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Illumination

Individual project
Course code : EEE 5212
Name : Yik Wei Kian
ID : I11008341

Presentation will covered the topic of:


Explain what is illumination.
Explain the principle of producing artificial

light.
Law of illumination.
lighting schemes
Explain what is floodlighting .
Working principle of types of lamps(watch
videos).
Comparison of different light source

What is illumination?
Illumination is the

phenomenon when the


material was heated up above
a certain temperature, the
material will start radiating
the energy in the form of
light.

The principle of producing


artificial light
Increase the temperature of body or gas

above average room temperature (23


Celsius).
begins to radiate energy in the surrounding
medium in the form of electromagnetic waves
of various wavelengths

electromagnetic waves of various wavelengths

A typical human eye will respond to wavelengths from


about 390 to 700nm

The radiant energy depends on the temperature of the


hot body.
when the temperature is

low, the radiated energy is


in the form of heat waves
only (feel hot only)
After certain temperature is
reached, the radiated
energy is in the form of heat
waves and light wave (feel
hot and bright)
As the temperature is
increased, the wavelength
of visible radiation goes on
becoming shorter.

The light wave travel with the velocity

approximately to 3x10 ^8m/sec.


Red radiation wavelength = 390 nm
Violet radiation wavelength = 700nm
For expressing wavelength of light, another
unit called Angstrom Unit
1 A.U. = 10-8 cm= 10-10 cm
Hence red = 3900 x 10-10 cm
Violet = 700 x 10-10 cm

Law of illumination
There are two laws of Illuminations :
a. Law of intensity
b. Law of Inverse Squares
c. Lamberts Cosine Law

Law of
illumination
a. Illumination

(E) is directly
proportional
to intensity (I)
b. Law of
Inverse
SquaresIllumination(E
) inversely
proportional
to square of
distance (D2)

Law of
illumination
c. Lamberts Cosine

Law :
illumination(E)
measured will
vary with respect
to the cosine of
the angle between
the optical axis of
the source and the
normal to the
detector.

lighting schemes
Direct lightning
Indirect lighting
Semi- direct lighting
Semi indirect lighting
General diffusing system

1) Direct lightning
Mean the light from the source fall

directly to the object or surface that


illuminated.
With the help of shade , globe and
reflector
Emit the light downward or upward but
not to side
Mostly use for suspended illumination
such as table or floor lamp

The illumination will

decrease due to dirty of


bulb or reflector.
efficient but glare of
lamp cause harsh
shadow.

2) Indirect lighting
Indirect lighting provide
Lighting provided by reflection

usually from wall or ceiling surfaces.


The lamp either placed behind or in
suspension non transparent bowl
The light thrown upward of ceiling
and which the light is distributed all
over the room by reflection diffusion

shadow less illumination


suitable used in drawing
office and workshop

3) Semi- direct lighting


The system send most of light

directly downward to working plane


and considerable amount reach
upward ceiling wall.
The division about 30 % upward and

45 % downward.

The system suitable for the

room with high ceiling room.


The shadows produced by
semi direct lighting are
diffused and do not cause
discomfort for glare of light.

4)Semi indirect lighting


The system send most of

light directly upward to


ceiling wall for diffuse
reflection and the rest
reach downward directly to
working plane.

5) General diffusing system


When the light is completely

enclosed or concealed with the


help of globe and ceiling panel.
The light is diffused since pass
through the glass or plastic.

The light distribution are

equally

what is floodlighting ?

Floodlighting is a broad-beamed, high-intensity

artificial lights of powerful projector used to


illuminate large surface area.
Used in football court, concert, stadium and other
places where the large surface area need to
illuminated.
The purpose is to enhance the beauty of building,
advertising purpose, industrial and commercial
purpose

Working principle of types of


lamps(watch videos)
Incandescence lamp (3 minutes)

Discharge lamp :
Fluorescent lamps (1.22 minutes)
Sodium Vapour lamp (2 minutes)
mercury vapour lamp(3 minutes)

Comparison of different light source


1. Incandescent lamp :

- take short time to start, light up


instantaneously and off momentarily if
cut off supply.
- light color is near to naturally.
- low installation cost but high operating
cost.
- Able to used in DC or AC supply
- switching frequency does not effect the
life span of lamp.

2. Discharge lamp (Fluorescent lamps)


Need a little time to start (take I sec or more).
When supply is restored lamp go off and

restart(blinking).
The color of fluorescent is produced by
various phosphor coatings.
Initial installation cost is high but operating
cost is low.
Frequency switching will effect lifespan of
lamp.

3. Sodium Vapour lamp


Take long time to start about 5 to 6 minutes.
The lamp turn off and cannot restart until

recovery the supply voltage fall to its normal


value.
The color of light is yellowish and produce color
distortion.
Initial installation cost is high, operating cost
lesser than filament lamp but higher than
fluorescent lamp.
Usually use at open space such as high way, road
side.

4. mercury vapour lamp


Take long time to start about 5 -6 minutes.
The lamp turn off and cannot restart until

recovery the supply voltage fall to its normal


value.
Initial installation cost is high , but operating
cost lesser than fluorescent lamp.
Stroboscopic effect(flashes of light) occur in
the light .
Usually use at open space such as high way,
car park.

References:
1. Laws Of Illumination Help for Electrical Energy Trans tutors .
2015. Laws Of Illumination Help for Electrical Energy Trans
tutors . [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.transtutors.com/homework-help/electrical-engineerin
g/electrical-energy-utilization/laws-of-illumination.aspx
. [Accessed 26 October 2015].
2. Types Of Lighting Schemes Help for Electrical Energy Transtutors . 2015. Types Of Lighting Schemes Help for
Electrical Energy - Transtutors . [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.transtutors.com/homework-help/electrical-engineerin
g/electrical-energy-utilization/types-of-lighting-schemes.aspx
. [Accessed 26 October 2015].

3. Floodlights | Lighting | Screwfix.com. 2015. Floodlights |


Lighting | Screwfix.com. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.screwfix.com/c/electrical-lighting/floodlights
/cat840908

4. Incandescent Lamps . 2015. Incandescent Lamps . [ONLINE]


Available at:
http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/rbf/CVonline/LOCAL_COPIES/RUSK
/IncLamps.html
. [Accessed 26 October 2015].
5. How Fluorescent Lamps Work - HowStuffWorks. 2015. How
Fluorescent Lamps Work - HowStuffWorks. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://home.howstuffworks.com/fluorescent-lamp.htm . [Accessed
26 October 2015].
6. High-pressure sodium vapor lamps for open and enclosed
luminaires | OSRAM. 2015. High-pressure sodium vapor lamps
for open and enclosed luminaires | OSRAM. [ONLINE] Available
at:
http://www.osram.com/osram_com/products/lamps/high-intensitydischarge-lamps/high-pressure-sodium-vapor-lamps-for-open-and
-enclosed-luminaires/index.jsp
. [Accessed 26 October 2015].
7. The Mercury Vapor Lamp - How it works & history. 2015. The
Mercury Vapor Lamp - How it works & history. [ONLINE] Available
at: http://www.edisontechcenter.org/MercuryVaporLamps.html .

Thank you