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Lab 6: Electrical Motors


K. (Now)


K. (Prim)
R. (Premier)


M. (Toey)


I. (Fah)

Objective: To build, understand and analyze an

electric motor
1. Background: Magnetic Field Produced by a Solenoid
It is known that magnetism is caused by the motion of electrons. Electric
currents, the flow of charged particles, are sources of magnetic fields.
With solenoids, loops of conductive wire, it is possible to generate an
electromagnet, which behaves similarly to a permanent magnet made of
Iron. In the diagram below, a current, I, flows through the solenoid. The
magnetic field produces at the central axis of the solenoid can be
estimated with:


where N is the number of turns, L is the length of the solenoid and


the permeability of free space (1.2566 X 10-10 N/A2).

In this lab, you will use a solenoid to create the prototype of a simple
motor. The magnetic field from a permanent magnet will interact with that
of a solenoid to produce a torque on the solenoid and initiate its rotation.

Copper wire
Two needles
One foam support
Universal stand and clamps


Vernier Magnetic Field sensor

Laptop with Logger Pro
Small permanent magnet
Sand paper

1. Making the solenoid:
a. Roll the copper wire around the permanent
magnet (use the magnet as a template to assemble the
solenoid). Make five turns. Take the permanent magnet out.
b. Use the extra wire on both extremes to make two
or three turns to hold the turns of the solenoid together (see
figure below).

c. Cut the wires at the extremes so they are no more

than 2 cm in length on both sides.
2. Assembling:
a. Stick the needles on the foam support separated
by no more than 4 cm.
b. Rub each end of the solenoid with the sandpaper
to make sure they have good electrical contact.
c. Stick each end of the solenoid to the holes of each
needle so the solenoid is suspended between the two needles.
3. Measuring the magnetic field and current
a. Connect the power supply to the LabQuest
interface and the interface to your computer. Open the power
amplifier control window and set it up to DC.
b. Connect the power amplifier, the current probe
and the needles as shown on the diagram on the board.
c. Turn on the power amplifier. Zero the current
probe when the voltage in the power amplifier is set to 0 V.
d. Apply a voltage of no more than 3 V. Check if you
have current in the circuit (should be no more than 0.6 A).
e. Record the current in the table.
f. Calculate the magnetic field in the solenoid with
the formula given in the background section. Record this value

in the table. The Length of the coil can be estimated with: L =

# of turns X thickness of the wire (assume the thickness of the
wire is 200 m)
g. Connect the magnetic field sensor to your
LabQuest. CAUTION: Do not bring the field sensor to a
close distance with the permanent magnet. Make sure
they are at least separated by 30 cm.
h. Hold the sensor using the clamp and the universal
stand. Zero the sensor when it is away from the coil.
i. Bring the sensor close (a few millimeters) to the
solenoid and record in the table the value of the magnetic
field. Make sure that the circular area of the sensor is parallel
to the circular area of the solenoid
4. Running the motor
a. Disconnect the current probe and connect the
power amplifier to the two needles.
b. Apply a voltage between 4-8 V.
c. Bring the permanent magnet close to the solenoid
and observe what happens.
d. Find an optimum position for the permanent
magnet in order to make the solenoid rotate for the longest
time. If you find a position in which the solenoid turns without
stopping, it is even better.
e. Record a video of the motor running
Voltage (V)

Current (A)

Mag. Field

Mag. Field

0.4 V

0.1957 A

1.2296 x 10-7 T

- 0.0423 mT

1. Is the magnetic field measured in agreement with the
calculated magnetic field?
Ans: No, they are not the same and so far to be the same.
2. Explain step by step why the solenoid keeps turning. Use
diagrams. In your explanation, include the forces and concepts that
are involved.
Ans: There are current flow through solenoid so the current
prosuces megnetic field around solenoid. So the magnetic field around the
selenoid same as magnetic field around the magnet.

source: T
3. Investigate and explain another type of electrical motor. Use
diagrams and mention the forces and concepts involved.
Ans: Series Motor, is a self-excited type of direct current motor. It
has the stator and rotor windings are connected in this motor. Series
motor has high starting torque, no load operation, and Poor Speed
Regulation. So, It is therefore used in starting heavy, industrial, high
torque loads such as cranes, cars and elevator.

4. The magnetic field sensor works due to the Hall Effect?

Investigate and explain what the Hall Effect is.
Ans: This effect happens when the conduction is in magnetic field
and has flow of current. So magnetic field makes current and charge
carrier moving in opposite way by insert transverse force though the
conduction then many of charge carriers stay on one side of the
conduction and another side also fulfill as negative charges. This action

creates voltage, which has relationship with magnetic field therefore we

can use this effect for measure the magnetic field.

The magnetic field that we calculated is not the same as the
magnetic field that we measured.
For the error, during this lab, when we try to make the solenoid
revolve but the solenoid is burn so it make the next turn to revolve is
difficult. You can see how the solenoid turns in this link below.