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BASIC

POWERSYSTEM

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Friends,HereIamcommittedtomakethe
materialsassimpleaspossible.Ipromiseto
minimizetheuseofschoolmathssothat
TransmissionLineParametersResistanceandInductance
bothTechnocratsandstudentswillbenefit
fromthearticles.Herethemainaimisto
developclearconcept.
The transmission lines are modeled by means of the parameters resistance, inductance, capacitance and
conductance. Resistance and inductance together is called transmission line impedance. Also capacitance and
concepts about the transmission line parameters. It will help us understand the transmission line modelling and

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Resistance
Theconductorsofthetransmissionlineshavesmallresistance.Forshortlines,resistanceplaysanimportantrole.As
the line current increases so do the ohmic loss (I2R loss). When the current exceed a certain value the heat
generatedduetoohmiclossstartstomelttheconductorandtheconductorbecomeslongerthatresultsinmore
sag. The current at which this condition of conductor is irreversible is called thermal limit of conductor. Short
TheresistanceRofaconductoroflength'l'andcrosssection'a'isgivenbytheformula

August(1)

R=

July(1)

June(2)
May(1)

Hereistheresistivityoftheconductormaterialwhichisaconstant.

April(3)

TransmissionlinesusuallyuseACSRconductorswithspirallytwistedstrands.Sotheactuallengthoftheconductoris

March(2)

about 2 % more than the ACSR conductor length. So from the above formula, the resistance of the line is

TransmissionLine
Parameters:
Capacitanceand
Cond...
TransmissionLine
Parameters
Resistanceand
Induct...
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proportionately2%morethantheconductorlength.Anotherimportantfactoristhatwhenthefrequencyofcurrent
increases the current density increases towards the surface of conductor and current density at the center of
conductorisless.Thatmeansmorecurrentflowstowardsthesurfaceofconductorandlesstowardsthecenter.This
iswellknownskineffect.Evenatpowerfrequency(60/50Hz)duetothisskineffecttheeffectivecrosssectional
areaofconductorisless.Againfromtheaboveequationitisclearthattheconductorresistanceismoreforhigher
frequency. So AC resistance of conductor is more than the DC resistance. Temperature is another factor that
influences the resistance of conductor. The resistance varies linearly with temperature. The manufacturers specify
theresistanceoftheconductorandoneshouldusethemanufacturersdata.

Inductance
Formediumandlongdistancelinesthelineinductance(reactance)ismoredominantthanresistance.Thevalueof
currentthatflowsinaconductorisassociatedwithanotherparameter,inductance.Weknowthatamagneticfieldis
associated with a current carrying conductor. In AC transmission line this current varies sinusoidally, so the

followers

associated magnetic field which is proportional to the current also varies sinusoidally. This varying magnetic field
inducesanemf(orinducedvoltage)intheconductor.Thisemf(orvoltage)opposesthecurrentflowintheline.This

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emfisequivalentlyshownbyaparameterknownasinductance.Theinductancevaluedependsupontherelative
conductor divided by the current flowing in the conductor. In the calculation of inductance the flux inside and
outsideoftheconductorarebothtakencareof.Theinductancesoobtainedistotalinductance.Nowonwardsifnot
The symbol L is used universally to represent inductance. L is measured in Henry (H). It is usually expressed in
smallerunit,milliHenry(mH).Manufacturesusuallyspecifyinductancevalueperkilometerormile.

It should be noted that, in all the formulas below inductance L is in Henry per unit length and not simply
Henry.Herefewcasesaredepicted.
ForasinglephaselineseethefigA.Theconductorinductanceis

7 ln(D/r ')
1

Therewasanerrorinthis

L=2*10

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r1

'=r *e(1/4)=0.7788r
1
1

L'=2*107ln(D/r2')

ThereforethetotalinductanceofsinglephasecircuitisLt =L+L'

Insulated
Flexible Bar

rearrangingweget

1
2

Lt=4*10

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Winding Wire

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Forthreephasecircuitwhosethreecircularconductorsareatthecornersofequilateraltriangle(FigB(i))then
theaboveformulaforsinglephasecaseisappliedhere.InthiscaseinductanceperphaseLisasbelow:
IftheDenominatorisrenamedasDs,then

L=2*107ln(D/Ds)

HereDs=r'

Forthreephasecircuitwhosethreecircularconductorsarearbitrarilyplaced(FigB(ii))andtheconductors
aretransposedthen,

L=2*107ln[(D1.D2.D3)/Ds]

Beginningfromthesinglephaseline,itisobservedthatallthethreeequationsforinductanceofaphase
conductoraresimilar.Rememberthatthisformulaforthreephaselineisnotvalidfornontransposedlines.
Observingtheformulaforsinglephaseandthreephaselineswecangeneralizetheformulaforinductanceofa
phaselineasintheform

L=2*107ln(D/Ds)
Where
D=GeometricMeanDistance(GMD)
InsinglephasecaseGMDissimplythedistancebetweenthecentersoftwoconductors.
InthreephasecaseforconductorsequidistantfromeachotherGMDisthedistancebetweenanytwophase
conductors.
Inthethreephasecase,forlineconductorsarbitrarilyplacedGMD=(D1D2D3)
InallthethreecasesDs =r'.
FromabovewecanconcludethatGMDislikeequivalentdistancebetweenconductors.Whentwoormore
conductorsperphaseareusedasinbundledconductorsthenGMDisrequiredtobecomputed.Here
distancesfromeachconductorinonephasetoeachconductorinotherphaseiscalculated.Ifforexampleina
singlephaselinethereare4conductorsinonephaseand3conductorsinotherphase(FigC)thenwewill
have12numbersofdistancesbetweentheconductors.Ihaveshownfourdistancesonly.

1/12

## GMD=[D1 .D2 ........D12 ]

sohereGMDisthe12throotofproductof12numbersofdistances.

GMRiscalculatedforeachphaseseparately.EachofthephasesmayhavedifferentGMRvaluesdepending
upontheconductorsizeandarrangement.GMRistobecalculatedwheneachphaseiscomprisedofmore
thanoneconductorperphaseasintheexampleabove.ForGMRcalculationwhentwoormore
conductorsperphaseareused,firstproductofallthegroups(onegroupforeachconductor)arefound
whereeachgroupisproductofpossibledistancesfromoneconductortootherconductorsincludingr'ofthat
conductor.IntheaboveexamplecaseGMRforlinewith3conductorsperphaseis
GMR=[(r1

## '.D .D )(r '.D .D )(r '.D .D )]1/9

12 13
2
23 21
3
31 32

ItshouldbenotedthatD12=D21,D13=D31andD23=D32

BelowistheformulatocalculateGMRforthebundledconductors(seeFigD)
Forthreeconductorsperphase(tripleconductor)

=(Ds*d2 )

GMR

=1.09(Ds*d3 )

GMR

HowtocalculateGMDofthreephaselinewithbundledconductors?ForanexampleseeFigEwherethreephase
bundles(tripleconductror)areplacedhorizontallyontransmissiontowers.Inthiscasethedistancebetweenthe
conductors(D)istakenasdistancebetweenthecentersofbundledconductors.
So,GMD=(D.D.2D)
Youcanalsocalculateconsideringthedistancefromeachbundledconductorsofonephasetootherconductorsof
twootherphases.ButtheGMDcalculateddoesnotvarysignificantlyfromoursimpleformabove.Thisisduetothe
factthatDisquitelargerthand.

ForACSRconductorsGMRisspecifiedbythemanufacturer.IfthisGMRiscalledDs.Forexampleiftwosuch
ACSRconductors(twinconductor)areusedinabundleforeachphase.TheGMRofthephaseconductor
conductor.
HenceifdisthedistancebetweenthecentersofthetwoACSRconductors,similartotheformulasin
FigD,

## 1/4 =(D .d)

s

GMR=[(Ds.d).(Ds.d)]

WewilldiscussInductanceandcapacitancefordoublecircuitafterdiscussinglinecapacitanceinnextarticle.

Usuallyitisnotalwayspossibletoarrangethephaselinesequilaterallyonthetowers.Tomaketheinductanceand
capacitanceofallthethreephasesnearlyequal,theconductorsaretransposed.Whichmeanstheconductors
exchangethepositionafter1/3rdoflinelength.Bytransposingtheinductanceandcapacitanceofallthethree
Althoughtheaboveformulasarederivedconsideringtransposition,thesameformulasarealsousedfornon
transposedcasestogetapproximatevalues.
Transmissionlinecapacitanceandconductance
Labels:PowerSystem

Anonymoussaid...
June30,2012at2:05PM
Anonymoussaid...
July20,2012at12:08PM
Anonymoussaid...
HowdoyoucalculateGMRforastrandedconductorifthemanufacturerhasnotprovidedit?Forexample,
canyoucalcuteGMRforAAAC(OAK)giventhatithas7strandsof4.65mmdiametereachandthatthe
overallnominaldiameteris14mmwithanominalCSAof118.9mm2?
September11,2012at1:10PM
NaseerZ.M.said...
throughtheentireconductorratherthanatthesurface,DCtransmissionlinestypicallyloselesspower
thanACtransmissionlines,sopowertransmissionequipmentismust.
February25,2013at5:44PM
Verynicesummery,thanks
March31,2013at12:37PM
Anonymoussaid...
havebeenmostwelcome.Anyway,thanksfortheinfo.
June7,2013at4:56AM
harigopalsaid...
veryusefulinfo.....especiallywhenurhvngurxmsnurgettingboredfromheavynlengthybook
August31,2013at11:42AM
manmohanEngineersaid...
toogoodeasyexplanationkeepupdude:)
November28,2013at5:29PM
manmohanEngineersaid...

goodoneeasygoinglanguagekeepupdude:)
November28,2013at5:30PM
kamalgodarasaid...
veryeasyexplanation.
November29,2013at2:01PM
Anonymoussaid...
July19,2014at1:30PM
PaulAmambiasaid...
greatstuff.veryclearlyexplainedandquiteeasytounderstand
October17,2014at6:14PM
DHARMENDRAKUMARsaid...
thanks
April22,2015at2:20AM
Anonymoussaid...
excellentexplanation
May23,2015at2:38PM
Anonymoussaid...
ForasinglephaselineseethefigA.Theconductorinductanceis

L=2*107ln(D/r1')
Verynice...
Buttheformulagiveinductancepermeter?Perkmorperyards...
Andisperconductororforthecircuit?
September17,2015at7:10AM
NitishKumarsaid...
veryveryclearlyexplained
thankusir
September21,2015at11:19PM
MoliehiNthaposaid...
Howdouusetemperaturetogetreactence
November14,2015at2:37PM
Anonymoussaid...
Themagneticpermeabilityisnotforair,itisjustforfreespace,isn't?
December15,2015at7:10PM
Unknownsaid...
HowtocalculateGMRofconductorswhen25diaofropesplacedon50diacentrealconductor.
BharatShah
January20,2016at7:08PM
sujeetbhartisaid...
Infractionalfrequencytransmissionsystemweonlytakeinductaceintoaccountnotcapacitancewhy?
February18,2016at9:48PM
DeribZewdesaid...
March15,2016at5:47PM
souravjanasaid...
March18,2016at1:19AM
currenthovesaid...
thanyoufortheclearexplanation!

April16,2016at11:06PM
currenthovesaid...
that'ssoclear!
April16,2016at11:37PM
Anonymoussaid...
June11,2016at2:21PM

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