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Hydrologic Routing

Flow Routing

Q
t

Procedure to
determine the
flow hydrograph
at a point on a
watershed from a
known hydrograph
upstream
As the hydrograph
travels, it
attenuates
gets delayed

t
Q

Q
t
2

Why route flows?


Q

Account for changes in flow hydrograph as a flood


wave passes downstream
This helps in

Accounting for storages


Studying the attenuation of flood peaks
3

Types of flow routing


Lumped/hydrologic
Flow is calculated as a function of time
alone at a particular location
Governed by continuity equation and
flow/storage relationship

Distributed/hydraulic
Flow is calculated as a function of space
and time throughout the system
Governed by continuity and momentum
equations
4

Hydrologic Routing
Discharge

I (t )

Inflow

Discharge

Transfer
Function

I (t ) Inflow

Q (t )
Outflow

Q (t ) Outflow

Downstream hydrograph
Upstream
hydrograph
Input, output, and storage are related by continuity
equation:

dS
I (t ) Q (t ) Q and S are
dt
unknown

Storage can be expressed as a function of I(t) or Q(t) or


both

S f (I ,

dI
dQ
, , Q,
, )
dt
dt

For a linear reservoir, S=kQ

Lumped flow routing


Three types
1. Level pool method (Modified Puls)
Storage is nonlinear function of Q

2. Muskingum method
Storage is linear function of I and Q

3. Series of reservoir models


Storage is linear function of Q and its
time derivatives
6

S and Q relationships

Level pool routing


Procedure for calculating outflow
hydrograph Q(t) from a reservoir with
horizontal water surface, given its
inflow hydrograph I(t) and storageoutflow relationship

Level pool methodology


Discharge

dS
I (t ) Q(t )
dt

Inflow

I j 1

Outflow

S j 1

( j 1) t

( j 1) t

Sj

jt

j t

dS

Ij
Q j 1
Qj

S j 1 S j

t
jt

( j 1) t

Time

t
2 S j 1

Storage

Idt

Qdt

I j 1 I j
2

Q j 1 Q j

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

Unknown

Sj
9
Time

2S j

Known

Need a function relating

S j 1

2S
Q, and Q
t
Storage-outflow function

Qj

Level pool methodology

Given
Inflow hydrograph
Q and H relationship

Steps
1. Develop Q versus Q+ 2S/t
relationship using Q/H relationship
2 S j 1
2S j
2. Compute Q+ 2S/t using Q j 1 I j 1 I j Q j
t
t
3. Use the relationship developed in step
1 to get Q
10

Ex. 8.2.1

Given I(t)

Given
Q/H

Elevation H Discharge Q
(ft)
(cfs)
0
0
0.5
3
1
8
1.5
17
2
30
2.5
43
3
60
3.5
78
4
97
4.5
117
5
137
5.5
156
6
173
6.5
190
7
205
7.5
218
8
231
8.5
242
9
253
9.5
264
10
275

Area of the reservoir = 1 acre, and outlet


diameter = 5ft
11

Ex. 8.2.1 Step 1

evelop Q versus Q+ 2S/t relationship using Q/H relationship


Elevation H Discharge Q Storage S 2S/ t + Q
3
(ft )
(ft)
(cfs)
(cfs)
0
0
0
0
0.5
3
21780
75.6
1
8
43560
153.2
1.5
17
65340
234.8
2
30
87120
320.4
2.5
43
108900
406
3
60
130680
495.6
3.5
78
152460
586.2
4
97
174240
677.8
4.5
117
196020
770.4
5
137
217800
863
5.5
156
239580
954.6
6
173
261360
1044.2
6.5
190
283140
1133.8
7
205
304920
1221.4
7.5
218
326700
1307
8
231
348480
1392.6
8.5
242
370260
1476.2
9
253
392040
1559.8
9.5
264
413820
1643.4
10
275
435600
1727

S Area Height 43560 0.5 21,780 ft 3


2S
2 21780
Q
3 75.6 cfs
t
10 60

12

Step 2
Compute Q+ 2S/t using

2 S j 1
t

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

2S j
t

Qj

At time interval =1 (j=1), I1 = 0, and therefore Q1 = 0 as the reservoir


is empty
Write the continuity equation for the first time step,
which can be used to compute Q2

2S 2

2S1

Q2 I 2 I1
Q1

2S 2

2 S1

Q2 I 2 I1
Q1 0 60 60

13

Step 3
Use the relationship between 2S/t + Q
versus Q to compute Q
2S 2

Q2 60

e the Table/graph created in Step 1 to compute Q


What is the value of Q if 2S/t + Q
= 60 ?
(3 0)
Q 0
(60 0) 2.4 cfs
(76 0)
So Q2 is 2.4
cfs
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for j=2, 3, 4 to
compute Q3, Q4, Q5..

14

Elevation H Discharge Q Storage S 2S/ t + Q


3
(ft )
(ft)
(cfs)
(cfs)
0
0
0
0
0.5
3
21780
75.6
1
8
43560
153.2
1.5
17
65340
234.8
2
30
87120
320.4
2.5
43
108900
406
3
60
130680
495.6
3.5
78
152460
586.2
4
97
174240
677.8
4.5
117
196020
770.4
5
137
217800
863
5.5
156
239580
954.6
6
173
261360
1044.2
6.5
190
283140
1133.8
7
205
304920
1221.4
7.5
218
326700
1307
8
231
348480
1392.6
8.5
242
370260
1476.2
9
253
392040
1559.8
9.5
264
413820
1643.4
10
275
435600
1727

Ex. 8.2.1 results


2S j
t

Qj

2 S j 1
2S j
t

Q j 2Q j

15

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

2S j
t

Qj

Ex. 8.2.1 results


12.0

Storage (acre-ft)

10.0

Outflow
hydrograp
h

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Time (minutes)

400
350

Inflow

Discharge (cfs)

300

Peak outflow intersects with the


receding limb of the inflow
hydrograph

250
200
150

Outflow

100
50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

TIme (minutes)

16

140

160

180

200

220

Q/H relationships

http://www.wsi.nrcs.usda.gov/products/W2Q/H&H/Tools_Models/Sites
.html
17 an NRCS Reservoir
Program for Routing Flow through

Latihan
Storage
Indication
Head
Elev (m) (m)
1070
0

Q (m3s)
0

Storage
(m3)

T (hr)
0

1071

17 1,000,000

1072

48.08 2,000,000

1073

88.33 3,000,000

1074

136.00 4,000,000

1075

190.07 5,000,000

1076

249.85 6,000,000

Inflow

I1+I2

17

20

50

100

130

150

140

110

90

10

70

11

50

12

30

13

20

14

17

15

17 18

2S/dt+
2S/dt-O O
Outflow
538.56

17

Hydrologic river routing (Muskingum Method)


Wedge storage in reach

S Prism KQ
S Wedge KX ( I Q )

Advancing
Flood
Wave
I>Q

K = travel time of peak through the reach


X = weight on inflow versus outflow (0 X
0.5)
X = 0 Reservoir, storage depends on
outflow, no wedge
X = 0.0 - 0.3 Natural stream

S KQ KX ( I Q)
S K [ XI (1 X )Q]

I Q
Q

Receding
Flood
Wave
Q>I

QI
I

Muskingum Method (Cont.)


S K [ XI (1 X )Q]
S j 1 S j K {[ XI j 1 (1 X )Q j 1 ] [ XI j (1 X )Q j ]}
Recall:
S j 1 S j

I j 1 I j
2

Q j 1 Q j
2

Combine:

Q j 1 C1 I j 1 C 2 I j C3Q j

t 2 KX
2 K (1 X ) t
t 2 KX
C2
2 K (1 X ) t
2 K (1 X ) t
C3
2 K (1 X ) t
C1

If I(t), K and X are known, Q(t) can be calculated using


20
above equations

Muskingum - Example

Given:
Inflow hydrograph
K = 2.3 hr, X = 0.15, t =
1 hour, Initial Q = 85 cfs

Find:
Outflow hydrograph using
Muskingum routing
method

t 2 KX
1 2 * 2.3 * 0.15

0.0631
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
t 2 KX
1 2 * 2.3 * 0.15
C2

0.3442
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3 * (1 0.15) 1
C3

0.5927
2 K (1 X ) t
2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
C1

21

Muskingum Example (Cont.)


Q j 1 C1I j 1 C 2 I j C3Q j
C1 = 0.0631, C2 = 0.3442, C3
= 0.5927
800
700

Discharge (cfs)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Time (hr)

22