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Theory of Motions

-Abstract Volume 1Alexander Sonnenfeld
Translated by Dan Leach and Patricia & Timothy Werner

www.alexandersonnenfeld.com

Index

1.

Introducing
1.1
1.2

2.

Regarding the Paper of this Work
System of S-notation

Acoustic Motions
2.1
2.2
2.3

Motion Direction
Motion Value
Motion Intensity
2.3.1
2.3.2

2.4

Motion Characteristic
2.4.1
2.4.2

2.5

Double Grouping
Triple Grouping

Anatonie
3.1
3.2
3.3

4.

Linear Characteristic
Non-Linear Characteristic

Grouping
2.5.1
2.5.2

3.

Tonal Principle
Variable Principle

Anatonic Stages
Anatonic Code
Anatonic Course

Dynamic Motion
4.1

Motion Direction
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6

4.2
4.3
4.4

Motion Duration
Motion Intensity
Motion Characteristic
4.4.1
4.4.2

4.5

Open Motion
Close Motion
Open & Close Motion
Close & Open Motion
The Transformer
Reverse Transformer

Linear Characteristic
Non-Linear Characteristic

Grouping

5.

Combination

6.

Glossary

7.

Videos & Downloads

All rights reserved by Alexander Sonnenfeld (2016)

Foreword
You are about to encounter a favorable mix of music theory at its most formal – music notation – and a musical
genre that remains to be an opposing force to any established musical form – turntablism. You will also see a
remarkably successful example of turning theory into useful practice. Whether the reason that you read this is
because you are a DJ, a music scholar, a tutor, a hip-hop fan, a contemporary culture reader, a system designer, or
just plain interested, you will be struck by the extensiveness of Alexander Sonnenfeld’s S-Notation system for
transcribing scratch performances. He has developed the system during several years, and it has been a privilege
to follow its maturation to what it has become.
Theorizing and studying DJ-made music was for long a relatively lonely endeavor: in 1997, when I started my
university degree project on understanding what scratching DJs really do, there were few sources of information
to fnd, and none academically reliable, and there was little general interest in hip-hop music as a scholarly
subject. During my doctoral studies, the number of published studies increased a bit, although most had focus on
technology and the interface. In my 2010 thesis entitled “The acoustics and performance of DJ scratching.
Analysis and modeling”, there is a chapter (5.3) devoted to music notation. It is very short. By the year 2007, only
four systems based on traditional notation had been published: Doc Rice (1998), Hansen (1999), Radar (2000),
and Webber (2007). These systems were simple compared to S-Notation which was introduced in 2009. Two
graphical systems were suggested by A-Trak (2000), and Raedawn`s & Carluccio’s TTM (2000); TTM resembled
guitar tablature notation.
Why then do we need to fnd a notation format? The music and culture of hip-hop do not really encourage one
such, if we read Katz (2012). According to a small study in my thesis, only 23% of the asked DJs had ever used one
(Hansen, 2010). Sophy Smith (2006) gave fve main functions of turntable notation: 1) for communicating musical
ideas, 2) for documentation, 3) for composition, 4) for making scratching a legitimate musical practice, and 5) for
analyzing and understanding. The thesis you are about to read addresses all, although one can hope that the
fourth item should be unnecessary! But it is also worthwhile to fip the question: why should there not be a
notation format? Music notation is despite its many and known shortcomings the acknowledged method for
addressing Smith’s points above for (nearly) all other instruments in the world of music. Although my personal
academic interest barely stretches beyond the scratching activity of a DJ – and this is also where I consider SNotation to be most applicable and effcient – the system leaves headroom for other kinds of instruments and
musical directions. These can be within the scope of NIMEs (New Interfaces for Musical Expression), within the
concept of controllerism, or any other derivative of DJ-made music than scratching. Finding purposeful notation
that can cover what traditional notation misses is still a major concern in musicology. With S-Notation, we have a
new contender to be reckoned with, and which is waiting to be scrutinized.
The other direction this thesis takes is to incorporate the whole notation system in the larger context of tutoring
and skill practice. In my doctoral work I stated that despite that DJing and scratching had been widely popular
since the 1980s, there were few books on learning how to DJ, and I speculated it was because hip-hop was
opposing the established culture, so that a scholarly take on hip-hop would fail. However, there have been other
ways of learning, most notably self-produced teaching material published freely within the DJ communities,
instructional videos from competitions, DJs and companies (e.g., Technics DMC World, 2005; DJ Q-bert, 2003,
2005; Scratch DJ Academy, 2003; Shure, 2001; Vestax, 1997). In following years a great number of educational
books were published (see for instance, Brewster and Broughton, 2002; Frederikse and Sloly, 2003; Sloly and
Frederikse, 2004; Webber, 2007; DJ Chuck Fresh, 2004; Slaney, 2006; Steventon, 2006; Wood, 2006). However,
these handbooks mostly give advice on general aspects of being a DJ, and very little has been published on the
actual skill learning itself. As far as I can judge, this is the frst systematic approach comparable to classics such as
Arban’s for trumpet players or Jeanjean’s Vademecum for clarinetists.
One reason that this approach is benefcial is that the playing techniques of scratching are very well defned,
almost as made for studying. Some of the work in Hansen (1999) involved classifying the different techniques as
they were described in various sources at the time (e.g. in videos, internet communities, and by performers). The
classifcation was based on looking at which controllers that were operated in the combination of hand
movements. Basically, there are single- and two-handed techniques, where two-handed means one hand controls
the crossfader and one hand the record movement. Based on the reported fndings, a typical (two-handed)
technique would

have precisely defned gestures,

consists of a forward–backward movement of the vinyl record in combination with a synchronized
crossfader movement,

house. producing a sound that resembles a technique. the defnition or naming of a technique is never dependent on what sample is chosen. This term describes the manipulation of a record on a turntable in sync with the faders on a mixer to produce rhythmical sounds. play the sample from the start. Introducing Over the years. failing to attune these parameters will render a sound that cannot be recognized as the aimed-at technique. It lacks the imperfection of emotionally controlled processes. . or even on the duration of the scratch. on the size of the record movement. is not an acceptable way to play the technique. The DJ manually adjusts the speed and direction of the record while muting and unmuting the sound using the crossfader and line-fader of a DJ mixer. decoding the DNA of the turntablist’s musicianship and providing a way to visualize it.• have a duration corresponding to less than an eighth-note. replication and systematic analysis of music. This is due to its short history compared to other classical forms of musicianship and the lack of scientifc analysis. The DJ is the most common representative of live performance of sample-based music. the turntablist uses human motor skills to create sounds and this lends the artform value that extends beyond the capabilities of a computer. The following paper. manipulate a single-onset. What was once the guitar or drums is now. it is not comparable with this human variable. turntablism has rarely been a subject for academia and cannot be studied at music university. entitled The Theory of Motions. This is the notation of a global communications medium for the composition. • have the sound turned on–off a couple of times. but doing so by other means than the defned gestures (such as using a multi-onset sound to produce tone attacks instead of using crossfader movements). Ph. Presented here are the frst foundations for the analysis of turntablism based on a specially designed music theory and playing method. trap and dub. Alexander Sonnenfeld ADVICE: All words in red in this document are linked to YouTube showing the instrumental performance of the notational indication. and it will provide material for academics like myself to indulge in! Happy reading! Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen.. We are. The DJ’s skills can range from compiling and mixing records. silence the record direction change with the crossfader. on the playing position in the sample. educational books and academics who are profcient musicians and who also play professionally. spinning genres such as hip hop. Although the rhythmic sterility of a computer or software can be humanized through various computer tricks such as randomization. At this point we might legitimately ask the question: if computers can trigger audio samples to play whatever and whenever we want. in a sense. KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm. Sweden 1. line fader or line switch. Interestingly. As such. on using the crossfader. for many. and not least the convincing examples of using it in daily practice. playing pre-recorded audio samples has become an integral part of music culture.D and Senior researcher. Hopefully it will aid the aspiring DJ musicians to acquire skills that will again move the whole culture forward. the detailed description of the method. Despite having millions of fans. Thanks to the beauty of the notation. to the more technically demanding turntablism and controllerism. On the other hand. the thesis you soon will start reading will surely get a future status as a classic in modern music tuition. archiving. • have a record movement span of 30-40 degrees. Instead. vocal sound sample. the turntable or MIDI controller. in other words it lacks a heartbeat. so why do we need a turntablist to do it by hand and why create a notational system for it? Like any instrumentalist. the practical and theoretical development of turntablism has only been explored by selftaught non-academics and there still remains a great deal to be said. is also written by someone who is self-taught. The focus of this paper is turntablism. Allowing the DJ to read and write music gives them a higher awareness of the theory and an effcient way of teaching and learning.

You can watch the disk and fader movements separately as well as in combination. Graphical waveforms will be used for most of the notational examples to allow you to visualize the sound produced and understand how the various techniques affect the sound over time. The sample audio (shown below) used for the upcoming analyses is the word “fresh” from the sentence: “ahhh. this stuff is really fresh”.com. NB: The videos to accompany this thesis can be found on the website: www. a) diverse adapters/plugs b) on/off button c) control disk/plate d) start/stop (forward) e) crossfader (horizontal) f) pitcher (vertical) g) linefader h) monitor The following basic analyses are linked with demonstration videos of the techniques how they are notated. the sample is equivalent to one beat lasting 0. But before we begin.1. we should examine the structure of the sample. Based on a tempo of 75 beats per minute (BPM). To avoid confusion between different manufacturing models.1 Regarding the Thesis of this Work During this thesis we will need to refer frequently to the turntablist’s instruments – the turntable and DJ mixer. we will use a hybrid of the mixer and turntable in the form of the Tonspielzeug shown below. An example of this would be the difference between moving the disk forwards and backwards. In classical notation we call this beat a quarternote (socalled because usually there would be four beats to each bar). .alexandersonnenfeld. taken from B-side of the 1982 record Change the Beat by Fab Five Freddy.8 sec.

'time value'. because the sample might have no discernable pitch or timbre.). The end product of these techniques is the modulation of certain parameters of recorded sound material resulting in a new method of making music. it is essential to sketch a sort of classifcation of the instrument set-up (fader. Acoustic Motions .Movement of the panoramic dial to spread the sound across the stereo feld. They are the fundamental principles of a composition and the Theory of Motions aims to represent them by notational symbols. What are the challenges of creating a methodology for this kind of unprecedented music? Firstly. etc.2 System of S-Notation S-Notation is a written transcription method which uses notational symbols to describe the techniques of a turntablist. Effects Motions . the shape of the symbol and the position inside the staff determines the action the musician should take. 'integral motions' and 'groups of motions'. All of the aforementioned parameter motions are separated into 'motion types': 'single motions'. Each of these so-called 'parameter motions' adjusts the sound characteristics of the sample. The following schema shows the components of the S-notation system: . Making music with random sound material. as in the case of ambient noise or spoken words. disk. In classical musical notation both prerequisites are frmly met because the movement on a keyboard or string is always linked to a certain tone or pitch. the following musical parameters have to be considered in the transcription methodology: time value. Also. controller. pitch.Movement of the control disk (changing the speed or direction) to change the pitch of the sound Dynamic Motions . a series of principles which can be understood and applied correctly. delay. however. etc. The frst is that the sound itself must be the same each time. because the samples used are all pre-recorded.1.) to understand how it infuences specifc musical parameters of the sound material. For this reason. It is particularly diffcult to capture the broad pitch range produced by the motion of the disk. The second is that the individual techniques on the instrument must be subject to an order. Frequency Motions . Every 'type of motion' is subject to a unique architecture which is defned by the 'motion criteria': 'direction'. The purpose of written music is to enable a musician to make a sound and consistently repeat it and this requires two things. The 'acoustic motions' parameter is the most important because all the others either refer to the physical movement of the 'control disk'. and volume. S-Notation describes only the manual motion on the disk and faders as a sort of Theory of Motions. does not allow for such a method. the well known audio recording of particular scratches help the player to get a familiarity with the respective notated patterns. To assist in this. Due to the enormous repertoire of turntablism techniques. It is therefore possible to notate the tone based on the positioning of the note inside a musical staff (NB: the staff or stave is the set of horizontal lines seen in traditional notation – the position of a symbol on these lines denotes the pitch of the note to be played).Movement of the fader or rotary dial to change the intensity of various audio effects (reverb. 'intensity' and 'characteristic'.Line fader or crossfader movements to change the volume. distortion. As in classical notation. S-Notation is a transcription methodology from which you can read all 'motion criteria' based on the principles of music theory.Movement of the fader or rotary dial to cut or boost certain frequencies Panning Motions . it does not allow for a predetermined pitch range. or are dependent on it.

.

When playing the sample. Alternatively. For now we will concentrate on these two basic forms. thus producing a change in pitch and rhythm. This shall be referred to as a Note. This will be referred to as Eton . letting the sample play without manual interference. Additional techniques will be described later on. The backwards motion will be denoted by a mirror image of the symbol (as shown below). The purpose is to speed up. forwards (clockwise) or backwards (anticlockwise). We will describe this as 'release mode' since the turntablist is releasing the disk and letting the turntable play naturally under the power of the motor. To indicate the direction of the disk we use two symbols for 'hand mode' and two more for 'release mode'. with each direction resulting in a different sound. It should be noted that the motor of the Tonspielzeug will usually spin the disk clockwise (forwards). he or she can simply let the disk move forward. the turntablist can affect the sound by touching the disk with his or her hand. But it can be set in reverse before or even during the performance using the controls of the Tonspielzeug.1 Motion Direction This describes the direction in which the 'control disk' is moved. even with the same 'motion criteria'. slow down or add pauses. 'Single acoustic motion' (Forward) 'Single acoustic motion (backward) The above diagrams show how the change in direction of the control disk affects the visual waveform. . To mark the forward motion in 'hand mode' we use a symbol that is similar to classical notation: it consists of a head which faces to the right in an upward fashion with a stem. Acoustic Motions 2. We will refer to this as 'hand mode'. Combinations of these two single motions' can produce complex patterns which we will refer to as 'integral acoustic motions' or 'groupings'.2. The differences between both techniques are very noticeable and sound different when played.Note spelt backwards. usually on the left side.

the head is the only component of the symbol. 2. To indicate the different duration forms. for Etons the opposite. . the stem is ether on the left or right side of the head. Conversely. or on the right (Eton) of the head and goes down. the stem is placed on the left (Note). In a whole Note/Eton. It even produces a different acoustic result. With Notes on the third line and above.Hand mode 1/4 note Hand mode 1/4 eton The direction of the note head denotes the direction in which the player should move the disk. Shorter 'acoustic motions' requires a stem. 1/2 Note 1/16 Note 1/2 Eton 1/16 Eton As in classicial music notation. the same system as classical music notation is used. The remaining criteria for the techniques are based on the symbol of the 'hand mode' but there are no diffculties in transferring these criteria to the 'release mode'.1 Motion Value 'Acoustic motions' can be performed in different time values. the stem is placed on the right (Note) of the symbol and goes up! Release Mode is denoted by the same symbols (Note or Eton) but instead of an angular head there is a round head. Release mode 1/4 note Release mode 1/4 eton Depending on whether the control disk is going forwards or backwards. When a Note or Eton is placed on or above the center line.when the symbol is placed under the center line. the stems will be point upwards and will be attached on the right side of the head. and possible beams or fags. dots and ties can be used to stretch the duration of a Note or Eton.

90 % 0.70 % 63. A lot of manual training is required to control the movement of the disk accurately as well as a perfect sense of hearing to transpose the base material.10 % 79. Through this parameter the player infuences the pitch of the sound.10 % 53.7 % 149. the player can easily derive fxed values of tone pitch. We call this process “pitching”.8 % 178.70 % 66. There are solid physical properties between the sample tune and the duration of the sample which have to be considered in the transcription method.5 % 126.0 % 94.0 % -50.0 % -40.00 % -5. By using the pitch controller. it is much more diffcult to alter the pitch of the sample into another by playing it in 'hand mode' as Notes or Etons.0 % 88.50 % 56. . In this way the staff system describes the movement of the record to be executed on the Tonspielzeug. it is fairly simple to create a notational transcription methodology to recreate them. In doing so.8 % 41.40 % 89.1 % -29.00 % 59.9 % 112. It is similar to classical music notation in which the position of the symbol (Notes or Etons) on the staff ndicates the pitch.0 % 118.0 % 18.9 % 12. including a high range of pitch bend.10 % 84.2 % 168.3 Motion Intensity The intensity of motion is the speed of the control disk while moving it forwards or backwards.9 % -47. The letter S (sample) represents motion and symbolizes the main parameter of the 'acoustic motion'.2 % 58. The player can move the disk by hand extremely slowly or really fast. which details the use of the S-clef and the 'variable principle' which will be explained later on.90 % 70.0 % 188.9 % -20. The S-clef symbol is used to indicate that the traditional staff system is being used to describe the 'acoustic motions'. based on the percentage of speed increase or decrease of the record movement.0 % However. By working with sound material with a ‘pure’ pitch.5 % 26.7 % 49.2.8 % 78.60 % -10.9 % -15. This system requires an understanding of two principles: the classical 'tonal principle'.4 % 33.2 % 68.8 % 141.2 % 105.4 % 133.00 % 50.6 % -25. In the chart below you can see the scale of pitch shifting based on a sample which was recorded originally in a C1 pitch tone.9 % 100. It is placed at the beginning of the staff and all symbols which represent the disk movement have to be written down in this staff.00 % absolut 100. there is an equal variety of options to modify the original sound material.an exact adjustment of the speed for longer periods is possible. pitch hz relativ c`` h` b` a` gis` g` fs` f` e` es` d` cis` c h b a gis g fs f e es d dis c 523 494 466 440 415 392 367 349 330 311 294 277 262 247 233 220 208 196 185 175 165 156 147 139 131 200.2 % 5.5 % -43.2 % 158. As a control disk offers quite a variety of performance and playing options.3 % -33.40 % 74.3 % -37. but it is quite diffcult to produce a constant pitch during the practical conversion.

it is now possible to create chords on the Tonspielzeug by using the Eton instead of a Note. for the G-S Clef the black circle at the bottom of the S symbol shows the position of the pitch G1 (on a piano keyboard this would be the note G in the frst octave). The reference point for this is always the original speed of the sound material (100%) which is represented by the middle line of the staff.3. To ensure communication with traditional musicians. most of the rules of modern notation apply for S-notation. Using the symbol for Eton it is possible to write a counter movement for every sample.. accidental etc.. Based on this. it is possible to derive an increase or decrease of the 'motion intensity' due to the position of the symbols above or below the center line of the system. More variations can be seen in this video. the same pitch as a traditional G-clef. time signature. pauses. and (2) a Note on the S-clef can describe a complex phrase (spoken word or drum break) whereas traditional notation it always indicates a single note. The key differences between the S-clef and the traditional clef is (1) the S-clef describes recorded sounds as opposed to single ‘unrecorded’ notes as in traditional music notation. So how can we notate the sound envelope or pitch range and how can we subdivide the lines and distances of this S-Notation system to indicate the 'motion intensity' applied to the disk. human and animal voices. C-major triad However. We subdivide the line system based on predetermined levels of 'motion intensity' or pitch ranges. Note Eton As such. In the same way. based on the position of Notes or Etons? The solution is very simple. as shown in the chromatic scale. the F-S-Clef has a small black circle either on the top or bottom of the S symbol which serves as a reference point to denote where the F note is. the minus sign is used. the turntablist has at his or her disposal many more types of samples than only simple sounds with recognisable pitches.2. Noises. . for example: bars. To gain an understanding of this statement you can see some variations of the C-major triad in the following notation. This is just like the normal F-Clef where the line denoting the note F runs between the two dots of the symbol. To name Etons based on the pitch.1 Tonal Principle As you can see in the above diagram. beat fragments or whole musical phrases with an unidentifable pitch are all within scope of the instrument.

2.2 Variable Principle Because any kind of sample can be used. The whole tonal scope of the 'variable principle' is subdivided into 24 degrees (each denoting a change of 10%) labelled with characters from the alphabet.8 seconds (100% speed) which is a quarternote in a tempo of 75 bpm. Instead. This can be prevented by using a time-stretch effect if the turntablist‘s equipment allows for it. a universal system of notation is impossible. . To ensure suffcient scope for all possible degrees of pitch (there are seven degrees in the diatonic scale) three line systems are provided as you can see in the image. Our demonstration sample has an original time value of 0. Etons are indicated by a minus sign. In the chapter entitled 'Anatonie' a simple notational methodology is presented which takes this into account when the piece is played. By trial and error the player can fgure out what sounds the best. we must adjust the notation to the character of the individual sample. The way the turntablist plays the instrument depends on the character of the sound material and what kind of result is desired.3. In the image below you can see the increase and decrease in the time value of the sound. Using this method we can create an individual scale depending on the composition (this is what is meant by the 'variable principle').

The frst form is the 'linear increase' and the 'linear decrease' which defnes a constant level of increasing or decreasing of the speed of the record motion. This is an example which shows that the time value of the disk motion is not necessarily linked with the sound produced. Linear decreasing Linear increasing The position of the symbol (Note or Eton) within the staff defnes the degree of 'motion intensity' (M = 100%) of the disk from the start. The additional symbol which is attached to the head of the Note or Eton denotes the fnal 'motion intensity' which is indicated by the little 'motion point'. the graphical waveform of the sample is stretched from 0. with a linear increase 'motion characteristic' the sound material is contracting from 0. 2. the sample is played more quickly therefore fnishes early and leaves a pause). 2.1 Linear Characteristic The 'linear characteristic' defnes a constant level of speed.4. Conversely. the sample is played more slowly thus stretching it out – but since it remains a quarternote a small part is cut).9s by including a linear decrease 'motion characteristic'. .1s of the sound material by playing a Note or Eton in a time value of a quarter (ie.4. To indicate this 'type of motion' we need no additional sign in the transcription. irregardless of whether the disk is played in 'release' or 'hand mode'. Due to the large number of possibilities. The result is a cut of 0. In S-Notation these movements are divided into two fundamental forms: 'linear motion characteristic' and 'non-linear characteristic'. The pure symbol for a Note or Eton indicates this type of 'motion characteristic' and always defnes a constant level of speed.4 Motion Characteristic Different movements of the disk produce different pitches.61s and that means playing a quarter note (or Eton) in this type of 'non-linear characteristic' contains a pause of 0. This shows the 'linear decrease' from (M) 100% to (S) 60% and 'linear increase' from from (M) 100% to (S) 160%. So a Note or Eton always indicates a 'linear characteristic' of the 'acoustic motion'.2. As you can see from the image.8s to 0.2 Non-Linear Characteristic All forms of 'non-linear motion characteristics' require additional symbols which have to be applied to the respective Note or Eton heads.8s to 0.19s after the acoustic was heard (ie. we will tackle just the most fundamental characteristics.

Logarithmic decreasing Logarithmic increasing Exponential decreasing Exponential increasing These variations cover the basic 'motion characteristics' and demonstrate how S-Notation works. In a way. But with the knowledge we have obtained so far.Other forms of 'non-linear motion characteristic' are the 'exponential' and 'logarithmic increase' or 'decrease'. The graphical shape of these lines gives some indication about the course of the disk motion and the speed at the beginning and end. . By carefully breaking things down it is possible to defne and represent even the most complicated pattern. we have to use additional symbols which are attached to the heads of the Note or Eton to denote these types of motion. we are a considerable step closer to achieving this. attempting to apply music theory to the fexibility of the 'control disk' is like nailing jello to the wall. As seen.

We can now deduce one important fact: 'acoustic motions' connected by a slur indicate a 'group' and we have to play this like a 'tear' pattern. so we move the record in one motion without any steps.in turntablism this method is called ‘tearing’ and means nothing more than grouping more than one 'acoustic motion' into a musical pattern. rather than tearing the sound. The traditional method is like pushing the button on a sampler in a time value of 1/16. However. We need an underlying principle to provide the basis of a universal method of composition. Due to the entire length of the sample (1/4) we play about 75% of the sound as you can see in the image of the waveform. On a traditional instrument you can group a sound by repeating it several times. which works irregardless of the characteristics of the sound material. The turntablist also has the option of playing this way by silencing the backward motion of the disk using the crossfader.2. It is the arrangement of 'acoustic motions' using a turntable that creates a musical pattern. the turntablist has to use the crossfader to silence the backward motion. Let’s say we start from the beginning of the sample and move the record forward three times by pausing between the movements. in which we play the sound from the beginning or from the same chronological position. exemplifed by techniques such as 'babies' or 'tears'. By imitating this playing style. This method produces three sounds instead of one . Motion pattern (traditional) Motion Pattern (group) The demonstration video and the image of the waveform shows us how this happens in practice and the sound produced. Two 'anatonic slurs' together indicates a legato playing style. This transcription method gives an indication that we have to play all Notes of the sound consecutively as a group (short pauses between all these steps gives the impression that we produce three tones). . The traditional method. a musician using the Tonspielzeug can play the sample from any point within that sample – in other words from any chronological position. Furthermore. requires no additional sign. In this video you can see another variation of this type of pattern. Because the musical output does not ft an ordinary scale.5 Grouping A fundamental element of S-Notation is the classifcation and notation of 'acoustic motions' (disk movements). To denote the 'grouping' of more than one 'acoustic motion' through ‘tearing’ the sound. tune-based music. but the chronological position (always from the beginning) is still the same. which is necessary to get back to the initial point and repeat the pattern and requires lots of practice. Next we learn more simple underlying principles of S-Notation which are required to give some order to the many groups of 'acoustic motions'. we use the ‘anatonic curvature’ or ‘slur’ which connects the respective symbols as shown in the image. he or she can also play it in several stages. This kind of a combination is called ‘grouping’. With a regular instrument. This principle should help the player to capture the different turntablism techniques which otherwise could not be defned in the context of a classical. we need to think differently about the term ‘melody’. This type of notation is necessary to describe different parts of the record motion divided by crossfader techniques and is also discussed in the chapter ‘Dynamic Motions’. every sound starts at the beginning of the waveform (ie the transient). such as a piano or trumpet. The tear variation (group) consists in this example of three 1/16 Notes which are connected by a slur.

we only write the frst number (2 or -2). This symbol is a replacement for the stem. because there is no counter motion inside the sequence. To simplify the notation. if we start a two-note sequence with a Note. each symbol (Noteton and Etonote) is different. or Eton and Note ("reverse baby scratch") as a group of two 'single motions' with the same pitch and duration. In the last example (right side) you can detect two slurs which indicate that all 'acoustic motions' have to be played in legato. As shown in the image. disk movements that run in the opposite direction to the original). When we play a group of two 'acoustic motions' which all have the same direction. For example. In S-Notation we defne this as an 'integral motion' which has its own symbol.1 Double Grouping Perhaps the most recognised sonic trademark of scratching is the “wiggy wiggy“ sound. A basic prerequisite for this is that the two individual movements have identical criteria (duration and volume) and the same 'anatonic start' and ' . These motions are called NOTETON (Note + Eton) and ETONOTE (Eton + Note).end point'. The second number identifes an 'acoustic motion' (ie disk movement) which is played in the opposing direction (2-2 or -2-2). The diagram shows selected examples of 2-2 or -2-2 groups with different criteria. This playing style is a combination of Note and Eton. If subsequent movements are in the same direction as the original movement then they will not be specifed in the 'motion code'). known as the "baby scratch" technique in turntablism. The notation shows the identical 'motion criteria' of the sum of individual movements. Noteton (Note + Eton) Etonote (Eton + Note) The head of a Noteton is exactly the same as a Note (pointing to the right and upwards). the number ‘2’ must be written and if we start with an Eton we have to add a minus sign in front. a 1/8 Noteton or Etonote consists of two 'single acoustic motions' with a th 1/16 duration each. The subsequent numbers ONLY denote counter-motions (ie. But there is one constant applied to all notational indications — the use of slurs to form a group. All 'groups' are numbered with 'motion code' to defne the type of group. but the placement of the th stem is different.2. . The frst number of this code is the number of all 'acoustic motions' in the entire pattern. Playing an Etonote is symbolised by the same head as an Eton.5.

This will be even clearer when we transfer this method to other parameters of the instrument. accentuation. All the other parameters will be explained later. In the '3-2-3 group'. triplet) taken from classical music notation which can also be applied or used in S-notation. Here we only deal with 'acoustic . you can see that the stem of the last 'acoustic motion' is drawn substantially thicker than the other ones. played subsequently as one comprehensive pattern. These are the building blocks for composition and this system gives order to the playing techniques.' and 'dynamic motion'.5. .2 Triple Grouping Here are some examples of groups which consist of three 'acoustic motions'. Note especially that the 'motion code' below identifes the arrangement of the 'acoustic motions' of the pattern.2. after we have fnished the last motion on the record. This is a special transcription method which indicates the initial point of the frst 'acoustic motion'. That allows us to repeat the whole sequence from the beginning. In this section we have seen that the musical output of turntablism is primarily based on generating 'groups of motions' on the record or on the fader. As you can see in the notation there are lots of conventional signs (eg.

Marking the sample on the 'control disk' is necessary since the Tonspielzeug itself contains no sounds. the temporal or 'anatonic stages' of the sound. since this is subject to the structure of the individual sound material.3. which can apply to any part of the sample due to the expressive range of the instrument. If you start with an Eton. There is no predefned method of playing. whereas the Tonspielzeug must always be prepared according to the audio sample used . So before. A sticker placed on the control disk can be used as a unique visual reference point to locate quickly and precisely the player’s position among the 'anatonic stages'. We want to be able to describe. The disk’s range of motion allows the player access to any point in the entire length of a sample. Moving ‘three hours’ forward from nine o’clock the sample will play from the beginning of the sample to the end. In practice. Anatonie Anatonie is based on the term "anatomy" from biology and describes the way in which the audio sample (or "sound organism") can be broken down by the turntablist into its component parts. With most traditional instruments it is obvious how to make a sound. we have to analyse the entire audio sample step by step. through musical notation. we can begin. the reference point will start at 12 o'clock (the end of the sample) and move the 'control disk' anti-clockwise to nine o'clock. thus adding extra dimensions to making music. We do this by marking the 'acoustic motions'. Note Eton The length of the sample is divided into eight equal 'anatonic stages' with an arrow to show the 'motion direction'. like the hand of a clock.new music requires a new methodology! . the turntablist will locate the frst part of the audio sample and set the starting position to a point on the ‘clock’.

However this thesis uses a different color gradient which is visible on the control disk itself.
 We use a color scheme to distinguish the individual stages which relates to the colors on the Tonspielzeug*.3. you generate 0. as typically defned in th traditional notation. in other words a "quarter". Note Breakdown Anatonic stages Eton Breakdown Anatonic stages The full duration (or 'motion value') of the Note is 0. a quarternote (1/4 ). .This is represented by three hours on the clock face (9-12).1 seconds then each stage can be referred to as a 1/32nd. is very important. The number. In this case the sample is 0. The 'motion value' of the disk motion impacts the length of the sample.1 Anatonic Stages After preparing the audio sample we need to defne the 'anatonic stages' for the notation. from one to eight. In future descriptions you will see that this allows us to describe exactly each section played. If we divide this into eight equal stages of 0. position and length of these colored areas are adjusted in advance according to the individual sound material.4s of the sample.8 seconds long with a tempo of 75bpm and a 'motion intensity' of 100% (meaning the speed of the disk is normal). With this guide the turntablist can see which segments he is playing.8s – this is effectively one beat or. Note: the numbering of the 'anatonic stages'. *Today's digital vinyl systems (eg Traktor or Serato) already use colors on the graphical waveforms (visible on the laptop display) to denote frequency and ‘energy’. When you th play a 1/8 .

This will be illustrated by examples later on. In the notation we use a special character over the Note/Eton head (v) to symbolize each double segment. The color ranges remain fxed like the numbers on a clock.Note Breakdown Anatonic stages Eton Breakdown Anatonic stages *The actual coloring scheme is currently under evaluation for maximizing readability. In order to describe the exact 'anatonic course' of an 'acoustic motion'.black. This applies both to 'single motions' as well as patterns as well as 'groupings'/'integral motions'. to ensure that for instance color confusion is avoidable through layout settings and templates. we need to pinpoint the start and the end of the course route. green or blue.
 . red. The marker however moves with the disk (like the hands on a clock). Two consecutive 'anatonic stages' are given the same color . With this transcription method we can clearly show the difference between each 'anatonic stage' as well as the musician’s chronological position within the sample.

To simplify things we draw a 'motion point' instead of the head of a second Eton (1/32). When played at 75 bpm this corresponds to the duration of a 1/8 Note under the default 100% 'motion intensity' and normal 'motion characteristics'. . The neck of the 'motion point' must protrude slightly to avoid any confusion with the symbol for the 'release mode'.movements of the 'control disk'. In particular.3. It helps to visualize a 'single acoustic motion' using the graphic waveform. we can defne and visualize changes in the 'motion intensity'. Such a time value is usually represented by two Etons (1/4 and 1/32). a 'motion point' would be needed if we wanted to indicate a specifc 'anatonic course'. th In ‘anatonic 47’ four stages are played.
 Anatonic 51 The second example shows another course . Using this transcription methodology the course of an 'acoustic motion' can now be described in detail. In this case.4. Anatonic 47 We call this 'anatonic course' "anatonic 47" because the Note starts at the 4th 'anatonic stage' (starting point) and moves to the 7th stage (end point) – therefore ‘4’ and ‘7’. The end point can be identifed by the color of the 'motion point'.2). The connection by slurs is no longer necessary. However. the 'control disk' starts at the 5th stage (starting point) and ends at the 1st stage (end point) in the form of an Eton which results in a duration of 5 x 1/32. value or characteristics. This is notated by writing the 'motion point' on the same line as the Note and colored according to the respective 'anatonic stage'.) First we defne the 'anatonic start' or ' .the Anatonic 51. Usually you do not need to draw a 'motion point' for -linear. These have to be connected with the 'anatonic bow' to denote the 'acoustic motion'.end' of a Note or Eton. which describes the end of the 'acoustic motion'. which was never possible previously. since the symbol for Note or Eton already indicates this type of 'motion characteristic'. The 'anatonic start' is indicated by a colored head of a Note or Eton and the end by the colored 'motion point' (NB: the 'motion point' was introduced to us in the chapter Acoustic Motions (2.2 Anatonic Code In order to show the start or end of an 'acoustic motion'. In the Theory of Motion the 'anatonic code'. Through the bracing and connecting lines we can see the complete time value of the 'acoustic motion' and we can see the 'anatonic end point'. the course route and also the direction of an 'acoustic motion' is described by the numerical order. the symbols are also given colors. The 'anatonic start point' can now be removed based on the color of the frst motion. when we looked at the shapes of the 'motion characteristics'.

The increase in 'motion intensity' (speed of movement) shortens the 'motion duration' (length of the sample).
 Anatonic 47 Anatonic 51 Anatonic 47 is played with an 'exponential increase' as you can see by the symbols. Until now. Based on this example you can see how it is possible to describe even the most complicated pattern by the color and position of the appended 'motion point'.3. Anatonie is an extremely important part of S-Notation since it allows all stages of an audio sample to be used. working with 'non-linear motion characteristics' is different. S-Notation provides a structure into which you can place any sample and use it to produce unpredictable combinations and therefore create unconventional musical compositions. but the 'motion points' limit the Anatonie and 'motion intensity' of the sample.into 'non-linear motion characteristics'.47 and 51 . the modifcation of the 'motion criterias' will always affect the Anatonie of the sample. However. In these examples this was easy to identify because all 'acoustic motions' were played with 'linear motion characteristics'. In 51. we will change both of the 'anatonic motions' . In summary. Integrating traditional staff notation allows the musician to read exactly which stage corresponds to which pitch. In order to show how 'non-linear motion characteristics' are notated. the characteristic is wavy.3 Anatonic Course Theoretically.
 
 The value of S-Notation transcription is that it encourages different methods of composing sample-based music. turntablists generally compose according to their own experience and tastes. .

4. Dynamic Motion In the studio or during a live performance. a system for conveying the large variety of fader movements which raise or lower the volume. The line fader is more gradual. In order to describe these motions we must notate the two variants that infuence the sound material: volume and position of the fader. The smallest units of these are called 'single dynamic motions'. Every movement of the crossfader and line faders are classifed as 'motion types'. 4. As a result. The volume is measured along the y-axis and the physical position of the fader along the x-axis. Let us begin by considering the 'parameters motions' that are measured under the system of Dynamic Motion. the sound volume is opened and the intensity reaches its maximum value (open signal). Dynamic Motions can be separated into (1) ‘fading’ and (2) ‘cutting’. It offers a gradual modulation of the volume depending on where the fader is located. If you move it a little to the right. Fading Cutting Fading is usually produced by using the vertical line or channel fader which has a gradual curve. the sound volume is at its minimum value (closed signal). Cutting is usually performed using the crossfader (a turntablist generally has this set at sharpest cut meaning the signal is either open or closed with no gradual curve). The directions of both types of fader can be reversed.1 Motion Direction If the crossfader is at the very left side. sound engineers use the faders of a mixing console to raise or lower the level of the audio signal. The way that 'acoustic motion' and 'dynamic motion' interact. We use a quarternote for the sound material in the following examples. A combination of 'single dynamic motions' (with identical time values) produces an 'integral dynamic motion'. DJing and turntablism is today a virtuoso performance art largely through having perfected complicated variations of these same fader movements to modify sounds in various ways. equipment manufacturers created special faders (of both vertical and horizontal alignment) that could withstand the enormous stresses of the rapid movements. . When you shift it down again. forms the basis of using the turntable and mixer as a combined musical instrument. Linefader (Fading) Crossfader (Cutting) NB: The following examples assume that the turntablist uses the left hand to move the faders and the right hand to move the control disk. It reaches maximum volume only by shifting the slider to the very top. but this corresponds to a special playing technique known as ‘hamster-style’ and will not be covered here. Having a fader ‘language’ such as this gives us a new perspective and encourages new creative uses of volume manipulation. The difference between them can be seen in the envelope graphs below. This is the context for Dynamic Motion. it reduces the amplitude of the audio signal. Different cutting and fading gestures and combinations of these are explained in further courses.

The thumb stays on the crossfader and the index fnger is moved away. As you can see.2 Close Motion The crossfader starting position is open signal (ie allowing sound through). In the notation a semicircle pointing to the left is used to describe this motion.4. Once the 'acoustic motion' is played according to its time value.1 Open Motion In our frst example the crossfader is moved to the right. the 'control disk' is moved (the 'acoustic motion'). The graphical waveform shows how a tiny region at the end of the sound material is cut.1. (see video example) to allow for the transition into another playing technique.1. The graph shows how the time it takes for the fader to move from closed to open means we lose a tiny part of the sound material at the beginning. 4. the thumb moves the crossfader to the left. After performing the 'acoustic motion'. thus closing the signal. this cutting technique is denoted by a semicircle pointing to the right and drawn directly above the symbol for the 'acoustic motion' to clearly show that they happen at the same time. the signal will remain open and both hands remain in the fnal position. thus opening the signal (the 'dynamic motion'). . At the same time.

3 Open & Close Motion This cutting technique is used to open and close the signal within the time value of the 'acoustic motion'. As the disk moves. The 'motion value' of the 'integral dynamic motion' corresponds to the 'motion value' of the 'acoustic motion'.1. two movements of the crossfader). Again. the duration of the fader movement). .4 Close & Open This cutting technique describes the closing and opening of the sound within a predetermined timeframe. Due to the cut in the middle of the 'acoustic motion'.4. The staff on the right shows the single components of the pattern. then it is briefy closed with the thumb (when using the left hand) and immediately opened again with the index fnger – this takes place exactly in the middle of the 'acoustic motion' (thus cutting the sound in two). Because it is a combination of the two 'single dynamic motions'. The crossfader begins in an open signal position. In order to create a rhythmical sound that can be denoted by symbols. the breakdown on the right shows the individual components of the technique. A cross is used to symbolize the combination of closing and opening movements and is used whenever a bisection occurs. 4. Just like the 'open & close motion' this is classed as an 'integral dynamic motion' because it is made up of a combination of different 'single dynamic motions' (ie. How much sound you ‘expose’ depends on the 'motion value' (ie. At the end of the 'acoustic motion' it is closed with the thumb. the sound material is divided in two. To write this you add the symbol directly above that of the 'acoustic motion'.1. the duration of these two 'single motions' must match the total duration of the 'acoustic motion'. the crossfader is opened with the forefnger. We notate this 'integral dynamic motion' using the symbol of a circle (a combination of the symbols for the 'open -' and 'close motions' we saw earlier). this is what is known as an 'integral dynamic motion'.

a signifcant part of the sound material is cut from the end of the sample. The disk motion fnishes once the signal is closed. as the disk is moved.a circle with an X inside it.1. the 'reverse transformer' instead begins with the signal open and. . Depending on the pressure exerted by the index fnger on the crossfader or the coordinated counter-pressure of the thumb. other special forms exist. This creates a different sound to the other techniques and is denoted by a combined symbol (because it is a hybrid technique) . thus allowing the signal through. This technique is denoted by a circle with a line through it (to distinguish it from an 'integral dynamic motion').6 Reverse Transformer Where the 'transformer' involves punching the sound in with the forefnger and then closing it off with the thumb. One of the most important of these involves the opening and closing of the crossfader using a specifc fnger technique known as the 'transformer. The very short opening period of the signal leads to a signifcantly shorter sound.1.5 The Transformer In addition to the 'single -' and the 'integral dynamic motion'. the sound is cut as the thumb closes the crossfader. Since the 'motion value' (duration of fader movement) is predetermined.4. The pressure of the thumb on the other side of the crossfader acts like a spring. then the crossfader is opened again by the index fnger. 4. sending the crossfader back the other way to immediately close the signal. it is possible to produce different results. as you can see in the illustration of the envelope graph (left). The crossfader is tapped open with the index fnger.

the breakdown of the patterns is shown in the stave. . In the following example a quarternote is cut four times equally by applying the playing techniques discussed above. As the 'motion duration' varies. They represent the basic repertoire of fader techniques and. so do the methods for manipulating the sound material. The symbols denoting the cutting technique pertain to all subsequent Notes until another technique is denoted.Each of these cutting techniques allows the turntablist to create interesting rhythms through the manipulation of the dynamic structure of the sample. the tie symbol links the 'single motions' and indicates that it is an individual 'acoustic motion' and not a 'group'. In addition to the 'anatonic curve'.2 Motion Duration The duration of a 'dynamic motion' determines the length of time for which the sample is audible. 4. especially when using combinations. The following graphical waveforms show us the divisions: Video A Video B Video C Video D On the left of the diagrams. by changing the volume. they fundamentally alter the shape of the sound material. Normally it is equivalent to the duration of the 'acoustic motion' (the movement of the 'control disk'). which is why the time value of the 'acoustic motion' matches the action of the crossfader.

It is interesting to note that different value distributions affect the interaction between 'acoustic -' and 'dynamic motions'.To get an imagination of the performance and the acoustical difference of the fader techniques please check this video. is indicated by fve 'acoustic motions' (or Notes) and the fgure ‘5’ underneath. The symbol above this pattern indicates that the total time value of this 'grouping' is cut four times. The frst example shows an irregular time division of fve cuts of equal length to a quarternote. The 'dynamic sixteenth quintole'. Comparing the two waveforms reveals the effect of the transform (x4 'cuts') on the 'acoustic Motions'. Video E At the beginning you can see the breakdown in which the time division is clearly readable. The fgure ‘3’ below the stave describes the irregular 'motion value' of the 'acoustic motion' group. It is much easier to play using this transcription method. The resulting sound will depend on the cutting technique used. Eton) but this time without any crossfader movement. .This type of transcription methodology is valuable because it is recognizable as a common musical language which allows collaboration with other musicians and instruments. making it a 'dynamic sixteenth quintole'. In order to make things clearer we also write the number of 'cuts' or duration (1/16 or 1/8 for example) above the symbols. It is interesting to see how irregular divisions of the sound material by 'dynamic motion' work. it allows you to manipulate one 'acoustic motion' using different cutting techniques. There are two variants that will be discussed in more detail with regard to the 'transformer technique'. as shown in this example. Also. it successfully describes the dissection of the sound material according to the rhythmic structure. However. The below notation shows the same three 'acoustic motions' (Note. to indicate that it is not a 'grouping'. all 'acoustic motions' also have to be connected by the tie and 'anatonic curve'. The number of sections is named after its pattern: an eighth-triplet-quartole. Video F The eighth note triplet ('motion code' 3-2-3) is divided into four sections of equal length. You can see clearly that the odd time division is a result of the 'dynamic motion'. even if performed in the same 'motion duration'. From the graphical waveforms you can see that both the opening and closing movements have very different amplitudes. In addition. since it is the time division of a quarternote using fve equal time values. Eton. just as in traditional notation. which corresponds to the true value of a sixteenth of 'motion duration'. even if you only play a single sample.

. is always below the 'acoustic motion' (or S-system). the amplitude decreases all the way to 0% (A). This simple example leads us to the term ‘fading’. as below. it works the same way as 'acoustic motions' since both rely on the movement of a controller (record or fader) – the basis of turntablism.There are two other notational examples in which different irregular divisions of the 'acoustic -' and 'dynamic motion' combine (see fg. e). Starting from this value. or D-system. we only use the middle system. upper) are divided into percentages to show the volume intensities.3 Motion Intensity Letters are used to identify the exact volume level at which the musician should play the samples represented by the D clef. there is a 10% reduction with each step. In terms of notation. The below diagram shows how the D-line systems (lower. The frst Note is played at the amplitude intensity of 100% (Q).The methodology is best understood by using a continuous tone with a decreasing amplitude. In all the following analyses. middle. The amplitude at the top line (Q) is set to 100%. Both line systems are connected by music brackets and bar lines are drawn through. 4. The position of the Note on the 'dynamic motion' line system defnes the level of volume. The remaining 'motion criteria' (intensity and characteristics) describe fading the volume up or down (by using the line fader). The notation and speed are related to each other as on any other musical instrument. which is a type of 'motion criteria' through which it is possible to generate different forms of 'motion characteristic'. Over the subsequent three notes. This effect is also know as Echo In the notation the 'dynamic system'.

raising the line fader. For a 'linear increase' the thumb opens the signal. 4. Just like in 'acoustic motions' the same additional notational symbols are used. . whereas the volume of the 'non-linear characteristic' can vary. but they have exactly the same effect on the sound. The player can either use a conventional fading motion. This one depends on a predetermined classifcation of lines and spaces.1 Linear Characteristics The 'linear characteristic' of a 'dynamic motion' is a constant amount of volume played with the 'acoustic motion'. For a 'linear decreasing' of the volume the index fnger closes the signal by lowering the line fader. 4.4.4. Just like in the 'acoustic motions'. as well as other cutting techniques which include using the 'hamsterswitch'. Linear Decreasing Linear Increasing In practice there are different ways to play the above notation.2 Non-Linear Characteristics 'Non-linear characteristics' relate to a varying amount of volume within a specifed period. The 'linear characteristic' always has the same volume. without additional symbols. The volume level is decided by the positioning of the 'dynamic motion' within the D-line system and the 'motion point' defnes the end level. There are various transcription methodologies. are divided into two basic forms: 'linear -' and 'nonlinear'. the pure symbol of a 'dynamic motion'. describes a Note that has 'linear characteristics'. The positioning of the symbol within the D-line system gives the indication of the relative level. just like the 'acoustic motions'.4 Motion Characteristics The 'motion characteristics'.4.

The differences can be referred to as an exponential or logarithmic increase or decrease in the amount of Motion Intensity. In the traditional way this special symbol describes a merging of more. in order to obtain the required type of volume curve. You can see the changing levels of volume on the envelope graph and how they are affected by the manipulation of the line faders. The dynamic structure of the 'acoustic motion' is infuenced by four successive cuts. a large amount of possibilities are available for the manipulation of the dynamic architecture of the sample. The resulting wavelike course of motion can be detected in the adjacent envelope graph. Based on this feature each type of 'non. directly successive pitches without a pause. Logarithmic decresing Logarithmic increasing Exponential decreasing Exponential decreasing The variations can not be simplifed by cutting techniques like the instrumental course. 'transformer'. based on the graphical waveform. As a result. b 4. intensities get determined. the sound material is divided into four sections the audible result can be read in principle. you identify that the strengths fow into each other. The fader must simultaneously be moved with both. Due to the positioning of the individual 'dynamic motion' within the system line. index fngers and thumbs. Of course it is also possible to combine all the individual variants.uniform motion' can be described in every detail. Video For that you start in an open signal and play parallel to the 'acoustic motion': 'close'.5 Grouping By switching from all these different cutting techniques in one or more 'acoustic motions'. 'transformer' and 'open' the predetermined time value of a quarter. A few acoustic demonstrations will be shown in the examples. A popular form of such groups in turntablism is the “3-click fare". Depending on the combinations and numbers of curves the result different types of waveforms that lead to an interesting sound output. Other forms of 'nonuniform motion characteristics' can be characterized with the aid of the slur for the transcription. .The 'non-linear decrease' or increase of the motion intensity is an irregular form of volume change within the specifed speed. see. which you can hear during fader movements. Using the slur.

to show how this is done.0. Combination The last chapter was about the connection of 'dynamic -' to 'acoustic motions' – which forms the basis of playing music with this instrument as we saw in the video examples. The illustration of the graphical waveform helps to recognize the resulting acoustic consequence. as well as the breakdown.3 s). 5. which could still be broken down with the aid of the remaining fngers in another special playing techniques. The waveform visualizes the material and at the same time the necessary -anatonic stages. the fourth the transient (0.0. This allows a simplifed representation of a fxed sequence of certain cutting techniques. To illustrate this in an example.0.3 . reveals the abbreviation of this 'grouping' by a single symbol which is referred to as double dotted close. With that we create basic requirements to adapt the notation model to the original sound material. Therefore it is also possible for a professional Tonspieler to hear and identify sectional groups.The notational representation. . We start with following requirements: At a rate of 75 bpm the bass drum and the subsequent snare have a total duration of one-eighth – so each is 1/16 beat long. As discussed. The third stage defnes the transient effect of the snare (0. which can be seen based on the breakdown. Once again we put the same action on crossfader. regardless of the sound material.4 s). We will now examine one of these techniques. It helps to draw dots above the symbol. As you can see below there are further variations of groups. "beat-cutting".are identifed. some beat-cutting patterns will be presented in more detail. Like a melody arises from the sequence of cuts a "tonal movement unfolding in time". Based on the volume you can compare the shaping principle of 'groupings' in some way with the development of musical patterns.2 s).1.0. Notation Waveform The frst -anatonic stage. which produces a unique sound. Type and arrangement of the individual audio segments may differ. a Tonspieler can slip into different acoustic roles.refers to the transient effect of the bass drum (0 . depending on the source audio and playing techniques. Video Each of the performed motions on the control disk corresponds to a 'cutting technique'. We also illustrated the techniques with pictures of the notation and resulting sounds. Beat-cutting could be described as percussion since it works with a bass drum and snare as source material.2 .1s). the second marks the decay process of this segment (0. to shorten the cuts. These 'groupings' are the merger of all the prior discussed techniques. but this time in correspondence with a 4-2-3-4 group of acoustic motions.

a typical beat structure is created.By clicking on the following notation you can see several videos of such performacnes. Notation Waveform .to play the bass drum and snare in time (in rhythm).When the player uses -dynamic motions.

controllerism) one-time motion on the control disk or fader theoretical and methodological framework for creating a new notation system for sample-based music. exponential. Patricia & Timothy Werner.Chronology of Turntablism TechniquesDownload -Abstract Techniques Lexicon.g. direction. movement of the fader or rotary dial to change the intensity of applied audio effects (e.. which lines and spaces of the staff represents a different musical pitch compared to the classical music notation word creation to name the combination of turntable.start' (Eton) transcription method to to visualize the 'anatonic stages' of the sound material line structure of the 'acoustic motion related to the 'anatonic stages' of the sound material indicates the connected time axis of the 'anatonic stages' of a pattern of 'acoustic motions' end position of the 'acoustic motion'. sustain) of the sample preassigned start position of the 'acoustic motion' related to the 'anatonic course' of the sound material transcription technique to visualize & organize the 'anatonic stages' of the sound material fader gesture to 'close & open' the audio signal fader gesture to 'close' the audio signal a device (similar to a record) to play the sound material general term to turn on and off the sound by using the fader symbol to indicate the execution of a predefned number of 'dynamic motion'' on a 'acoustic motion' playing technique on the crossfader linefader or crossfader movements to change the volume (i. Videos & Downloads Lecture -Theory of Motions. logarithmic) structure of a motion measured by speed. rate.panorama-. volume) of a motion notational symbol used to indicate the fnal intensity of a motion characteristic fundamental principles of a composition in Theory of Motions duration (music) of a motion forward motion of the control disk forward & backwards motion of the control disk on the assumptation that both single motions are similar in time value and speed fader gesture to 'open' the audio signal fader gesture to `open & close' the audio signal movement of the panoramic (panning) dial to spread the sound across the stereo feld. symbol to indicate the execution of an 'acoustic motion' concludes on the 'anatonic end' (Note) or '.. for the most part to turn on or off sound).6. Renè Kockisch.2011 Performance 1 Performance 2 Download . Hagen Schultze and Prof. Glossary acoustic motion anatonic brace anatonic colours anatonic course anatonic curve anatonic end point anatonic stages anatonic start point Anatonie close & open motion close motion control disk cut cut brace cutting technique dynamic motion variable principle effects motion Eton Etonote fader fading technique frequency motion groups of motion hamsterswitch hand mode integral motion marker point motion characteristic motion criteria motion direction motion intensity motion point motion types Motion Value Note Noteton open motion open&close Motion panning motions parameter motions release mode reverse transformer S-Notation single motion Theory of Motions tonal principle Tonspielzeug Transformer types of motion movement of the vinyl or control disk (changing the speed or direction) to change the pitch of the sound. distortion). mixer & laptop as a musical instrument special fader gesture to cut the audio signal fundamental principles of a composition in Theory of Motions 7. general term of acoustic-. Many thanx to Dan Leach. Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen.com This work is dedicated to my family and god. principle of arrangement. Karlheinz Stockhausen. Ivo Wojcik. related to the 'anatonic stages' different areas (attack. Ronald Kalkowski.(psd fle) More videos on my Youtube channel or www. means that all lines and spaces of the staff determine feasible levels of 'motion intensity' the player fnd useful for composition purposes. backwards motion of the 'control disk' backwards & forward motion of the 'control disk' under assumptation that both 'single motions' are similar in time value and speed a device for gradually increasing or decreasing the level of an audio signal playing technique on the line-fader movement of the fader or rotary dial to cut or boost certain frequencies predefned arrangement of motions this option on the mixer lets you reverse the crossfader usage direction. reverb.e.effects motion playing mode in which the hand conducts the physical movements on the record special fader gesture to 'cut' the audio signal music notation for sample based performance (turntablism. intensity and characteristic refers to forward or backwards motion of the record or opening or closing of the fader refers to the level of intensity (speed.frequency-. delay.2011 Download -S-notation Font. 3+3 = 7* . Martin Baumgartner. playing mode in which the hand conducts the 'acoustic motion' combination of Note & Eton or Eton & Note on the assumptation that both single motions are similar in time value and speed marker point on the surface of the control disk classifcation of paths of motion (linear.@ NI Session (Berlin) 2015 Explanation -Turntable = Musical Instrument.dynamic-.alexandersonnenfeld.