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SIMPLE AND PHYSICAL

PENDULUMS
ENERGY OF OSCILLATING
SYSTEMS
LECTURE 43

Lecture Objectives
1. Identify the period and the frequency of
some oscillating systems namely spring
mass, simple pendulum and physical
pendulum.
2. Analyze the motion of an oscillating
system in terms of the above mentioned
quantities including energy.

Again for periodic motion

Amplitude
Maximum displacement from equilibrium ()
Period
Time for one cycle ()
Frequency
Number of cycles per unit time ()
Angular frequency
()

A
0

Period T = time it take for the bob to


swing from A back to A (or from A and
back to -A)

0
The time it reach from A to A is
T/2

0
Maximum speed is at x=0 (at
time T/4)

Simple pendulum
Idealized model
Point mass suspended
by a massless,
unstretchable string
Restoring force is equal
to the tangential
component of the net
force
Tension acts to make
the point mass move in

Simple pendulum

For a small angle


approximation,

Derived period, frequency and angular


frequency:

Sample Problem: A simple pendulum


Find the period and frequency of a simple
pendulum 1.000m long at a location where g =
9.800m/s2.
Solution:
From the definition of period and frequency:

Physical pendulum

Any real pendulum that


uses an extended body
with all the mass
concentrated at a single
point
Important quantities
Angular displacement
Distance of pivot point to the
center of gravity
Moment of inertia of the body
Total mass
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Physical pendulum

For a small angle


approximation,

Period, frequency and angular frequency:

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Simple Pendulum
(small amplitude)

Angular frequency

Physical Pendulum
(small amplitude)

Angular frequency
Frequency

Frequency
Period

Period

I came in like
A wrecking ball which is a solid metal
sphere (I = 2/5 MR2) has a mass M and
radius R. The chain connecting its
surface from the crane has a length
equal to twice its radius. Assume that
the angle of oscillation is small,
calculate the wrecking balls period as it
oscillates. Calculate its angular
frequency.
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Wrecking ball not anymore!


Now, consider a point mass M connected
into a string of length equal to thrice the
radius of the wrecking ball in the previous
problem. Calculate the period of its
oscillation as it moves with a very small
angle. Determine the ratio of its period
with the period of the wrecking ball.

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Energy in SHM

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Again Simple harmonic motion


In SHM, restoring force is proportional
(SHM)
to displacement.

Consider a spring-mass system

Non-constant acceleration,
SHM is a simple case of periodic motion
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Energy in SHM

No non-conservative force
Negligible mass of the spring

From the conservation of energy,

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Againspeed at any point

Maximum speed occurs at the equilibrium


position,

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Sample Problem: velocity, acceleration and energy in SHM

In the oscillation set-up with k = 200N/m, m = 0.50kg and the


oscillating mass is released from rest at x= A = 0.020m.
(a)Find the maximum and minimum velocities attained by the
oscillating body.
(b)Compute the maximum acceleration.
(c)Determine the velocity and acceleration when the body is
moved halfway to the center from its original position.
(d)Find the total energy, potential energy and kinetic energy
at this position.

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(a) The velocity vx at any displacement


x is:
The maximum velocity occurs when the body is
moving to the right through the equilibrium position,
where x = 0:

The minimum (most negative) velocity occurs when


the body is moving to the left through x = 0; with
value vmax = -0.40m/s
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(b) The maximum (most positive) acceleration


occurs at the most negative value of x; x = -A;
therefore since:

The minimum (most negative) acceleration is


-8.0m/s2; occurring at x = +A = 0.020m.

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(c) Halfway to the center from the initial position x =


A/2 = 0.010m; the velocity is:

Negative square root is chosen because the body


is moving from x = A toward x = 0. The
acceleration at this point is:
velocity and acceleration have the same sign
therefore the speed is increasing

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(d) The total energy at all points during the


motion is:

The potential energy at x = A/2 is:

The kinetic energy at x = A/2 is:

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Graphs of E, K and U versus displacement in SHM. The


velocity of the body is not constant, so these images of
the body at equally spaced positions are not equally
spaced in time.

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Exercise
Consider a Spring mass system. A block
of mass m is connected into a
lightweight spring of constant k.
Calculate the maximum displacement of
the block if at the position x from
equilibrium, the blocks Kinetic Energy is
equal to its Potential Energy. (Express in
terms of the given quantities)

Quiz

Quiz

Simple pendulum on Earth


(gE=9.80m/s2)

Simple pendulum on
Mars(gM=3.71m/s2)

(Hint: Take the ratio TM/TE to eliminate


L)

Consider a Spring mass system. A block


of mass m is connected into a
lightweight spring of constant k with
amplitude of oscillation A. How far from
the equilibrium position is the block
when its Kinetic Energy is equal to its
Potential Energy. (Express in terms of the
given quantities)

Simple pendulum on Earth


(gE=9.80m/s2)

Simple pendulum on
Mars(gM=3.71m/s2)

Gravity is weaker in Mars, so the period is longer.