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# Hydrologic Routing

Flow Routing

Q
t

Procedure to
determine the
flow hydrograph
at a point on a
watershed from a
known hydrograph
upstream
As the hydrograph
travels, it
attenuates
gets delayed

t
Q

Q
t
2

Q

## Account for changes in flow hydrograph as a flood

wave passes downstream
This helps in

## Accounting for storages

Studying the attenuation of flood peaks
3

## Types of flow routing

Lumped/hydrologic
Flow is calculated as a function of time
alone at a particular location
Governed by continuity equation and
flow/storage relationship

Distributed/hydraulic
Flow is calculated as a function of space
and time throughout the system
Governed by continuity and momentum
equations
4

Hydrologic Routing
Discharge

I (t )

Inflow

Discharge

Transfer
Function

I (t ) Inflow

Q (t )
Outflow

Q (t ) Outflow

Downstream hydrograph
Upstream
hydrograph
Input, output, and storage are related by continuity
equation:

dS
I (t ) Q (t ) Q and S are
dt
unknown

both

S f (I ,

dI
dQ
, , Q,
, )
dt
dt

## Lumped flow routing

Three types
1. Level pool method (Modified Puls)
Storage is nonlinear function of Q

2. Muskingum method
Storage is linear function of I and Q

## 3. Series of reservoir models

Storage is linear function of Q and its
time derivatives
6

S and Q relationships

## Level pool routing

Procedure for calculating outflow
hydrograph Q(t) from a reservoir with
horizontal water surface, given its
inflow hydrograph I(t) and storageoutflow relationship

Discharge

dS
I (t ) Q(t )
dt

Inflow

I j 1

Outflow

S j 1

( j 1) t

( j 1) t

Sj

jt

j t

dS

Ij
Q j 1
Qj

S j 1 S j

t
jt

( j 1) t

Time

t
2 S j 1

Storage

Idt

Qdt

I j 1 I j
2

Q j 1 Q j

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

Unknown

Sj
9
Time

2S j

Known

## Need a function relating

S j 1

2S
Q, and Q
t
Storage-outflow function

Qj

## Level pool methodology

Given
Inflow hydrograph
Q and H relationship

Steps
1. Develop Q versus Q+ 2S/t
relationship using Q/H relationship
2 S j 1
2S j
2. Compute Q+ 2S/t using Q j 1 I j 1 I j Q j
t
t
3. Use the relationship developed in step
1 to get Q
10

Ex. 8.2.1

Given I(t)

Given
Q/H

Elevation H Discharge Q
(ft)
(cfs)
0
0
0.5
3
1
8
1.5
17
2
30
2.5
43
3
60
3.5
78
4
97
4.5
117
5
137
5.5
156
6
173
6.5
190
7
205
7.5
218
8
231
8.5
242
9
253
9.5
264
10
275

diameter = 5ft
11

## evelop Q versus Q+ 2S/t relationship using Q/H relationship

Elevation H Discharge Q Storage S 2S/ t + Q
3
(ft )
(ft)
(cfs)
(cfs)
0
0
0
0
0.5
3
21780
75.6
1
8
43560
153.2
1.5
17
65340
234.8
2
30
87120
320.4
2.5
43
108900
406
3
60
130680
495.6
3.5
78
152460
586.2
4
97
174240
677.8
4.5
117
196020
770.4
5
137
217800
863
5.5
156
239580
954.6
6
173
261360
1044.2
6.5
190
283140
1133.8
7
205
304920
1221.4
7.5
218
326700
1307
8
231
348480
1392.6
8.5
242
370260
1476.2
9
253
392040
1559.8
9.5
264
413820
1643.4
10
275
435600
1727

## S Area Height 43560 0.5 21,780 ft 3

2S
2 21780
Q
3 75.6 cfs
t
10 60

12

Step 2
Compute Q+ 2S/t using

2 S j 1
t

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

2S j
t

Qj

## At time interval =1 (j=1), I1 = 0, and therefore Q1 = 0 as the reservoir

is empty
Write the continuity equation for the first time step,
which can be used to compute Q2

2S 2

2S1

Q2 I 2 I1
Q1

2S 2

2 S1

Q2 I 2 I1
Q1 0 60 60

13

Step 3
Use the relationship between 2S/t + Q
versus Q to compute Q
2S 2

Q2 60

## e the Table/graph created in Step 1 to compute Q

What is the value of Q if 2S/t + Q
= 60 ?
(3 0)
Q 0
(60 0) 2.4 cfs
(76 0)
So Q2 is 2.4
cfs
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for j=2, 3, 4 to
compute Q3, Q4, Q5..

14

3
(ft )
(ft)
(cfs)
(cfs)
0
0
0
0
0.5
3
21780
75.6
1
8
43560
153.2
1.5
17
65340
234.8
2
30
87120
320.4
2.5
43
108900
406
3
60
130680
495.6
3.5
78
152460
586.2
4
97
174240
677.8
4.5
117
196020
770.4
5
137
217800
863
5.5
156
239580
954.6
6
173
261360
1044.2
6.5
190
283140
1133.8
7
205
304920
1221.4
7.5
218
326700
1307
8
231
348480
1392.6
8.5
242
370260
1476.2
9
253
392040
1559.8
9.5
264
413820
1643.4
10
275
435600
1727

2S j
t

Qj

2 S j 1
2S j
t

Q j 2Q j

15

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

2S j
t

Qj

## Ex. 8.2.1 results

12.0

Storage (acre-ft)

10.0

Outflow
hydrograp
h

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Time (minutes)

400
350

Inflow

Discharge (cfs)

300

## Peak outflow intersects with the

receding limb of the inflow
hydrograph

250
200
150

Outflow

100
50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

TIme (minutes)

16

140

160

180

200

220

Q/H relationships

http://www.wsi.nrcs.usda.gov/products/W2Q/H&H/Tools_Models/Sites
.html
17 an NRCS Reservoir
Program for Routing Flow through

Latihan
Storage
Indication
Elev (m) (m)
1070
0

Q (m3s)
0

Storage
(m3)

T (hr)
0

1071

17 1,000,000

1072

48.08 2,000,000

1073

88.33 3,000,000

1074

136.00 4,000,000

1075

190.07 5,000,000

1076

249.85 6,000,000

Inflow

I1+I2

17

20

50

100

130

150

140

110

90

10

70

11

50

12

30

13

20

14

17

15

17 18

2S/dt+
2S/dt-O O
Outflow
538.56

17

## Hydrologic river routing (Muskingum Method)

Wedge storage in reach

S Prism KQ
S Wedge KX ( I Q )

Flood
Wave
I>Q

## K = travel time of peak through the reach

X = weight on inflow versus outflow (0 X
0.5)
X = 0 Reservoir, storage depends on
outflow, no wedge
X = 0.0 - 0.3 Natural stream

S KQ KX ( I Q)
S K [ XI (1 X )Q]

I Q
Q

Receding
Flood
Wave
Q>I

QI
I

## Muskingum Method (Cont.)

S K [ XI (1 X )Q]
S j 1 S j K {[ XI j 1 (1 X )Q j 1 ] [ XI j (1 X )Q j ]}
Recall:
S j 1 S j

I j 1 I j
2

Q j 1 Q j
2

Combine:

Q j 1 C1 I j 1 C 2 I j C3Q j

t 2 KX
2 K (1 X ) t
t 2 KX
C2
2 K (1 X ) t
2 K (1 X ) t
C3
2 K (1 X ) t
C1

## If I(t), K and X are known, Q(t) can be calculated using

20
above equations

Muskingum - Example

Given:
Inflow hydrograph
K = 2.3 hr, X = 0.15, t =
1 hour, Initial Q = 85 cfs

Find:
Outflow hydrograph using
Muskingum routing
method

t 2 KX
1 2 * 2.3 * 0.15

0.0631
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
t 2 KX
1 2 * 2.3 * 0.15
C2

0.3442
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3 * (1 0.15) 1
C3

0.5927
2 K (1 X ) t
2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
C1

21

## Muskingum Example (Cont.)

Q j 1 C1I j 1 C 2 I j C3Q j
C1 = 0.0631, C2 = 0.3442, C3
= 0.5927
800
700

Discharge (cfs)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Time (hr)

22