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PRESENTATION ON

ROAD SAFETY

By:Ashutosh Mishra
Chief Engineer (RC/EPC/Build)
MPRDC, Bhopal

INTRODUCTION
Repeatedly we read on front page of newspaper in the morning:

Five persons were killed in an accident when a bus rammed head on


with a truck.

Bus hits road side trees 17 dead & 29 seriously injured.

Ten of marriage party dead as bus rolls into valley.

SCENARIO OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN INDIA.

Pedestrians, bicyclist and motorized two wheeler , riders are the vulnerable road users. Which
contributes 60% to 80% of all traffic fatalities in India.

One serious road accident in the country occurs every minute and 16 die on Indian roads every
hour India Contributes about 10% of total world road accidents fatalities.

1214 road crashes occur every day in India.

Two wheelers account for 25% of total road crash deaths .

377 people die every day, equivalent to a jumbo jet crashing every day.

Two people die every hour in Uttar Pradesh State with maximum number of road crash deaths.

Tamil Nadu is the state with the maximum number of road crash injuries

Share of National Highways and State Highways in total road network is just 6% but these cater to

70% to 75 % of total road traffic.

National Highways contribute 2% of total road network , accounts for 20% of road accidents and
25% of total road accidents fatalities.

The death rate per vehicle is 10 to 20 times higher in India as compared to high income countries
like Sweden, Norway, Australia, Japan, UK and USA.
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STATE WISE COMPARISON

SCENARIO OF ACCIDENTS IN MP
Road accidents snuffed out 25 lives and left 112 injured in Madhya Pradesh every day
last year. In this period, 9,292 people died and 41,204 sustained injuries in 39,698 cases,
according to National Crime Records of Bureau (NCRB).
With two deaths every day, Bhopal stayed at top in the state in road casualties, reporting
788 accidental deaths in 2014. More than 10 people were injured every day in the same
period, recording 3,740 cases of injuries.
MP is sixth in country in terms of deaths on road after Uttar Pradesh (16,324), Tamil
Nadu (15,190), Maharashtra (13,529), Karnataka (10,444) and Rajasthan (10,301).
From NCRB data, it emerged that Bhopal is among four cities after Delhi (1,332), Chennai
(1,046) and Jaipur (844) apparently making it clear metros like Bengaluru (729), Mumbai
(667) and Kolkata (431) were safer to drive than the city of lakes.

Other cities in the state like Indore, Jabalpur and Gwalior were much safer compared to
Bhopal with 298, 138 and 134 with deaths in road accident, respectively.
Over speeding accounted for 43.8% deaths (4,070) while 30% deaths (2,771) were due to
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careless driving/overtaking. All of 118 lives were lost to drunk driving.

ANALYSIS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN MP

In Bhopal, over speeding accounted for two-thirds of road accident deaths. In


Indore cases of over speeding were less. Careless driving claimed almost 25%
lives in Bhopal while in Indore it was reason for 63% deaths. No cases of careless
driving were reported in Gwalior and Jabalpur.

MP accounted for more than 10% accident cases in May (4,107) while 18.4%

accidents (7,337) happened between 12 noon and 3 pm, highest in any given
time period. Around 2,500 offenders died in road accidents in MP vis-a-vis 6,800

victims.

EFFECTS OF ACCIDENTS

Loss of productivity

Loss of property,

Damages and costs to the hospital system and emergency


services.

Socio-economic cost of road accidents estimated 3% of GDP.

Apart from this, there is incalculable personal loss of loved ones.

CAUSES OF ACCIDENT
Accidents can be unintentional and sometimes can be random but are generally

found to occur some hazardous location called black spot. Accidents are not
natural but they are caused. There are four major group of the risk factors for

occurrence of accident:1.

Human behavior which may be classified as excess speeding, driving under


influence of alcohol and not using safety devices (e.g. helmets, seat belts, child
restraints)

2.

Road factors like poor road design, lack of pedestrian footpath, inadequate
traffic calming and signals and inadequate visibility.

3.

Vehicle design/condition like faulty design and poor safety features and poor

roadworthiness of vehicles.
4.

Poor trauma care system.


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STRATEGIES IN ROAD SAFETY WORK.

Accident reduction
We use the knowledge of the accidents that have occurred on our existing roads
to improve the design of roads or to influence the behavior of road users, so that
similar accidents do no occur again.

Accident prevention
Accident prevention is the application of expertise in safe road design-road
geometry, as well as the materials used when we construct the new roads or

redesign the existing road.

PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS BY 4ES


1.

2.
3.
4.

Education
Enforcement
Engineering
Emergency Care

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1. Education:- To educate the road user regarding traffic rules and regulations

2. Enforcement :- To enforce the existing law regarding road traffic regulations


effectively.

3. Emergency Care:- To provide emergency medical aid to road accident victims


within half hour of accident.
4.

ENGINEERING:To implement road safety audit during feasibility study, preliminary design, completion
of detailed design, construction stage and completion of construction(pre opening) for
new roads.

To implement road safety audit during monitoring of existing roads.

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GUIDELINES OF COMMITTEE FORMED BY HONBLE SUPREME COURT ON ROAD


SAFETY

No estimate should be sanctioned by the State Govt. /Govt. of India unless the recommended provisions of IRC have

been included.

Improving road marking and sinages.

Road Safety audit should be done on all National Highways, State Highways and other roads.

Implementation of road safety audits recommendations by devising a safety measure plan should be put in place.

Identify black spots and eliminate them by taking suitable measures.

Improvement of junctions on National Highways, State Highways and other roads.

Provide speed calming measures on highways near inhabited areas.

Provide training for road safety to Engineers.

Establish a specialist road safety unit to monitor and improve the safety of road network.

Improve lighting on Highways near habitations.

Removal of dangerous road side objects.

Provision of separate roads for bicycle and non motorized modes on all arterial roads and highways.

Providing truck lay bays and providing bus bays and bus shelters along State Highways.

Wayside amenities for long distance drivers.

Develop a model stretch of Safe highways on an accident prone stretch and evaluate results.

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ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

Definition :Road safety audit is a formal procedure for independent assessment of the

accident potential and likely safety performance of a specific design for a road or
a traffic scheme weather new construction or an alteration to an existing road.

1.

Specific aims are


To minimize the number and severity of accidents, that will occur on the new or
modified road.

2.

To avoid the possibility of the scheme giving rise to accidents elsewhere in the
road network.

3.

To enable all kinds of users of the new or modified road to perceive clearly how
to use it safety.
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RSA METHODOLOGY
The four key elements which makes RSA most productive are :

Selections of projects for audit.

Role of different organization in RSA.

Team Selection

Audit Organization.

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ROAD SAFETY AUDIT CAN BE CONDUCTED ON ROAD PROJECTS

New freeway.

Major divided roads.

Pedestrian and bicycle routes.

Deviated local roads near major projects.

Local area traffic management schemes and their component


parts.

Signal upgrading.

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ROLE OF DIFFERENT ORGANIZATION IN RSA

Role of designer

Designer is responsible for planning/ designing the project.

Role of client

Client is one who allots the project to the designer and owns the project. It is the
task of the client to arbitrate in cases where the designer and auditor disagree.

Role of Auditor

Auditors responsibility is to carefully review the presented project material in


its entirely, in the light best road safety expertise and from the view point of all
relevant road users. Auditor also indicate all circumstances that cause misgivings
concerning road safety.

Team Selection

For large and significant projects, it is likely to have at least two members in the
audit team, but not more than four members. For small project single team
member will be sufficient.

Audit Organization
Two options are there for conducting a road safety audit.

Audit by specialist auditors.


Audit by those within the original design team or by any other road
designer

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STAGES IN RSA

The feasibility stage

The draft design stage

The detailed design stage

The pre-opening design stage

An audit of an existing road

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SPECIAL SAFETY ISSUES RELATED TO ROAD DESIGN

Designing for the users


A design should cater for all road users special attention needs to be given to safety
aspects associated with heavy vehicles like trucks and buses also special need for
pedestrian and non motorized traffic are to be considered.

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Design Speed
The design speed adopted should be computable with
the project objectives and be appropriate at joining
road side activities and terrain.

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Design Context
The safe design are different for major and minor
roads. Narrow sections or slow points may be
suitable on minor roads to slow down traffic and
improve safety. However on major roads such
squeeze point may well cause frustration and
becomes accidental spots.

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Horizontal and Vertical Curves

Accidental frequency increase at crests and in dips. Increasing the degree of


horizontal curvature also tends to increase accident frequency. To achieve
coordination of alignments and terrain fitting, it is possible that a crest may
mask the flow of the horizontal curve. Avoid tight horizontal curves particularly
in combination with crests or dips.

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Intersections
Priority and layout
The layout and control arrangements at an intersection should be simple
and obvious to approaching motorists.
Visibility
Provide adequate visibility distances for emerging traffic: dont confuse
visibility distances with warrants for stop signs. Avoid creating obstruction
by street furniture or landscaping.

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Other issues at Intersections


Provide safe pedestrian and cyclist crossing points.

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Access Control

At each point on the road system where vehicles have access to adjacent
land, there is the potential for conflict and accidents.

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Cross Section

Narrow lines
There is a view that traffic management has often gone too far in reducing the
lane width (from standard 3.5 m lane) of urban roads to create additional lanes
on multi-lane roads. This becomes hazardous on horizontal curve where larger
vehicle need extra width to tract.

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Shoulder widths

There is a safety benefit in providing reasonably wide shoulders


throughout the length of the road. It is best not to reduce widths
or eliminate shoulders.

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Trees
Survey information is often deficient on the location and size of trees within
the road reserves. The designer, therefore cannot be sure that the plans have
provided protection against vehicles hitting roadside trees.

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Road Signs
It is often too tempting to use traffic signs instead of working out an
appropriate design of road sign on the project highway in an attempt to solve
a real or perceived problem.

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Sight distance
The effect of horizontal and vertical curves and the cross-section is generally
closely examined during road design. However, trees, raised medians and
concrete barriers can also affect sight distance.

Night Visibility
Perception of widths as well as distances is usually more difficult at night time
or under poor light conditions. Where minimum width lanes are used or there
are island to narrow the road, a high standard of street lighting and
delineation should be sued. In the tunnels, adequate lighting should be
provided

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FEW VIEWS OF ROAD SINAGES OF MPRDC ROADS

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