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Introduction

Agro-biodiversity

Agrobiodiversity is the subset of biodiversity.


Agricultural
biological
diversity

or
agrobiodiversity- or Agrodiversity for short
includes all components of biological diversity of
relevance to food and agriculture and all
components of biological diversity that contribute
to sustaining the key functions of agro-ecosystems.

Agrobiodiversity: genetic resources in


agro-ecosystems (land races, wild relatives
of cultivated plants, weed/invasive
species, animals in agroecosystems)

Agrobiodiversity is the component of biodiversity


that nurtures people and is nurtured by farmers and
farming communities
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Introduction
Agricultural biodiversity is a broad term that
includes all components of biological diversity of
relevance to food and agriculture, and all
components of biological diversity that constitute
the agro-ecosystem : the variety and variability of
animals, plants and microorganisms at the genetic,
species and ecosystem levels, which are necessary
to sustain key function of the agro-ecosystem, its
structure, function and process.
Agrodiodiversity and agrodiversity.
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Biodiversity and
agrobiodiversity

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Agro-biodiversity
Agro-biodiversity

Cultivated crop species and


farmers varieties
Domesticated livestock species
and breeds
Fish
Micro-organism
Insect species
Semi-wild flora and fauna of
agricultural importance
Related wild species of
cultivated crops and
domesticated livestock
Adaptation of agriculture
diversity to ecosystems
Indigenous knowledge skill and
technique associate with
diversity
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Introduction
Agrobiodiversity refers to all crops and animal
breeds, their wild relatives, and the species that
interact with and support these species, e.g.,
pollinators, symbionts, pests, parasites, predators,
decomposers, and competitors, together with the
whole range of environments in which agriculture is
practiced, not just crop lands or fields.
Agricultural biodiversity or, agrobiodiversity,
performs functions and delivers services that
sustain agriculture and the resources upon which
agriculture depends.
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Introduction

The concept encompasses

Intimate knowledge between people and


biodiversity, since the inception of agriculture about
12,000 years ago.

The genetic resources that are the essential living materials


of plants and animals.

Socially and culturally use the agro-resources.


Use of Indigenous, local community knowledge and
knowladge of women in managing biological
resources.
The term agrobiodiversity has also evolved only in
recent years.
Convention on Biological Diversity highlights the
agrobiodiversity as a key concern.

Edible plants and crops, including landraces, cultivars,


hybrids etc.
Livestock and edible fish or aquatic organisms;
Naturally occurring insect, bacteria and fungi than can
attack the pest and disease on plants and animals.
Agroecosystems components and types that are important
for productivity.
Wild resources of natural habitats and landscapes that
provides services.
Farmers traditional knowledge and culture.

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Vavilovs Centres of Origin

Vavilovs Center of Origin

THE CHINESE CENTERTHE INDIAN CENTERCENTRAL ASIATIC CENTER


THE NEAR EASTERN CENTER
THE MEDITRRANEAN CENTER
THE ABYSSINIAN CENTER
THE SOUTH MEXICIAN AND MAXICIAN CENTER
SOUTH AMERICIAN CENTER

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Components of Agrobiodiversity
It encompasses the variety and variability of living
organisms that contribute to food and agriculture in
the broadest sense, and that are associated with
cultivating crops and rearing animals within
ecological complexes. It comprises genetic,
population, species, community, ecosystem, and
landscape components and human interactions
with all these. It also includes many habitats and
species outside of farming systems that benefit
agriculture and enhance ecosystem functions.
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Plants

Component of Agro-biodiversity

Approximately 75,000 species of edible plants globally, but


7,000 species have been cultivated and collected for food.
3,000 species wild and domesticated are regularly exploited
as food, and 103 species contribute 90 % of wood plant
food supply.
Thousand of genetically distinct crop varieties have been
developed through evolution and human selection and
adopted to different environment and socioeconomic
needs.
genetic and population characteristics of traditional
varieties, breeds, and of related wild species, that are
important for human adaptation to socioeconomic and
environmental change.

Biophysical
Plants
Livestock
Insect and fungi
Organisms in soil
Natural habitats
Aquatic Organisms
Ecosystems
Organizational / Social
Management
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Home Garden

In Java, more than 600 crop species


in a single home garden

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Livestock

Insect and Fungi

About 40 species of mammals and birds are


recognized as domestic species, while wild relatives
of domestic livestock consist at least 35 species.
Thousand of genetically diverse breed of livestock.
A great varieties of breeds that have adopted to
local condition through natural evolution and
selection.
Domestic species and breeds provide approximately
40 % of the value of all food supply in the world and
power and fertilizing the crops.

Remarkable diversity of insect and fungi including


other organisms that is valuableto the productivity
of agroecosystems
Arthropods are most abundance and also has high
role in agroecosystem balance and significant
source of biodiversity.
High role in the disease and pest control.
Many kinds of fungi also contribute to the
functioning the agroecosystems and crop
productivity.
Mycorrhizae.

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Organism in soil

Natural habitats

Endless varieties of microbes (insect and fungi),


algae, protozoan and macroscopic organism.
Many more soil biota than that of plants and
animals.
Increase soil fertility through acceleration,
Only earth worm contribute the formation of
topsoil about 10-500 metric tons of soil per hector
per year.
Help nutrinting cycling, moisture and fertility of soil.
Species richness in soil increase ecosystem
complexity, quality and resilience to change.

Habitat and species outside farming systems that


can benefit agriculture, provide food sources, and
enhance ecosystem functions.
Mainly forest resources with high diverse tree
species.
Food, fiber, medicine sources and undomistacted
animals.
Both plant and soil health.
Source of genetic resources of jungle fowl,
important source of diversity for domestic chicken.

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Aquatic organism

Ecosystems

Aquatic organism or ecosystem both costrol and


fresh water.
Biological wealth in terms of diverse fish species
and ecosystem services.
Only in Brazil, more then 3,00 fresh water species,
and indo West pacific ocean estimated 1, 500 fish
species.
Aquatic organism are the significant part of the
world food.
Only fish make up an estimation of 17 % the animal
protein in the human diet.
See weeds are also the important component.

Diversity of Ecosystems-both within and outside of


the farms-Provide valuable services such as water
retention, nutrient cycling and harboring of
beneficial insects.
Microclimates.
These services are valuable for food production.
Agroecosystem diversity also reduced susceptibility
to major climate stress and pest and diseases
pressures.
Diversification of cropping systems clearly has
economic advantages as well, alleviating
dependency on given uniform crops and varieties.

Organizational / Social diversity

Management diversity

Called socio economic aspect.


Variation between particular farms.
Labor, households size, different resource
endowments of households and reliance on off
farm employment.
Age groups, gender in formworks, farming
resources.
Economic and political change.

Biological, physical and chemical methods of


management.
Not only components but also seasons.
Small farmers often adopt altering practices
according to rainfall.

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Values of agro-biodiversity

Food and livelihoods

As the basis of food security and survival. In Andean


region, indigenous community maintain and use of
3,000 varieties of potato from eight species.
In Papua New Guinea, farmers cultivate an
estimated 5,000 varieties of sweet potato.
Mostly Asia, Africa and Latin America often called
Mega diversity centers.
Major option of livelihoods, crop insurance; both
from production, recreation and benefit from
resources.

Food security
Livelihood
Intrinsic value
Economic value
Ecological value
Genetic value
Social value

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Intrinsic

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Economic Value

Over centuries people, have employed numerous


practices to use and enhance agricultural
biodiversity.
Maintained or extended the diversity of crops,
livestock, trees and wild-flora and fauna on their
farm and in surrounding habitat.
Undertake own innovation, selection,
experimentation and exchange of seeds and
varieties adapting their practices to diverse
environment.
This traditional and dynamic forms of innovation
and management produced an immense diversity of
plants.
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Agrobiodiversity has also proven valuable for largescale commercial production, scientific and
technological discoveries for crop improvement,
and for increasing economic return in farming.
Wild and domesticated plant species are also
valuable sources for medicines, which generate
considerable income.
Add value from 1 billion $ to 3.2 billion from
soybean per year.
Wild species contributed about $340 million per
year in yield and disease resistance.
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Ecological and Genetic value

Social-cultural value

Ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and


retention that are derived from spatial and
temporal biodiversity via rotations, fallowing, and
tillage; and landscape-level interactions between
agricultural and non-agricultural ecosystems that
enhance resource availability for agriculture.
Control disease pest, ecological restoration, water
retention capacity, soil health maintenance,
resilience, risk reduction, health.
genetic diversity, access to germ plasma continue to
be vital for modern agriculture, plant breeding, new
method of bioengineering and biotechnology.

Agrobiodiversity in traditional systems is based on


the local knowledge of people that has accmulated
through experiences.
Local practices often associated with rich cultural
traditions and passed down generation to
generation.
Hopi indigenous people in North America, different
corn varieties are used in religious ceromony.
In India-Nepal several plant and crop species are
used in cultural and religious festival.

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Common feature of Agrobiodiversity in Traditional


farming systems
A rich in plants and animals species;
A wied diversity of niches in local environment
Reuse of organic residue to conserve biomass.
Enhance ecosystem functions such as pest, weeds
and disease managements.
Optimum use of locally availed natural and human
resources.
Cultural diversity and varying food performance
linked to agro biodiversity.

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Services
The worlds population of 6.3 billion people is
projected to grow to 9 billion by 2050.
Biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes affects
not just the production of food, fuel, and fiber, but
also a range of ecological services supporting clean
water supplies, pollination, habitats for wild
species, and human health.

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Benefit of the Agro biodiversity

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Loss of biodiversity

Increase agriculture productivity yields and food


security.
Built stability, robustness, and sustainability of
farming system;
Contribute to sound pest and disease management
Conserve soil and make better soil health
Diversify product and income generation
Reduced risk and increase efficiency of resource
use
reduced dependency, and increase nutritional
value.
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Loss of Diversity in Agriculture

Depletion of agrobiodiversity
Population growth, changes in food demand,
conversion to modern, high-input agriculture, land
use changes, and the globalization of agricultural
markets have caused rapid loss of agricultural
biodiversity, and of biodiversity in wild land
ecosystems.

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Deeply eroded throughout the world and common root


causes are linked to prevailing the paradigm shift,
conflicting policies, and inappropriate food production
practices.
Genetic diversity:
Genetic erosion among plant and animals species is
occurring at a rapid rate and is one of the major concerns
of agro biodiversity.
30 % of livestock are endangered.

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Crop

Country

Loss of agro biodiversity: Livestock

No of Varieties

USA

75 % of native food crops have been lost

Rice

Sri Lanka

75% of varieties are descended from common


stock
Down from 2000 varieties in 1959 to less than
100 today

Rice

Bangladesh 62% varieties are descended from common


stock

Rice

Indonesia

74% of varieties are descended from a


common stock

Wheat

USA

50% in 9 varieties

Potato

USA

75% crops in 4 varieties

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Loss of Diversity in Agriculture


Agro ecosystem services:
Loss of germplasm, seed stock and livestock varieties are
broader the losses of farming systems and landscapes.
Decrease in diverse farming system and increase
monoculture and agriculture
Increase vulnerability to peat and disease
A plant pest or disease can be devastating if it infest
uniform crop, especially in large, homogenous plantation.
Serious economic loss from monoculture varieties.
Massive loss of potato in UK , wine grape blight in USA and
France, late blight of potato threatening the potato in USA.
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In animal breeding genetic erosion is conceded by most


relevant stakeholders
Half of the breeds that existed in Europe at the turn of the century
have become extinct.
A third of the remaining 770 breeds are severely endangered
In Germany only 5 out of at least 35 indigenous breeds of cattle
remain.
The FAO predicts that world wide 28% livestock breed are
currently at risk of extinction.

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Examples of the devastating effects of epidemic as a


result of the diminishing genetic base:

The Irish famine of the 1840s due to potato blight


epidemic
The wheat less days of 1917 in the USA, due to stem rust
epidemics
The great Bengal famine of India in 1943 associated with
the brown spot disease of rice
The complete elimination in the mid-1940s of all oats
derived from the variety Victoria in the USA, due to the
Victoria blight disease
The southern corn leaf blight epidemic of 1970-71 on all
US maize hybrids carrying T type cytoplasmic male
sterility
In 1984 USA destroyed 18 million citrus trees
In 1970 Philippines and Indonesia damage the rice by
tungo virus epidemic.
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Loss of diversity in agriculture

Loss of agro-biodiversity: Plants

Disruption of insect diversity:


With loss of insect loss of ecosystem services such as
pollination, natural control pest and disease and nutrient
recycling.
Increase in cost, crop losses and declining of productive of
farm.
Chemicals harms the environment.
Soil Biodiversity loss
Unsustainable management of soil, loss productivity and
loss of crops.
Soil is being lost at a rate of 13-80 times faster than it being
formed.
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In the report on the State of Worlds Plant Genetic


Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) the FAO
describes as substantial loss in diversity of PGRFA including
the disappearance of the species, plant varieties and gene
complexes (genetic erosion)
World nutrition today is mainly based on mere 10 crops

For Germany it is estimated that compare to the first half of


the 20th century 75% of the cultivated plants in agriculture
and horticulture have disappeared; in some areas genetic
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erosion is even suppose to have reached over 90%

Loss of Habitat diversity

Human Impacts

Natural habitat loss in forest and wetlands. This happens


mainly extensification of farming system.
Using chemicals reduce the healthy habitat.

Effect of food security and nutrition


Displacement of local knowledge, culture and inequality
control of resources.
Paradigm and policies
Corporate influence
Market pressures and undervaluation
Demographic factors

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Wheat, Rice and maize cover half of the global energy needs for
nutrition from plants
7 further species sorghum, millet, potato, ,soybean, sugarcane
and sugar beet make for the most of the rest.

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Causes of biodiversity losses linked to agriculture


Problems
Erosion of genetic resources
(livestock and crop plants)
threatened food security
-increase risk
-Prevent future discoveries

Proximate cause
Underlying causing
Dominance of uniform HYVs Industrial/Green Revolution
monoculture, biases in breeding
paradigm that stress uniform
methods, weak conservation
monoculture
effort.
Inequitable distribution of
land and resources
Policies that support uniform
HYVs and chemicals (eg.
Subsides, credit policies, and
market standards)
Pressure and influence of
Erosion of insect diversity
Heavy use of pesticides, use of
seed/
agrochemicals
-increase susceptibility to pest monoculture/ uniform species,
companies and extension
and diseases
degrading
habitat
harboring
systems.
-ruins pollination and bio-control insects.
Trade
liberalization
and
market expansion policies that
neglect social and ecological
factors.
Lack
of
awareness
of
Heavy use of agrochemicals ,
Erosion of soil diversity.
agroecology and RD.
-leads to soil fertility
degrading
habitat
harboring Disrespect of local knowledge
insects.
-reduces soil fertility
Demographic Pressure
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Loss

of

habitat

Causes of agrobiodiversity loss?


Causes of agrobiodiversity loss are manifold and interrelated
The spread of modern, commercial agriculture and intensive, high input production
system features as prime diver of diversity decreased, putting native varieties and
breeds in risk
Native varieties and breeds are substituted with high yielding crops and breeds that
no longer need to be adapted to natural ( climate, soil etc) conditions since
machinery, irrigation, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals, homogenized habitats ( in a
both costly and environmentally harmful way)
In developing countries, a donor policy promotes the exotic breeds and cross
breeding and that threatens the survival of local breeds
Increasing demand for homogenous goods in agriculture
Modern, highly selective breeding methods contribute to agrobiodiversity loss too.
In livestock breeding artificial insemination, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer
are applied to reproduce only a few top performers; the genetic distance within
population is correspondingly reduced
Hybrid breeding, genetic use restriction technology ( terminator technology)
genetic engineering, cloning etc are used to reproduce genetically homogenous
and high performing livestock and plant varieties
International legal regimes have contributed to agrobiodiversity loss

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diversity Extensification in marginal lands,

Why is this loss problematic?


Genetic resources, along with soil and water, constitute the
foundation upon which agriculture and world food security are based
Genetic diversity found in domestic animal breeds and plant varieties
allows farmers and breeders to select stocks or develop new breeds
and varieties in response to changes in the environment threads of
diseases, new knowledge of human nutrition requirement, changing
market condition and social needs, all of which are unpredictable
The protection landraces and endogenous breeds is worthwhile
despite their lower yields because they often posses valuable traits
such as diseases and pasts resistance and better adapted to harsh
conditions and poor quality feed
Agrobiodiversity also protects against vulnerability too climate stress,
climate changes, insect pasts and diseases that can devastate uniform
crop
With farm animals too genetic diversity enables adaptation to
diseases, parasites or variations in the availability and quality of the
food
Thus, agrobiodiversity loss risks for individual farmers and can
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undermine the stability of agriculture

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