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You are on page 1of 12

1. Mathematical model

2. Numerical solution procedure

3. Hand-calculations of expected results/trends

Heat Conduction in a Bar

y

x

z

distribution in the bar due to heat conduction

Infinitesimal Control Volume

Infinitesimal

Control Volume

Equation and Boundary Conditions

Governing equation

= 0,

Boundary conditions

0 =

q L = q =

Numerical Solution:

Discretization

Reduce the problem to determining temperature

values at selected locations (nodes)

T

1

x

We have assumed a shape for ( ) consisting of piecewise

polynomials

Temperatures ?

System of

Invert

algebraic

equations in nodal

temperatures

Mathematical Model

(Boundary Value

Problem)

Piecewise

polynomial

approximation for T

={ }

Each algebraic

equation will

relate a nodal

temperature to

its neighbors

Nodal

temperatures

Post

processing

( )

Equations?

Piecewise

polynomial

approximation for T

=0

System of algebraic

eqs. in nodal

temperatures

Piecewise polynomial

approximation for T

Weighted Integral

Form

=0

( ) is an

arbitrary function

=0

(x) is an

arbitrary piecewise

polynomial function

in nodal temperatures

Equations?

Piecewise polynomial

approximation for T

dx = 0

(x) is an

arbitrary piecewise

polynomial function

in nodal temperatures

Integration by Parts

w k

=0

w k

dT

1

w

=0

=0

dT

+ 0.5

+ 0.5 +

=0

w k

dT

+w

w k

dT

=0

=0

+ 0.5 +

dT

k

3

dT

w k

1

w

dT

dT

=0

=0

3

+ 0.5

+ 0.5 +

=0

={ }

w k

1

dT

k

3

dT

={ }

dT

w k

1

w

+ 0.5

+

+ 0.5 +

dT

=0

=0

w k

dT

=0

k

2

dT

4

={ }

= 0.5

= 0.5 +

=T

= 0.5 +

= 0.5Q

Solutions

Nodal temperature values are exact

Unusual property of 1D FE solution

satisfied exactly

Flux boundary condition is satisfied

approximately

Error in / > Error in

Energy is not conserved for

each element

=

=

5.5 W/m

Energy is

conserved for

the bar

10

Approximation?

Increase no. of elements

Increase order of polynomial

within each element

Original Mesh

2

element

Refined Mesh

1

Second-Order Element

3 elements

6 elements

11

the Big Ideas

Mathematical model to be solved is usually a boundary value

problem

Reduce the problem to solving selected variable(s) at selected

locations (nodes)

Assume a shape for selected variable(s) within each element

Derive system of algebraic equations relating neighboring nodal

values

Invert this system to determine selected variable(s) at nodes

Derive everything else from selected variable(s) at nodes

the Big Ideas

Reduce error by using more elements and/or

increasing the order of interpolation

Finite-element solution doesnt satisfy the

differential equation(s)

Satisfies a special weighted integral form

exactly

Natural or gradient boundary conditions are

satisfied approximately

12

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