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Part I

PARAMETRIC TABLES

Table 1 : Area Under the Normal Curve


Proportion of the total area of the standard normal curve
from to z (represent a normalized statistic)

F(z)

Negative

Positive

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.00

3.5

0.00017

0.00017

0.00018

0.00019

0.00020

0.00020

0.00021

0.00022

0.00022

0.00023

3.4

0.00024

0.00025

0.00026

0.00027

0.00029

0.00030

0.00031

0.00033

0.00033

0.00034

3.3

0.00035

0.00036

0.00038

0.00039

0.00042

0.00031

0.00043

0.00047

0.00047

0.00048

3.2

0.00050

0.00052

0.00054

0.00056

0.00060

0.00045

0.00064

0.00066

0.00066

0.00069

3.1

0.00071

0.00074

0.00076

0.00079

0.00085

0.00064

0.00090

0.00094

0.00094

0.00097

3.0
2.9

0.00100
0.0014

0.00104
0.0014

0.00107
0.0015

0.00111
0.0015

0.00114
0.0016

0.00118
0.0016

0.00122
0.0017

0.00126
0.0017

0.00131
0.0018

0.00135
0.0019

2.8

0.0019

0.0020

0.0021

0.0021

0.0022

0.0023

0.0023

0.0024

0.0025

0.0026

2.7

0.0026

0.0027

0.0028

0.0029

0.0030

0.0031

0.0032

0.0033

0.0034

0.0035

2.6

0.0036

0.0037

0.0038

0.0039

0.0040

0.0041

0.0043

0.0044

0.0045

0.0047

2.5

0.0048

0.0049

0.0051

0.0052

0.0054

0.0055

0.0057

0.0059

0.0060

0.0062

2.1

0.0064

0.0066

0.0068

0.0069

0.0071

0.0073

0.0075

0.0078

0.0080

0.0082

2.3

0.0084

0.0087

0.0089

0.0091

0.0094

0.0096

0.0099

0.0102

0.0104

0.0107

2.2

0.0110

0.0113

0.0116

0.0119

0.0122

0.0125

0.0129

0.0132

0.0136

0.0139

2.1

0.0143

0.0146

0.0150

0.0154

0.0158

0.0162

0.0166

0.0170

0.0174

0.0179

2.0

0.0183

0.0188

0.0192

0.0197

0.0202

0.0207

0.0212

0.0217

0.0222

0.0228

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.00

1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6

0.0233
0.0294
0.0367
0.0455

0.0239
0.0301
0.0375
0.0465

0.0244
0.0307
0.0384
0.0475

0.0250
0.0314
0.0392
0.0485

0.0256
0.0322
0.0401
0.0495

0.0262
0.0329
0.0409
0.0505

0.0268
0.0336
0.0418
0.0516

0.0274
0.0344
0.0427
0.0526

0.0281
0.0351
0.0436
0.0537

0.0287
0.0359
0.0446
0.0548

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1

0.0559
0.0681
0.0823
0.0985
0.1190

0.0571
0.0694
0.0853
0.1003
0.1190

0.0582
0.0708
0.0853
0.1020
0.1210

0.0594
0.0721
0.0869
0.1038
0.1230

0.0606
0.0735
0.0885
0.1057
0.1251

0.0618
0.0749
0.0901
0.1075
0.1271

0.0630
0.0764
0.0918
0.1093
0.1292

0.0643
0.0778
0.0934
0.1112
0.1314

0.0655
0.0793
0.0951
0.1131
0.1335

0.0668
0.0808
0.0968
0.1151
0.1357

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

0.1379
0.1611
0.1867
0.2148
0.2451

0.1401
0.1635
0.1894
0.2177
0.2483

0.1423
0.1660
0.1922
0.2207
0.2514

0.1446
0.1685
0.1949
0.2236
0.2546

0.1469
0.1711
0.1977
0.2266
0.2578

0.1492
0.1736
0.2005
0.2297
0.2611

0.1515
0.1762
0.2033
0.2327
0.2643

0.1539
0.1788
0.2061
0.2358
0.2676

0.1562
0.1814
0.2090
0.2389
0.2709

0.1587
0.1841
0.2119
0.2420
0.2743

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

0.2776
0.3121
0.3483
0.3859
0.4247
0.4641

0.2810
0.3156
0.3520
0.3897
0.4286
0.4681

0.2843
0.3192
0.3557
0.3936
0.4325
0.4721

0.2877
0.3228
0.3594
0.3974
0.4364
0.4761

0.2912
0.3264
0.3632
0.4013
0.4404
0.4801

0.2946
0.3300
0.3669
0.4052
0.4443
0.4840

0.2981
0.3336
0.3707
0.4090
0.4483
0.4880

0.3015
0.3372
0.3745
0.4129
0.4522
0.4920

0.3050
0.3409
0.3783
0.4168
0.4562
0.4960

0.3085
0.3446
0.3821
0.4207
0.4602
0.5000

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

+0.0

0.5000

0.5040

0.5080

0.5120

0.5160

0.5199

0.5239

0.5279

0.5319

0.5359

+0.1

0.5398

0.5438

0.5478

0.5517

0.5557

0.5596

0.5636

0.5675

0.5714

0.5753

+0.2

0.5793

0.5832

0.5871

0.5910

0.5948

0.5987

0.6026

0.6064

0.6103

0.6141
(Contd....)

Table 1 (Contd.)

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

+0.3

0.6179

0.6217

0.6255

0.6293

0.6331

0.6368

0.6406

0.6443

0.6480

0.6517

+0.4

0.6554

0.6591

0.6628

0.6664

0.6700

0.6736

0.6772

0.6808

0.6844

0.6879

+0.5

0.6915

0.6950

0.6985

0.7019

0.7054

0.7088

0.7123

0.7157

0.7190

0.7224

+0.6

0.7257

0.7291

0.7324

0.7357

0.7389

0.7422

0.7454

0.7486

0.7517

0.7549

+0.7

0.7580

0.7611

0.7642

0.7673

0.7704

0.7734

0.7764

0.7794

0.7823

0.7852

+0.8

0.7881

0.7910

0.7939

0.7967

0.7995

0.8023

0.8051

0.8079

0.8106

0.8133

+0.9

0.8159

0.8186

0.8212

0.8238

0.8264

0.8289

0.8315

0.8340

0.8365

0.8389

+1.0

0.8413

0.8438

0.8461

0.8485

0.8508

0.8531

0.8554

0.8577

0.8599

0.8621

+1.1

0.8643

0.8665

0.8686

0.8708

0.8729

0.8749

0.8770

0.8790

0.8810

0.8830

+1.2

0.8849

0.8869

0.8888

0.8907

0.8925

0.8944

0.8962

0.8980

0.8997

0.9015

+1.3

0.9032

0.9049

0.9066

0.9082

0.9099

0.9115

0.9131

0.9147

0.9162

0.9177

+1.4

0.9192

0.9207

0.9222

0.9236

0.9251

0.9265

0.9279

0.9292

0.9306

0.9319

+1.5

0.9332

0.9345

0.9357

0.9370

0.9382

0.9394

0.9406

0.9418

0.9429

0.9441

+1.6

0.9452

0.9463

0.9474

0.9484

0.9495

0.9505

0.9515

0.9525

0.9535

0.9545

+1.7

0.9554

0.9564

0.9573

0.9582

0.9591

0.9599

0.9608

0.9616

0.9625

0.9633

+1.8

0.9641

0.9649

0.9656

0.9664

0.9671

0.9678

0.9686

0.9693

0.9699

0.9706

+1.9

0.9713

0.9719

0.9726

0.9732

0.9738

0.9744

0.9750

0.9756

0.9761

0.9767

+2.0

0.9773

0.9778

0.9783

0.9788

0.9793

0.9798

0.9803

0.9808

0.9812

0.9817

+2.1

0.9821

0.9826

0.9830

0.9834

0.9838

0.9842

0.9846

0.9850

0.9854

0.9857

+2.2

0.9861

0.9864

0.9868

0.9871

0.9875

0.9878

0.9881

0.9884

0.9887

0.9890

+2.3

0.9893

0.9896

0.9898

0.9901

0.9904

0.9906

0.9909

0.9911

0.9913

0.9916

+2.4

0.9918

0.9920

0.9922

0.9925

0.9927

0.9929

0.9931

0.9932

0.9934

0.9936

+2.5

0.9938

0.9940

0.9941

0.9943

0.9945

0.9946

0.9948

0.9949

0.9951

0.9952
4

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

+2.6
+2.7
+2.8
+2.9
+3.0

0.9953
0.9965
0.9974
0.9981
0.99865

0.9955
0.9966
0.9975
0.9982
0.99869

0.9956
0.9967
0.9976
0.9983
0.99874

0.9957
0.9968
0.9977
0.9983
0.99878

0.9959
0.9969
0.9977
0.9984
0.99882

0.9960
0.9970
0.9978
0.9984
0.99886

0.9961
0.9971
0.9979
0.9985
0.99889

0.9962
0.9972
0.9979
0.9985
0.99893

0.9963
0.9973
0.9980
0.9986
0.99896

0.9964
0.9974
0.9981
0.9986
0.99900

+3.1
+3.2
+3.3
+3.4
+3.5

0.99903
0.99931
0.99952
0.99966
0.99977

0.99906
0.99934
0.99953
0.99967
0.99978

0.99910
0.99936
0.99955
0.99969
0.99978

0.99913
0.99938
0.99957
0.99970
0.99979

0.99915
0.99940
0.99958
0.99971
0.99980

0.99918
0.99942
0.99960
0.99972
0.99981

0.99921
0.99944
0.99961
0.99973
0.99981

0.99924
0.99946
0.99962
0.99974
0.99982

0.99926
0.99948
0.99964
0.99975
0.99983

0.99929
0.99950
0.9965
0.99976
0.99983

Table 2 : Individual Binomial Distribution

F nI p (1 p)

B( x; n, p) =

GH kJK

n k

K =0

p
n x

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

0 0.9025 0.8100 0.7225 0.6400 0.5625 0.4900 0.4225 0.3600 0.3025 0.2500 0.2025 0.1600 0.1225 0.0900 0.0625 0.0400 0.0225 0.0100 0.0025
1 0.9975 0.9900 0.9775 0.9600 0.9375 0.9100 0.8775 0.8400 0.7975 0.7500 0.6975 0.6400 0.5775 0.5100 0.4375 0.3600 0.2775 0.1900 0.0975

0 0.8574 0.7290 0.6141 0.5120 0.4219 0.3430 0.2746 0.2160 0.1664 0.1250 0.0911 0.0640 0.0429 0.0270 0.0156 0.0080 0.0034 0.0010 0.0001
1 0.9927 0.9720 0.9393 0.8960 0.8438 0.7840 0.7183 0.6480 0.5748 0.5000 0.4252 0.3520 0.2818 0.2160 0.1563 0.1040 0.0607 0.0280 0.0073
2 0.9999 0.9990 0.9966 1.9920 0.9844 0.9730 0.9571 0.9360 0.9089 0.8750 0.8336 0.7840 0.7254 0.6570 0.5781 0.4880 0.3859 0.2710 0.3426

0
1
2
3

0 0.7738 0.5905 0.4437 0.3277 0.2373 0.1681 0.1160 0.0778 0.0503 0.0313 0.0185 0.0102 0.0053 0.0024 0.0010 0.0003 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000
1 0.9774 0.9185 0.8352 0.7373 0.6328 0.5282 0.4284 0.3370 0.2562 0.1875 0.1312 0.0870 0.0540 0.0308 0.0156 0.0067 0.0022 0.0005 0.0000

0.8145
0.9860
0.9995
1.0000

0.6561 0.5220 0.4096 0.3164 0.2401


0.9477 0.8905 0.8192 0.7383 0.6517
0.9963 0.9880 0.9728 0.9492 0.9163
0.9999 0.9995 0.9984 0.9961 0.9919

0.1785
0.5630
0.8735
0.9850

0.1296
0.4752
0.8208
0.9744

0.0915
0.3910
0.7585
0.9590

0.0625
0.3125
0.6875
0.9375

0.0410
0.2415
0.6090
0.9085

0.0256
0.1792
0.5248
0.8704

0.0150
0.1265
0.4370
0.8215

0.0081
0.0837
0.3483
0.7599

0.0039
0.0508
0.2617
0.6836

0.0016
0.0272
0.1808
0.5904

0.0005
0.0120
0.1095
0.4780

0.0001
0.0037
0.0523
0.3439

(Contd....)

0.0000
0.0005
0.0140
0.1855

Table 2 (Contd.)
n x

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

2 0.9988 0.9914 0.9734 0.9421 0.8965 0.8369 0.7648 0.6826 0.5931 0.5000 0.4069 0.3174 0.2352 0.1631 0.1035 0.0579 0.0206 0.0086 0.0012
3 1.0000 0.9995 0.9978 0.9933 0.9844 0.9692 0.9460 0.9130 0.8688 0.8125 0.7468 0.6630 0.5716 0.4781 0.3672 0.2627 0.1648 0.0815 0.0226
4 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9990 0.9976 0.9947 0.9898 0.9815 0.9688 0.9497 0.9222 0.8840 0.8319 0.7627 0.6723 0.5563 0.4095 0.2262
6

0
1
2
3
4
5

0.7351
0.9672
0.9978
0.9999
1.0000
1.0000

0.5314
0.8857
0.9841
0.9987
0.9999
1.0000

0.3771
0.7765
0.9527
0.9941
0.9996
1.0000

0.2621
0.6554
0.9011
0.9830
0.9984
0.9999

0.1780
0.5339
0.8306
0.9626
0.9954
0.9998

0.1176
0.4202
0.7443
0.9295
0.9891
0.9993

0.0754
0.3191
0.6481
0.8826
0.9777
0.9982

0.0467
0.2333
0.5443
0.8208
0.9590
0.9959

0.0277
0.1636
0.4415
0.7447
0.9308
0.9917

0.0156
0.1094
0.3438
0.6563
0.8906
0.9844

0.0083
0.0692
0.2553
0.5585
0.8364
0.9723

0.0041
0.0410
0.1792
0.4557
0.7667
0.9533

0.0018
0.0223
0.1174
0.3529
0.6809
0.9246

0.0007
0.0109
0.0705
0.2557
0.5798
0.8824

0.0002
0.0046
0.0376
0.1694
0.4661
0.8220

0.0001
0.0016
0.0170
0.0989
0.3446
0.7379

0.0000
0.0004
0.0059
0.0473
0.2235
0.6229

0.0000
0.0001
0.0013
0.0158
0.1143
0.4686

0.0000
0.0000
0.0001
0.0022
0.0328
0.2649

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

0.6983
0.9556
0.9962
0.9998
1.0000
1.0000
10.000

0.4783
0.8503
0.9743
0.9973
0.9998
1.0000
1.0000

0.3206
0.7166
0.9262
0.9879
0.9988
0.9999
1.0000

0.2097
0.5767
0.8520
0.9667
0.9953
0.9996
1.0000

0.1335
0.4449
0.7564
0.9294
0.9871
0.9987
0.9999

0.0824
0.3894
0.6471
0.8740
0.9712
0.9962
0.9998

0.0490
0.2338
0.5323
0.8002
0.9444
0.9910
0.9994

0.0280
0.1586
0.4199
0.7102
0.9037
0.9812
0.9984

0.0152
0.1024
0.3164
0.6083
0.8471
0.9643
0.9963

0.0078
0.0625
0.2266
0.5000
0.7734
0.9375
0.9922

0.0037
0.0357
0.1529
0.3917
0.6836
0.8976
0.9848

0.0016
0.0188
0.0963
0.2898
0.5801
0.8414
0.9720

0.0006
0.0090
0.0556
0.1998
0.4677
0.7662
0.9510

0.0002
0.0038
0.0288
0.1260
0.3529
0.6706
0.9176

0.0001
0.0013
0.0129
0.0706
0.2436
0.5551
0.8665

0.0000
0.0004
0.0047
0.0333
0.1480
0.4233
0.7903

0.0000
0.0001
0.0012
0.0121
0.0738
0.2834
0.6794

0.0000
0.0000
0.0002
0.0027
0.0257
0.1497
0.5217

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0002
0.0038
0.0444
0.3017

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0.6634
0.9428
0.9942
0.9996
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

0.4305
0.8131
0.9619
0.9950
0.9996
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

0.2725
0.6572
0.8948
0.9786
0.9971
0.9998
1.0000
1.0000

0.1678
0.5033
0.7969
0.9437
0.9896
0.9988
0.9999
1.0000

0.1001
0.3671
0.6785
0.8862
0.9727
0.9958
0.9996
1.0000

0.0576
0.2553
0.5518
0.8059
0.9420
0.9887
0.9987
0.9999

0.0319
0.1691
0.4278
0.7064
0.8939
0.9747
0.9964
0.9998

0.0168
0.1064
0.3154
0.5941
0.8263
0.9502
0.9915
0.9993

0.0084
0.0632
0.2201
0.4770
0.7396
0.9115
0.9819
0.9983

0.0039
0.0352
0.1445
0.3633
0.6367
0.8555
0.9648
0.9961

0.0017
0.0181
0.0885
0.2604
0.5230
0.7799
0.9638
0.9916

0.0007
0.0085
0.0498
0.1737
0.4059
0.6846
0.8936
0.9832

0.0002
0.0036
0.0253
0.1061
0.2936
0.5722
0.8309
0.9681

0.0001
0.0013
0.0113
0.0580
0.1941
0.4482
0.7447
0.9424

0.0000
0.0004
0.0042
0.0273
0.1138
0.3215
0.6329
0.8999

0.0000
0.0001
0.0012
0.0104
0.0563
0.2031
0.4967
0.8322

0.0000
0.0000
0.0002
0.0029
0.0214
0.1052
0.3428
0.7275

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0004
0.0050
0.0381
0.1869
0.5695

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0004
0.0058
0.0572
0.3366

0.6302 0.3874 0.2316 0.1342 0.0751 0.0404 0.0207 0.0101 0.0046 0.0020 0.0008 0.0003 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

0.9288 0.7748 0.5995 0.4362 0.3003 0.1960 0.1211 0.0705 0.0385 0.0195 0.0091 0.0038 0.0014 0.0004 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

0.0016 0.0470 0.8501 0.7382 0.6007 0.4628 0.3373 0.2318 0.1495 0.0898 0.0498 0.0250 0.0112 0.0043 0.0013 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

0.9994 0.9917 0.9661 0.9144 0.8343 0.7297 0.6089 0.4826 0.3614 0.2539 0.1658 0.0994 0.0536 0.0253 0.0100 0.0031 0.0006 0.0001 0.0000

1.0000 0.9991 0.9944 0.9804 0.9511

1.0000 0.9999 0.9994 0.9969 0.9900 0.9747 0.9464 0.9006 0.8342 0.7461 0.6386 0.5174 0.3911 0.2703 0.1657 0.0856 0.0339 0.0083 0.0006

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9997 0.9987 0.9957 0.9888 0.9750 0.9502 0.9102 0.8505 0.7682 0.6627 0.5372 0.3993 0.2618 0.1409 0.0530 0.0084

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9996 0.9986 0.9962 0.9909 0.9805 0.9615 0.9295 0.8789 0.8040 0.6997 0.5628 0.4005 0.2252 0.0712

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9992 0.9980 0.9954 0.9899 0.9793 0.9596 0.9249 0.8658 0.7684 0.6126 0.3698

0.9012 0.8283 0.7334 0.6214 0.5000 0.3786 0.2666 0.1717 0.0988 0.0489 0.0196 0.0056 0.0009 0.0000

n x

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

10 0 0.5987 0.3487 0.1969 0.1074 0.0563 0.0282 0.0135

0.0060 0.0025 0.0010 0.0003 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

1 0.9139 0.7361 0.5443 0.3758 0.2440 0.1493 0.0860

0.0464 0.0233 0.0107 0.0045 0.0017 0.0005 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

2 0.9885 0.9298 0.8202 0.6778 0.5256 0.3828 0.2616

0.1673 0.0996 0.0547 0.0274 0.0123 0.0048 0.0016 0.0004 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

3 0.9990 0.9872 0.9500 0.8791 0.7759 0.6496 0.5138

0.3823 0.2660 0.1719 0.1020 0.0548 0.0260 0.0106 0.0035 0.0009 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000

4 0.9999 0.9984 0.9901 0.9672 0.9219 0.8497 0.7515

0.6331 0.5044 0.3370 0.2616 0.1662 0.0949 0.0473 0.0197 0.0064 0.0014 0.0001 0.0000

5 1.0000 0.9999 0.9986 0.9936 0.9803 0.9527 0.9051

0.8338 0.7384 0.6230 0.4956 0.3669 0.2485 0.1503 0.0781 0.0328 0.0099 0.0016 0.0001

6 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9991 0.9965 0.9894 0.9740

0.9452 0.8980 0.8281 0.7340 0.6177 0.4862 0.3504 0.2241 0.1209 0.0500 0.0128 0.0010

7 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9996 0.9984 0.9952

0.9877 0.9726 0.9453 0.9004 0.8327 0.7384 0.6172 0.4744 0.3222 0.1798 0.0702 0.0115

8 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9995

0.9983 0.9955 0.9893 0.9767 0.9536 0.9140 0.8507 0.7560 0.6242 0.4557 0.2639 0.0861

9 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

0.9999 0.9997 0.9990 0.9975 0.9910 0.9865 0.9718 0.9437 0.8956 0.8031 0.6513 0.4013

11 0 0.5688 0.3138 0.1673 0.0859 0.0422 0.0198 0.0088

0.0036 0.0014 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

1 0.8981 0.6974 0.4922 0.3221 0.1971 0.1130 0.0606

0.0302 0.0139 0.0059 0.0022 0.0007 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

2 0.8948 0.9104 0.7788 0.6174 0.4552 0.3127 0.2001

0.1189 0.0652 0.0327 0.0148 0.0059 0.0020 0.0006 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

3 0.9984 0.9815 0.9306 0.8389 0.7133 0.5696 0.4256

0.2963 0.1911 0.1133 0.0610 0.0293 0.0122 0.0043 0.0012 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

4 0.9999 0.9972 0.9841 0.9496 0.8854 0.7897 0.6683

0.5328 0.3971 0.2744 0.1738 0.0994 0.0501 0.0216 0.0076 0.0020 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000

5 1.0000 0.9997 0.9973 0.9883 0.9657 0.9218 0.8513

0.7535 0.6331 0.5000 0.3669 0.2465 0.1487 0.0782 0.0343 0.0147 0.0027 0.0003 0.0000

6 1.0000 1.0000 0.9997 0.9980 0.9924 0.6784 0.9499

0.9006 0.8262 0.7256 0.6029 0.4672 0.3317 0.2103 0.1146 0.0504 0.0159 0.0028 0.0001

7 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9998 0.9988 0.9957 0.9878

0.9707 0.9390 0.8867 0.8089 0.7037 0.5744 0.4304 0.2867 0.1611 0.0694 0.0185 0.0016

8 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9994 0.9980

0.9941 0.9852 0.9673 0.9348 0.8811 0.7999 0.6873 0.5448 0.3826 0.2212 0.0896 0.0152

9 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9998

0.9993 0.9978 0.9941 0.9861 0.9698 0.9394 0.8870 0.8029 0.6779 0.5078 0.3026 0.1019

10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

1.0000 0.9998 0.9995 0.9986 0.9964 0.9912 0.9802 0.9578 0.9141 0.8327 0.6862 0.4312

12 0 0.5404 0.2824 0.1422 0.0687 0.0317 0.0138 0.0057

0.0022 0.0008 0.0002 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

1 0.8816 0.6590 0.4435 0.2749 0.1584 0.0850 0.0424

0.0196 0.0083 0.0032 0.0011 0.0003 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

2 0.9804 0.8891 0.7358 0.5583 0.3907 0.2528 0.1513

0.0834 0.0421 0.0193 0.0079 0.0028 0.0008 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

3 0.9978 0.9744 0.9078 0.7946 0.6488 0.4925 0.3467

0.2253 0.1345 0.0730 0.0356 0.0153 0.0056 0.0017 0.0004 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

4 0.9998 0.9957 0.9761 0.9274 0.8424 0.7237 0.5833

0.4382 0.3044 0.1938 0.1117 0.0573 0.0255 0.0095 0.0028 0.0006 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000

5 1.0000 0.9995 0.9954 0.9806 0.9456 0.8822 0.7873

0.6652 0.5269 0.3872 0.2067 0.1582 0.0846 0.0386 0.0143 0.0039 0.0007 0.0001 0.0000

6 1.0000 0.9999 0.9993 0.9961 0.9857 0.9014 0.9154

0.8418 0.7393 0.6128 0.4731 0.3348 0.2127 0.1178 0.0544 0.0194 0.0046 0.0005 0.0000

7 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9994 0.9972 0.9905 0.9745

0.9427 0.8883 0.8062 0.6956 0.5618 0.4167 0.2763 0.1576 0.0726 0.0239 0.0043 0.0002

8 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9996 0.9983 0.9944

0.9847 0.9644 0.9270 0.8655 0.7747 0.6533 0.5075 0.3512 0.2054 0.0922 0.0256 0.0022

9 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9998 0.9992

0.9972 0.9921 0.9807 0.9579 0.9166 0.8487 0.7472 0.6093 0.4417 0.2642 0.1109 0.0196

10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999

0.9997 0.9989 0.9968 0.9917 0.9804 0.9576 0.9150 0.8416 0.7251 0.5565 0.3410 0.1184

11 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9992 0.9978 0.9943 0.9862 0.9683 0.9313 0.8578 0.7176 0.4596

(Contd....)

Table 2 (Contd.)
n x

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

13 0 0.5133 0.2542 0.1209 0.0550 0.0238 0.0097 0.0037 0.0013 0.0004

0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

1 0.8646 0.6213 0.3983 0.2336 0.1267 0.0637 0.0296 0.0126 0.0049

0.0017 0.0005 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

2 0.9755 0.8661 0.6920 0.6920 0.3326 0.2025 0.1132 0.0579 0.0269

0.0112 0.0041 0.0041 0.0003 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

3 0.9969 0.9658 0.8820 0.8820 0.5843 0.4206 0.2783 0.1686 0.0929

0.0461 0.0203 0.0203 0.0025 0.0007 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

4 0.9997 0.9935 0.9658 0.9658 0.7940 0.6543 0.5005 0.3530 0.2279

0.1334 0.0698 0.0698 0.0126 0.0040 0.0010 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

5 1.0000 0.9991 0.9925 0.9925 0.9198 0.8346 0.7159 0.5744 0.4268

0.2905 0.1788 0.1788 0.0462 0.0182 0.0056 0.0012 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000

6 1.0000 0.9999 0.9987 0.9987 0.9757 0.9376 0.8705 0.7712 0.6437

0.5000 0.3563 0.3563 0.1295 0.0624 0.0243 0.0070 0.0013 0.0001 0.0000

7 1.0000 1.0000 0.9998 0.9998 0.9944 0.9818 0.9538 0.9023 0.8212

0.7905 0.5732 0.5732 0.2841 0.1654 0.0802 0.0300 0.0075 0.0009 0.0000

8 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9990 0.9960 0.9874 0.9679 0.9302

0.8666 0.7721 0.7721 0.4995 0.3457 0.2060 0.0991 0.0342 0.0065 0.0003

9 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9993 0.9975 0.9922 0.9797

0.9539 0.9071 0.9071 0.7217 0.5794 0.4157 0.2527 0.1180 0.0342 0.0031

10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9987 0.9959

0.9888 0.9731 0.9731 0.8868 0.7975 0.6674 0.4983 0.3080 0.1339 0.0245

11 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9995

0.9983 0.9951 0.9951 0.9704 0.9363 0.8733 0.7664 0.6017 0.3787 0.1354

12 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

0.9999 0.9996 0.9996 0.9963 0.9903 0.9762 0.9450 0.8791 0.7458 0.4867

14 0 0.4877 0.2288 0.1028 0.0440 0.0178 0.0068 0.0024 0.0008 0.0002

0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

1 0.8870 0.5846 0.3567 0.1979 0.1010 0.0475 0.0205 0.0081 0.0029

0.0009 0.0003 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

2 0.9699 0.8416 0.6479 0.4481 0.2811 0.1608 0.0839 0.0398 0.0170

0.0065 0.0022 0.0006 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

3 0.9958 0.9559 0.8535 0.6982 0.5213 0.3552 0.2205 0.1243 0.0632

0.0287 0.0114 0.0039 0.0011 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

4 0.9996 0.9908 0.9533 0.8702 0.7415 0.5842 0.4227 0.2793 0.1672

0.0898 0.0426 0.0175 0.0000 0.0017 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

5 1.0000 0.9985 0.9885 0.9561 0.8883 0.7805 0.6405 0.4859 0.3373

0.2120 0.1189 0.0583 0.0243 0.0083 0.0022 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

6 1.0000 0.9998 0.9978 0.9984 0.9617 0.9067 0.8164 0.6925 0.5961

0.3933 0.2586 0.1501 0.0753 0.0315 0.0103 0.0024 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000

7 1.0000 1.0000 0.9997 0.9976 0.9897 0.9685 0.9247 0.8499 0.7414

0.6047 0.4539 0.3075 0.1836 0.0933 0.0383 0.0116 0.0022 0.0002 0.0000

8 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9996 0.9978 0.9917 0.9757 0.9417 0.8811

0.7880 0.6627 0.5141 0.3595 0.2195 0.1117 0.0439 0.0115 0.0015 0.0000

9 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9997 0.9983 0.9940 0.9825 0.9574

0.9102 0.8328 0.7207 0.5773 0.4158 0.2585 0.1298 0.0467 0.0092 0.0004

10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9998 0.9989 0.9961 0.9886

0.9713 0.9368 0.8757 0.7795 0.6448 0.4787 0.3018 0.1465 0.0441 0.0042

11 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9994 0.9978

0.9935 0.9830 0.9602 0.9161 0.8392 0.7189 0.5519 0.3521 0.1584 0.0301

12 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997

0.9991 0.9971 0.9919 0.9795 0.9525 0.8990 0.8021 0.6433 0.4154 0.1530

13 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

0.9999 0.9998 0.9992 0.9976 0.9932 0.9822 0.9560 0.8972 0.7712 0.5123

n x

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

15 0 0.4633 0.2059 0.0874 0.0352 0.0134 0.0047 0.0016 0.0005 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
1 0.8290 0.5490 0.3186 0.1671 0.0802 0.0353 0.0142 0.0052 0.0017 0.0005 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2 0.9638 0.8159 0.6042 0.3980 0.2361 0.1268 0.0617 0.0271 0.0107 0.0037 0.0011 0.0003 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 0.9945 0.9444 0.8227 0.6482 0.4613 0.2969 0.1727 0.0905 0.0424 0.0176 0.0036 0.0019 0.0005 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 0.9994 0.9873 0.9383 0.8358 0.6865 0.5155 0.3519 0.2173 0.1204 0.0592 0.0255 0.0093 0.0028 0.0007 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 0.9999 0.9977 0.9832 0.9389 0.8516 0.7216 0.5643 0.4032 0.2608 0.1509 0.0769 0.0338 0.0124 0.0037 0.0008 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6 1.0000 0.9997 0.9964 0.9819 0.9434 0.8689 0.7548 0.6098 0.4522 0.3036 0.1818 0.0950 0.0422 0.0152 0.0042 0.0008 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000
7 1.0000 1.0000 0.9994 0.9958 0.9827 0.9500 0.8868 0.7869 0.6535 0.5000 0.3465 0.2131 0.1132 0.0500 0.0173 0.0042 0.0006 0.0000 0.0000
8 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9992 0.9958 0.9848 0.9578 0.9050 0.8182 0.6964 0.5478 0.3902 0.2452 0.1311 0.0566 0.0181 0.0036 0.0003 0.0000
9 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9992 0.9963 0.9876 0.9662 0.9231 0.8491 0.7392 0.5968 0.4357 0.2784 0.1484 0.0611 0.0168 0.0022 0.0001
10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9993 0.9972 0.9907 0.9745 0.9408 0.8796 0.7827 0.6481 0.4845 0.3135 0.1642 0.0617 0.0127 0.0006
11 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9995 0.9981 0.9937 0.9824 0.9576 0.9095 0.8273 0.7031 0.5387 0.3518 0.1773 0.0556 0.0055
12 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9989 0.9963 0.9893 0.9729 0.9383 0.8732 0.7639 0.6020 0.3958 0.1841 0.0362
13 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9995 0.9983 0.9948 0.9858 0.9647 0.9198 0.8329 0.6814 0.4510 0.1710
14 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9995 0.9984 0.9953 0.9866 0.9648 0.9126 0.7941 0.5367

Table 3 : Summation of Terms of Poisson, Exponential, and Binomial Limits (Divide values by 1000)
c or np

0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10

980
961
942
942
905

1000
999
998
997
995

1000
1000
1000
1000

0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35

861
819
779
741
705

990
982
974
963
951

999
999
998
996
994

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60

670
638
607
577
549

938
925
910
894
878

992
989
986
982
977

999
999
998
998
997

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85

522
497
472
449
427

861
844
827
809
791

972
966
959
953
945

996
994
993
991
989

999
999
999
999
998

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

0.90

407

772

937

987

998

1000

0.95

387

754

929

984

997

1000

1.00

368

736

920

981

996

999

1000

1.1

333

699

900

974

995

999

1000

1.2

301

663

879

966

992

998

1000

(Contd...)
10

c or np

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

273
247
223
202
183

627
592
558
525
493

857
833
809
783
757

957
946
934
921
907

989
986
981
976
970

998
997
996
994
992

1000
999
999
999
998

1000
1000
1000
1000

1.8
1.9
2.0

165
150
135

463
434
406

731
704
677

891
875
857

964
956
947

990
987
983

997
997
995

999
999
999

1000
1000
1000

2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0

111
091
074
061
050

355
308
267
231
199

623
570
518
469
423

819
779
736
692
647

928
904
877
848
815

975
964
951
935
916

993
988
983
976
966

998
997
995
992
988

1000
999
999
998
996

1000
1000
999
999

3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0

041
033
027
022
018

171
147
126
107
092

380
340
303
269
238

603
558
515
473
433

781
744
706
668
629

895
871
844
816
785

955
942
927
909
889

983
977
969
960
949

994
992
988
984
979

998
997
996
994
992

4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5.0

015
012
010
008
007

078
066
056
048
040

210
185
163
143
125

395
359
326
294
265

590
551
513
476
440

753
720
686
651
616

867
844
818
791
762

936
921
905
887
867

972
964
955
944
932

989
985
980
975
968

5.2
5.4
5.6

006
005
004

034
029
024

109
095
082

238
213
191

406
373
342

581
546
512

732
702
670

845
822
797

918
903
886

960
951
941
(Contd...)
11

Table 3 (Contd.)

c or np

5.8

003

021

072

170

313

478

638

771

867

929

6.0

002

017

062

151

285

446

606

744

847

916

6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.0

002
002
001
001
001

015
012
010
009
007

054
046
040
034
030

134
119
105
093
082

259
235
213
192
173

414
384
355
327
301

574
542
511
480
450

716
687
658
628
599

826
803
780
755
729

902
886
869
850
830

7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
8.0

001
001
001
000
000

006
005
004
004
003

025
022
019
016
014

072
063
055
048
042

156
140
125
112
100

276
253
231
210
191

420
392
365
338
313

569
539
510
481
453

703
676
648
620
593

810
788
765
741
717

8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0

000
000
000
000

002
001
001
000

009
006
004
003

030
021
015
010

074
055
040
029

150
116
089
067

256
207
165
130

386
324
269
220

523
456
392
333

653
587
522
458

10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5

000
000
000
000
000

000
000
000
000
000

002
001
001
001
000

007
005
003
002
002

021
015
011
008
005

050
038
028
020
015

102
079
060
046
035

179
143
114
090
070

279
232
191
155
125

397
341
289
242
201

13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0

000
000
000
000
000

000
000
000
000
000

000
000
000
000
000

001
001
000
000
000

004
003
002
001
001

011
008
006
004
003

026
019
014
010
008

054
041
032
024
018

100
079
062
048
037

166
135
109
088
070
12

Table 4 : Values of Gamma Functions


Z

1.0

1.0000

0.9943

0.9888

0.9835

0.9784

0.9735

0.9687

0.9641

0.9597

0.9554

1.1

0.9513

0.9474

0.9436

0.9399

0.9364

0.9330

0.9298

0.9267

0.9237

0.9209

1.2

0.9182

0.9156

0.9131

0.9107

0.9085

0.9064

0.9044

0.9025

0.9007

0.8990

1.3

0.8975

0.8960

0.8946

0.8934

0.8922

0.8911

0.8902

0.8893

0.8885

0.8878

1.4

0.8873

0.8868

0.8864

0.8860

0.8858

0.8857

0.8856

0.8856

0.8857

0.8859

1.5

0.8862

0.8866

0.8870

0.8876

0.8882

0.8889

0.8896

0.8905

0.8914

0.8924

1.6

0.8935

0.8947

0.8959

0.8972

0.8986

0.9001

0.9017

0.9033

0.9050

0.9068

1.7

0.9086

0.9106

0.9126

0.9147

0.9168

0.9191

0.9214

0.9238

0.9262

0.9288

1.8

0.9314

0.9341

0.9368

0.9397

0.9426

0.9456

0.9487

0.9518

0.9551

0.9584

1.9

0.9618

0.9652

0.9688

0.9724

0.9761

0.9799

0.9837

0.9877

0.9917

0.9958

2.0

1.0000
The values of Gamma functions for x greater than 2 and less than 1 can be obtained by the following formulas:
x (x) = (x + 1)

x = (x 1) (x 1)

13

Table 5 : The t Distribution


Given v, the table gives (a) the one-tail t0 value with of the area above it, that is, P(t > t0) = , or (b) the two-tail +t0 and t0 values with
/2 in each tail, that is, P(t < t0) + P(t > + t0) =
f(t)

f(t)

0
(a) One-tail

t0

0
(a) Two-tail

-t0

+t0

One-tail
0.10

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

0.001

Two-tail

d.o.f. v
0.20

0.10

0.05

0.02

0.01

0.002

1
2
3
4
5

3.078
1.886
1.638
1.533
1.486

6.314
2.920
2.353
2.132
2.015

12.706
4.303
3.182
2.776
2.571

31.821
6.965
4.541
3.747
3.305

63.657
9.925
5.841
4.604
4.032

318.300
22.327
10.214
7.173
5.893

6
7
8
9
10

1.440
1.415
1.397
1.383
1.372

1.943
1.895
1.860
1.833
1.812

2.447
2.365
2.306
2.262
2.228

3.143
2.998
2.896
2.821
2.764

3.707
3.499
3.355
3.250
3.169

5.208
4.785
4.501
4.297
4.144

14

One-tail
0.10

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

0.001

Two-tail

d.o.f. v
0.20

0.10

0.05

0.02

0.01

0.002

11
12
13
14
15

1.363
1.356
1.350
1.345
1.341

1.796
1.782
1.771
1.761
1.753

2.201
2.179
2.160
2.145
2.131

2.718
2.681
2.650
2.624
2.602

3.106
3.055
3.012
2.977
2.947

4.025
3.930
3.852
3.787
3.733

16
17
18
19
20

1.337
1.333
1.330
1.328
1.325

1.746
1.740
1.734
1.729
1.725

2.120
2.179
2.160
2.145
2.131

2.718
2.681
2.650
2.624
2.602

3.106
3.055
3.012
2.977
2.947

4.025
3.930
3.852
3.787
3.733

21
22
23
24
25

1.323
1.321
1.319
1.318
1.316

1.721
1.717
1.714
1.711
1.708

2.080
2.074
2.069
2.064
2.060

2.518
2.508
2.500
2.492
2.485

2.831
2.819
2.807
2.797
2.787

3.527
3.505
3.485
3.467
3.450

26
27
28
29
30

1.315
1.314
1.313
1.311
1.310

1.706
1.703
1.701
1.699
1.697

2.056
2.052
2.048
2.045
2.042

2.479
2.473
2.467
2.462
2.457

2.779
2.771
2.763
2.756
2.750

3.435
3.421
3.408
3.396
3.385

40

1.303

1.684

2.021

2.423

2.704

3.307

60

1.296

1.671

2.000

2.390

2.660

3.232

80

1.292

1.664

1.990

2.374

2.639

3.192

100

1.290

1.660

1.984

2.365

2.626

3.174

1.282

1.645

1.960

2.326

2.579

3.090
15

Table 6 : Percentage Points of the F Distribution


The table gives the value of F, v1 , v2 the 100 percentage point of the F distribution having v1 degrees of
freedom in the denominator.
For each pair of values of v1 and F, v1 , v2 is tabulated for , 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001

The lower percentage points of the distribution may be obtained from the relation:
F1 , v1 , v2 = 1 / F, v2 , v1
F , v1, v2

e.g. F.95;12,8 = 1/F.05;8,12 = 1/2.85 = 0.351


v2

v1
1

10

12

24

161.4

199.5

215.7

224.6

230.2

234.0

236.8

238.9

241.9

243.9

249.0

254.3

4052

5000

5403

5625

5764

5859

5928

5981

6056

6106

6235

6366

4053*

5000*

5404*

5625*

5764*

5859*

5829*

5981*

6056*

6106*

6235*

6366*

18.5

19.0

19.2

19.2

19.3

19.3

19.4

19.4

19.4

19.4

19.5

19.5

98.5

99.0

99.2

99.2

99.3

99.3

99.4

99.4

99.4

99.4

99.5

99.5

998.5

999.0

999.2

999.2

999.3

999.3

999.4

999.4

999.4

999.4

999.5

999.5

10.13

9.55

9.28

9.12

9.01

8.94

8.89

8.85

8.79

8.74

8.64

8.53

34.1

30.8

29.5

28.7

28.2

27.9

27.7

27.5

27.2

27.1

26.6

26.1

167.0

148.5

141.1

137.1

134.6

132.8

131.5

130.6

129.2

128.3

125.9

123.5

7.71

6.94

6.59

6.39

6.26

6.16

6.09

6.04

5.96

5.91

5.77

5.63

21.2

18.0

16.7

16.0

15.5

15.2

15.0

14.8

14.5

14.4

13.9

13.5

74.14

61.25

56.18

53.44

51.71

50.53

49.66

49.00

48.05

47.41

45.77

44.05

6.61

5.79

5.41

5.19

5.05

4.95

4.88

4.82

4.74

4.68

4.53

4.36

16.26

13.27

12.06

11.39

10.97

10.67

10.46

10.29

10.05

9.89

9.47

9.02

47.18

37.12

33.20

31.09

29.75

28.83

28.16

27.65

26.92

26.42

25.14

23.79

5.99

5.14

4.76

4.53

4.39

4.28

4.21

4.15

4.06

4.00

3.34

3.67

13.74

10.92

9.78

9.15

8.75

8.47

8.26

8.10

7.87

7.72

7.31

6.88

35.51

27.00

23.70

21.92

20.80

20.03

19.46

19.03

18.41

17.99

16.90

15.75

* entries marked thus must be multiplied by 100


16

10

12

24

5.59
12.25
29.25

4.74
9.55
21.69

4.35
8.45
18.77

4.12
7.85
17.20

3.97
7.46
16.21

3.87
7.19
15.52

3.79
6.99
15.02

3.73
6.84
14.63

3.64
6.62
14.08

3.57
6.47
13.71

3.41
6.07
12.73

3.23
5.65
11.70

5.32
11.26
25.42

4.46
8.65
18.49

4.07
7.59
15.83

3.84
7.01
14.39

3.69
6.63
13.48

3.58
6.37
12.86

3.50
6.18
12.40

3.44
6.03
12.05

3.35
5.81
11.54

3.28
5.67
11.19

3.12
5.28
10.30

2.93
4.86
9.34

9.

5.12
10.56
22.86

4.26
8.02
16.39

3.86
6.99
13.90

3.63
6.42
12.56

3.48
6.06
11.71

3.37
5.80
11.13

3.29
5.61
10.69

3.23
5.47
10.37

3.14
5.26
9.87

3.07
5.11
9.57.

2.90
4.73
8.72

2.71
4.31
7.81

10

4.96
10.04
21.04

4.10
7.56
14.91

3.71
6.55
12.55

3.48
5.99
11.28

3.33
5.64
10.48

3.22
5.39
9.93

3.14
5.20
9.52

3.07
5.06
9.20

2.98
4.85
8.74

2.91
4.71
8.44

2.74
4.33
7.64

2.54
3.91
6.76

11

4.84
9.65
19.69

3.98
7.21
13.81

3.59
6.22
11.56

3.36
5.67
10.35

3.20
5.32
9.58

3.09
5.07
9.05

3.01
4.89
8.66

2.95
4.74
8.35

2.85
4.54
7.92

2.79
4.40
7.63

2.61
4.02
6.85

2.40
3.60
6.00

12

4.75
9.33
18.64

3.89
6.93
12.97

3.49
5.95
10.80

3.26
5.41
9.63

3.11
5.06
8.89

3.00
4.82
8.38

2.91
4.64
8.00

2.85
4.50
7.71

2.75
4.30
7.29

2.69
4.16
7.00

2.51
3.78
6.25

2.30
3.36
5.42

13

4.67
9.07
17.82

3.81
6.70
12.31

3.41
5.74
10.21

3.18
5.21
9.07

3.03
4.86
8.35

2.92
4.62
7.86

2.83
4.44
7.49

2.77
4.30
7.21

2.67
4.10
6.80

2.60
3.96
6.52

2.42
3.59
5.78

2.21
3.17
4.97

14

4.60

3.74

3.34

3.11

2.96

2.85

2.76

2.70

2.60

2.53

2.35

2.13

8.86

6.51

5.56

5.04

4.70

4.46

4.28

4.14

3.94

3.80

3.43

3.00

17.14

11.78

9.73

8.62

7.92

7.44

7.08

6.80

6.40

6.13

5.41

4.60

v2

v1

(Contd....)

17

Table 6 (Contd.)

v1
v /v
v21 2
16

18

20

22

24

26

28

10

12

24

4.49

3.63

3.24

3.01

2.85

2.74

2.66

2.59

2.49

2.42

2.24

2.01

8.53

6.23

5.29

4.77

4.44

4.20

4.03

3.89

3.69

3.55

3.18

2.75

16.12

10.97

9.01

7.94

7.27

6.80

6.46

6.19

5.81

5.55

4.85

4.06

4.41

3.55

3.16

2.93

2.77

2.66

2.58

2.51

2.41

2.34

2.15

1.92

8.29

6.01

5.09

4.58

4.25

4.01

3.84

3.71

3.51

3.37

3.00

2.57

15.38

10.39

8.49

7.46

6.81

6.35

6.02

5.76

5.39

5.13

4.45

3.67

4.35

3.49

3.10

2.87

2.71

2.60

2.51

2.45

2.35

2.28

2.08

1.84

8.10

5.85

4.94

4.43

4.10

3.87

3.70

3.56

3.37

3.23

2.86

2.42

14.82

9.95

8.10

7.10

6.46

6.02

5.69

5.44

5.08

4.82

4.15

3.38

4.30

3.44

3.05

2.82

2.66

2.55

2.46

2.40

2.30

2.23

2.03

1.78

7.95

5.72

4.82

4.31

3.99

3.76

3.59

3.45

3.26

3.12

2.75

2.31

14.38

9.61

7.80

6.81

6.19

5.76

5.44

5.19

4.83

4.58

3.92

3.15

4.26

3.40

3.01

2.78

2.62

2.51

2.42

2.36

2.25

2.18

1.98

1.73

7.82

5.61

4.72

4.22

3.90

3.67

2.50

3.36

3.17

3.03

2.66

2.21

14.03

9.34

7.55

6.59

5.98

5.55

5.23

4.99

4.64

4.39

3.74

2.97

4.23

3.37

2.98

2.74

2.59

2.47

2.39

2.32

2.22

2.15

1.95

1.69

7.72

5.53

4.64

4.14

3.82

3.59

3.42

3.29

3.09

2.96

2.58

2.13

13.74

9.,12

7.36

6.41

5.80

5.38

5.07

4.83

4.48

4.24

3.59

2.82

4.20

3.34

2.95

2.71

2.56

2.45

2.36

2.29

2.19

2.12

1.94

1.65

7.64

5.45

4.57

4.07

2.75

2.53

3.36

3.23

3.03

2.90

2.52

2.06

13.50

8.93

7.19

6.25

5.66

5.24

4.93

4.69

4.35

4.11

3.46

2.69
18

v1
vv21/v2
30

40

60

120

10

12

24

4.17

3.32

2.92

2.69

2.53

2.42

2.33

2.27

2.16

2.09

1.89

1.62

7.56

5.39

5.51

4.02

3.70

3.47

3.30

3.17

2.98

2.84

2.47

2.01

13.29

8.77

7.05

6.12

5.53

5.12

4.82

4.58

4.24

4.00

3.36

2.59

4.08

3.23

2.84

2.61

2.45

2.34

2.25

2.18

2.08

2.00

1.79

1.51

7.31

5.18

4.31

3.83

3.51

3.29

3.12

2.99

2.80

2.66

2.29

1.80

12.61

8.25

6.59

5.70

5.13

4.73

4.44

4.21

3.87

3.64

3.01

2.23

4.00

3.15

2.76

2.53

2.37

2.25

2.17

2.10

1.99

1.92

1.70

1.39

5.29

3.93

3.34

3.01

2.79

2.63

2.51

2.41

2.27

2.17

1.88

1.48

7.08

4.98

4.13

3.65

3.34

3.12

2.95

2.82

2.63

2.50

2.12

1.60

11.97

7.77

6.17

5.31

4.76

4.37

4.09

3.86

3.54

3.32

2.69

1.89

3.92

3.07

2.68

2.45

2.29

2.18

2.09

2.02

1.91

1.83

1.61

1.25

5.15

3.80

3.23

2.89

2.67

2.52

2.39

2.30

2.16

2.05

1.76

1.31

6.85

4.79

3.95

3.48

3.17

2.96

2.79

2.66

2.47

2.34

1.95

1.38

11.38

7.32

5.78

4.95

4.42

4.04

3.77

3.55

3.24

3.02

2.40

1.54

3.84

3.00

2.60

2.37

2.21

2.10

2.01

1.94

1.83

1.75

1.52

1.00

5.02

3.69

3.12

2.79

2.57

2.41

2.29

2.19

2.05

1.94

1.64

1.00

6.63

4.61

3.78

3.32

3.02

2.80

2.64

2.51

2.32

2.18

1.79

1.00

10.83

6.91

5.42

4.62

4.10

3.74

3.47

3.27

2.96

2.74

2.13

1.00

This table is taken from Table V of Fisher and Yates: Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research, published by Oliver
and Boyd Ltd., Edinburgh.

19

Table 7 : Percentage Points of the 2 Distribution


Table of x2; v - the 100 percentage point of the x2 distribution for degrees of freedom

2,

.99

.98

.95

.90

.80

=1

.03157

.03628

.00393

.0158

.0642

.148

.455

1.074

.0201

.0404

.103

.211

.446

.713

1.386

2.408

.70

.50

.30

.10

.05

.02

.01

.001

1.642

2.706

3.841

5.412

6.635

10.827

=1

3.219

4.605

5.991

7.824

9.210

13.815

.20

.115

.185

.352

.584

1.005

1.424

2.366

3.665

4.642

6.251

7.815

9.837 11.345

16.268

.297

.429

.711

1.064

1.649

2.195

3.357

4.878

5.989

7.779

9.488 11.668 13.277

18.465

.554

.752

1.145

1.610

2.343

3.000

4.351

6.064

7.289

9.236 11.070 13.388 15.086

20.517

.872

1.134

1.635

2.204

3.070

3.828

5.348

7.231

8.558 10.646 12.592 15.033 16.812

22.457

1.239

1.564

2.167

2.833

3.822

4.671

6.346

8.383

9.803 12.017 14.067 16.622 18.475

24.322

1.646

2.032

2.733

3.490

4.594

5.527

7.344

9.524

11.030 13.362 15.507 18.168 20.090

26.125

2.088

2.532

3.325

4.168

5.380

6.393

8.343 10.656

12.242 14.684 16.919 19.679 21.666

27.877

10

2.558

3.059

3.940

4.865

6.179

7.267

9.342 11.781

13.442 15.987 18.307 21.161 23.209

29.588

10

11

3.053

3.609

4.575

5.578

6.989

8.148 10.341 12.899

14.631 17.275 19.675 22.618 24.725

31.264

11

12

3.571

4.178

5.226

6.304

7.807

9.034 11.340 14.011

15.812 18.549 21.026 24.054 26.217

32.909

12

13

4.107

4.765

5.892

7.042

8.634

9.926 12.340 15.119

16.985 19.812 22.362 25.472 27.688

34.528

13

14

4.660

5.368

6.571

7.790

9.467 10.821 13.339 16.222

18.151 21.064 23.685 26.873 29.141

26.123

14

15

5.229

5.985

7.261

8.547 10.307 11.721 14.339 17.322

19.311 22.307 24.996 28.259 30.578

37.697

15

16

5.812

6.614

7.962

9.312 11.152 12.624 15.338 18.418

20.465 23.542 25.296 29.633 32.000

39.252

16

17

6.408

7.255

8.672

10.085 12.002 13.531 16.338 19.511

21.615 24.769 27.587 30.995 33.409

40.790

17

18

7.015

7.906

9.390

10.865 12.857 14.440 17.338 20.601

22.760 25.989 28.869 32.346 34.805

42.312

18

19

7.633

8.567

10.117

11.651 13.716 15.352 18.338 21.689

23.900 27.204 30.144 33.687 36.191

43.820

19

20

8.260

9.237

10.851

12.443 14.578 16.266 19.337 22.775

25.038 28.412 31.410 35.020 37.566

45.315

20

20

.99

.001

21

8.897

9.915

11.591

13.240 15.445 17.182 20.337 23.858

22

9.542

10.600

12.338

14.041 16.314 18.010 21.337 24.939

26.171 29.615 32.671 36.343 38.932

46.797

21

27.301 30.813 33.924 37.659 40.289

48.268

22

23

10.196

11.293

13.091

24

10.856

11.992

13.848

14.848 17.187 19.021 22.337 26.018

28.429 32.007 35.172 38.968 41.638

49.729

23

15.659 18.062 19.943 23.337 27.096

29.553 33.196 36.415 40.270 42.980

51.179

24

25

11.524

12.697

14.611

16.470 18.940 20.867 24.337 28.172

30.675 34.382 37.652 41.566 44.314

52.620

25

26

12.198

27

12.879

13.409

15.379

17.292 19.820 21.792 25.336 29.246

31.795 35.563 38.885 42.856 45.642

54.052

26

14.125

16.151

18.114 20.703 22.719 26.336 30.319

32.912 36.741 40.113 44.140 46.963

55.476

27

28
29

13.565

14.847

16.928

18.939 21.588 23.647 27.336 31.391

34.027 37.916 41.337 45.419 48.278

56.893

28

14.256

15.574

17.708

19.768 22.475 24.577 28.336 32.461

35.139 39.087 42.557 46.693 49.588

58.302

29

30

14.953

16.306

18.493

20.599 23.364 25.508 29.336 33.530

36.250 40.256 43.773 47.962 50.892

59.703

30

40

22.164

23.838

26.509

29.051 32.345 34.872 39.335 44.165

47.269 51.805 55.759 60.436 63.691

73.402

40

50

29.707

31.664

34.764

37.689 41.449 44.313 49.335 54.723

58.164 63.167 67.505 72.613 76.154

86.661

50

60

37.485

39.699

43.188

46.459 50.641 53.809 59.335 65.227

68.972 74.397 79.082 84.580 88.379

99.607

60

70

45.442

47.893

51.739

55.329 59.898 63.346 69.334 75.689

79.715 85.527 90.531 96.388 100.425 112.317

70

80

53.539

56.213

60.391

64.278 69.207 72.915 79.334 86.120

90.405 96.578 101.880 108.069 112.329 124.839

80

.98

.95

.90

.80

.70

.50

.30

.20

.10

.05

.02

.01

21

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

0.05

0.10

0
0
0
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
12
13

0.025

0.05

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
11
11

0.005

0.01
one-sided tests

two-sided tests

Table 8 : Critical Values for the Sign Test

0
0
0
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
13
14

22

Part II
NON-PARAMETRIC TABLES

23

Table 9 : Critical Values for Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test


W*

0.10

0.05

0.02

0.01

two-sided tests

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

one-sided tests

4
5

10

10

11

13

10

12

17

13

13

21

17

12

14

25

21

15

12

15

30

25

19

15

16

35

29

23

19

17

41

34

27

23

18

47

40

32

27

19

53

46

37

32

20

60

52

43

37

21

67

58

49

42

22

75

65

55

48

23

83

73

62

54

24

91

81

69

61

25

100

89

76

68

If n > 25, W+ (or W) is approximately normally distributed with mean n (n + 1) / 4 and variance n (n + 1) (2n + 1) / 24.

24

Table 10 A : Critical Values for Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test


W0.05
n 1a

10

5
6

10

11

12

11
12

17
18

26

7
8

13
14

20
21

27
29

36
38

9
10

15
15

49

22
23

31
32

40
42

51
53

63
65

11
12

16
17

24
26

34
35

78

44
46

55
58

68
71

13
14

18
19

27
28

37
38

48
50

60
63

15
16

20
21

29
31

40
42

52
54

17
18

21
22

32
33

43
45

19
20

23
24

34
35

21
22

25
26

23
24
25
26

13

14

81
85

96
99

115

73
76

88
91

103
106

119
123

137
141

160

65
67

79
82

94
97

110
114

127
131

145
150

164
169

56
58

70
72

84
87

100
103

117
121

135
139

154

46
48

60
62

74
77

90
93

107
110

124

37
38

50
51

64
66

79
82

95

27
28

39
40

53
55

68

28
29

42

15

n2

185

27
28
For n1 and n2 > 8, W1 is approximately normally distributed with mean (1/2) n1(n1 + n2 + 1) and variance n1n2 (n1 + n2+1) /12.
25

Table 10 B : Critical Values for Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test


W0.01
n1
n2

10

11

12

13

14

15

15

10

16

23

10

17

24

32

11

17

25

34

43

11

18

26

35

45

56

10

12

19

27

37

47

58

71

11

12

20

28

38

49

61

74

87

12

13

21

30

40

51

63

76

90

106

13

14

22

31

41

53

65

79

93

109

125

14

14

22

32

43

54

67

81

96

112

129

147

15

15

23

33

44

56

70

84

99

115

133

151

16

15

24

34

46

58

72

86

102

119

137

155

17

16

25

36

47

60

74

89

105

112

140

18

16

26

37

49

62

76

92

108

125

19

17

27

38

50

64

78

94

111

20

18

28

39

52

66

81

97

21

18

29

40

53

68

83

22

19

29

42

55

70

23

19

30

43

57

24

20

31

44

25

20

32

26

21

171

27
28

26

Table 11 : Values for Spearmans Rank Correlation (rs) for Combined Areas in Both Tails
(n = sample size = 12)

10% of area

10% of area

.3986

+.3986

0.20

0.10

0.05

0.02

0.01

0.002

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0.8000
.7000
.6000
.5357
.5000
.4667
.4424

.8000
.8000
.7714
.6786
.6190
.5833
.5315

.9000
.8236
.7450
.7143
.6833
.6364

.9000
.8857
.8571
.8095
.7667
.7333

.9429
.8929
.8571
.8167
.7818

.9643
.9286
.9000
.8667

11
12
13
14
15

0.4182
.3986
.3791
.3626
.3500

.5273
.4965
.4780
.4593
.4429

.6091
.5804
.5549
.5341
.5179

.7000
.6713
.6429
.6220
.6000

.7455
.7273
.6978
.6747
.6536

.8364
.8182
.7912
.7670
.7464

16
17
18
19
20

0.3382
.3260
.3148
.3070
.2977

.4265
.4118
.3994
.3895
.3789

.5000
.4853
.4716
.4579
.4451

.5824
.5637
.5480
.5333
.5203

.6324
.6152
.5975
.5825
.5684

.7265
.7083
.6904
.6737
.6586
(Contd...)

27

Table 11 (Contd.)

0.20

0.10

0.05

0.02

0.01

0.002

21
22
23
24
25

0.2909
.2829
.2767
.2704
.2646

.3688
.3597
.3518
.3435
.3362

.4351
.4241
.4150
.4061
.3977

.5078
.4963
.4852
.4748
.4654

.5545
.5426
.5306
.5200
.5100

.6455
.6318
.6186
.6070
.5962

26
27
28
29
30

0.2588
.2540
.2480
.2443
.2400

.3299
.3236
.3175
.3113
.3059

.3894
.3822
.3749
.3685
.3620

.4564
.4481
.4401
.4320
.4251

.5002
.4915
.4828
.4744
.4665

.5856
.5757
.5660
.5567
.5479

Table 12 : Kendalls Rank Correlation Coefficient


The table gives probability that the net total score S, will be greater than or equal to any possible positive value when the ranks of the two
sets are not correlated. For a two-tailed test, the tabulated probability corresponding to the observed value of S should be doubled (except for
S = 0)
n

10

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21

.500
.360
.235
.136
.068
.028
.0083
.0014

.500
.386
.281
.191
.119
.068
.035
.015
.0054
.0014
.0002

.500
.431
.364
.300
.242
.190
.146
.108
.078
.054
.036

S
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

.625
.325
.167
.042

.592
.408
.242
.117
.042
.0083

.548
.452
.360
.274
.199
.138
.089
.054
0.31
.016
.0071

.540
.460
.381
.306
.238
.179
.130
.090
.060
.038
.022

(Contd...)

28

10

S
22

.0028

.012

23

24

.0009

.0063

25

.023
.014

26

.0002

.0029

27

.0083

28

.0012

29

.0046

30

.0004

31

.0023

33

.0011

35

.0005

For values of n greater than 10, it is sufficiently accurate to use the fact that rk is approximately normal with mean of zero and variance of:
2 (2n + 5)
9 n ( n 1)
Thus rk can be expressed as a standardized normal variate by writing:

S
0
n
(n 1)
=S
u= 2
2 (2n + 5)
9n (n 1)

18
n(n 1) (2n + 5)

The significance of S can then be tested using tables of the normal distribution.

29

Table 13 : Percentage Points of D in the One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Distribution


The table gives the values of D, the 100 percentage point of the D distribution for = 0.20, 0.15, 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01. D is the maximum
value of | FOBS (x)FEXP (x) |
Values of D greater than or equal to those tabulated for the given sample size n and significance level , suggest that the sample has not been
drawn from a population with the properties of the assumed theoretical distribution.

.20

.15

.10

.05

.01

1
2
3
4
5

.900
.684
.565
.494
.446

.925
.726
.597
.525
.474

.950
.776
.642
.564
.510

.975
.842
.708
.624
.565

.995
.929
.828
.733
.669

6
7
8
9
10

.410
.381
.358
.339
.322

.436
.405
.381
.360
.342

.470
.438
.411
.388
.368

.521
.486
.457
.432
.410

.618
.577
.543
.514
.490

11
12
13
14
15

.307
.295
.284
.274
.266

.326
.313
.302
.292
.283

.352
.338
.325
.314
.304

.391
.375
.361
.349
.338

.468
.450
.433
.418
.404

16
17
18
19
20

.258
.250
.244
.237
.231

.274
.266
.259
.252
.246

.295
.286
.278
.272
.264

.328
.318
.309
.301
.294

.392
.381
.371
.363
.356

25
30
35

.21
.19
.18
1. 07

.22
.20
.19
1.14

.24.
.22
.21
1. 22

.27
.24
.23
1. 36

.32
.29
.27
1. 63

Over 35

30

Table 14. Critical Values for the Durbin-Watson Statistic


This is used to test for serial correlation in a regression model. The null and alternative hypothesis are:
Ho there is no positive serial correlation in the error terms, if DWs < dl
Ha there is positive serial correlation in the error terms, if DWs > du
T

(t t 1)^2

The DW statistic, DW =

t=2

t ^ 2

t=1

where, t: regression residue for period t and K: Number of slope parameters in the model.
(Ref: Richard A.De Fusco, Quantitative Methods for Investment Analysis, A.I.M.R., 2001)

= 0.05
K=1

K=2

K=3

K=4

K=5

Dl

Du

Dl

Du

Dl

Du

Dl

Du

Dl

Du

15

1.08

1.36

0.95

1.54

0.82

1.75

0.69

1.97

0.56

2.21

16

1.10

1.37

0.98

1.54

0.86

1.73

0.74

1.93

0.62

2.15

17

1.13

1.38

1.02

1.54

0.90

1.71

0.78

1.90

0.67

2.10

18

1.16

1.39

1.05

1.53

0.93

1.69

0.82

1.87

0.71

2.06

19

1.18

1.40

1.08

1.53

0.97

1.68

0.86

1.85

0.75

2.02

20

1.20

1.41

1.10

1.54

1.00

1.68

0.90

1.83

0.79

1.99

21

1.22

1.42

1.13

1,54

1.03

1.67

0.93

1.81

0.83

1.96

22

1.24

1.43

1.15

1.54

1.05

1.66

0.96

1.80

0.86

1.94

23

1.26

1.44

1.17

1.54

1.08

1.66

0.99

1.79

0.90

1.92

24

1.27

1.45

1.19

1.55

1.10

1.66

1.01

1.78

0.93

1.90

25

1.29

1.45

1.21

1.55

1.12

1.66

1.04

1.77

0.95

1.89

26

1.30

1.46

1.22

1.55

1.14

1.65

1.06

1.76

0.98

1.88

27

1.32

1.47

1.24

1.56

1.16

1.65

1.08

1.76

1.01

1.86

28

1.33

1.48

1.26

1.56

1.18

1.65

1.10

1.75

1.03

1.85

(Contd...)

31

Table 14 (Contd.)

K=1

K=2

K=3

K=4

K=5

Dl

Du

Dl

Du

Dl

Du

Dl

Du

Dl

Du

29

1.34

1.48

1.27

1.56

1.20

1.65

1.12

1.74

1.05

1.84

30

1.35

1.49

1.28

1.57

1.21

1.65

1.14

1.74

1.07

1.83

31

1.36

1.50

1.30

1.57

1.23

1.65

1.16

1.74

1.09

1.83

32

1.37

1.50

1.31

1.57

1.24

1.65

1.18

1.73

1.11

1.82

33

1.38

1.51

1.32

1.58

1.26

1.65

1.19

1.73

1.13

1.81

34

1.39

1.51

1.33

1.58

1.27

1.65

1.21

1.73

1.15

1.81

35

1.40

1.52

1.34

1.58

1.28

1.65

1.22

1.73

1.16

1.80

36

1.41

1.52

1.35

1.59

1.29

1.65

1.24

1.73

1.18

1.80

37

1.42

1.53

1.36

1.59

1.31

1.66

1.25

1.72

1.19

1.80

38

1.43

1.54

1.37

1.59

1.32

1.66

1.26

1.72

1.21

1.79

39

1.43

1.54

1.38

1.60

1.33

1.66

1.27

1.72

1.22

1.79

40

1.44

1.54

1.39

1.60

1.34

1.66

1.29

1.72

1.23

1.79

45

1.48

1.57

1.43

1.62

1.38

1.67

1.34

1.72

1.29

1.78

50

1.50

1.59

1.46

1.63

1.42

1.67

1.38

1.72

1.34

1.77

55

1.53

1.60

1.49

1.64

1.45

1.68

1.41

1.72

1.38

1.77

60

1.55

1.62

1.51

1.65

1.48

1.69

1.44

1.73

1.41

1.77

65

1.57

1.63

1.54

1.66

1.50

1.70

1.47

1.73

1.44

1.77

70

1.58

1.64

1.55

1.67

1.52

1.70

1.49

1.74

1.46

1.77

75

1.60

1.65

1.57

1.68

1.54

1.71

1.51

1.74

1.49

1.77

80

1.61

1.66

1.59

1.69

1.56

1.72

1.53

1.74

1.51

1.77

85

1.62

1.67

1.60

1.70

1.57

1.72

1.55

1.75

1.52

1.77

90

1.63

1.68

1.61

1.70

1.59

1.73

1.57

1.75

1.54

1.78

95

1.64

1.69

1.62

1.71

1.60

1.73

1.58

1.75

1.56

1.78

100

1.65

1.69

1.63

1.72

1.61

1.74

1.59

1.76

1.57

1.78

32

Part III
SQC TABLES

33

Table 15. Factors for Computing Control Limits


Using Standard Values of X and '
Average

Median

Mid-Range

Standard Deviation Chart

Range Chart

Central line

X'

X'

X'

C2'

d2'

UCL

'
X' + A

'
X' + F

'
X' + G

B2'

D2'

LCL

'
X' A

'
X' F

X' G

B1'

D1

No. of
observation
in the sample

C2

B1

B2

d2

D1

D2

10

2.121

2.121

2.121

0.5642

1.843

1.128

3.686

1.732

2.009

1.805

0.7236

1.858

1.693

4.358

1.500

1.638

1.638

0.7979

1.808

2.059

4.698

1.342

1.607

1.532

0.8407

1.756

2.326

4.918

1.225

1.300

1.458

0.8686

0.026

1.711

2.534

5.078

1.134

1.376

1.402

0.8882

0.105

1.672

2.704

0.205

5.203

1.061

1.230

1.358

0.9027

0.167

1.638

2.847

0.387

5.307

1.000

1.223

1.322

0.9139

0.219

1.609

2.970

0.546

5.394

10

0.949

1.116

1.292

0.9227

0.262

1.584

3.078

0.687

5.469

11

0.905

0.9300

0.299

1.561

3.173

0.812

5.534

12

0.866

0.9359

0.331

1.541

3.258

0.924

5.592

13

0.832

0.9410

0.359

1.523

3.336

1.026

5.646

14

0.802

0.9453

0.384

1.507

3.407

1.121

5.693

15

0.775

0.9490

0.406

1.492

3.472

1.207

5.737

16

0.750

0.9523

0.427

1.478

3.532

1.285

5.779

17

0.728

0.9551

0.445

1.465

3.588

1.359

5.817

18

0.707

0.9576

0.461

1.454

3.640

1.426

5.854

19

0.688

0.9599

0.477

1.443

3.689

1.490

5.888
(Contd...)
34

20
21
22
23
24
25

0.671
0.655
0.640
0.626
0.612
0.600

0.9619
0.9638
0.9655
0.9670
0.9684
0.9696

0.491
0.504
0.516
0.527
0.538
0.548

1.433
1.424
1.415
1.407
1.399
1.392

3.735
3.778
3.819
3.858
3.895
3.931

1.548
1.606
1.659
1.710
1.759
1.804

5.922
5.950
5.979
6.006
6.031
6.058

Note 1: Since the efficiency of median / mid-range as an estimate of central tendency declines as size increases, they are not recommended
for large sample size. For this reason, the entries in col.3 and 4 are restricted to samples up to 10 only.
Using

Using R

Average
Chart

Standard
deviation

Average
chart

Median
chart

Mid-range
chart

Range

Chart

Central Line
UCL
LCL

X
X + A2
X A2

B4
B3

X
X + A2 R
X A2 R

Me
Me + F2R
Me F2R

M
M + G2R
M G2R

R
D4 R
D3 R

No. of
observations
in the sample

A1

B3

B4

A2

F2

G2

D3

D4

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

3.760
2.394
1.880
1.596
1.410
1.277
1.175
1.094
1.028
0.973
0.925

0
0
0
0
0.030
0.118
0.185
0.239
0.284
0.321
0.354

3.267
2.568
2.266
2.089
1.970
1.882
1.815
1.761
1.716
1.679
1.646

1.880
1.023
0.729
0.577
0.483
0.419
0.373
0.337
0.308

1.880
1.187
0.796
0.691
0.549
0.509
0.432
0.412
0.363

1.880
1.067
0.796
0.659
0.575
0.518
0.477
0.445
0.420

0
0
0
0
0
0.076
0.136
0.184
0.223

3.267
2.575
2.282
2.115
2.004
1.924
1.864
1.816
1.777

(Contd...)
35

Table 15 (Contd.)

13

0.884

0.382

1.618

14

0.848

0.406

1.594

15

0.816

0.428

1.572

16

0.788

0.448

1.552

17

0.762

0.466

1.534

18

0.738

0.482

1.518

19

0.717

0.497

1.503

20

0.697

0.510

1.490

21

0.679

0.523

1.477

22

0.662

0.534

1.466

23

0.647

0.545

1.455

24

0.632

0.555

1.445

25

0.619

0.565

1.435

Note 2: Since range is not recommended for large samples, the entries in col.14 onwards are restricted to sample size up to 10 only

Table 16 : Relative Precision Index


Sample size

Class:

Low

Medium

High

Less than 6.0

6.0 to 7.0

Greater than 7.0

Less than 4.0

4.0 to 5.0

Greater than 5.0

Less than 3.0

3.0 to 4.0

Greater than 4.0

5 or 6

Less than 2.5

2.5 to 3.5

Greater than 3.5

36

Table 17 : Factors for Computing Modified Control Limits


No. of observations
in the sample

V1 using known
standard deviation

V2 using average
range

0.879

0.779

1.268

0.749

1.500

0.729

1.658

0.713

1.775

0.700

1.866

0.690

1.939

0.681

2.000

0.673

10

2.051

0.666

11

2.095

0.660

12

2.134

0.655

13

2.168

0.650

14

2.198

0.645

2.225

0.641

16

2.250

0.637

17

2.272

0.633

18

2.293

0.630

15

19

2.312

0.627

2.329

0.624

21

2.345

0.621

22

2.360

0.618

23

2.374

0.615

24

2.388

0.613

25

2.400

0.611

20

37

Table 18. Sample Size Code Letters


Lot or Batch
Size

Special Inspection Levels

General Inspection Levels

S1

S2

S3

S4

II

III

2 to 8

9 to 15

16 to 25

26 to 50

51 to 90

91 to 150

151 to 280

281 to 500

501 to 1200

1201 to 3200

3201 to 10000

10001 to 35000

35001 to 150000

150001 to 500000

500001 and over

38

Table 19 : Master Table for Normal Inspection, Single Sampling


Acceptable Quality LevelNormal Inspection

For defects per

For percent defective of defects per 100 items


Code

Sample 0.10

Letter

Size

13

20

32

50

80

125

200

315

500

800

Q
R

Ac

100 items only

0.15

.025

0.40

0.65

1.0

1.5

2.5

4.0

6.5

10

15

25

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

0
0

10

10

14
21

0
0
0

10

14

10

14

21

10

14

21

21

0
0
1

10

14

10

14

21

10

14

21

10

14

21

1250

10

14

21

2000

10

14

21

Use first sampling plan below arrow. If sample size equals or exceeds lot or batch size, do 100% inspection
Use first sampling plan above arrow.
Ac: Acceptance number

Rc: Rejection number = Ac + 1


39

Table 19 : (Contd.): Master Table for Normal Inspection, Single Sampling


Sample

Acceptable Quality Level Normal Inspection

Size

Sample

Code

Size

Letter

For defects per 100 items only


40

65

100

150

250

400

650

1000

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

10

14

21

30
44

10

14

21

30

10

14

21

30

44

44

10

14

21

30

13

10

14

21

30

44

20

14

21

21

32

50

80

125

200

315

500

800

1250

200

Use first sampling plan below arrow. If sample size equals or exceeds lot or batch size, do 100% inspection
Use first sampling plan above arrow.
Ac: Acceptance number Rc: Rejection number = Ac + 1
40

Table 20 A : Significant Ranges for Duncans Multiple Range Test


r0.01 (p, f)
D of

fa

10

20

50

100

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

90.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

14.0

8.26

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

8.9

9.0

9.0

9.3

9.3

9.3

9.3

6.51

6.8

6.9

7.0

7.1

7.1

7.2

7.2

7.3

7.5

7.5

7.5

5.70

5.96

6.11

6.18

6.26

6.33

6.40

6.44

6.5

6.8

6.8

6.8

5.24

5.51

5.65

5.73

5.81

5.88

5.95

6.00

6.0

6.3

6.3

6.3

4.95

5.22

5.37

5.45

5.53

5.61

5.69

5.73

5.8

6.0

6.0

6.0

4.74

5.00

5.14

5.23

5.32

5.40

5.47

5.51

5.6

5.8

5.8

5.8

4.60

4.86

4.99

5.08

5.17

5.25

5.32

5.36

5.4

5.7

5.7

5.7

10

4.48

4.73

4.88

4.96

5.06

5.13

5.20

5.24

5.28

5.55

5.55

5.55

11

4.39

4.63

4.77

4.86

4.94

5.01

5.06

5.12

5.15

5.39

5.39

5.39

12

4.32

4.55

4.68

4.76

4.84

4.92

4.96

5.02

5.07

5.26

5.26

5.26

13

4.26

4.48

4.62

4.69

4.74

4.84

4.88

4.94

4.98

5.15

5.15

5.15

14

4.21

4.42

4.55

4.63

4.70

4.78

4.83

4.87

4.91

5.07

5.07

5.07

15

4.17

4.37

4.50

4.58

4.64

4.72

4.77

4.81

4.84

5.00

5.00

5.00

16

4.13

4.34

4.45

4.54

4.60

4.67

4.72

4.76

4.79

4.94

4.94

4.94

17

4.10

4.30

4.44

4.50

4.56

4.63

4.68

4.73

4.75

4.89

4.89

4.89

18

4.07

4.27

4.38

4.46

4.53

4.59

4.64

4.68

4.71

4.85

4.85

4.85

19

4.05

4.24

4.35

4.43

4.50

4.56

4.61

4.64

4.67

4.82

4.82

4.82

20

4.02

4.22

4.33

4.40

4.47

4.53

4.58

4.61

4.65

4.79

4.79

4.79

30

3.89

4.06

4.16

4.22

4.32

4.36

4.41

4.45

4.48

4.65

4.71

4.71

40

3.82

3.99

4.10

4.17

4.24

4.30

4.34

4.37

4.41

4.59

4.69

4.69

60

3.76

3.92

4.03

4.12

4.17

4.23

4.27

4.31

4.34

4.53

4.66

4.66

100

3.71

3.86

3.98

4.06

4.11

4.17

4.21

4.25

4.29

4.48

4.64

4.65

3.64

3.80

3.90

3.98

4.04

4.09

4.14

4.17

4.20

4.41

4.60

4.68
41

Table 20 B
r0.05 (p, f)
D of

10

20

50

100

1
2

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

18.0

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

6.09

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

4.50

3.93

4.01

4.02

4.02

4.02

4.02

4.02

4.02

4.02

4.02

4.02

4.02

3.64

3.74

3.79

3.83

3.83

3.83

3.83

3.83

3.83

3.83

3.83

3.83

3.46

3.58

3.64

3.68

3.68

3.68

3.68

3.68

3.68

3.68

3.68

3.68

3.35

3.47

3.54

3.58

3.60

3.61

3.61

3.61

3.61

3.61

3.61

3.61

3.26

3.39

3.47

3.52

3.55

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.20

3.34

3.41

3.47

3.50

3.52

3.52

3.52

3.52

3.52

3.52

3.52

10

3.15

3.30

3.37

3.43

3.46

3.47

3.47

3.47

3.47

3.48

3.48

3.48

11

3.11

3.27

3.35

3.39

3.43

3.44

3.45

3.46

3.46

3.48

3.48

3.48

12

3.08

3.23

3.33

3.36

3.40

3.42

3.44

3.44

3.46

3.48

3.48

3.48

13

3.06

3.21

3.30

3.35

3.38

3.41

3.42

3.44

3.45

3.47

3.47

3.47

14

3.03

3.18

3.27

3.33

3.37

3.39

3.41

3.42

3.44

3.47

3.47

3.47

15

3.01

3.16

3.25

3.31

3.36

3.38

3.40

3.42

3.43

3.47

3.47

3.47

16

3.00

3.15

3.23

3.30

3.34

3.37

3.39

3.41

3.43

3.47

3.47

3.47

17

2.98

3.13

3.22

3.28

3.33

3.36

3.38

3.40

3.42

3.47

3.47

3.47

18

2.97

3.12

3.21

3.27

3.32

3.35

3.37

3.39

3.41

3.47

3.47

3.47

19

2.96

3.11

3.19

3.26

3.31

3.35

3.37

3.39

3.41

3.47

3.47

3.47

20

2.95

3.10

3.18

3.25

3.30

3.34

3.36

3.38

3.40

3.47

3.47

3.47

30

2.89

3.04

3.12

3.20

3.25

3.29

3.32

3.35

3.37

3.47

3.47

3.47

40

2.86

3.01

3.10

3.17

3.22

3.27

3.30

3.33

3.35

3.47

3.47

3.47

60

2.83

2.98

3.08

3.14

3.20

3.24

3.28

3.31

3.33

3.47

3.48

3.48

100

2.80

2.95

3.05

3.12

3.18

3.22

3.26

3.20

3.32

3.47

3.53

3.53

2.77

2.92

3.02

3.09

3.15

3.19

3.23

3.26

3.29

3.47

3.61

3.67
42

Table 21.1 : L4 (23) Orthogonal Array (OA4)


Columns

Experiment
1

3
1

2
Linear Graph for OA4

Table 21.2 : L2(27) Orthogonal Array (OA8)


Columns

Experiment
1

43

1
2
3
3

5
5

1
2

4
6

4
6

(b)

(a)
Linear Graphs for OA8

Table 21.3 L9 (34) Orthogonal Array (OA9)


Columns

Experiment
1

3,4
1

2
Linear graph for OA 9
44

Table 21.4 : L16 (215) Orthogonal Array (OA16)


TC

Columns
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

45

15

14
9

14

13

15

11

13

12

11

55

10

10
4

8
12

(a)

6
(b)
1

15

14

11

13

13

12
3

15

14

12

11

10

8
4

10

5
8

(c)
1

(d)
7

6
8
9

12

15

14

10

13

11

6
1

13
12

15

10
(e)

11

(f)
Linear graph for OA 16
46

Table 21.5 : L18 (21 X 37) Orthogonal Array (OA18)


Experiment

Column
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Interaction between columns 1 and 2 can be estimated without sacrificing any column. Columns 1 and 2 can be combined to form
a 6-level column. Interactions between any other pair of columns are confounded partially with the remaining columns.

47

Table 22 : Random Numbers


15 81 92 23 96
09 28 10 55 82
41 12 07 75 56
74 57 47 74 68
00 98 52 16 68

20 18 57 79 84
72 95 08 85 79
34 40 67 24 86
54 35 81 07 92
30 90 57 38 73

82 62 13 08 92
95 86 11 16 52
18 82 41 29 63
96 70 85 29 19
20 39 59 35 82

83 74 85 60 49
70 55 50 87 67
06 84 01 20 37
12 91 26 57 38
59 74 47 04 93

46 37 56 74 88
64 72 38 29 34
09 33 14 79 57
48 90 03 13 22
97 75 13 55 02

97 17 59 55 34
16 34 10 72 93
85 21 72 63 91
71 14 30 07 56
30 44 19 57 85

72 45 17 48 60
67 49 32 03 72
55 03 16 71 11
71 64 23 89 34
35 93 82 95 28

22 75 69 87 47
48 32 64 00 52
74 13 68 56 99
76 66 12 79 58
02 72 27 59 76

84 16 54 93 48
56 70 98 49 59
11 98 75 86 95
52 63 09 77 18
02 86 99 81 39

46 77 54 31 02
54 32 11 49 19
04 41 29 47 70
51 33 64 89 72
99 09 34 66 52

22 49 36 78 82
29 66 39 78 87
01 40 12 51 98
40 11 96 69 73
75 44 05 68 52

35 55 10 42 83
09 97 48 81 54
35 55 18 42 81
03 18 83 19 23
18 20 48 19 66

41 92 07 54 66
96 42 79 61 17
20 07 59 79 33
45 84 76 58 18
38 50 14 82 69

07 00 17 62 74
64 88 55 05 34
64 95 26 84 49
23 89 27 68 10
91 20 83 17 39

51 69 43 96 58
40 31 65 25 79
34 57 41 69 88
38 59 42 31 82
72 28 67 52 46

84 09 70 51 63
81 23 54 32 76
31 15 02 78 67
36 43 75 60 51
12 66 19 38 82

10 74 37 39 88
09 27 53 45 73
70 16 63 37 58
41 32 49 67 18
40 20 65 11 57

34 20 84 78 42
57 26 29 97 16
70 41 09 22 57
59 02 17 70 36
52 73 61 22 39

01 90 45 34 67
67 56 43 33 20
63 15 40 62 84
39 08 77 19 54
55 70 25 45 88

48 00 87 97 46
55 85 26 51 40
91 72 81 42 70
40 35 54 82 26
93 47 32 59 62

11 56 61 29 75
50 39 22 09 64
55 44 81 61 39
08 40 16 29 83
11 85 56 33 99

54 07 92 12 54
97 80 23 69 16
01 61 94 43 66
49 24 58 92 08
44 25 14 61 85

37 68 91 25 74
21 95 43 80 66
38 25 53 81 78
14 75 62 39 55
32 17 65 38 51

94 34 07 42 13
13 33 75 06 48
18 24 75 93 58
34 20 83 71 17
57 26 29 71 10

29 97 65 80 24
78 61 37 59 14
70 61 73 41 95
06 54 68 38 46
78 30 54 17 85

01 35 91 68 38
83 32 76 60 25
63 49 10 42 85
47 56 17 77 02
52 05 16 47 38

76 93 11 46 30
18 92 84 70 44
33 82 56 94 62
81 49 23 46 68
35 19 27 76 32

13 51 03 72 48
24 18 47 79 35
45 79 73 60 26
54 68 87 09 16
24 81 67 56 40

60 03 56 18 40
31 81 47 60 19
15 85 28 42 57
64 79 36 83 53
89 07 59 94 35

70 41 08 22 63
59 02 17 70 38
52 76 38 22 91
34 94 07 42 13
13 33 75 06 48

48

FOREWORD
This is to appreciate the efforts by Prof. Dr. R.S. Naagarazan, Director (A), Arunai
Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai and Dr. C. Muralidharan, Professor of
Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, in updating and publishing
the second edition of the STATISTICAL DATA BOOK in an elegant and effective
manner as a reference book suitable to the Diploma, Bachelor and Master degree
courses in Engineering, Technology and Management, all over the country. The
authors have been teaching quality control and management for over 25 years in
an University.
Reflecting the needs and changes in the syllabus requirements, the authors
have included all relevant tables with necessary and sufficient details. The nonparametric tables and orthogonal arrays are essentially used by engineering
students in Design and Manufacturing fields and the research scholars in the
Engineering domain as well.
I am sure that the students, teachers, and research scholars in the Engineering
and Technology faculty will find this Data Book very useful. This deserves to be
prescribed as reference book.
I wish the authors a success in their endeavour to enhance the effectiveness of
the delivery of quality education to the student community.
18th July 2005

(PROF. M.S. PALANICHAMY)


Vice-Chancellor
Tamil Nadu Open University
Directorate of Technical Education Campus
Guindy, Chennai-600025.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION


Statistical Quality Control and Reliability Engineering is a subject, which has been
extensively used by the industries, especially due to the ISO 9001 : 2000 Quality
Management Systems and Requirements. Although there are many standard
textbooks available on this subject, no handy data book suitable for Management
and Engineering studies is available at present.
This data book is aimed at filling this gap. This book will be used by B.E./
B.Tech and P.G. Diploma students to refer the data quickly and compute the required
criteria/answer. This book is designed to be prescribed as a reference book and
used in the examinations for the U.G./P.G. studies in Industrial Engineering courses
offered in Indian universities.
I thank Mr. E.V. Velu, Founder and Chairman, AEC, and Dr. Pon Muthu,
Director AEC for encouraging and permitting me to write this book.
I thank Dr. R. Karthikeyan and Dr. P.R. Lakshmi Narayanan, and other faculty
members of Dept. of Production Engineering, Annamalai University, Dr. V.
Lakshminarayanan, HOD/Mechanical, Muthaiya Polytechnic, Dr. S. Rajesham,
HOD/Mech. and Mr. R. Thirumavalavan, Sr. Lecturer, AEC for their valuable
suggestions and co-operation in bringing out this book.
I thank my wife Mrs. Vaidehi for her patient and patent ideas, Ms. K. Kala
and Ms. Y. Suganthi, secretarial staff, AEC for their help in getting these data into
printable form.
Suggestions and feedback on this book are most welcome.
R.S. NAAGARAZAN

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION


With the changes in the industry all over the world and a thrust towards Total
Quality Management, the concepts and practices of Six sigma, Zero defects, Justin-time are given prime importance and simultaneously the practices of Acceptance
sampling and concept of AOQL have become obsolete. This fact has necessitated
the revision of this data book.
The parametric and non-parametric designs have also been advocated in the
current engineering practice. Accordingly this data book has been revised and
classified into three sections to highlight their importance. This book is designed
to serve as Data Book, which can be used in the examination of B.E./B.Tech degree
courses and P.G. degree and Diploma courses in Industrial and Manufacturing
Engineering Disciplines.
We thank Mr. E.V. Velu, M.A., M.L.A., Founder and Chairman, Arunai
Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai, and Dr. L.B. Venkatarangan, Vice-Chancellor,
Annamalai University for their encouragement and permission for us to publish
this data book.
The authors thank profusely Dr. Anantharaman, HOD, Manufacturing
Engineering, Annamalai University, the Principal, A.E.C., Director, A.E.C., for their
enthusiasm, and support in bringing out this revision.
We express our gratitude to our life partners, for their whole-hearted
suggestions and ideas in editing, to M/s K. Sivagami, Junior Assistant, and other
staff of the Arunai Gateway, AEC for their assistance in compiling the data.

R.S. NAAGARAZAN

Finally, we thank and appreciate M/s New Age International Publishers,


New Delhi upon their swift action in releasing this second edition, in an appealing
form as you find it in your hands.
Aug., 2005

C. MURALIDHARAN

CONTENTS

vii

v
viii

Foreword
Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition


PART I : PARAMETRIC TABLES
Table 1. Area Under Normal Curve
5
10

Table 2. Individual Binomial Distribution


Table 3. Summation of Terms of Poisson, Exponential and Binomial Limits

14
16

13

Table 6. Percentage Points of the F Distribution

22

20

Table 4. Values of Gamma Functions

Table 7. Percentage Points of the 2 Distribution

Table 5. The t Distribution

Table 8. Critical Values for the Sign Test

Table 11. Values for Spearmans Rank Correlation (rs) for Combined Areas in Both Tails

Table 10. Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test

Table 9. Critical Values for Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

30

28

27

25

24

PART II : NON-PARAMETRIC TABLES

Table 12. Kendalls Rank Correlation Coefficient

Table 19. Master Table for Normal Inspection Single Sampling

Table 18. Sample Size Code Letters

Table 17. Factors for Computing Modified Control Limits

Table 16. Relative Precision Index

Table 15. Factors for Computing Control Limits

41

39

38

37

36

34

31

Table 13. Percentage Points of D in the One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Distribution


Table 14. Critical Values for the Durbin-Watson Statistic

Table 20. Significant Ranges for Duncans Multiple Range Test

43
48

PART III : SQC TABLES

Table 21. Orthogonal Arrays and Linear Graphs


Table 22. Random Numbers

STATISTICAL DATA BOOK

Edited

R. S. NAAGARAZAN,
Director, Arunai Engineering College,
Tiruvannamalai
and

C. MURALIDHARAN,
Prof. of Manufacturing Engineering
Annamalai University,
Chidambaram

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Second Edition : 2005

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