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Engineering Workshop Manual

CARPENTRY SHOP
INTRODUCTION:
In this students will study the materials and the tools used in
carpentry shop. The major raw material used in carpentry shop is wood
and other helping materials are nails, screws, paints and glues. The wood
is available in the market in different shapes and sizes. The processes
done in wood work are sawing, marking, turning and chiseling etc.
Wooden furniture's, doors, windows and patterns are generally made in
carpentry shop.
WOOD: Wood is available in nature in the form of trees. Useful part of the
tree is cut and is used for carpentry work. Trunk is the most useful part of
the tree.
CARPENTARY TOOLS
The efficiency of work man depends up on the tools used in the work
shop. Good quality tools always make the work easy. In the carpentry
shop the tools are classified as under:
1. MEASURING TOOLS

2.MARKING TOOLS

3. CUTTING TOOLS

4.PLANNING TOOLS

5. HOLDING DEVICES

6.STRIKING TOOLS

1. MEASURING TOOLS:
(a)STEEL RULE: It is made up of a stainless steel and is marked with
scale also there is graduation in both inches and centimeters and inches
and centimeters are also further divided into smaller divisions. In the
conversion table between different units is also mentioned.

Dept. of ME, SVCE, Tirupati

Engineering Workshop Manual


(b) CONTRACTION SCALE: It is also a rule type scale used for marking
patterns. Casting allowances are added to this scale.
(c) INCH TAPE: It is made up of

thin steel strip. It is folded around a

centre Pin attached with a small handle. It is graduated.

2. MARKING TOOLS:
(a) PENCIL: lead pencil is generally used for marking purposes.

Pencil
(b) SCRIBER: Scriber has a sharp conical edge used to mark on even
hard surfaces. The font edge is hardened so as to resist wear and tear. It
is made up of carbon steel. It is used for measuring and marking the
points and lines on the wooden stock before processing.

Scriber
(c) MARKING GAUGE: It is used to draw parallel lines. The movable
portion of the gauge is adjusted to suitable position and is tightened on
the stem. The piece which slides is called as stock and a scribing pin fixed
on the stem. One face of the stock remains in contact with the job while
marking; by the help of the thumb screw we can tighten stock anywhere
on the stem.

Dept. of ME, SVCE, Tirupati

Engineering Workshop Manual

(d) MORTISE GAUGE: It is used to draw two parallel lines. Its working is
similar to marking Gauge except it has two sharp edges. One fixed and
second adjustable or fixed.

(e) TRY SQUARE: It is used to draw lines at right angle, parallel or to


check the

trueness of planed surfaces. It is made up of a steel blade

with heavy base.

Try Square
(f) BEVEL: It consists of a wooden handle fitted with an adjustable blade
as shown in the figure. The blade can be rotated by 1800 with respect to
handle. It is used for marking various angles.

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Engineering Workshop Manual


(g) COMPASS/DIVIDERS: These are used for dividing equal number of
parts and for drawing arcs and circles, it consists of two legs. A screw is
also attached at the centre of legs for adjustment.

COMPASS/DIVIDER
3. CUTTING TOOLS: Saw and chisel are used as cutting tools in
carpentry shop.
3.1 SAW: A saw is a multi tooth tool made up of thin sheet attached with
a wooden handle. Its teeth are ground and sharpened to achieve smooth
cutting. Types of saws are
a) RIP SAW: It is hand saw from 30cm to 75cm. long, containing one to
one and half teeth per cm. it should not be called a hand saw but a rip
saw only. Cutting of the wood is done along the grains nearly the entire
length of the saw blade is used for cutting. Cutting takes place in the
forward stroke and backward stroke is ideal.

RIPSAW
b) TENON SAW: It derives its name from the tenon form of joint. It is a
thin saw arranging from 20cm to 40 cm. in length, and is supported by
back of wrought iron or brass; hence it is also called a backsaw it contains
about 4 teeth

to a cm. it is used primarily for shortcuts such as for

tenons. so the blade is provided with a reinforcing strip or back at the top
so that blade is prevented from bending during operation.

TENON SAW

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Engineering Workshop Manual

(c). COPING SAW: It is used for cutting quick or sharp curves either
internal or external for cutting the internal surfaces first-drilling is done
and then the saw blade is inserted in the hole for cutting it consists of
approximately 10 teeth per cm.

COPING SAW
(d). COMPASS SAW: It is a short narrow saw, tapering toward the point,
used for cutting sweeps and

interior

curves

by

hand,

sometimes

termed as a table saw.


(e). CROSS CUT SAW: It is a saw provided with two handles, one at
each end. Used for cutting heavy timber across the grains.

CROSS CUT SAW


SETTING OF SAW TEETH: The teeth of saw are bend in opposite
direction alternatively. It is known as saw teeth setting. It is made of form
a clearance between two cutting edges so that the saw may work without
any restriction.
3.2 CHIESELS: There are 3 types of chisels commonly used in carpentry
shop
A. FIRMER CHISEL: it is a general purpose chisel used to finish inside
grooves. It has various sizes of cutting edge depending upon the work to
be done. Width varies from 5 mm to 35 mm. The cross-section of the
blade is rectangular in shape the wider portion of the rectangle shows the
width and the smaller side the thickness

Dept. of ME, SVCE, Tirupati

Engineering Workshop Manual

B. MORTISE CHISEL: It is used to make mortises. Mortise chisel is used


for heavy cuts. The blade thickness varies from 5mm to 12 mm. Because
of wider thickness this blade is stronger in comparison to other chisels of
same size therefore; it is capable of taking the heavy blows.

C. DOVE TAIL CHISEL: It has a blade with a believed back, due to which
it can enter sharp comes to finish them.

DOVE TAIL CHISEL


4.

PLANNING

TOOLS:

Planning

tools

are

used

for

smoothening

purposes, preparing proper sizes and for forming curved wooden strips.
Any types of planes are used in carpentary shop.
a. WOODEN JACK PLANE: Its length is 20" - 40" and used for general
purpose. It consists of a wooden body called as stock; bottom face is
called as sole. The blade is fixed in the stock at an angle 450 with respect
to sole and material of the blade is high carbon steel. The projection of
the blade from the sole is controlled by a tapered wooden edge.

WOODEN JACK PLANE

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Engineering Workshop Manual


b. METAL JACK PLANE: This plane is used for better finish. It is made of
cast iron with a wooden handle at the back and a wooden knob at the
front, so that it can be held by both the hands during operation. These
planes have a rigid and stronger body in comparison to wooden jack
plane, but it is costlier.

METAL JACK PLANE


c. WOOD RASP FILE: It is also known as a rasp file. It is a finishing tool
used to make the wood surface smooth, remove sharp edge, finishing
fillets and other interior surfaces. Sharp cutting teeth are provided on its
surface for this purpose. This file is used in wood-work only.

WOOD RASP FILE


5. HOLDING TOOLS:
a. WORK BENCH: It is a table which is made of steel or wood. Two or
four carpenters vice are fixed at the four corners of the table. This table
acts as a base for all the carpentary or wood working operations.

WORK BENCH

Dept. of ME, SVCE, Tirupati

b. C-CLAMP: C-Clamp is a simple type of clamping device. It is generally


used to paste one wood on the other or for alignment purposes.

6. STRIKING TOOLS: Striking tools are used to force the nails or chisels
in to the wood. Main striking tools are used as under
a. CROSS PEEN HAMMER OR BALL PEEN HAMMER: It has a cast steel
body and a wooden handle. Body has two parts face and peen. In cross
peen hammer, the peen is in the form of a narrow-round edge ridge
placed at right angle to the axis of the handle.

BALL PEEN HAMMER


b. CLAW HAMMER: It is used for striking as well as for pulling the nails
from the wood. The material of the wood is case steel. One end is made
striking and the second is claw face. Its weight varies from 0.25 kg to
0.75 kg.

CLAW HAMMER

c. WOODEN MALLET: It is used to strike the chisels which have wooden


handles. It is made up of a hard wood and is round or rectangular in
shape.

WOODEN MALLET

BRIDDLE JOINT
EXP: NO: 1
Date:
AIM:
To make the Briddle joint on the given from the wooden work piece
from the desired dimensions.
150X40X30mm wooden piece

All Dimensions are in mm


TOOLS REQUIRED:
1. Metal Jack plane

6. Dove Tail Chisel

2. Try square

7.Firmer chisel

3. Marking gauge

8. Mortise chisel

4. Carpentry vice

9. Wooden mallet

5. Steel Rule

10. Cross Cut Saw

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:
1. Rough planning
2. Marking
3. Chiseling
4. Cutting and sawing
5. Finish planning
Dept. of ME, SVCE, Tirupati

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WORKING PROCEDURE:
1. The job is firmly fixed in the carpentry wise and any two surfaces
are planed by jack plane to get right angle.
2. Using try square, the right angle of the work piece is checked.
3. All the four sides of the wooden pieces are planed to get the
smoother and finished surface.
4. The job is cut in to two halves using rip saw then proper marking is
done for T-joint on the two pieces using steel ruled and making
gauge.
5. One half is taken and using tenon saw and firmer chisel the
unwanted portions are removed as per the drawing. The same is
repeated for the second piece also.
6. Jack plane is used to plane the other half of the work piece.
7. Now the two pieces are assembled to check proper fitting.
8. The finished job is again checked for its accurate shape and size
using try square and steel rule.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Tool should be placed properly on work bench.
2. Wooden pieces with projected nails should not be allowed to
remain lying on the shop floor.
3. Never stand in front of the blade while working on a circular
saw.
4. Blunt tools should not be used.
5. The wooden pieces should not be fed to the sawing machines
faster than the cutting speed of the machine.
6. Before starting cutting, allow the saw to attain the full speed.
7. While working on wood lathes the job should be properly held
between the centers.
8. Do not try to operate the machine or tools without having
proper knowledge.
RESULT:

HALF LAP JOINT


EXP: NO: 2
Date:
AIM:
To make a half lap joint on the given from the wooden work piece
from the desired dimensions.
150X40X25mm wooden piece

Fig: HALF LAP JOINT


All Dimensions are in mm
TOOLS REQUIRED:
1. Metal Jack plane

6. Dove Tail Chisel

2. Try square

7.Firmer chisel

3. Marking gauge

8. Mortise chisel

4. Carpentry vice

9. Wooden mallet

5. Steel Rule

10. Cross Cut Saw

SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:
1. Rough planning
2. Marking
3. Chiseling
4. Cutting and sawing
5. Finish planning
WORKING PROCEDURE:
1. The raw material is checked for its size of 150X40X25mm after
cutting from the wood.

2. The job is firmly fixed in the carpentry wise and any two
surfaces are planed by jack plane to get right angle.
3. Using try square, the right angle of the work piece is checked.
4. All the four sides of the wooden pieces are planed to get the
smoother and finished surface.
5. The job is cut in to two halves using rip saw then proper
marking is done for T-joint on the two pieces using steel ruled
and making gauge.
6. One half is taken and using tenon saw and firmer chisel the
unwanted portions are removed as per the drawing. The same is
repeated for the second piece also.
7. Jack plane is used to plane the other half of the work piece.
8. Now the two pieces are assembled to check proper fitting.
9. The finished job is again checked for its accurate shape and size
using try square and steel rule.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Tool should be placed properly on work bench.
2. Wooden pieces with projected nails should not be allowed to remain
lying on the shop floor.
3. Never stand in front of the blade while working on a circular saw.
4. Blunt tools should not be used.
5. The wooden pieces should not be fed to the sawing machines faster
than the cutting speed of the machine.
6. Before starting cutting, allow the saw to attain the full speed.
7. While working on wood lathes the job should be properly held
between the centers.
8. Do not try to operate the machine or tools without having proper
knowledge.
RESULT:

FITTING SHOP
Introduction:
Fitting work is a very important work in engineering. In fitting shop
unwanted material is removed with the help of hand tools. It is done for
mating repair and manufacturing purpose. The person working in fitting
shop is called fitter. A fitter should have the complete knowledge of the
tools use in the shop. Commonly used tools are hacksaw, files, chisels
etc..
TOOLS USED IN FITTING SHOP:
FITTING TOOLS ARE CLASSIFIED AS UNDER
1. CLAMPING TOOLS

2. MEASURING AND MARKING TOOLS

3. CUTTING TOOLS

4. STRIKING TOOLS

5. DRILLING TOOLS

6. THREADING TOOLS

1. CLAMPING TOOLS:
The clamping tools that are used in fitting shop are called vices and
this is used for holding the jobs firmly during various fitting operations.
(a)

Bench vice: it is a common tool used for holding jobs. It

consists of a cast iron body and cast iron jaws. Two jaw plates
are fitted on both the jaws. Jaw plates are made up of high
carbon steel and are wear resistance.

Bench Vice
(b)

One jaw is fixed to the body and second slides on a square

threaded screw with help of a handle. The jaws are opened up to


required length; job is placed in the two jaws and is fully
tightened with handle. It is fixed at the four corners of the fitters
working bench, and is up to the waist height.

(c)

Leg vice:

it is made of mild steel and the jaws are of cast

steel, it is stronger than the parallel jaw bench vice and used for
heavy work. It is used when the operation such as chipping or
hammering is to be performed. It is fixed on the bench or
grouted in a foundation.
(d)

Pin vice: pin vice is used to hold wire or small diameter rods.

It is also used for grinding small drills. It consists of a small


chuck made up of tool steel and a mild steel handle.

Pin Vice

2. MEASURING AND MARKING TOOLS:


(A)

STEEL RULE: These are made up of stainless steel and are

available in many sizes ranging from half feet to two feet. These
are marked in inches or millimeters. The edges of steel rule
should be protected from rough handling

(B)

TRY SQUARE: It is used for checking squareness of two

surfaces. It consists of a blade made up of steel which is


attached to a base at 900. The base is made up of cast iron or
steel. Try square is also used for marking right angles and
measuring straightness of surfaces. It is an instrument used to
draw straight lines at right angles to a true surface.

Try-Square

(C)

SCRIBER: Scriber is made up of high carbon steel and is

hardened from the front edge. It is used for marking of lines.

Scriber
(D)

DOT PUNCH:

It is used for marking dotted lines. It is made up of high carbon


steel or high speed steel. One side is sharpened. Hammering is
done on the second end while working. Angle of the punching
end is 600.

Dot Punch
(E)

CENTRE PUNCH:

It is like a dot punch except the angle of punching end is 900. It


is used to mark the centre of the hole before drilling.

Centre punch
(F)

DIVIDERS: these are made up of steel. Dividers have two

legs having short feet. These are hinged at the top. It is used for
marking arcs, dividing a lina or transferring the dimension.

Divider

3. CUTTING TOOLS:
The tools which are used to remove the materials are known as
cutting tools. These are described below:
a. HACKSAW FRAME: Hacksaw is used for cutting the rods, flats
etc. The blade of hacksaw is made up of high carbon steel or
high speed steel, and the frame is made from mild steel. The
blade is placed inside the frame and is tightened with the help of
a flange nut. The teeth of saw blades are generally forward cut.
The hacksaw should be used in straight direction otherwise it will
result in breaking of the blade. The length of blade varies from
8 to 14 but generally 12 blade is used in fixed frame
hacksaw.

Hacksaw FRAME
b. FILES: file is also a multi tooth tool. It is used to remove
material by rubbing it on the metal. Files are available in a
number of sizes, shapes and degree of coarseness. Classification
of files on the basis of grade:
1. Rough

(20 teeth per inch)

2. Bastard

(30 teeth per inch)

3. Second cut(40 teeth per inch)


4. Smooth file(50-60 teeth per inch)
5. Dead smooth(100 teeth per inch)

1. Rough and bastard are the big cut files. These are used for
rough cutting where the material removing is more. These files
have bigger teeth.
2. Dead smooth and smooth files have smaller teeth and are used
for finishing work. Second cut file has the degree of finish mid
way between bastard and smooth file.
3. Flat files: These files are slightly tapered toward the point in
both width and thickness. They cut on both edges as well as on
the sides. They are the most common files in use. Flat files are
double cut on both sides and single cut on both edges.

4. Square files. These files may be tapered or blunt and are double
cut. They are used principally for filing slots and key seats, and
for surface filing.

5. Round or rattail files: These are circular in cross section and


may be either tapered or blunt and single or double cut. They
are used principally for filing circular openings or concave
surfaces.

6. Triangular and Three square files: These files are triangular in


cross section. Triangular files are single cut and are used for

filing the gullet between saw teeth. Three square files, which are
double cut, may be used for filing internal angles, clearing out
corners, and filing taps and cutters.

7. Half round files: These files cut on both the flat and round sides.
They may be single or double cut. Their shape permits them to
be used where other files would be unsatisfactory.

c. FITTING CHIESEL
This is used for chipping of material away the material from the
work piece. These are made up of high carbon steel generally 6 to 8
long. The top is flattened and a sharp cutting edge is made on the
bottom side. Chisels are classified on the basis of their shape and
width of the cutting edge. Commonly used forms of chisels are flat,
cross cut half round and diamond point chisel. Cutting angle of chisels
is kept as under:
0

a) For hard materials------70 to 75

b) For medium hard materials----60


c) For soft materials-------40

A flat chisel is used for chipping a large surface. This chisel is


used at room temperature so it is also called as cold chisel.

A cross cut chisel is narrow chisel and thickness of the cutting


edge is broader than flat chisel. It is used for cutting grooves.

A half round chisel is used to cut oil grooves in the bushes and
also clearing small round corners. A diamond point chisel is used

for chipping plates. It is also used for cleaning the corner of the
slots cut at an angle or of square shape.

4. STRIKING TOOLS:
Striking tools are used to force the nails or chisels in to the wood.
Main striking tools are used as under
CROSS PEAN HAMMER OR BALL PEAN HAMMER: It has a cast
steel body and a wooden handle. Body has two parts face and
pean. In cross pean hammer, the peen is in the form of a narrowround edge ridge placed at right angle to the axis of the handle.

Dept. of ME, SVCE, Tirupati

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SQUARE FITTING
EXP: NO: 3
Date:
AIM:
To make a Square fitt on the given work pieces as per the given
dimensions.
50 X 50 X 5 mm Mild steel flat 2 nos.
DRAWING:

All Dimensions are in mm


TOOLS REQUIRED:
1. Bench vice

6. Scriber

2. Steel rule

7. Dot punch

3. Flat file

8. Hack saw frame & Blade

4. Triangular file

9. Ball peen Hammer

5. Try Square
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:
1. Checking

2. Rough filing

3. Marking

4. Punching

5. Sawing (cutting)

6. Surface filing

7. Finish filing

Dept. of ME, SVCE, Tirupati

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WORKING PROCEDURE:
1. The raw material is checked for its size of 50X50X5 mm after cutting
from the flat.
2. The given pieces are fixed rigidly on the vice separately and all the
edges are filed using flat file so that they are at right angles.
3. The chalk is applied uniformly on the surfaces of the work pieces.
4. Marking lines are drawn as per the given drawing with reference to the
base of the work piece using scriber.
5. Now using dot punch dots are punched along the marked line.
6. Using hacksaw frame the unwanted potions are removed then the
corresponding edges are filed using half round and triangular files.
7. Check the squareness and flatness using try square.
8. Finally the assembly is checked for the required fit.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The teeth of the hacksaw should be taking forward.
2. Marking should be done with great care.
3. While sawing allowances should be made for filing.
4. All the edges should be smooth.
5. Work pieces and tools should be regularly oiled to avoid rusting.
RESULT:

V -FITTING
EXP: NO: 4
Date:
AIM:

To make a V - fit on the given work pieces as per the given

dimensions.
50 X 50 X 5 mm Mild steel flat 2 nos.
DRAWING:

All Dimensions are in mm


TOOLS REQUIRED:
1. Bench vice

6. Scriber

2. Steel rule

7. Dot punch

3. Flat file

8. Hack saw frame & Blade

4. Triangular file

9. Ball peen Hammer

5. Try Square
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:
1. Checking

2. Rough filing

3. Marking

4. Punching

5. Sawing (cutting)

6. Surface filing

7. Finish filing

WORKING PROCEDURE:
1. The raw material is checked for its size of 50X50X5 mm after cutting
from the flat.
2. The given pieces are fixed rigidly on the vice separately and all the
edges are filed using flat file so that they are at right angles.
3. The chalk is applied uniformly on the surfaces of the work pieces.
4. Marking lines are drawn as per the given drawing with reference to the
base of the work piece using scriber.
5. Now using dot punch dots are punched along the marked line.
6. Using hacksaw frame the unwanted potions are removed then the
corresponding edges are filed using half round and triangular files.
7. Check the squareness and flatness using try square.
8. Finally the assembly is checked for the required fit.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. The teeth of the hacksaw should be taking forward.
2. Marking should be done with great care.
3. While sawing allowances should be made for filing.
4. All the edges should be smooth.
5. Work pieces and tools should be regularly oiled to avoid rusting.
RESULT:

TIN SMITHY
INTRODUCTION: Many Engineering and house hold articles such as
hoppers, guards, boxes, cans, funnels, ducts, etc., are made from a flat
sheet of a metal, the process being known as Tin smithy. For this the
development of the article is first drawn on the sheet metal. Then cut and
folded to form the required shape of the article. The edges of the article
are then secured through welding, brazing, soldering, riveting, etc., for
successful working in the trade one should have a thorough knowledge of
projective geometry and development of surfaces.
Allowance should be given in drawing stage for folding and bending.
This allowance depends up on radius of the bend and thickness of the
sheet metal.
SHEET METAL (TIN SMITHY) MATERIALS:
A variety of metals are used in a sheet metal shop such as Black
iron, Stainless Steel, Galvanized iron, Tin, and Copper
(1) Black iron: Black iron is the cheapest metal the name black iron
is because of its black in color. It is rolled to the desired
thickness and then annealed. The corrodes rapidly because it is
not coated. The application of this metal is limited to articles
that are to be painted.
(2) Stainless Steel: It has silver-chrome appearance. It is an alloy of
high

grade

steel

with

chromium,

nickel

and

traces

of

manganese, phosphorous etc. it can be easily welded. It is used


in canneries, dairies, food processing plants.
(3) Galvanized iron: It is soft steel sheet coated with zinc. Sheets
have corrosion resistance due to zinc coating. Welding is not
easy. These are used for making a.c. ducts, roof flashing, boxes,
buckets, coolers etc.
(4) Tin Sheets: Iron sheets coated with tin are known as Tin sheets.
Tin sheets are used for dairy equipment, cams, pans, food
containers etc.
(5) Copper sheets: Copper sheets are available as cold or hot rolled
sheets copper is highly resistant to corrosion. As it is a ductile
material copper sheets can be formed in to complex shapes and

the joints can be brazed easily.


TOOLS USED IN SHEET METAL (TIN SMITHY)
Various hand tools are used in sheet metal are described as below.
(A) MARKING TOOLS: These are used to mark the sheet according to
required dimensions. Various marking tools are:
(1) STEEL RULE: These are available in variety sizes. The rule could
be steel foot rule, folding rule or tape rule.

Try SQUARE: It is an L-shaped piece of hardened steel. It is


used to make square corners. It is also used for checking and
marking right angles.

Fig Try Square


(2) SCRIBER: It is steel wire of 200mm length with one end
sharp and hardened to mark lines on metallic sheet.

Fig Scriber
(3) DIVIDER: It is used to scribe arcs and circles on metallic
sheets.

Fig Divider

(4) TRAMMEL: Sheet metal layout requires marking of arcs and


circles. This may be done by using the trammel, as shown in
fig below. The length of the beam decides the maximum size
of the arc that can be scribed.

PUNCHES: The following punches of tool steel are used in sheet metal
shop.
(a) Prink Punch: Used for making indentation marks for
locating the centre position for dividers, having included
0

angle of 30 .
(b) Centre Punch: Used for marking the location of points and
the centre of holes to be drilled. Its tapered point is
0

grounded to 90 included angle.

(B)

CUTTING TOOLS:
(1) Straight Snips: For cutting along straight line, straight
snip is used whose blades are straight. It is used to cut 22
S.W.G. or lighter. To cut sheets of greater thickness lever
shearing m/c is used.

Fig Straight Snip


(2) Bent Snip: Blades are curved back from the cutting edge
which allows the metal to slide over top blades.

Fig Bent Snip


(3) Hallow Punch: When circular holes are to be cut in the
sheet then hallow punch is used for thin sheets. The sheet
should be placed over the wood or thick block of lead to
avoid chipping of edges of the punch.

(4) Chisels: These are generally used in sheet metal shop for
cutting sheets, rivets and bolts.
(C)

STRIKING TOOLS:
(1) Hammers:
work, bending
locking

The
of

hammers
sheets,

are

used

smoothening

for

riveting

of

sheets,

of joints etc. for these operations the following

hammers are generally used.


(i) Ball Peen Hammer: It is a general purpose hammer.
Its face is slightly curved and the head is round.

Fig Ball Peen Hammer


(ii)

Mallet: Mallet is made up of good quality of wood


or plastic. These are used whenever light force is
required. The use of mallet does not spoil the
surface of sheet. It is used for smoothening of
sheet.

Fig Mallet
(D)

SUPPORTING TOOLS:
STAKES: Stakes are used to support sheets in bending,

seaming, forming, riveting, punching etc., Cant be carried out.


Some commonly used stakes are:
(1)

Hand Stake: It is a handy with a flat face, two

straight edges one concave edge and other convex edge


and is used for pressing the inner sides of straight joint

(2)

Half Round Stake: It is used for pressing round seam

joint on inner side.

Fig Round Stake


(3)

Taper Stake: It is used for rounding of tapering jobs

such as conical jobs.

(4)

Grooving Stake: It is made up of forged steel and is

used to make grooves of different sizes. Grooves are made


to impart strength.

(5)

Hose Stake: There are two square holes for holding

two stakes at a time for carrying out different operations.

Sheet metal working machines:


1. Rolling and Bending machines: This machine is used to form
cyllindrically shaped articles and is a must in any sheet metal shop.
Most coomonly used in 3-roll bearing machine. Two rolls are one
above the other. The bottom roll is fixed while the top roll is
adjusted according to the thick ness of sheet. The third roll can be
moved up and down to peoduce cyllindrically form of required
diameter.
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2. Sheet bending machine: This is used for bending and folding the
dges of sheet metal and is most widely used machine. It consists of
three basic parts.
b. Bed

b. Top leaf c. Bending leaf

Average capacity is to bend sheet of 16S.W.G or lighter. For


heavier sheets press brake is used. Forming moulds are attached to
bending leaf for forming opeartions. The formng operation could be a
curved shape. The required bend is made by raising the bendig leaf to
the proper position.
3. Swaging machine: This consists of sharp teeth blade that can be
moved by means of a handle. While moving on the joint, the joint
gets pressed and locked. This machine is used for pressing, i.e
locking the grooved joints or sean joints.
4. Lever shearing machine: This is must in sheet metal shop. It is
universal shearing machine. It is used for sheet utting, flat
shearing, round bar shearing, square bar shearing, angle-iron
cutting.
5. Universal cutting machine;

It is used for cutting the metallic

sheet in to any desired shape and size. Its straight as well as


circular cutting capacity is 22 S.W.G sheets and thinner. The
machine has two cirrular tools used for circle cutting.
6. Grooving machine:

It is used to make grooves. Depth of the

groove as well as position can be conveniently adjusted.


SHEET METAL JOINTS:
According to the requirements many different types of joints used
in sheet Metal work. Some very commonly used forms of these are shown
in Fig. a lap Joint is very frequently used and can be prepared by means
of soldering or riveting. Seam Joint is a very commonly used one. It is
locked, as shown in the diagram, so as to ensure a positive grip and also
to make the joint flush with the surface. Heam (Single and double), wired
edge, cup and angular enable edges to join the pieces along them the cap
joint provides another useful form of locked seam joint.

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Fig Sheet Metal Joints


SHEET METAL OPERATIONS
The main operations are
1. Measuring and marking
2. Laying out
3. Hand cutting and shearing
4. Hand forming
5. Nibbling
6. Circle cutting
7. Piercing and blanking
8. Edge forming and wiring
9. Joint making
10.Bending
11.Drawing
1. Measuring and Marking
The standard market sizes of metal sheets are quite large. But the
required sheet size for making a component may be much smaller.
So, a standard size sheet may have to be cut into several smaller
pieces, each piece being sufficient for making one such component.
These smaller sizes are first decided and then these sizes are
marked on the larger sheet to cut the latter into smaller pieces
along the marked lines. A little allowance for cutting is always
added to the required overall sizes so that the cut pieces are not
undersize.

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2. Laying out
Laying out means the operation of scribing the development of the
surface of the component on the sheet / sheet blank, together with
the added allowances for overlapping, bending, hammering, etc.,
which when cut out of the blank and folded and jointed will give the
required component.
For completing the above work the shape of the object
should be carefully checked and it should be divided into simple
geometrical solids. Then the solid obtained by above division can be
developed separately and the sheet is cut. These separate pieces
are joined together. It will give the required object.
Basic concept of development of surfaces is explained as, let
us take a cylinder which is wrapped around its curved surface by a
piece of paper. If wrapper is opened and spread on the sheet it
forms a rectangle abcd. This abcd surface is the development of
complete circular surface.
3. Hand Cutting and shearing
The word cutting is normally used when the sheet metal is cut
by means of a chisel and a hammer manually. The term shearing
stands for cutting of sheet metal by two parallel cutting edges moving
in opposite directions. This can be done either manually by using head
shears are snips or by means of machines called shears. The operation
is then known as machine shearing or mechanical shearing.
4. Hand Forming
The term metal forming stands for shaping and/ or bending of sheet
metal in three dimensions in order to give it the desired shape and size
of the final product. For this, the metal is either required to be
stretched or sprunk in all directions or may need a combination of
both.
5. Nibbling
Nibbling is a process of continuous cutting along a contour, which
may be straight line or an irregular profile. The machines used in this
operation are known as Nibblers, Which are portable type shearing
machines.

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6. Circle cutting
It is the operation of cutting circular blanks or curved contours with
the help of a circle cutting machine. It is also a continuous cutting
operation.
7. Piercing and Blanking
Piercing is basically a hole punching operation while blanking is an
operation of cutting out a blank. In both the cases blanks will be
produced, but in the former case obtaining a blank is not the objective.
It is the hole of a desired size which is the objective and the blank
produced may not be used further. In the latter operation the
production of a blank of the desired size is the main objective, which is
a useful part for further processing.
8. Edge forming and wiring
The edges of sheet metal products are formed (or folded ) to
ensure safety of hands, while handling these products and to provide
stiffness to the products in order that they will retain their shape
during handling i.e., will not get buckled or compressed by simple hand
or finger pressure during handling.
9. Joint Making
Several means are used for joining sheet metal parts together or
securing them to other metallic or non- metallic bodies. In case of very
large size parts, specially when they are to be fastened to other
metallic or large non-metallic bodies, screwed fastening can be used.
Sheet metal parts can also be joined by riveting, wielding, brazing, and
adhesives. Self tapping screws are more popular screwed fasteners in
sheet metal work. However, still the most commonly used methods are
joining the sheet metal parts by means of folded joints or self securing
joints, followed by soldering and adhesive joining.
10.

Bending

Sheet metal is required to be bent at different angles to shape it


into the required form. The bending operation involves stretching of
metal on the outer surface and compressing it on the inner surface
along a neutral line, which remains unchanged in length. Sheet metal
can be bent by hammering over a base by hand or by means of

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bending or rolling machines.


11.

Drawing

Thin walled hollow shapes are produced in sheet metal through the
drawing operations. The operation is carried out with the help of a die
and punch on a suitable press. If the drawn length of the component is
less than its width or diameter it is called box drawing or shallow
drawing. When the drawn length is more than the width, the operation
is known as deep drawing.
SAFETY WHILE WORKING IN SHEET METAL SHOP
1. Since in sheet metal work we use sharp tools and sharp cutting
edges and precise hammer work is also involve so very skilled
labour is used.
2. Avoid using any tool whose edges are blunt or out of order.
3. For cutting sheets appropriate cutting tools or machines must be
selected based on the thickness of material to be cut.
4. Extra allowance must be provided in the sheets while cutting. So
that the finished product is of correct size and finish.

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OPEN SCOOP
EXP: NO: 5
Date:
AIM: To make a open scoop, using the given sheet metal.
TOOLS REQUIRED: Steel rule, Try- Square, Scriber, Divider, Straight
snip, Mallet, Nylon Hammer and Hatchet Stake.
Figure:

NOTE:
1. All Dimensions are in mm.
2. Remove the crossed symbol portion.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

1. The size of the given sheet is checked with the steel rule.
2. The lay-out of the scoop are marked on the given sheet.
3. The lay-out of the scoop is cut by using the straight snip.
4. The corners of the scoop are hemmed.
5. The edges of the scoop are riveted or soldered to ensure stability
of the joints.

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PRECAUTIONS:
1. Mark the dimensions correctly.
2. Cut the sheet carefully.
3. Remove the chips with brush.
RESULT:

RECTANGULAR TRAY
EXP: NO: 6
Date:
AIM: To make a Rectangular Tray, using the given sheet metal.
TOOLS REQUIRED:

Steel rule, Try- Square, Scriber, Divider, Straight

snip, mallet, Nylon Hammer and Hatchet Stake.

NOTE:
1. All Dimensions are in mm.
2. Remove the crossed symbol portion.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

1. The size of the given sheet is checked with the steel rule.
2. The lay-out of the Tray is marked on the given sheet.
3. The lay-out of the Tray is cut by using the straight snip.
4. Single hemming is made on the four sides of the tray.
5. The edges of the scoop are riveted or soldered to ensure stability of
the joints.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Mark the dimensions correctly.
2. Cut the sheet carefully.
3. Remove the chips with brush.
RESULT:

HOUSE WIRING
INTRODUCTION
Electrical wiring is defined as a system of electric conductors,
components and apparatus for conveying electric power from the source
to the point of use. The wiring system must be designed to provide a
constant voltage to the load.
Power is supplied to domestic installations through a phase and a
neutral forming a single phase A.C.230V, two-wire system. For industrial
establishments, power is supplied through three-phase four wire system,
to give 440v.Figure shows the power tapping for domestic and industrial
purposes. The neutral is earthed at the distribution sub-station of the
supply.
When supplied to domestic utilities, power is fed to a kilowatt meter
and then to a distribution panel.
several circuits.

The panel distributes power along

It also protects these circuits from overload by safety

devices like fuses or circuit breakers. The panel also serves as a main
switch as a safety practice, all single-phase devices such as switches,
fuses, etc., are connected to the live conductor. All electrical conductors
and cables are color coded and must be correctly connected-up.
WIRING METHOD:
There are three types of electric circuits that are used for the
connecting devices or controls to the power source
(1) Series connection
(2) Parallel connection
(3) Combination of both Series and Parallel
The Series circuits provide a single continuous through which
current flows. In this, devices are connected one after the other and the
current flows through them until it reaches to the power source. In this,
even one device breaks down the remaining devices will not operate,
because the circuit is broken.
In Parallel circuit, the devices are connected side by side, so that
current flows in number of parallel paths. In this type of circuit, each
device is connected across the power source so that even if one device
breaks down, the other devices continue to operative. Hence this type of

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circuit is used to House wiring. The wires used in House wiring contain
multi standard copper wires, covered with pre-insulation.
Fig

3 phase- 4 wire supply

MATERIALS (ACCESSORIES) REQUIRED:


Fuses and Circuit Breakers, Electric Switch, Lamp Holder, Ceiling
roses, mounting blocks, Socket outlets, Plugs, Main switch, Earthing,
Electric Bulbs, Wire clips, Nails, 1/18 VIR Wire, Wiring wooden board.
1. Fuses and Circuit Breakers
These are the devices designed to provide protection to a circuit
against excess current. In old type of distribution panels, open link fuses,
plug or cartridge fuses were used.
used.

In newer panels, circuit breakers are

If something goes wrong with an appliance or supply, the line

becomes over loaded or short-circuited Then, either the fuse blows-out or


circuit breaker trips
Open,

isolating that circuit or appliance. In such cases,

the

appliance must be checked for defects or it must be ensured that there


are not too many appliances in that particular circuit. Fig. 3.1 shows
several forms of fuses that are in use. Open link fuses are not safe in
operation, even though they are cheaper and reliable. It consists of a thin
strip of metal or wire. Here, when the fuse blows-off due to heavy
current in the circuit, the metal is spilled around. A modified version
of it consists of porcelain fuse link, backing the wire safely.

Fig: Forms of fuses


Through the plug fuse confines the molten metal thrown out
while blowing, it is not very accurate in operation. The length of the
element also is very short. The cartridge fuse of non-renewable type,
enclose the fuse element in a fiber tube with a non-inflammable material.
During the blowing-off, the arc produced is chilled by the non-inflammable
material. In case of a renewable type, a cheap renewable fuse material is
used in the cartridge. The trouble with fuses is that they must be
replaced once they burn away, whereas the circuit breaker can be
reset

after

the

original

condition

is established.

An electromagnetic

circuit breaker is shown in Fig.3.1A set of switch contacts inside the circuit
breaker is normally kept closed by an armature. When too much current
flows through the coil, the armature is attracted, breaking the circuit. The
circuit breaker may be reset by a toggle lever.
2. Electric Switch
A switch is used to make or break an electric circuit. Under some
abnormal conditions it must retain its rigidity and keep its alignment
between switchblades and contacts correct to a fraction of centimeter.
Two types of Switches
(a) One-Way Switch

(b) Two-Way Switch

Fig: Electric Switches Lamp Holder

3. Lamp Holder:

Lamp holders are designed to hold lamps and

connect them in the circuit. Both bayonet cap and screw lamp holders
are available up to 200 W lamps. Figure 3.3 shows a lamp holder
(pendant type).

Fig (a) Lamp Holder

Fig (b) Electric Bulb

4. Ceiling Roses
It is an end point of an electrical wire, which provides a cover to the wire
end. These are used to provide a tapping to the lamp holder through the
flexible wire or a connection to a fluorescent tube or a ceiling fan. It
consists of a circular base and a cover made of Bakelite. One end of the
plates is connected to supply and the other end to a flexible wire
connected to appliances.

Fig Ceiling Roses


5. Mounting Blocks
These are nothing but wooden round blocks. They are used in conjunction
with ceiling roses, batten holder, surface switches, ceiling switches, etc

Fig Mounting Blocks

6. Socket Outlets
It is a wiring accessory to which electrical appliances are connected for
power supply. These have insulated base with molded or socket base
having three terminal sleeves. The two thin terminal sleeves are meant
for making connection to the load circuit wires and the third terminal
sleeve, larger in cross section, is used for an earth connection.

Fig Sockets Outlets


7. Plugs
These are used for tapping power from socket outlets. Two-pin plugs and
three-pin plugs are commonly available.

8. Main Switch
This is used at the consumers premises so that he may have self-control
of the entire distribution circuit. This switch is a master control of all the
wiring circuit made in the building. The different classifications are double
poled and triple poled switches.

Fig Main Switch

9. Earthing
When a wire is connected from the ground to the outer metal casing of
the electrical appliances, then it attain zero potential and the appliance is
said to be earthed and this process is known as earthing.
Purpose of Earthing
Under normal condition, there is no electrical potential is available in the
outer metal casing of the electrical appliances. When some fault develops
in the appliances, then electrical potential leaked to the metal casing
causes heavy current flow due to earthing. This heavy current blows the
fuse and cutoff electrical supply to the appliances. Thus earthing provides
protection to human being and electrical appliances.
TOOLS REQUIRED:
Cutting pliers, Nose pliers, Screwdriver, Ball Peen Hammer, Line tester,
knife, Poker, Pincer.
TOOLS:
1. Cutting Pliers
They are used to cut the wires, nipping by hand and twisting the
wires and also to hold them. Long nose pliers are used to hold the wires in
small space and also to tighten and loosen small nuts.

Fig Cutting Pliers


2. Nose Pliers
Long nose pliers are used to hold the wires in small space and also to
tighten and loosen small nuts.

Fig Nose Pliers

3. Screw Driver
They are used to drive and tighten screws into pointed holes in the
switches and electrical machines. They are generally insulated.

Fig Screw Driver


4. Ball Peen Hammer
Ball peen and claw hammers are commonly used in electrical work
where greater power is required in striking. It is best suited for riveting
purposes in sheet metal works.

Fig Ball Peen Hammer


5. Line Tester
It is used to check the electric supply in the line or phase wire. It has a
small neon bulb, which indicates the presence of power supply. It can also
be used as a screw driver.

Fig Line Tester


6. Knife
It is generally used for removing the insulation from the wire. The closing
type knife is always preferred.

Fig: Knife

7. Poker
It is a long sharp tool used for making pilot holes in wood before fixing
and tightening wood screws.

Fig: Poker
8. Pincer
The pincer is used for extracting nails from the wood.

Fig: Pincer
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:
1.

While work on electrical installations, wear always rubber shoes and


avoid loose shirting.

2.

Do not work on live circuits, if unavoidable use rubber gloves, rubber


mats etc

3.

Use wooden or PVC insulated handle screwdrivers when working on


electric circuits.

4.

Do not touch bare conductors

5.

Replace or remove fuses only after switching OFF the circuit switches.

6.

Never extend wiring by using temporary wiring.

7.

Stand or rubber mats while working or operating switch panels,


control gears etc.

8.

Always use safety belts while working on poles or high rise points.

9.

Do not connect earthing to the water pipe lines.

10. Only skilled persons should do electric work.


11. Wear all the protective clothing and use all the necessary safety
equipment.

12. In case of any person suffered by electrical shook and if the victims
still in contact with the supply break the contact either by switching
off or by removing the plug or pulling the cable free.
13. Do not give an unconscious person anything to eat or drink and do not
leave an unconscious person unattended.
14. First restore the normal breathing to the victim and ensure that the
patient can breathe normally unaided. Then we can render other first
aids.
SYMBOLS USED IN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

ONE LAMP CONTROLLED BY ONE-WAY SWITCH


EXP: NO: 7
Date:
AIM: To give connections to One Lamp controlled by a One-way Switch.
MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Electric Bulbs - 1

One-way Switch- 1

Lamp Holder- 1

Mounting blocks- 1

Wire clips

Nails

1/18 VIR Wire

Wiring wooden board.

TOOLS REQUIRED:

Cutting pliers

Nose pliers

Screwdriver

Ball Peen Hammer

Line tester

Poker

Pincer.

Clips

Fig: One Lamp Controlled by One-Way Switch

PROCEDURE:
1. The outline of wiring is marked on the wooden wiring board.
2. Clips are nailed to the board, following the wiring diagram.
3. Wires are stretched and clamped with the clips.
4. Mounted blocks (Round blocks) are screwed on to the board
as per the diagram.
5. Wires are connected to the holders and the switch which are
then screwed on the round blocks.
6. Bulbs are fitted to the holders.
7. The wiring connections are tested by giving power supply.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. While work on electrical installations, wear always rubber
shoes and avoid loose shirting.
2. Electricity has no respect ignorance, do not apply Voltage
(or) turn on any device until it has been properly checked.
3. Care should be taken from electric shocks.
4. Avoid loose connections.
5. Dont work at damped areas and with the wet clothing.
RESULT:

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ONE LAMP CONTROLLED BY TWO-TWO WAY SWITCHES


(STAIR CASE CONNECTION)
EXP: NO: 8
Date:
AIM: To give connections to One Lamp controlled by a Two-Two way
switches.
MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Electric Bulbs - 1

Two-way Switch- 2

Lamp Holder- 1

Mounting blocks- 1

Wire clips

Nails

1/18 VIR Wire

Wiring wooden board.

TOOLS REQUIRED:

Cutting pliers

Screwdriver

Ball Peen Hammer

Line tester

Poker

Wire Cutter

Fig: One Lamp Controlleed by Two-Two Way Switches

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PROCEDURE:
1. The outline of wiring is marked on the wooden wiring board.
2. Clips are nailed to the board, following the wiring diagram.
3. Wires are stretched and clamped with the clips.
4. Mounted blocks (Round blocks) are screwed on to the board
as per the diagram.
5. Wires are connected to the holders and the switch which are
then screwed on the round blocks.
6. Bulbs are fitted to the holders.
7. The wiring connections are tested by giving power supply.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. While work on electrical installations, wear always rubber
shoes and avoid loose shirting.
2. Electricity has no respect ignorance, do not apply Voltage
(or) turn on any device until it has been properly checked.
3. Care should be taken from electric shocks.
4. Avoid loose connections.
5. Dont work at damped areas and with the wet clothing.
RESULT:

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TWO LAMPS CONTROLLED BY ONE-WAY SWITCH


(SERIES CONNECTION)
EXP: NO: 9
Date:
AIM: To give connections to Two Lamps controlled by a One-way Switch.
MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Electric Bulbs - 2

One-way Switch- 1

Lamp Holder- 1

Mounting blocks- 1

Wire clips

Nails

1/18 VIR Wire

Wiring wooden board.

TOOLS REQUIRED:

Cutting pliers

Screwdriver

Ball Peen Hammer

Line tester

Poker

Wire Cutter

Fig: Two Lamps Controlled by One-Way Switch

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PROCEDURE:
1. The outline of wiring is marked on the wooden wiring board.
2. Clips are nailed to the board, following the wiring diagram.
3. Wires are stretched and clamped with the clips.
4. Mounted blocks (Round blocks) are screwed on to the board
as per the diagram.
5. Wires are connected to the holders and the switch which are
then screwed on the round blocks.
6. Bulbs are fitted to the holders.
7. The wiring connections are tested by giving power supply.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. While work on electrical installations, wear always rubber
shoes and avoid loose shirting.
2. Electricity has no respect ignorance, do not apply Voltage
(or) turn on any device until it has been properly checked.
3. Care should be taken from electric shocks.
4. Avoid loose connections.
5. Dont work at damped areas and with the wet clothing.
RESULT:

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TWOLAMPS CONTROLLED BY ONE SWITCH


IN SERIES & PARALLEL
EXP: NO: 10
Date:
AIM:
To give connections to two lamps controlled by a one switch in
series & parallel.

DRAWING:

B2
B1

N
P

S1

MATERIAL REQUIRED:

Electric Bulbs - 2

One-way Switch- 1

Lamp Holder- 1

Gang Box

Wire clips

Nails

1/18 VIR Wire

Wiring wooden board

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:

Cutting pliers

Wire Cutter

Screwdriver

Ball Peen Hammer

Line tester

Poker

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PROCEDURE:
1. The Outline of Wring is marked on the wooden wiring board.
2. Clips are nailed to the board, following the wiring diagram (Circuit).
3. Wires are stretched and clamped with clips.
4. Mounted / Round blocks are screwed on to the board as per the
diagram.
5. Wires are connected to holders and switch which are the screwed on
round blocks.
6. Bulbs are fitted to the holders.
7. The wiring connections are tested by giving power supply.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. While work on electrical installations, wear always rubber shoes and
avoid loose shirting.
2. Electricity has no respect ignorance, dont apply voltage (or) turn on
any device until it has been properly checked.
3. Core should be taken from electric shocks.
4. Avoid loose connections.

5. Dont work at damped areas and with wet clothing.


RESULT:

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