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MANAJEMEN PROYEK

JOURNAL REVIEW
Asep Hapidin | Aditya P Nugraha | PSIM | 2016

Joe Sanderson
Department of Management, School of Business,
University of Birmingham, Birmingham - UK

RISK, UNCERTAINTIES AND GOVERNANCE IN


MEGAPROJECTS : A CRITICAL DISCUSSION OF
ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATION

Pendahuluan

Kesimpulan

3
Pembahasan

2
Tujuan

Overview

RISK, UNCERTAINTIES AND GOVERNANCE IN MEGAPROJECTS : A


CRITICAL DISCUSSION OF ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Background

Governance : more and more


popular in project management.
Governance: Forms of organiza6on
designed, Governing : microprocesses of organizing emerging.
Mega Project, The Large
Engineering project or The Serviceled Project

INTRODUCTION
Mega Project?
a) Project: Substantial physical
infrastructure or asset with a life
expectancy in decades;
b) Client is often a government or
public sector organisation;
c) Main contractor (consortium) of
contractors are usually privatelyowned and financed;

INTRODUCTION
Mega Project?
d) Contractor often retains an
ownership stake in the
infrastructure/asset after the
construction phase is completed
e) Is paid by the client for the service
that flows from the asset's operation
or use over a number of years >>
Public-private partnership

MENGAPA PENULIS TERTARIK


MENGANGKAT TOPIK INI.
Joe Sanderson

INTRODUCTION
Challenges for Project Manager
a) High levels of complexity in
various dimensions,
b) Poten6al for signicant conicts
of interest,
c) The need to make decisions and
to act under condi@ons of
uncertainty as well as risk

INTRODUCTION
Challenges for Project Manager
Results:
- Intractable Challenges (hard
to control/deal with),
- Signicant cost overruns,
- Delays in comple6on
- Failure to deliver.

INTRODUCTION
Challenges for Project Manager
Paradox:
Megaprojects have become
increasingly popular in recent
years.

RISK, UNCERTAINTIES AND GOVERNANCE IN MEGAPROJECTS : A


CRITICAL DISCUSSION OF ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS

PURPOSE

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE
a) Dierent explaina6on of the
signicant performance problems
exhibited by many megaprojects,
b) Cri6cally examines their suggested
governance solu6ons.
c) To provide a broad categorisa6on of
dierent types of explana6on and
associated solu6ons,
d) To iden6fy any signicant
commonali6es between explana6ons.

INTRODUCTION

TUJUAN
a) Memberikan beberapa macam
deskripsi kendala kinerja signikan
yang terjadi di banyak megaproyek
b) Menjelaskan solusi pengelolaan
yang ditawarkan.
c) Menyajikan penggolongan
umum deksripsi dan solusinya
d) mengiden6kasi kesamaan
deskripsi yang diperoleh.

INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY
Examining each author's
fundamental epistemological
assump@ons about decisionmaker cogni@on and about
decision-maker views on the
nature of the future.
Snowball eect on selected
words & phrases.

MENGAPA PENULIS MENGGUNAKAN


METODOLOGI INI?
Joe Sanderson

INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY
Banyak riset tentang manajemen
proyek, Megaproyek : Tidak
banyak.
studi yang dilakukan bukan studi
teknis/lapangan. namun merupakan
studi literatur
Studi yang dilakukan bersifat
kualita6f dan merupakan 6njauan
tertulis atas suatu fenomena

RISK, UNCERTAINTIES AND GOVERNANCE IN MEGAPROJECTS :


A CRITICAL DISCUSSION OF ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS

RESULT & DISCUSSION

RESULT & DISCUSSION

3 ALTERNATIVES OF DECISION-MAKER COGNITION


Cogni6on Category 1: op@mising >> Unlimited 6me, informa6on and cogni6ve
capacity, and make choices that maximise their best interests
Cogni6on Category 2: Op@mising within Limits >> Constraints of limited 6me,
informa6on and cogni6ve capacity, but s6ll maximise their best interests
Cogni6on Category 3: sa@sfying >> Constraints of limited 6me, informa6on
and cogni6ve capacity, and make choices that sa@sfy their aspira6on levels
Known as : Full Ra-onality & Bounded Ra-onality

RESULT & DISCUSSION

RISK OR UNCERTAINTY?
Megaprojects always deals more generally with risk and uncertainty
(Mega) Project management aims:
- To remove (or substan6ally reduce) uncertainty about mee6ng
specied objec6ves.
- Megaproject management typically devote signicant aXen6on to
techniques and models that are designed to iden@fy, assess and
ul@mately manage the risks and uncertain@es associated.

RESULT & DISCUSSION

RISK CATEGORY 1
A PRIORI

UNCERTAINTIES
CATEGORY 1
SUBJECTIVE

RISKS & UNCERTAINTIES


RISK CATEGORY 2
STATISTICAL

UNCERTAINTIES
CATEGORY 2
SOCIALISED

RESULT & DISCUSSION

RISKS
Risk Category 1: a priori probability
Able to assign objec6ve probabili6es to a known range of future events.
Risk Category 2: sta@s@cal probability
Able to assign objec6ve probabili6es to a known range of future events
on the basis of empirical/sta@s@cal past data.

RESULT & DISCUSSION

UNCERTAINTIES
Uncertainty Category 1: subjec@ve probability
No data to assign objec6ve probabili6es to each. Instead they use
expecta@ons grounded in historical prac6ce to es6mate the subjec6ve
probability of future events akin to scenario planning.
Uncertainty Category 2: socialised
No relevant data. The future is inherently unknowable, because it is socially
constructed and may bear liTle or no rela@on to the past or the present.

RESULT & DISCUSSION

WHY MEGAPROJECTS FAILS


Explana@on type A : Strategic Rent-Seeking Behaviour
Straigh\orward decep6on and lying as tac6cs aimed at ge_ng projects
started.

Explana@on type B Misaligned and Underdeveloped Governance
Incoherent, inappropriate or underdeveloped governance arrangements,
not capable of handling the risks, uncertain6es and turbulence.

RESULT & DISCUSSION

WHY MEGAPROJECTS FAILS


Explana@on type C : Diverse project
cultures and ra@onali@es.
Project managers understand inputs to
and outputs from the project in very
dierent, incomplete and o`en
compe6ng ways.

RESULT & DISCUSSION

WHY MEGAPROJECTS FAILS : SOLUTIONS


Explana@on type A : Strategic Rent-Seeking Behaviour
- Explicit legal requirement
- No bad poli@cians around.
- Improve accountability: Give greater involvement of stakeholder
groups and civil society to ensure proper transparency;
comprehensive regulatory and risk management plan; using private
sector risk capital as the major source of nance.

RESULT & DISCUSSION

WHY MEGAPROJECTS FAILS : SOLUTIONS


Explana@on type B : Misaligned and Underdeveloped Governance
- Build stronger, more coopera@ve and more exible
rela@onships between project par@cipants.
Examples : alliance ownership structure; nancial guarantees
from government to support project nanciers.
that the governance mechanisms selected and designed must be
appropriate to the par6cular context and characteris6cs of a project

RESULT & DISCUSSION

WHY MEGAPROJECTS FAILS : SOLUTIONS


Explana@on type C : Diverse project cultures and ra@onali@es.
A number of governance mechanisms were used to underpin
this collabora6ve project culture.
A formal statement of key values as a basis for resolving
disputes internally and a risk/reward regime based on
mone@zed key performance indictors (KPIs).

RISK, UNCERTAINTIES AND GOVERNANCE IN MEGAPROJECTS :


A CRITICAL DISCUSSION OF ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSIONS
Three dis@nct types of megaproject issue : The strategic rent-seeking, misaligned or
underdeveloped governance mechanisms, and diverse and compe6ng project cultures and
ra6onali6es
Project - as- prac@ce for researchers. Benet:
First, learn micro-analy6c focus upon the day-to-day ac6vi6es of management
prac66oners and their meaning in a specic se_ng.
Second, the approach draws aXen6on to the wide range of actors involved, both
formally and informally, in crea6ng a project, and in making it happen.
Third, it emphasizes the relevance and importance of emergent, non-programmed, in
other words spontaneous, work ac6vi6es for an understanding of how a project
develops.

Asep Hapidin | H251150421


Aditya P Nugraha | H251150471

THANK YOU