrical energy because it will not cause air pollution. We do not need to stir continuously in order to appropriate palm sugar viscosity is obtained like traditional method one. This is because the stirrer in the design tool has been connected to an electric motor that can rotate continuously without our reaction. The electric motor will continue to rotate the stirrer in order to obtain an appropriate viscosity.

Problems

that arise

from this

tool is how make stirrer and heater

cease automatically when appropriate viscosity of the palm sugar is reached. To solve these problems, it is set electric bell that will rang when the appropriate viscosity of palm sugar has been reached. When the bell rang, it is mean that we need to stop the operation of this tool.

III.

APPLIED ELECTROMAGNETIC

A. Heater

The fundamental principle on the heater is to change electrical power into heat. We can do it by wind the current wire into the core. Previously we see that a time varying field will cause eddy currents to be induced in the core causing power loss. Furthermore the hysteresis effect of the material also causes additional power loss called hysteresis loss. The effect of both the losses will make the core hotter. We must see that these two losses, (together called core loss) are kept to a maximum in order to heat are produced by core is also maximum. To maximize the heat produced by core, we have to know the factor that can increase the eddy current loss and hysteresis loss.

1. Eddy current loss

When AC

is applied

to

a

coil

surrounding

the

work

(metal),

a

magnetic field is generated by the

current

flowing

in

the

coil,

and

induced

loss

that

is

generated

causing a heat. At the same time,

in the magnetic field which

alternates

with the

AC,

a

spiral

current (eddy current) is generated

by the electromagnetic induction. This eddy current generates Joule

heating,

and

a

heat

loss

of

the

electromagnetic

energy

(eddy-

current loss)

will

be

caused.

High frequency induction heating equipment performs heating by utilizing this power loss.

In order to heat produced by the core is maximum we have to increase the power
In
order to heat produced
by
the core
is
maximum we have to
increase
the
power
loss
due
to
eddy current loss. It is obvious
if

the cross sectional area of the eddy

path is magnified then eddy

voltage induced

too

will

be

increased (E eddy ∞ area). The eddy current also depend

on magnetic

flux density and the

supply

frequency

based

on

the

following relationship.

P eddy B 2 f 2

 

This

loss

is

greatest

on

the

surface

of

the

material

and

decease as we so deep inside. The

depth of the penetration (d ) of the

eddy

current

into

the

charge

is

given by :

 

d=

2π 1 ρ×10 9

 

μ r .f

cm

where,

ρ

=

resistivity of the

= the relative

molten metal,

μ r

permeability, and frequency of AC supply.

f

=

the

Now we see that the depth of the penetration, d, almost inversely to the square root of the frequency. For this case, the supply frequency is usually employed between 1 kHz and 4 kHz.

2. Hysteresis loss

Let

us

consider

a

magnetic

circuit with AC current supply. How the operating point is traced out if

the exciting current is

i=I max sin ωt

in the B-H curve. The nature of the

current variation in a complete cycle can be enumerated as follows:
current
variation
in
a
complete
cycle
can
be
enumerated
as
follows:

The figure above illustrated B-H

curve when the exciting current is AC supply. The explanation of the picture above is as follows.

Let

the core

had

no residual

field when the coil is excited by

i=I max sin ωt .

In

the

interval

0<ωt< π 2

,

B

will

rise

along the

path

OGP.

Operating

point

at

P

corresponds to

+I max or

+H max

.

For

the

interval

π

2

<ωt<π

,

operating moves along

the

path

PRT. At the point T, current is zero.

However, due to sinusoidal current,

i starts increasing in the –ve

direction as shown

in

the figure

above and operating point moves

along TSEQ. It may be noted that a

ve H of value OS is necessary to

bring the residual field to zero at S.

Then, at

the end

of

π <ωt <

3 π

2

,current

I max or field H max

interval

3 π

2

<ωt <2π

changes from

I max

the

interval

reaches

. In the next

current

to zero

and

operating point moves from M to N

along the path MN. After this a new

cycle of current variation begins

and the operating point now never

enters into the path OGP. The

movement of the operating point

can be described by two paths

(i)

namely:

QFMNKP for increasing current from

I max to +I max

.

(ii)

PRTSEQ for decreasing current

from +I max to I max .

This lack of retracing the same

path of the curve is called

hysteresis that is defined by closed

area QFMNKPPRTSEQ. This area is

also called

the

B-H

loop

of

the

material.

Therefore

total

area

enclosed by

the

B-H

loop

is

the

measure of the hysteresis loss per

unit

volume

per

unit

cycle.

To

increase hysteresis loss one has to

use a core material for which area

enclosed

will

be

as

large

as

possible. Figure below shown the

high

and

low

hysteresis

loss

in

different material.

. In the interval 0 < ωt < , B will rise along the path

Based on results

obtained by

experiments with different

ferromagnetic

materials

with

sinusoidal

currents,

Charles

Steimetz

proposed

the

empirical

formula for calculating hysteresis

loss analytically. Hysteresis loss per

unit volume,

n

P h =k h f B max

where, the coefficient

k h depends

on

the

material and

n,

known as

Steinmetz

exponent,

may

vary

from 1.5 to 2.5. For iron it may be

taken as 1.6.

 

3. Core Loss The sum of both hysteresis loss

and eddy current loss is called core

loss that can cause the core

become heat when current on the

winding wire act on it. For the

magnetic circuit which a

core

of

ferromagnetic material, the volume

and the thickness are constant, so

the core loss can be formulated as

follows.

Coreloss=Hysteresisloss+eddy current loss

P core =k h f B max +k e f 2 B max

n

2

B. Transformer

The function of transformer in

this

design

tool

is

to decrease

voltage

in

order to

the voltage is

safe

to

use

and

not cause

injury.

Previously,

transformer is

an

electrical

device

that

transfers

energy between two or more

circuits

through electromagnetic

induction. A varying current in the

transformer's

 

primary

winding

creates a varying magnetic flux in

the core

and a varying magnetic

field impinging on the secondary

winding.

This

varying magnetic

field at the secondary

induces a

varying electromotive

force (emf)

or

voltage

in

the

secondary

winding. Making use of Faraday's

Law in

conjunction

with

high magnetic

properties, transformers can thus

be

designed

to

efficiently

change AC voltages

from

one

voltage

level

to

another

within

power networks.

where, the coefficient depends on the material and n , known as Steinmetz exponent, may varyelectromagnetic induction . A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the core and a varying magnetic field impinging on the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field at the secondary induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or voltage in the secondary winding. Making use of Faraday's Law in conjunction with high magnetic permeability core properties, transformers can thus be designed to efficiently change AC voltages from one voltage level to another within power networks. The relationship between the voltage in primary and secondary winding can be formulated as follows. N V = N V Where, 1 = the number of primary winding 1 winding the voltage of primary 2 = the number of secondary winding " id="pdf-obj-5-300" src="pdf-obj-5-300.jpg">

The

relationship between the

voltage in primary and secondary

winding can be formulated as

follows.

N 1 V 1 =N 2 V 2

Where,

N 1

= the number

of primary

winding

V 1 =¿

winding

the voltage of primary

N 2

= the number of secondary

winding

V 2 =¿

winding

the voltage of secondary

Law of Conservation of Energy

In the heater work principle, the

core loss is made maximally,

but

inversely

in

the

transformer

the

core loss should keep to minimum

in order to the efficiency of the

transformer closed to 100 %. This

states

that

the

power

output

case can be achieved by using

cannot be greater than the

input

several thin electrically insulated

power. Power input is basically the

same as the output power. We see

that the power is formulated by P

= V.I , so it is obtained :

P

1 =P 2

V 1 I 1 =V 2 I 2

From that formula we can obtain

the relation between current and

the number of winding in the

primary and secondary one.

  • I N 2

1

=

  • I N 1

2

Ideal transformer (efficiency η =

100%) is transformer that can

transfer electrical energy from the

primary coil to the secondary coil

with

no

lost

energy.

However, in

reality, there is magnetic

incomplete

relationship

between

primary

and

secondary

winding,

and heating losses in the coil itself.

Previously, we see that heating loss

is caused by core loss that consist

of

hysteresis

loss

and

the

eddy

current loss.

 

plates (called laminations) stacked

together to form the core instead a

solid block of iron. The idea is

illustrated in the figure below

where the plates have been shown

for clarity, rather separated from

each other. While assembling the

core, the laminations are kept closely pact.
core,
the
laminations
are
kept
closely pact.
2 winding the voltage of secondary Law of Conservation of Energy In the heater work

Although the eddy current in the

core

of

transformer

has

been

reduced

transformer

by

still

less

than

100

%

laminations,

have

efficiency

because it

still

have the power loss. To calculate

the efficiency of the transformer we

can compare the output power to

input

power.

Hence,

formulated by :

it

can

be

η=

P out

P input

×100

η=

  • V 2 I 2

  • V 1 I 1

×100

C. The Electric Motor

We need this device to rotate the

stirrer so it can continuously stir

the palm sugar until reaching the

appropriate viscosity. This

fundamental work principle of this

device is changing the electric

power to mechanic power. It utilize

the winding wire that carrying

current in the magnetic field, so it

is cause the wire rotate. The value

of angular velocity that produced

by electrical motor is depending on

the current and magnetic

induction. The current winding wire

where placed in the magnetic field

can rise the Lorent force. This force

can cause the winding wire rotate.

The more number of winding wire

and stronger magnetic field can

increase the angular velocity of the

rotation. Figure below is illustrated

the

component

motor.

of

the

electrical

reduced transformer by still less than 100 % laminations, have efficiency because it still have the

The force that act in the device

can be explained as follows.

Previously, let see the figure below.
Previously,
let
see
the
figure
below.
reduced transformer by still less than 100 % laminations, have efficiency because it still have the

The figure (a) show the upside

view of the winding wire, figure (b)

show the front side view, while the

figure (c) show where the plane of

the winding wire form an angle to

its normal line.

The

magnitude of the torque

that shown by the winding wire can

be formulated as follows. τ=N A Bi sinθ

Where,

τ

= the produced torque (Nm)

N = the number of winding wire A = the area of plane wire (m 2 ) B = the magnetic field ( T )

i =

the exciting current in the

wire

( Ampere )

θ = the angle that is formed

by the normal line

of the

plane wire and the direction

of the magnetic field.

D. The Electric Bell

The useful of this device is to

sign when the appropriate

viscosity of the palm sugar has

been reached. The energy source

from this device is AC voltage

which has been stepped down by

the transformer. The AC voltage

source is obtained by the voltage

that is supplied by PLN. It has

voltage of 220 Volt. For the

safety reason, this voltage will

be stepped down by transformer

for about 30 V. The designed electrical bell

also

applies

the

principle

of

induced electromagnetic. This

device consists of iron stem that

a winding wire is placed on it.

The figure (a) show the upside view of the winding wire, figure (b) show the front

The thin zinc plate is placed

and

attached

 

on

top

 

of

the

induced

iron

stem.

 

When

the

wire

is

connected

to

an

AC

voltage

source,

the

thin

zinc

plate

will

be pulled

by

the iron

stem because

there

 

is

a

magnetic

field

 

around

it.

Because the source that used is

an

AC

voltage,

an

alternating

current work

on

it.

It

will cause

the

thin zinc

plat vibrate. This

vibration

will

produce

a

noise

such

that

the

thin

zinc

plate

contact

with

the

induced

iron

stem.

 

IV.

CONCLUSION

 
 

The

electromagnetic

principle

 

can be used to help people making

the

palm

sugar.

This

tool

can

reduce

the

air

pollution

which

caused by the traditional tool one.

Furthermore,

this

tool

can

ease

human work in the palm sugar

stirring

until

the

appropriate

viscosity has been reached. All of

the devices that are in

this

designed sugar palm maker utilize

the electromagnetic induction such

as transformer, electric motor, and

electric bell.

REFERENCES

[1]

Subagya,

Hari

and

Agus

Taranggono, “Sains FISIKA 3”,

Jakarta, Indonesia, June 2007. [2] Drajat, “FISIKA”, Indonesia, 2009. [3] Karaghpur, “Modul-7 Transformer:

Lesson 23 Ideal Transformer”, May

2008.

[4] Karaghpur, “Modul-7 Transformer:

Lesson 24 Practical Transformer”,

May 2008