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ABAPDevelopment / FAQ / TypesofReports

100abapquestions
CreatedbyPavanPraveen,lastmodifiedonJun04,2007
1.http://www.tutorialdownloads.com/FAQ/sapinterviewquestions.html
2.WhatisanABAPdatadictionary?ABAP4datadictionarydescribesthelogicalstructuresoftheobjectsusedinapplicationdevelopmentandshowshow
theyaremappedtotheunderlyingrelationaldatabaseintables/views.
3.Whataredomainsanddataelement?Domains:Domainisthecentralobjectfordescribingthetechnicalcharacteristicsofanattributeofanbusinessobjects.It
describesthevaluerangeofthefield.DataElement:Itisusedtodescribethe
semanticdefinitionofthetablefieldslikedescriptionthefield.Dataelement
describeshowafieldcanbedisplayedtoenduser.
4.Whatisforeignkeyrelationship?Arelationshipwhichcanbedefinedbetween
tablesandmustbeexplicitlydefinedatfieldlevel.Foreignkeysareusedto
ensuretheconsistencyofdata.Dataenteredshouldbecheckedagainstexisting
datatoensurethattherearenowcontradiction.Whiledefiningforeignkey
relationshipcardinalityhastobespecified.Cardinalitymentionshowmany
dependentrecordsorhowreferencedrecordsarepossible.
5.Describedataclasses.
Masterdata:Itisthedatawhichisseldomlychanged.Transactiondata:Itisthedatawhichisoftenchanged.Organizationdata:Itisa
customizingdatawhichisenteredinthesystemwhenthesystemisconfigured
andisthenrarelychanged.Systemdata:ItisthedatawhichR/3systemneedsfor
itself.
6.Whatareindexes?Indexesaredescribedasacopyofadatabasetablereducedtospecificfields.Thisdataexistsinsortedform.Thissortingformeasefast
accesstothefieldofthetables.Inorderthatotherfieldsarealsoread,apointerto
theassociatedrecordoftheactualtableareincludedintheindex.Yheindexesare
activatedalongwiththetableandarecreatedautomaticallywithitinthe
database.
7.Differencebetweentransparenttablesandpooledtables.Transparenttables:
Transparenttablesinthedictionaryhasaonetoonerelationwiththetablein
database.Itsstructurecorrespondstosingledatabasefield.Tableinthedatabase
hasthesamenameasinthedictionary.Transparenttableholdsapplicationdata.
Pooledtables.Pooledtablesinthedictionaryhasamanytoonerelationwiththe
tableindatabase.Tableinthedatabasehasthedifferentnameasinthedictionary.
Pooledtablearestoredintablepoolatthedatabaselevel.
8.WhatisanABAP/4Query?ABAP/4Queryisapowerfultooltogeneratesimplereportswithoutanycoding.ABAP/4Querycangeneratethefollowing3
simplereports:BasicList:Itisthesimplereports.Statistics:Reportswith
statisticalfunctionslikeAverage,Percentages.RankedLists:Foranalytical
reports.ForcreatingaABAP/4Query,programmerhastocreateusergroupand
afunctionalgroup.Functionalgroupcanbecreatedusingwithorwithoutlogical
databasetable.Finally,assignusergrouptofunctionalgroup.Finally,createa
queryonthefunctionalgroupgenerated.
9.WhatisBDCprogramming?Transferringoflarge/external/legacydataintoSAPsystemusingBatchInputprogramming.Batchinputisaautomatic
procedurereferredtoasBDC(BatchDataCommunications).Thecentral
componentofthetransferisaqueuefilewhichreceivesthedatavieabatchinput
programsandgroupsassociateddatainto"sessions".
10.WhatarethefunctionalmodulesusedinsequenceinBDC?Thesearethe3functionalmoduleswhichareusedinasequencetoperformadatatransfer
successfullyusingBDCprogramming:BDC_OPEN_GROUPParameterslike

Store

Nameoftheclient,sessionsandusernamearespecifiedinthisfunctional
modules.BDC_INSERTItisusedtoinsertthedataforonetransactionintoa
session.BDC_CLOSE_GROUPThisisusedtoclosethebatchinputsession.
11.Whatareinternaltables?Internaltablesareastandarddatatypeobjectwhichexistsonlyduringtheruntimeoftheprogram.Theyareusedtoperformtable
calculationsonsubsetsofdatabasetablesandforreorganisingthecontentsof
databasetablesaccordingtousersneed.
12.WhatisITS?WhatarethemeritsofITS?ITSisaInternetTransactionServer.ITSformsaninterfacebetweenHTTPserverandR/3system,which
convertsscreenprovideddatabytheR/3systemintoHTMLdocumentsandviceversa.
MeritsofITS:Acompletewebtransactioncanbedevelopedandtestedin
R/3system.Alltransactioncomponents,includingthoseusedbytheITSoutside
theR/3systematruntime,canbestoredintheR/3system.Theadvantageof
automaticlanguageprocessingintheR/3systemcanbeutilizedtolanguagedependent
HTMLdocumentsatruntime.
13.WhatisDynPro?
DynProisaDynamicProgrammingwhichisacombinationofscreenandtheassociatedflowlogicScreenisalsocalledasDynPro.14.Whatarescreenpainterandmenupainter?Screenpainter:Screen
painterisa
tooltodesignandmaintainscreenanditselements.ItallowsusertocreateGUI
screensforthetransactions.Attributes,layout,filedattributesandflowlogicare
theelementsofScreenpainter.Menupainter:Menupainterisatooltodesignthe
interfacecomponents.Status,menubars,menulists,Fkeysettings,functionsand
titlesarethecomponentsofMenupainters.Screenpainterandmenupainterboth
arethegraphicalinterfaceofanABAP/4applications.
15.WhatarethecomponentsofSAPscripts?SAPscriptsisawordprocessingtoolofSAPwhichhasthefollowingcomponents:Standardtext.Itislikea
standardnormaldocuments.Layoutsets.Layoutsetconsistsofthefollowing
components:Windowsandpages,Paragraphformats,Characterformats.Creating
formsintheR/3system.EverylayoutsetconsistsofHeader,paragraph,and
characterstring.ABAP/4program.
16.WhatisALVprogramminginABAP?WhenisthisgridusedinABAP?
ALVisApplicationListviewer.SapprovidesasetofALV(ABAPLIST
VIEWER)functionmoduleswhichcanbeputintousetoembellishtheoutputof
areport.ThissetofALVfunctionsisusedtoenhancethereadabilityand
functionalityofanyreportoutput.Casesariseinsapwhentheoutputofareport
containscolumnsextendingmorethan255charactersinlength.Insuchcases,this
setofALVfunctionscanhelpchooseselectedcolumnsandarrangethedifferent
columnsfromareportoutputandalsosavedifferentvariantsforreportdisplay.
Thisisaveryefficienttoolfordynamicallysortingandarrangingthecolumns
fromareportoutput.Thereportoutputcancontainupto90columnsinthe
displaywiththewidearrayofdisplayoptions.
17.WhataretheeventsinABAP/4language?Initialization,Atselectionscreen,Startofselection,endofselection,topofpage,endofpage,Atlineselection,
Atusercommand,AtPF,Get,AtNew,AtLAST,ATEND,ATFIRST.
18.WhatisCTSandwhatdoyouknowaboutit?TheChangeandTransportSystem(CTS)isatoolthathelpsyoutoorganizedevelopmentprojectsinthe
ABAPWorkbenchandinCustomizing,andthentransportthechangesbetween
theSAPSystemsandclientsinyoursystemlandscape.Thisdocumentation
providesyouwithanoverviewofhowtomanagechangeswiththeCTSand
essentialinformationonsettingupyoursystemandclientlandscapeanddeciding
onatransportstrategy.Readandfollowthisdocumentationwhenplanningyour
developmentproject.19.Whatarelogicaldatabases?Whataretheadvantages/disadvantagesof
logicaldatabases?Toreaddatafromadatabasetablesweuselogicaldatabase.
Alogicaldatabaseprovidesreadonlyaccesstoagroupofrelatedtablestoan
ABAP/4program.Advantages:i)checkfunctionswhichcheckthatuserinputis
complete,correct,andplausible.ii)Meaningfuldataselection.iii)central
authorizationchecksfordatabaseaccesses.iv)goodreadaccessperformance
whileretainingthehierarchicaldataviewdeterminedbytheapplicationlogic.dis

advantages:i)Ifyoudonotspecifyalogicaldatabaseintheprogramattributes,the
GETeventsneveroccur.ii)ThereisnoENDGETcommand,sothecodeblock
associatedwithaneventendswiththenexteventstatement(suchasanotherGET
oranENDOFSELECTION).
20.Whatisabatchinputsession?BATCHINPUTSESSIONisanintermediatestepbetweeninternaltableanddatabasetable.Dataalongwiththeactionisstored
insessioniedataforscreenfields,towhichscreenitispassed,programname
behindit,andhownextscreenisprocessed.
21.HowtouploaddatausingCATT?ThesearethestepstobefollowedtoUploaddatathroughCATT:CreationoftheCATTtestcase&recordingthe
sampledatainput.Downloadofthesourcefiletemplate.Modificationofthe
sourcefile.Uploadofthedatafromthesourcefile.
22.WhatisSmartForms?SmartFormsallowsyoutocreateformsusingagraphicaldesigntoolwithrobustfunctionality,color,andmore.Additionally,all
newformsdevelopedatSAPwillbecreatedwiththenewSmartFormsolution.
23.HowcanImakeadifferentiationbetweendependentandindependentdata?
Clientdependentorindependenttransferrequirementsincludeclientspecificor
crossclientobjectsinthechangerequests.WorkbenchobjectslikeSAPscriptsare
clientspecific,someentriesincustomizingareclientindependent.Ifyoudisplay
theobjectlistforonechangerequest,andthenforeachobjecttheobject
attributes,youwillfindtheflagclientspecific.Ifoneobjectinthetasklisthas
thisflagon,thenthattransportwillbeclientdependent.
24.Whatisthedifferencebetweenmacroandsubroutine?Macroscanonlybeusedintheprogramthearedefinedinandonlyafterthedefinitionareexpanded
atcompilation/generation.Subroutines(FORM)canbecalledfromboththe
programthearedefinedinandotherprograms.AMACROismoreorlessan
abbreviationforsomelinesofcodethatareusedmorethanonceortwice.A
FORMisalocalsubroutine(whichcanbecalledexternal).AFUNCTIONis
(moreorless)asubroutinethatiscalledexternal.SincedebuggingaMACROis
notreallypossible,preventtheuseofthem(I'veneverusedthem,butseenthem
inaction).Ifthesubroutineisusedonlylocal(calledinternal)useaFORM.Ifthe
subroutineiscalledexternal(usedbymorethanoneprogram)useaFUNCTION.
WhichtablestorestheProgramscreated?
Table:TRDIR
Howcanwecomparetwoprograms
Se30
HerewecangettipsandtricksfordifferentABAPqueries
Differencebetweensynchronousandasynchronousprocessing?
syncronuissequentioalupdationoffeildswhereasusencroisnotin
series
Answerstoyourquestions
1>WhatisBDCrecording?
inBDCrecordingyourecordthetransactionthroughwhichyouwantto
uploaddata.This
toolwillcreateaprogramforyouandyoudontneedtocreatethe
programmanually.You
cancodebothcalltransactionandsessionmethodusingthistool.
2>WhatistheroleofBDCdataincalltransactionmethod?
inbdcyouneedtopassdatatoparticularscreenandparticularscreen
fields.Wedothisusingthe
structureBDCDATAavailableintheabapdictonary.formore
informationjusthavealookata
samplecodeforBDC.
3>whatisbdcmsgcolandhowitworkswithcalltransactionmethod?
BDCMSGCOLLisastructureavailableintheabapdictonary.Weusethis
tohandleerrorsincall
transaction.Weneedtodeclareaninternaltablelikebdcmsgcoll.
Whenadatabasetableisupdatedwegetsomemessageslikesucessfull,or
notsucessfullorsucessfulwithsomewarningmessage.Allthesemessages
5
passthroughthisstructure.Wecancapturethemusingafunctionmodule

calledFORMAT_MESSAGE.
4>Whatistheroleof(gui_upload)functionalmoduleincall
>transactionmethod?
itsthesameasws_uploadorUploadfm.usedforuploadingdatafromflat
filetointernaltable.
5>whatisthedifferencebetweensynchronousandasynchronousupdate?
insynchronousupdatedtheparenttableisupdatedalongwiththechild
tablesandthenasysubrcisreturned.0fiorsucessfuland4or8fornot
sucessful.Whileinasynchronousupdatetionaftertheupdationofthe
parenttablewegetasysubrcreturn.Thesystemisnotbotheredifthe
childtablesareupdatedornot.

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