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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE STUDY


1.1 ABOUT THE STUDY
Thales of Miletus, an ancient Greek philosopher, writing at around 600 B.C.E.,
described a form of static electricity, noting that rubbing fur on various substances, such
as amber, would cause a particular attraction between the two. He noted that the amber
buttons could attract light objects such as hair and that if they rubbed the amber for long
enough they could even get a spark to jump.
At around 450 B.C.E. Democritus, a later Greek philosopher, developed an atomic
theory that was remarkably similar to our modern atomic theory. His mentor, Leucippus,
is credited with this same theory. The hypothesis of Leucippus and Democritus held
everything to be composed of atoms. But these atoms, called "atomos", were indivisible,
and indestructible. He presciently stated that between atoms lies empty space, and that
atoms are constantly in motion. He was incorrect only in stating that atoms come in
different sizes and shapes. Each object had its own shaped and sized atom.
An object found in Iraq in 1938, dated to about 250 B.C.E. and called the Baghdad
Battery, resembles a galvanic cell and is believed by some to have been used
for electroplating in Mesopotamia, although this has not yet been proven.
17th century developments:
Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia. In 1600,
the English scientist, Gilbert extended the study of Cardano on electricity and magnetism,
distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber. He
coined

the New

Latin word electricus ("of

amber"

or

"like

amber",

from [elektron], the Greek word for "amber") to refer to the property of
attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English
words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas
Browne'sPseudodoxiaEpidemica of 1646.
Further work was conducted by Otto von Guericke who showed electrostatic
repulsion. Robert Boyle also published work.
1

18th century developments:


By 1705, Hauksbee had discovered that if he placed a small amount of mercury in the
glass of his modified version of Otto von Guericke's generator, evacuated the air from it
to create a mild vacuum and rubbed the ball in order to build up a charge, a glow was
visible if he placed his hand on the outside of the ball. This glow was bright enough to
read by. It seemed to be similar to St. Elmo's Fire. This effect later became the basis of
the gas-discharge lamp, which led to neon lighting andmercury vapor lamps. In 1706 he
produced an 'Influence machine' to generate this effect. He was elected a Fellow of the
Royal Society the same year.
Hauksbee continued to experiment with electricity, making numerous observations and
developing machines to generate and demonstrate various electrical phenomena. In 1709
he published Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjectswhich summarized
much of his scientific work.
Stephen Gray discovered the importance of insulators and conductors. C. F. du
Fay seeing his work, developed a "two-fluid" theory of electricity.
Benjamin Franklin
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling
his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key
to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A
succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand showed
that lightning was indeed electrical in nature. He also explained the apparently
paradoxical behavior of the Leyden jar as a device for storing large amounts of electrical
charge, by coming up with the single fluid, two states theory of electricity.
In 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectricity, demonstrating that
electricity was the medium by which nerve cells passed signals to the muscles.
[10]

Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc

and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than
the electrostatic machines previously used.
2

19th century developments:


Michael Faraday portrayed by Thomas Phillips c. 18411842
In the 19th century, the subject of electrical engineering, with the tools of modern
research techniques, started to intensify. Notable developments early in this century
include the work ofGeorg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between
the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, Michael Faraday, the
discoverer of electromagnetic induction in 1831. In the 1830s, Georg Ohm also
constructed an early electrostatic machine. Thehomopolar generator was developed first
by Michael Faraday during his memorable experiments in 1831. It was the beginning of
modern dynamos that is, electrical generators which operate using a magnetic field.
The invention of the industrial generator, which didn't need external magnetic power in
1866 by Werner von Siemens made a large series of other inventions in the wake
possible.
In

1873 James

Clerk

Maxwell published

unified

treatment

of

electricity

and magnetism in A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism which stimulated several


theorists to think in terms offields described by Maxwell's equations. In 1878, the British
inventor James Wimshurstdeveloped an apparatus that had two glass disks mounted on
two shafts. It was not till 1883 that the Wimshurst machine was more fully reported to the
scientific community.
Thomas Edison built the world's first large-scale electrical supply network During the
latter part of the 1800s, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a subfield
of physics. It was not until the late 19th century that universities started to
offer degrees in

electrical

engineering.

In

1882, Darmstadt

University

of

Technology founded the first chair and the first faculty of electrical engineering
worldwide. In the same year, under Professor Charles Cross, the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology began offering the first option of Electrical Engineering within a physics
department. In

1883, Darmstadt

University

of

Technology and

Cornell

University introduced the world's first courses of study in electrical engineering and in
1885 the University College London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in
the
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United Kingdom. The University of Missouri subsequently established the first


department of electrical engineering in the United States in 1886.
During this period work in the area increased dramatically. In 1882 Edison switched on
the world's first large-scale electrical supply network that provided 110 volts direct
current to fifty-nine customers in lower Manhattan. In the late 1880s saw the spread of a
competing form of power distribution known as alternating current backed by George
Westinghouse. The rivalry between the Westinghouse and Edison systems was known as
the "War of Currents". AC eventually replaced DC for generation and power distribution,
enormously extending the range and improving the safety and efficiency of power
distribution.

George Westinghouse, American entrepreneur and engineer, financially backed the


development of a practical AC power network.
"By the mid-1890s the four "Maxwell equations" were recognized as the foundation of
one of the strongest and most successful theories in all of physics; they had taken their
place as companions, even rivals, to Newton's laws of mechanics. The equations were by
then also being put to practical use, most dramatically in the emerging new technology of
radio communications, but also in the telegraph, telephone, and electric power
industries." By the end of the 19th century, figures in the progress of electrical
engineering were beginning to emerge.
Charles Proteus Steinmetz helped foster the development of alternating current that made
possible the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States, formulating
mathematical theories for engineers.

Emergence of radio and electronics


Charles Proteus Steinmetz circa 1915
During the development of radio, many scientists and inventors contributed to radio
technology and

electronics.

In

his

classic UHF experiments

of

1888,Heinrich

Hertz demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic waves (radio waves) leading many
inventors and scientists to try to adapt them to commercial applications, such
as Guglielmo Marconi (1895) and Alexander Popov (1896).

20th century developmentsJohn Fleming invented the first radio tube, the diode, in 1904.
Reginald Fessenden recognized that a continuous wave needed to be generated to make
speech transmission possible, and by the end of 1906 he sent the first radio broadcast of
voice. Also in 1906, Robert von Lieben and Lee De Forest independently developed the
amplifier tube, called the triode.Edwin Howard Armstrong enabling technology
for electronic television, in 1931.
Second World War years
The second world war saw tremendous advances in the field of electronics; especially
in radar and with the invention of themagnetron by Randall and Boot at the University of
Birmingham in 1940. Radio location, radio communication and radio guidance of aircraft
were all developed at this time. An early electronic computing device, Colossus was built
by Tommy Flowers of the GPO to decipher the coded messages of the German Lorenz
cipher machine. Also developed at this time were advanced clandestine radio transmitters
and receivers for use by secret agents.
An American invention at the time was a device to scramble the telephone calls
between Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt. This was called the Green
Hornet system and worked by inserting noise into the signal. The noise was then
extracted at the receiving end. This system was never broken by the Germans.

A great amount of work was undertaken in the United States as part of the War Training
Program in the areas of radio direction finding, pulsed linear networks, frequency
modulation, vacuum

tube

circuits, transmission

line

theory and

fundamentals

of electromagnetic engineering. These studies were published shortly after the war in
what became known as the 'Radio Communication Series' published by McGraw-Hill in
1946.
In 1941 KonradZuse presented the Z3, the world's first fully functional

and

programmable computer.

Post war developments


Prior to the Second World War the subject was commonly known as 'radio engineering'
and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radar, commercial radio
and early television. At this time, study of radio engineering at universities could only be
undertaken as part of a physics degree.
Later, in post war years, as consumer devices began to be developed, the field broadened
to include modern TV, audio systems, Hi-Fi and latterly computers and microprocessors.
In 1946 the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) of John Presper
Eckert and John Mauchly followed, beginning the computing era. The arithmetic
performance of these machines allowed engineers to develop completely new
technologies and achieve new objectives, including the Apollo missions and the NASA
moon landing.
The invention of the transistor in 1947 by William B. Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter
Brattain opened the door for more compact devices and led to the development of
the integrated circuit in 1958 by Jack Kilby and independently in 1959 byRobert Noyce.
In the mid to late 1950s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name
electronics engineering, which then became a standalone university degree subject,
usually taught alongside electrical engineering with which it had become associated due
to some similarities. In 1968 Mercian Hoff invented the first microprocessor at Intel and
thus ignited the development of the personal computer.
6

1.2 ABOUT THE INDUSTRY PROFILE


Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for
operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating
ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and
other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have
been completely automated.
The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor, however, it is also used to save
energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision.
The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic (coming from automaton),
was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established the automation
department. It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback
controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s.

Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic,


pneumatic, electrical, and electronic and computers, usually in combination. Complicated
systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined
techniques.
Automation Tools:
Engineers can now have numerical control over automated devices. The result has
been a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities. Computer-aided
technologies (or CAx) now serve as the basis for mathematical and organizational tools
used to create complex systems. Notable examples of CAx include Computer-aided
design (CAD software) and Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM software). The
improved design, analysis, and manufacture of products enabled by CAx has been
beneficial for industry.

Information technology, together with industrial machinery and processes, can assist in
the design, implementation, and monitoring of control systems. One example of an
industrial is a programmable logic controller (PLC). PLCs are specialized hardened
computers which are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs from
(physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators and events.
An automated online assistant on a website, with an avatar for enhanced human.

Human-machine interfaces (HMI) or computer human interfaces (CHI), formerly known


as man-machine interfaces, are usually employed to communicate with PLCs and other
computers. Service personnel who monitor and control through HMIs can be called by
different names. In industrial process and manufacturing environments, they are called
operators or something similar. In boiler houses and central utilities departments they are
called stationary engineers.
Different types of automation tools exist:

ANN - Artificial neural network

DCS - Distributed Control System

HMI - Human Machine Interface

SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

PLC - Programmable Logic Controller

Instrumentation

Motion control

Robotics

When it comes to Factory Automation, Host Simulation Software (HSS) is a commonly


used testing tool that is used to test the equipment software. HSS is used to test
equipment performance with respect to Factory Automation standards (timeouts, response
time, processing time).

Applications:
The automatic telephone switchboard was introduced in 1892 along with dial
telephones. By 1929, 31.9% of the Bell system was automatic. Automatic telephone
switching originally used vacuum tube amplifiers and electro-mechanical switches, which
consumed a large amount of electricity. Call volume eventually grew so fast that it was
feared the telephone system would consume all electricity production, prompting Bell
Labs to begin research on the transistor.
The logic performed by telephone switching relays was the inspiration for the digital
computer.
The first commercially successful glass bottle blowing machine was an automatic model
introduced in 1905. The machine, operated by a two-man crew working 12-hour shifts,
could produce 17,280 bottles in 24 hours, compared to 2,880 bottles made by a crew of
six men and boys working in a shop for a day. The cost of making bottles by machine was
10 to 12 cents per gross compared to $1.80 per gross by the manual glassblowers and
helpers.
Sectional electric drives were developed using control theory. Sectional electric drives are
used on different sections of a machine where a precise differential must be maintained
between the sections. In steel rolling, the metal elongates as it passes through pairs of
rollers, which must run at successively faster speeds. In paper making the paper sheet
shrinks as it passes around steam heated drying arranged in groups, which must run at
successively slower speeds. The first application of a sectional electric drive was on a
paper machine in 1919. One of the most important developments in the steel industry
during the 20th century was continuous wide strip rolling, developed by Armco in 1928.
Before automation many chemicals were made in batches. In 1930, with the widespread
use of instruments and the emerging use of controllers, the founder of Dow Chemical Co.
was advocating continuous production.
9

Self-acting machine tools that displaced hand dexterity so they could be operated by boys
and unskilled laborers were developed by James Nasmyth in the 1840s. Machine
tools were automated with Numerical control (NC) using punched paper tape in the
1950s. This soon evolved into computerized numerical control (CNC).
Today extensive automation is practiced in practically every type of manufacturing and
assembly process. Some of the larger processes include electrical power generation, oil
refining, chemicals, steel mills, plastics, cement plants, fertilizer plants, pulp and paper
mills, automobile and truck assembly, aircraft production, glass manufacturing, natural
gas separation plants, food and beverage processing, canning and bottling and
manufacture of various kinds of parts. Robots are especially useful in hazardous
applications like automobile spray painting. Robots are also used to assemble electronic
circuit boards. Automotive welding is done with robots and automatic welders are used in
applications like pipelines.

Advantages and Disadvantages:


The main advantages of automation are:

Increased throughput or productivity.

Improved quality or increased predictability of quality.

Improved robustness (consistency), of processes or product.

Increased consistency of output.

Reduced direct human labor costs and expenses.

The following methods are often employed to improve productivity, quality, or


robustness.

Install automation in operations to reduce cycle time.

Install automation where a high degree of accuracy is required.

10

Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous


work.

Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space,


volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.)

Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed,
endurance, etc.

Economic improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises,


society or most of humanity. For example, when an enterprise invests in automation,
technology recovers its investment; or when a state or country increases its income
due to automation like Germany or Japan in the 20th Century.

Reduces operation time and work handling time significantly.

Frees up workers to take on other roles.

Provides higher level jobs in the development, deployment, maintenance and


running of the automated processes.

The main disadvantages of automation are:

Security Threats/Vulnerability: An automated system may have a limited level of


intelligence, and is therefore more susceptible to committing errors outside of its
immediate scope of knowledge (e.g., it is typically unable to apply the rules of simple
logic to general propositions).

Unpredictable/excessive development costs: The research and development cost


of automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself.

High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant typically requires a
very large initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product, although
the cost of automation may be spread among many products and over time.

In manufacturing, the purpose of automation has shifted to issues broader than


productivity, cost, and time.

11

Limitations to automation:

Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks.

Many operations using automation have large amounts of invested capital and
produce high volumes of product, making malfunctions extremely costly and
potentially hazardous. Therefore, some personnel are needed to insure that the entire
system functions properly and that safety and product quality are maintained.

As a process becomes increasingly automated, there is less and less labor to be


saved or quality improvement to be gained. This is an example of both diminishing
returnsand the logistic function.

As more and more processes become automated, there are fewer remaining nonautomated processes. This is an example of exhaustion of opportunities. New
technological paradigms may however set new limits that surpass the previous limits.

Current limitations:
Many roles for humans in industrial processes presently lie beyond the scope of
automation. Human-level pattern recognition, language comprehension, and language
production ability are well beyond the capabilities of modern mechanical and computer
systems. Tasks requiring subjective assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data,
such as scents and sounds, as well as high-level tasks such as strategic planning, currently
require human expertise. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than
mechanical approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is possible.
Overcoming these obstacles is a theorized path to post-scarcity economics.

12

1.3 ABOUT THE COMPANY PROFILE


We are A Control Automation Solution Provider, named as ECI SYSTEMS
specialized in providing total engineering solution for vertical industries. Our primary job
involves automating the existing conventional machines into fully automatic machines
enhancing the production of the equipment as well as automation for the new machines
manufactured by OEMs. We are also an authorized system integrators of PARKER-SSD
DRIVES (USA), GE-FANUC (USA), EUROTHERM (UK) and also indulged in System
design, application engineering, application software engineering, documentation, and
start-up and after sales service of AC & DC DRIVES, AC SERVO MOTORS &
DRIVES, PLC, Power and Temperature Controllers, Process Controllers. Our reputation
is built on technical expertise, professional approach, commercial integrity and facilities.
At ECI SYSTEMS, helping manufacturers succeed and grow with industrial automation
control and information solutions designed.
From stand-alone, industrial components to enterprise-wide integrated systems, our
solutions have proven themselves across a wide range of industries and in some of the
most demanding manufacturing environment.
We offer end to end integrated solution including hardware, software and engineering by
our well-defined work culture equivalent to any corporate level organization, i.e The
Systematic Approach.

13

CHAPTER II
DEVELOPMENT OF MAIN THEME
2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter makes a brief review of the literature relevant to the study. There are
only

limited

studies,

which

are

directly

relevant

to

the

study

concerned the researcher has made an attempt to present a brief review of literature
available which consists of articles.
Stanton1 Marketing is total system of interacting business activities designed to plan,
price, promote and distribute want satisfying products and services to present and
potential consumers
Philip Kotler (1992)

Consumer markets and consumer buying behavior have to be

understood before sound marketing plans can be developed. In analyzing consumer


market one needs to know the occupants, the objects and buyers objectives, organization,
operating and outlets. The buyer behavior is influenced by four major factors cultural,
social, personal, and psychological. All these provide lines to how reach and serve buyers
effectively
Michael Barker (1997) 3 If economics are comprised of people and we are comprised
of people and we are endeavoring to allocate scare resources in order to maximize
satisfaction, then it is satisfaction of people at which we are aiming

14

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


This research is pertaining to find out the present consumer satisfaction of the
study well with special reference to ECI Products, in Erode District.
The study on consumer satisfaction helps to know who are the customers, what
they want, how they use and react to the product. The wants of the consumers are
carefully studied by conducting survey on consumer satisfaction. This study will help to
gain knowledge about the market share for each brand, factors influencing the consumer
to prefer a particular brand and problems faced by them on using such brands and so on.

15

2.2OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To find out factors influencing for selection of ECI Products


2. To know whether customers are satisfied with the quality of product.
3. To know about consumer awareness about products available.
4. To make an attempt to computerize the portion of the customer purchase.
5. To find out the result of the study and make an attempt to suitable suggestions to
ECI Products, Erode regarding customer satisfaction.

16

2.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Customer preference is dynamic, therefore it is necessary to study analyze and


understand it continuously and monitor this understanding to the making so that the
effective decision can be taken in respect of product price, quality and etc.
The study on customer preference helps to know who the consumer are? What
they want? How they use and react the product. The wants of a customer are carefully
studies by conducting survey on customer preferences.
The study will be useful for the company to make necessary changes in price,
quality and promotional activities.

17

2.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study was confined only to Coimbatore Dist.

Marketing area is big sample size is small.

There is no comparative study is make with other industries.

The period of study is limited.

18

CHAPTER - III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. The advanced
learners dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a carefully
investigation of enquiry especially through search for new facts in branch of knowledge.
The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of the theory is
also research. The purpose of research is to discover answer to questions through the
application of scientific procedures.

3.2 RESEARCH DESINGN:


A research design is the arrangement of conditions for the collection and
analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with
economy in procedure. In this study descriptive type of the research design has been
used.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN:


Descriptive type of research design has been used in this study, which are concerned
with describing the character of a group.

3.3 DATA COLLECTION:


PRIMARY DATA
The primary data are those, which are collected a fresh and for the first time
happen to be original in character. It has been collected through a questionnaire and
personal interview.

SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data are that which has been collected by someone else and which has
been passed through the stratified process. It has collected through the books and internet.

3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:


Questionnaire containing both closed and open ended questions.

POPULATION:
19

In population it covers in all India mart customers, in Tirupur.

SAMPLE SIZE:
Number of the sampling units selected from the population is called the size of the
sample. Sample of 100 respondents were obtained from the population.

SAMPLING PROCEDURE:
The procedure adopted in the present study is probability sampling, which is also
known as chance sampling. Under this sampling design, every item of the frame has an
equal chance of inclusion in the sample.

CONTACT METHOD:
Respondents are contacted personally.

INTREVIEW SCHEDULE:
The interview schedule has been used to collect the data information can be
gathered
Even when the respondents happen to be illiterate.

TABULATION:
It is the arrangement of classified data in an orderly manner. This involves
creating table for recording the filled in interview schedule. These tables are of immense
help to analysis by using the statistics tools help to analysis by using the statistical tools.

SCALING TECHNIQUES:
Questionnaire was framed on attitude scale having 5-points scales.

PERIOD STUDY:
The study was conducted for the period of one month.

3.5 TOOLS USED FOR ANALYSIS:


The following tools were used with the help of statistical software Simple percentage
analysis

SIMPLE PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS:


It is simple analysis tool. In this method, based on the opinion of the respondents,
Percentage is calculated for the respective scales of each other.
No of respondents
Simple percentage analysis = -----------------------------* 100
20

Sample size

CHI-SQUARE TEST:
It is the important test developed by statisticians.

It can be used to make

comparison between theoretical population and actual data when categories are used.
The following are some of the conditions to be satisfied.
E (o-e)2
Chi-square test = ----------------------E
Where, O = observed frequency
E = Expected frequency.
N = Number of respondents.

21

CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
TABLE NO 4.1.1
GENDER OF THE RESPONDETS

S.NO

GENDER

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

1.
2.

Male
Female
Total

78
72
150

PERCENTAGE
(%)
52
48
100

Interpretation:

The above table 4.1.1 shows that out of 150 respondents, 52% of the respondents are
male and remaining 48% of the respondents are female.
Inference:
Majority (52%) of the respondents are belonging to male category.

CHART NO 4.1.1
22

GENTER OF THE RESPONDETS

TABLE NO 4.2.1
23

AGE GROUP OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.NO

AGE

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

1.
2.
3.
4.

20 to 30 years
31 to 40 years
41 to 50 years
above 50 years
Total

90
45
9
6
150

PERCENTAGE
(%)
60
30
6
4
100

Interpretation:

It is followed from the table 4.2.1 that out of 150 respondents, 60%of the
respondents are belonging to 20 to 30 years years of the age group, 30 % of the
respondents are belonging to 31 to 40 years age of group, 6%of the respondents are
belonging to 41 to 50 years age of the group and 4% of the respondents are belonging to
above 50 years of age group.
Inference:
Majority (60%) of the respondents are belonging the age group of 20 to 30 years
years.

CHART NO 4.2.1

24

AGE GROUP OF RESPONDENTS

TABLE NO 4.3.1
MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.NO

MARITAL STATUS

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

1.
2.

Married
Unmarried
Total

68
82
150

25

PERCENTAGE
(%)
45
55
100

Interpretation:
From the above table 4.3.1 clearly shows that out of 150 respondents, 55% of the
respondents are unmarried and 45% of the respondents are married.
Inference:
Majority (55%) of the respondents are unmarried.

CHART NO.4.3.1
MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

26

60

55
50
PERCENTAGE

45
40

30

20

10

0
Married

Unmarried
MARITAL STATUS

TABLE NO 4.4.1
EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.NO
1.

EDUCATIONAL

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

QUALIFICATION

RESPONDENTS

(%)

Up to School level

51

27

34

2.
3.
4.

UG level
PG level
Others

53
27
19
150

Total

35
18
13
100

Interpretation:
From the above table 4.5.1 clearly indicates that out of 150 respondents, 35% of
the respondents are up to UG level, 34% of the respondents are Educational qualified up
to school level, 18% of the respondents are qualified with PG graduate 13% of
respondents are qualified with others

Inference:
Majority 35% of the respondents are qualified with UG level.

CHART NO 4.4.1
EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

28

TABLE NO 4.5.1
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.NO

OCCUPATIONAL STATUS
29

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS

(%)

1.
2.
3.
4.

Employee
Business
Agriculture
Professional
Total

51
48
30
21
150

34
32
20
14
100

Interpretation:
The above table 4.6.1 clearly shows that out of 150 respondents, 34% of the
respondents are belonging to the category of employee, 32% of the respondents to the
category of business, 20% of the respondents are belonging to the category of agriculture
and 14% of the respondents are belonging to the category of professional.
Inference:
Majority (34%) of the respondents come under the category of Employee.

CHART NO 4.5.1
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

30

TABLE NO 4.6.1
MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS

S.NO

MONTHLY INCOME

1.
2.
3.

Below Rs.5000
Rs.5001 to Rs.10000
Rs. 10001 to Rs.15000
31

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
61
33
24

(%)
41
22
16

4.

Above Rs. 15000


Total

32
150

21
100

Interpretation:
The above table 4.8.1 clearly shows that out of 150 respondents, 16 % of the
respondents come under the income level of Rs. 10001 to Rs. 15000, 22 % of the
respondents belong to the category of income level of Rs.5001 to Rs.10000,21% of the
respondents belong to the category of income level of above Rs.15000, 41 % of the
respondents come under the category of below Rs.5000.
Inference:
Majority (41 %) of the respondents come under the category of below Rs.5000.

CHART NO 4.6.1
MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS

32

TABLE NO 4.7.1
SOURCES OF AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS

33

S.NO

SOURCES OF AWARENES

1.
2.
3.
4.

Advertisement
Showroom
Friends & relatives
Others
Total

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
87
48
9
6
150

(%)

58
32
6
4
100

Interpretation:
The above table 4.9.1 shows that out of 150 respondents, 58 % of the respondents
are came to know about the ECI products through advertisement, 6 % of the respondents
are came to know about the ECI products through friends and relatives, 32 % of the
respondents are came to know about the ECI products through showroom and 4 % of the
respondents are came to know about the ECI products through others.
Inference:
Majority (58%) of the respondents are come to know about the ECI products
super through advertisement.

CHART NO 4.7.1
SOURCES OF AWARENESS OF THE RESPONDENTS

34

TABLE NO 4.8.1
MEDIA OF ADVERTISEMENT

S.NO

MEDIA

1.

Television
35

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
126

(%)
84

2.
3.
4.

Newspaper & magazines


Radio
Others
Total

15
6
3
150

10
4
2
100

Interpretation:
The above table 4.10.1 shows that out of 150 respondents, 84% of the respondents
are television, 10% of the respondents are newspapers & magazines, 4% of the
respondents are radio and 2% of the respondents are others.
Inference:
Majority (84%) of the respondents are television.

CHART NO 4.8.1
MEDIA OF ADVERTISEMENT

36

TABLE NO 4.9.1
TYPES OF PRODUCT

S.NO

TYPES OF PRODUCTS

1.
2.
3.
4.

ECI DISPLAYS
ECI PANELS
ECI SWITCH BOARDS
Others
37

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
27
81
30
12

(%)
18
54
20
8

Total

150

100

Interpretation:
The table 4.11.1 identified that out of 150 respondents, 54% of the respondents are
having ECI PANELS, 20% of the respondents are having ECI SWITCH BOARDS, 18%
of the respondents are having ECI DISPLAYS and 8% of the respondents are having
others.
Inference:
Majority (54%) of the respondents are having ECI PANELS player.

CHART NO 4.9.1
TYPES OF PRODUCT

38

TABLE NUMBER 4.10.1


MODE OF PURCHASE
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.

MODE OF PURCHASE
Cash
Credit
Partly paid&partly credit
Exchange offer
Total
39

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
35
45
35
35
150

(%)
23
31
23
23
100

Interpretation:

From the above table reveals that out of 150 respondents, 31% of the respondents
are take Credit purchase,23 % of the respondents are take Cash payment,23%of the
respondents are Cash partly to pay the installments & 23% of the respondents says
exchange offer.
Inference:

Majority 31% of the respondents takes are Credit payment.

CHART NO 4.10.1
MODE OF PURCHASE

40

TABLE NO 4.11.1
PERIOD OF USING THE ECI PRODUCTS
41

S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.

PERIOD OF

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

CONSUMPTION
Below 1 year
1-2 years
2-4 years
Above 4 years
Total

RESPONDENTS
30
81
15
24
150

(%)
20
54
10
16
100

Interpretation:
The above table 4.13.1 shows that out of the 150 respondents ,54% of the
respondents are using 1-2 years, 20% of the respondents are using below 1 year, 10% of
the respondents are using 2-4 years and 16% of the respondents are using above 4 years.
Inference:
Majority (54%) of the respondents are using 1-2 years.

CHART NO 4.11.1
PERIOD OF USING THE ECI PRODUCTS

42

TABLE NO 4.12.1
ECI PRODUCTS COMPARED WITH OTHER PRODUCTS

43

S.NO

COMPARED WITH OTHER

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

PRODUCTS
Price
Quality
Loyalty
Service
Total

RESPONDENTS
30
81
33
6
150

(%)
20
54
22
4
100

1.
2.
3.
4.

Interpretation:
The above table 4.14.1 clearly shows that out of 150 respondents, 54% of the
respondents are prefers to quality of ECI products, 22 of the respondents are prefers to
Brand name, 20% of the respondents are prefers to price of ECI products and 4% of the
respondents are prefers to service of the ECI products.
Inference:
Majority (54%) of the respondents are prefers to quality of the ECI products.

CHART NO 4.12.1
ECI PRODUCTS COMPARED WITH OTHER PRODUCTS

44

TABLE NO 4.13.1
SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS ABOUT ECI PRODUCTS

S.NO

LEVEL OF SATISFACTION
45

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS

(%)

1.

Highly satisfied

45

30

2.
3.
4.

Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Total

96
6
3
150

64
4
2
100

Interpretation:
The above table 4.15.1 clearly shows that out of 150 respondents, 64% of the
respondents are satisfied,

30% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 4% of the

respondents are neutral and 2% of the respondents are dissatisfied.


Inference:
Majority (64%) of the respondents are satisfied.

CHART NO 4.13.1
SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS ABOUT ECI PRODUCTS

46

TABLE NO 4.14.1
RECOMMENDATION OF THE RESPONDETS

S.NO
1.
2.

RECCOMENDATION OF
THE RESPONDETS
Yes
No
Total

Interpretation:
47

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
84
66
150

(%)
56
44
100

The above table 4.14.1 clearly shows that out of 150 respondents, 56% of the
respondents are recommending to others, and 44 % of the respondents are not
recommending to others for the purchase of the ECI products.
Inference:
Majority (56%) of the respondents are recommending to others for purchasing the
ECI products.

CHART NO 4.14.1
RECOMMENDATION OF THE RESPONDETS

48

TABLE NO 4.15.1
GUARANTEE PERIOD

S.NO

GUARANTEE PERIOD

1.
2.
3.
4.

1 year
For 2 years
For 3 years
Above 3 years
49

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
36
51
39
24

(%)
24
34
26
16

Total

150

100

Interpretation:
The above table 4.15.1 clearly shows that out of 150 respondents, 34% of the
respondents are having guarantee period is for 2 years, 26% of the respondents are having
guarantee period is for 3 years, 24% of the respondents are having guarantee period for 1
year and 16% of the respondents are having guarantee period for above 3 years.
Inference:
Majority (34%) of the respondents are having guarantee period for 2 years.

CHART NO 4.15.1
GUARANTEE PERIOD

50

TABLE NO 4.16.1
EXCHANGE OFFER IN ECI PRODUCTS

S.NO

EXCHAGE OFFER

1.
2.
3.
4.

Price offer
Free gift
Discount
Others

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
39
69
36
6

(%)
26
46
24
4

51

Total

150

100

Interpretation:
The above table 4.16.1 shows that out of 150 respondents, 46% of the respondents
are got price gift, 26% of the respondents are got price offer, 24% of the respondents are
got discount offer and 4% of the respondents are got others.
Inference:
Majority (46%) of the respondents are got free gift offer.

CHART NO 4.16.1
EXCHANGE OFFER IN ECI PRODUCT

52

TABLE NO 4.17.1
OPINION REGARDING THE OVER ALL PERFORMANCE

S.NO

OPINION

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

1.
2.
3.
4.

Excellent
Good
Average
Poor
Total

54
87
6
3
150

53

PERCENTAGE
(%)
36
58
4
2
100

Interpretation:

The above table 4.17.1 shows that out of 150 respondents, 58% of the respondents
felt that it is good, 36% of the respondents felt that it is excellent, 4 % of the of the
respondents felt that it is average and 2% of the respondents felt that it is poor.
Inference:
Majority (58%) of the respondents felt that usage of ECI products.

CHART NO 4.17.1
OPINION REGARDING THE OVER ALL PERFORMANCE

54

TABLE NO 4.18.1
PROBLEM FACED BY THE RESPONDENTS

S.NO

PROBLEM FACED

1.
2.

Yes
No
Total

Interpretation:

55

NO.OF

PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS
76
74
150

(%)
51
49
100

The above table 4.18.1 shows that out of 150 respondents, 51% of the respondents
are falling any problem while using ECI products and 49% of the respondents are not
falling any problem while using ECI products.
Inference:
Majority (51%) of the respondents are falling problems while using ECI products.

CHART NO 4.18.1
PROBLEM FACED BY THE RESPONDENTS

56

CHI-SQUARE CALCULATION:

TABLE 1
AGE GROUP VS MONTHLY INCOME

57

MONTHLY INCOME
AGE GROUP
VS
MONTHLY INCOME

Rs 5000

500110000

1000115000

Above
15000

20 to 30 yrs

20

12

10

49

31 to 40 yrs

16

15

15

50

10
8

13
2

5
3

5
5

33
18

54

42

33

21

150

41 to 50 yrs
50 and Above
Total

Oi

Ei

Oi-Ei

(Oi-Ei)

(Oi-Ei)/Ei

20

17.65

2.36

5.5

0.31

16

18.00

-2.00

4.0

0.22

10

11.88

-1.88

3.5

0.29

6.48

2.48

6.1

0.94

12

13.72

-1.72

2.9

0.21

15

48.00

1.00

2.0

0.14

58

13

9.24

3.76

14.1

1.52

5.04

-3.04

9.2

1.82

10

10.78

-0.78

0.6

0.05

15

11.00

4.00

16.0

1.45

7.26

-2.26

5.1

0.70

3.96

-0.96

0.9

0.22

6.86

0.14

0.01

0.01

7.00

-3.00

9.0

1.28

4.62

0.38

0.1

0.02

2.52

2.48

6.1
Total

2.42
11.6

The calculated value = 11.6


Degree of Freedom = (Column 1) * (Row 1)
(4 1) (4 -1)
3*3=9
16.9

59

Critical value for chi-square distribution 9 = 16.9 so calculated value is less than
the table value ( 11.6 < 16.9)

Inference:
As the table value at 16.9 % level is greater than the calculated value, accepted
null hypothesis, so there is no relationship between age group and monthly income.

CHI-SQUARE CALCULATION:

TABLE 2
OCCUPATION VS MODE OF PURCHASE
OCCUPATION VS

MODE OF PURCHASE

60

MODE OF PURCHASE
Employee
Business
Agriculture

CASH

CREDIT

PARTY EXCHANGE
PAID
OFFER

15

15

35

18

10

10

47

15
3

15
13

2
11

2
7

34
34

51

53

27

19

150

Professional
Total

Oi

Ei

Oi-Ei

(Oi-Ei)

(Oi-Ei)/Ei

15

11.9

3.1

9.61

0.80

18

15.9

2.1

4.41

0.27

15

11.5

3.5

12.2

1.06

11.5

-8.5

72.8

6.27

15

12.3

2.7

7.29

0.59

61

10

16.6

-6.6

43.5

2.62

15

12.0

3.0

9.0

0.75

13

12.0

1.5

1.0

0.08

6.3

-2.3

5.29

0.83

10

8.4

1.6

2.56

0.30

6.1

-4.1

16.8

2.75

11

6.1

4.9

24.0

3.93

4.4

-3.4

11.5

2.61

5.9

3.1

9.61

1.62

4.3

-2.3

5.29

1.23

4.3

2.7

7.29
Total

The calculated value = 27.4


Degree of Freedom = (Column 1) * (Row 1)
(4 1) (4 -1)
3*3=9
16.9
62

1.69
27.4

Critical value for chi-square distribution 9 = 16.9 so calculated value is greater


than the table value (27.4 > 16.9)

Inference
As the table value at 16.9 % level is greater than the calculated value, accepted
null hypothesis, so there is accepted for relationship between education and mode of
purchase.

CHAPTER -V
5.1 FINDINGS:
Majority (52%) of the respondents are belonging to male category.
Majority (60%) of the respondents are belonging the age group of below
25years.

63

Majority (55%) of the respondents are unmarried.


jority (34%) of the respondents are belonging to the category of income level
of Rs.10001 to Rs.15000.
Majority (73%) of the respondents are come to know about the ECI products
through advertisement.
Majority (84%) of the respondents are ECI Panels.
Majority (37%) of the respondents are having two products.
Majority (54%) of the respondents are using 1-2years.
Majority (54%) of the respondents are prefers to quality of the ECI products.
Majority (64%) of the respondents are satisfied.
Majority (56%) of the respondents are recommending to others for purchasing
the ECI products.
Majority (34%) of the respondents are having guarantee period for 2years.
Majority (46%) of the respondents are got free gift offer.
Majority (58%) of the respondents felt that usage of ECI products.
Majority (51%) of the respondents are falling problems while using ECI
products.

5.2 SUGGESTIONS:
The major influencing factor to purchase the ECI products is quality. So the
company has to concentrate more to maintain its quality to retain its customers. The
respondents feel that the price of the ECI products is high. Hence it is suggested to the
company to reduce the price of the ECI products, in order to increase the number of
64

users. The durability is the factor which is expected by majority of the respondents. so
the company may improve the durability of ECI products to some possible extent.
Dealers have to concentrate to after sales service selection. Attractive and
effective advertisement through various media may be repeatedly given in order to
capture the attention of potential customers.

5.3 CONCLUSION
This project is a fact finding excise to the research. After analyzing the various
problems and findings, the researcher offered suitable suggestions for better consumer
satisfaction. Even quality goods are offered at a fair price it will succeed, only when
adequate awareness is created among the public about it. This study concluded that
65

the performance of the ECI products is good. To increase the sales of the company. It
has to concentrate on the suggestions given in this report.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:
Kotler, P., Armstrong G., Brown L., Chandler S. A. (1998), Marketing, (4th

edition), Prentice Hall, Sydney

66

Gilbert A. Churchill, jr, marketing research methodological foundations, USA The


Dryden press, fifth edition, 1991.
D. Asker, V. Kumar, and G. Day marketing Research, Singapore, john willed &
Sons (ASIA) limited, Seventh Edition, 2003

Websites:
www.ecisystems.com
www.wikipedia.com
www.slideshare.com

67