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1|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

PROJECT REPORT
ON

FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

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CHAPTER-1page no
1. Introduction
1.1 Problem Definition-------------------------------------8
1.2 Purpose---------------------------------------------------8
1.3 Project Requirements----------------------------------8
1.4 Software Requirements--------------------------------8
1.5 Hardware Requirements-------------------------------8
CHAPTER-2
2. System Analysis
2.1 Identification of need---------------------------10
2.2 Feasibility study---------------------------------11
2.3 Project planning---------------------------------13
2.4 Project scheduling------------------------------14
2.5 SRS-----------------------------------------------17
2.6 Software engineering paradigm---------------26
2.7 Data Models (DFD & ER) ----------------------35
CHAPTER-3
3. System Design
3.1 Introduction--------------------------------------41
3.2 Database design---------------------------------41
3.3 User interface design---------------------------43
3.4 Test cases-----------------------------------------50

CHAPTER-4
4. Codings--------------------------------------------------52

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CHAPTER-5
5. Testing--------------------------------------------------------82
5.1 Testing strategies used-----------------------------83
5.2 Debugging-------------------------------------------84
CHAPTER-6
6.1 System Security measures
6.1 Database/data security------------------------------86
CHAPTER7
7.1 Cost Estimation Of The Project--------------------89
CHAPTER 8
8.1 Future scopes-----------------------------------------91
CHAPTER 9
9.1 Conclusion-----------------------------------------96

CHAPTER 10
9.1 Bibliography-----------------------------------------98

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CHAPTER-1

1. Introduction
1.1 Problem Definition
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Scope
1.4 Project Requirements
1.5 Software Requirements
1.6 Hardware Requirements

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1.1Problem Definition:
The old procedure of library and fees mainly based on the paper work, which
is very costly and lengthy and is done manually by ink and paper which is very slow.
It is required to Design of a Computerized Automated Fees & Library Management
System, to speed up and make it easy to use system for the job seeker and recruiters as
well.
1.2Purpose:
1). Fees and Library Management system supports the student admission and
registrationprocess, the maintenance of student personal.
2). Database maintained by this system usually contains the students personal,
Academic. It focuses on storing and processing (insertion, updating) by using this system.

1.3Project Requirements:
->Automate manual paper work done at the time of searching, issuing, returning
maintaining student account related to their fees payment and other task related fees and
library.
->Eliminate paper work and save time.

1.4:Hardware Requirements

Processor
Speed
Hard Disk
Key Board

: Intel Pentium and above version


: 1.20 GHz
: 20 Gb and above
: Standard

1.5:Software Requirements

Database
Tools
Application

: MySQL
: PHP, HTML, Java Script, j-Query,CSS, Ajax.
:Microsoft word,notepad++, Rapid PHP ,Dreamweaver

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CHAPTER-2

2. System Analysis
2.0RequirementsAnalysis
2.1 Information Requirements
2.2 Identification of need
2.3 Feasibility study
2.4 Project planning
2.5 Project scheduling
2.6 SRS
2.7 Software engineering paradigm
2.8 Data Models (DFD & ER)

System analysis is a process of collecting factual data, understand the process involved,
identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestions for improving the system
functioning. This involves studying the business processes, gathering operational data,
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understand the informational flow, finding out bottlenecks and evolving solutions for
overcoming the weaknesses of the system. Analysis also includes subdividing of complex
process involving the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes.
The major objectives of the system analysis are to find answers for each business process:
what is being done, why it is done and how it can be improved? It is more of a thinking
process and involves the creative skills of the system analyst. It attempts to give birth to
a new efficient system that satisfies the current needs of the user and has scope of the
future growth within the organizations constraints. The result of this process is a logical
system design. System analysis is an iterative process that continues until a preferred and
acceptable system emerges.
In business, system analysis and design refers to the process of examining a business
situation with the intent of improving it with a better procedures and methods. It is the
process of gathering and interpreting the facts, diagnosing problems and using the
information to recommend improvements to the system.
Since Fees & Library Management System isan intranetApplication based
systemsoftware that is why it has to be a user friendly and interactive one. When I started
to develop Fees & Library Management System, my first work was to understand the
system. So I discussed the system with my guide and tried to collect some meaningful,
factual data about the system which helped me to develop the system. Along with
collecting data, Iwas trying to identify the problems and its possible solution related to
the system to be developed. I designed a logical model of the system and broken the
complex process of the system into some other processes.

2.0: Requirements Analysis:


Requirement analysis is usually the first phase of software development project. The
purpose of this phase is to identify and document the exact requirements for the system.
The customer, the developer, a marketing organization or any combination of the three
may perform such study. In case where the requirements are not clear. E.g. for a system
that has never been done before, many interactions are required between the user and the
developer. The requirements at this stage are in end user form.
2.1 Information Requirements:

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There are four strategies available for determining information requirements.


They are as follows
1.

Asking.

2.

Deriving from the Existing System.

3.

Synthesizing from the characteristics of the Running System.

4.

Discovering from the experimentation with an Evolving System.

All the above strategies were used to certain for determining the information requirement
of the system. Though asking is not a very good strategy, still it is adopted for the purpose,
as the system had to develop within a very short span of time. Following the asking
strategy, which may be called as pure asking for determining the information
requirements of the system, several questions have to be asked to the user regarding their
requirement of the system. In this case, it is assumed that the users are able to structure
their problem space. After getting the information requirements the system if tried to
design in such a way that it may satisfy the needs of its users.
2.2 Identification of need:
Working of the Present System:In present, a non-online system manages the student record and allowed them or
called them for library and fees related process. Similarly employers can add by
administrator at the school. The school then find the defaulter student and
borrower which are not return their books in time and adding new fees structure
and new student to school .All thiswork is done manually by hand in bulk of files
which is hard to operate and hard to maintain.

Present scenario of a Student in a non-onlineManagement System:1. He or Shecomes to the Library/cash counter.


2. First of all, he/she takes registration form from reception.
3. Fills it and submitted to theoffice authorities
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4. Filled form is first checked and verified by an official person, if there is any mistake
then it is corrected.
5. After that he/she mustdeposit registration fees (if applicable) .
6. After that a registration no. is assigned to students by the office authorities.
7. Studentsget the receipt of fees deposition.
When there will be a defaulter whichdidnt pay the fees or didnt return the book
that he browed which matches the students profile,the official authorities called the
student or parents to solve the matter.

Present scenario of an official authority in a non-onlinesystem:1. Theofficial has to keep track and well maintain every transaction.
2. The official has to verify student profile manually that he is an active member
of the institution. If the student is an active member of the institution then the
official try complete the task for which the student comes to official.

Disadvantages of Present System:1. Require much man power i.e. much efforts, much cost and hard to operate
andmaintain.
2. Since, all the work is done in papers so it is very hard to locate a particular
Student/employer record when it is required.
Proposed System:1. It is automated computerized web based software system.
2. It uses latest technologies like PHP and MY SQL.
3. It is easy to operate.
4. Attractive User Interface
5. Searching is dynamic, easy and fast

2.3Feasibility study

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A feasibility study is undertaken to determine the possibility or probability of


either improving the existing system or developing a completely new system. It helps to
obtain an overview of the problem and to get rough assessment of whether feasible
solution exists. This is essential to avoid committing large resources to a project and then
repent on it later.
After studying the proposed system thoroughly and the initial investigation is
done, we are in a state to determine exactly how the institute system will be looked like
by defining all the expected performances. Thus, a feasibility study comes into play in
order to select the best system which will fulfill well the performance requirements. The
feasibility study basically entails
Identification
Description
Evaluation of the institute system
Selection of the best system to fulfill the requirements.

If we carry out the feasibility study thoroughly, it will become convenient for us, on
the part of the developer to design and implement the system with least effort.
In fact, many feasibility studies are disillusioned by both the developers as well
as the users. When for the first time, the feasibility document is being prepared; the
developer reaches a position that he or she can almost depict the true picture of the
system. Basically, the feasibility study aims to overlook the confusion occurred during
the system development. It tends to answer three obvious main questions:
1) Is there any better way to accomplish which will more effectively fulfill the
users requirement?
2) What will be the additional cost that will be incurred /or saving in pursuing
that particular alternative/those alternatives?
3) Which one will be recommended?
A better system need not necessarily the biggest one or will be most visible in
the business environment. It actually aims to fulfill well the users requirements and
expectations.

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The feasibility study is needed to


(1) Answer the question whether a new system is to be installed or not?
(2) Determine the potential of the existing system.
(3) Improve the existing system.
(4) Know what should be embedded in the new system.
(5) Define the problems and objective involved in a project.
(6) Avoid costly repairs at a later stage when the system is implemented.
(7) Avoid crash implementation of a new system.
(8) Avoid the Hardware Approach i.e. getting a computer first and then deciding how
to use it.

There are three aspects in feasibility study portion of the preliminary


investigation.

(1) Technical feasibility.


(2) Economic feasibility and
(3) Operational feasibility of the project.

(1) Technical Feasibility

Technical Feasibility determines whether the work for the project be done with
the present equipment, current procedures, existing softwares technology and
available personnel?

If new technology is needed then what alternatives will be needed in the present
structure and work ethos?

This will require a close examination of the present system.

The technical feasibility should ask questions related to:

1) Adequacy of available technology.


2) Adequacy of hardware.
3) Available of computer.
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4) Operating time and support facilities, etc.


Technical feasibility determines whether the technology needed for the proposed
system is available and how it can be integrated within the Fees & Library Management
System and Technical evaluation must also assess whether the existing system can be
upgraded to use the new technology and whether the Fees & Library Management
System has the expertise to use it.
(2) Economic feasibility:
Economic feasibility looks at the financial aspects of the project. Economic
feasibility concerns with the returns from the investments in a project. It determines
whether it is worthwhile to invest the money in the proposed system. It is not worthwhile
spending a lot of money on a project for no returns. To carry out an economic feasibility
for a system, it is necessary to place actual money value against any purchases or
activities needed to implement the project.
The Fees & Library Management System plans to acquire the necessary hardware
and software requires for the system and there is no hindrance whether economical or
otherwise towards its purchase. A brief description of the hardware and software required
in the system is given later in the report.
(3) Operational feasibility:
Operational feasibility covers two aspects. One is the technical performance
aspect and other is the acceptance within the Fees & Library Management System.
Operational feasibility determines how the proposed system will fit in the current
operations and what, if any job restructuring and retraining may be needed to implement
the system.
In the system operational feasibility checks, whether the user who is going to use
the system is able to work with the softwares with which the system is coded and also
the mind of the user going to use the system. If the user does not understand or is able to
work on the system further development is of waste.
2.2.1 Feasibility Report:
The basic outcome of the feasibility study is the feasibility report .The feasibility
report is given to the management in order to evaluate the impact of the proposed changes
on the area(s) .It is nothing but a formal document for the management .It should be brief
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enough and preferably written in a simple form (non-technical) so that anybody can
understand it.
For the feasibility report, no standard format is followed. The analyst usually
makes it in a format which suits the particular system as well as the management. But,
generally the feasibility report begins with the summery of all the findings and the
recommendations. The summery information depicts the highlight of the proposed
system .The management reviews it later on. The feasibility report basically contains the
followings:
Cover letter presents briefly the nature, general findings and the recommendations
to be considered.
Table of Contents gives the various parts and their respective locations on the
report.
Overview is the narration of the purpose and scope of the project. It also includes
the name of the person who did the feasibility study, when it begun, and the other
necessary information that explains well how the study is being carried out.
Detailed finding gives the method present in the manual system or the proposed
system (new system).The system efficiency as well as the operating costs is also
given here.
Economic justification contains the study of economic comparisons and an
overview of the cost estimation .A return on investment analysis is also included
here.
Recommendations suggest the most beneficial and cost-effective candidate
system.
Conclusion gives the other remarks after having the entire study.
Appendixes documents all the memos and the data compiled during the
investigation. The appendix is added at the end of the feasibility report.
2.1.2- Conclusion:
The above observations made from the feasibility study recommends that the
proposed computerized Fees and Library management system is feasible for its
development and implementation.

2.4Project Planning

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Once a project is found to be feasible, software project managers


undertake project planning. Project planning is undertaken and completed before any
development activity starts. Project planning consists of the following activities:
1. ESTIMATION: The following project estimates have to be estimated.
(i) Cost How much is it going to cost to develop the software?
(ii) Duration How long is it going to take to develop the product?
(iii) Effort How much effort would be required to develop the product?
The effectiveness of all other planning activities such as scheduling and staffing
are based on the accuracy of these estimations.
2. SCHEDULING: After the estimations are made, the schedules for manpower and
other resources have to be developed.

2.5Project Scheduling:
PERT CHART
The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly
abbreviated PERT, is a model for project management designed to analyze and represent
the tasks involved in completing a given project. It is commonly used in conjunction with
the critical path method or CPM.
PERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project,
especially the time needed to complete each task, and identifying the minimum time
needed to complete the total project.
PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and scheduling of large
and complex projects. It was developed for the U.S. Navy Special Projects Office in 1957
to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris nuclear submarine project. [1] It was able to incorporate
uncertainty by making it possible to schedule a project while not knowing precisely the
details and durations of all the activities. It is more of an event-oriented technique rather
than start- and completion-oriented, and is used more in projects where time, rather than
cost, is the major factor. It is applied to very large-scale, one-time, complex, non-routine
infrastructure and Research and Development projects. An example of this was for the
1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble which applied PERT from 1965 until the opening of
the 1968 Games.
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This project model was the first of its kind, a revival for scientific management,
founded by Frederick Taylor (Taylorism) and later refined by Henry Ford (Fordism).
DuPont Corporationscritical path method was invented at roughly the same time as
PERT.

GANTT CHART:

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A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts
illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a
project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown
structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e., precedence
network) relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current
schedule status using percent-complete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown
here.
Although now regarded as a common charting technique, Gantt charts were
considered revolutionary when they were introduced. In recognition of Henry Gantt's
contributions, the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal is awarded for distinguished achievement
in management and in community service. This chart is used also in Information
Technology to represent data that have been collected.
A common error made by those who equate Gantt chart design with project design
is that they attempt to define the project work breakdown structure at the same time that
they define schedule activities. This practice makes it very difficult to follow the 100%
Rule. Instead the WBS should be fully defined to follow the 100% Rule, and then the
project schedule can be designed.
Although a Gantt chart is useful and valuable for small projects that fit on a single
sheet or screen, they can become quite unwieldy for projects with more than about 30
activities. Larger Gantt charts may not be suitable for most computer displays. A related
criticism is that Gantt charts communicate relatively little information per unit area of
display. That is, projects are often considerably more complex than can be communicated
effectively with a Gantt chart. Gantt charts only represent part of the triple constraints
(cost, time and scope) of projects, because they focus primarily on schedule management.
Moreover, Gantt charts do not represent the size of a project or the relative size of work
elements, therefore the magnitude of a behind-schedule condition is easily miss
communicated. If two projects are the same number of days behind schedule, the larger
project has a larger impact on resource utilization, yet the Gantt does not represent this
difference.
1.Initial Investigation

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(30 hrs)
2.Feasibility Study
(30 hrs)
3.System Analysis
(100 hrs)
4.System Design
(250 hrs)
5.Coding
(360 hrs)

6.Testing
(30 hrs)

7.Implementation
(20 hrs)
8.Post Implementation
(30 hrs)
9.Finish

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2.6 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS


SPECIFICATION
FEES & LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
2.6.1. Introduction
Fees & Library Management System is the process of maintaining library and fees
payment systemusing electronic resources, in particular the intranet. Institution and
official have moved much of their different process online so as to improve the speed by
which student details and different transections can perform smoothly. Using database
technologies, and fees allotment process and search engines, employers can now make
fees payment in a fraction of the time previously which is not possible. Using aFees &
Library Management System may potentially save the employer time as usually they can
take to perform in the several task of library like keep track of every book of library and
addition of new book and the list of borrower and list of that were not return and penalty
because of late return and deletion or addition of new member to the library and as well
as keep track of every student that are under the institution which are not paid their
monthly fees and keep track of every penny that comes from the students and maintain
the record in database .
The intranet, which helps the institute to add many numbers of terminals to the main
server and can get immediate feedback, has become the major source of potential
fordifferentprocess of the institute. And the server keeps all the records in database and
gives access to the authorities to different official and member of that institution.
In terms of institution theintranet has radically changed their existing function from the
organizational and their member's perspective. Conventional methods of library &
finance department processes are readily acknowledged as being time-consuming with
high costs and limited geographic reach. However, this process through Local host
provides coverage and ease. Likewise, the speedy integration of the intranet into different
processes is primarily recognized due to the intranet's unrivalled communications
capabilities, which enable employee and member for communications through this
system.
The first step for admin to add librarian and official is to register themselves
directly to the system through a custom registration form. After successfully registering
themselves, member can update their profile, view employers profile, search book, add
book collect fees etc. Similarly student firstly registered themselves and then they have

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to pay the fees.After that they can access the facilities etc.Administrator of the system
manages the student and employers account and introduce fees and penalties.

2.6.1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this SRS document is to specify software requirements of the Fees
& Library Management System for the convergence software solution. It is intended to
be a complete specification of what functionality the system application provides. The
main purpose of the system is to automate the task carried out by different peoples for
finding books, collect fees, and different process of the institution. Specific design and
implementation details will be specified in a future document.

2.6.1.2 Project Scope


This projects aim is to automate the system, pre-checking the inclusion of all
book, students and feesautomatically. These help the librarian to perform every task of
the library and also help the finance department solve their problems. The data used by
the system is stored in a database that will be the center of all information held about
student and employers and the base for the remainder of the process after the initial
registration has been made. This enables things to be simplified and considerably
quickened, making the everyprocess of the school involved easier. It supports the current
process but centralizes it and makes it possible for decisions to be made earlier and easier
way.

2.6.1.2.1 Goals
The main goal of the system is to automate the process carried out in the
organization(School) with improved performance and realize the vision of paperless
libraryand finance application(for students) searching etc. Some of the goals of the
system are listed below:

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Manage large number of students/employers/fees/books details.


Manage all details of books/penalty/fees/memberthat isregistered.
View all the details of the student, books, fees and employers.
Create the statistical reports to facilitate the finance department work.
Reduce the work load of the official staff for every process of library and
finance should be very effective rather than direct methods.
Activities like modification, deletion of records should be easier.

2.6.1.2.2 Objectives of the Proposed System:


The main objective of FEES & LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is to develop
a system through which a user/student can search various books for his/her and also
borrow them. Similarly Employers need to be registered in the system. After that the
employers can have the permission to make the transaction of library and finance.
Similarly they can view all details too.
The Fees & Library Management System is a package to be used by institute to improve
the efficiency of school process. The Fees & Library Management System to be
developed benefits greatly the members. The system provides book catalogue and
information to members and helps them find and borrow the book from library. The
Admin and employers can keep the book catalogue updated all the time so that the book
seekers get the updated information all the time.
The aim of the proposed system is to address the limitations of the current system. The
requirements for the system have been gathered from the defects recorded in the past and
also based on the feedback from users of previous metrics tools. Following are the
objectives of the proposed system:

Reach to students.One of the important objectives of the Fees & Library


Management System to is communicated with all the book seekers and employers.

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Reducing time in activities. Reduce the time taken to process the


applications/registration of book seekers/employers/fees payer, view the
book available in the library by the book seekers, view the information of
student by employers, verify and view student profile, inform them for
the fees etc.
Centralized data handling. Transfer the data smoothly inside and between
different branches of the school involved and handle the data centralized
way.
Paperless Booksearching, Feesprocess, employee searching defaulter
viewing with reduced manpower. Reduce the manpower needed to
perform all the job libraryprocess, Fees process and administration task
by reducing the paper works needed.
Cost cutting. Reduce the cost involved in the library and fees process.
Operational efficiency. Improve the operational efficiency by improving
the quality of the process.

2.6.1.3 Benefits of the system


As with most real world activities, there are numerous benefits to using a software
system for Fees and Library management system. The most apparent to this project is the
unification of the entire process. Another benefit of a software system is the use of a
central database. This database is the basis for all actions in the system and can be trivially
updated and used to aid in all of the systems processes, meaning all of the required
information is stored in one central location and thus is easily accessible. This is a far
more reasonable storage method than a paper-based file system, where the time of
traveling to and physically searching the records for the required information could be a
burden. Human error could also be a factor in that mistakes could be made in the filing
process which would not occur in a well written database system and mistakes or changes
on physical records can be messy to correct. Software systems are also much faster at
performing certain tasks than humans, meaning that time can be saved performing
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processes. This also means that these tasks can be done solely by the system, freeing up
those involved to perform more important tasks. In the long term, if methods or minor
details concerning the admissions process at department changes, this can be reflected in
potentially minor changes to the code of the system, to retrain employees rather than
having regarding the new practices.

2.6.1.4 Overview
SRS will include two sections.
Overall Description will describe major components of the system,
interconnection and external interfaces.
Specific Requirements will describe the functions of actors, their role in the
system and constraints.

2.6.1.4.1 Overall Description:

Figure 1: Model of the System

Employer

Local server

Student
Reporting

Database

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Administrator

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2.6.2 Memory Constraints


Hardware memory: The growth of university is unpredictable; to resolve the
future problems occurs while enhancing the system is controlled by larger memory as
possible. So the memory constraint in the server side is extended up to 500GB.

2.6.3 Site Adaptation requirements


No site adaptation is necessary in this project. Because theFees & Library
Management System is portable. The entire system is transported to wherever it is
needed. No external dependenciesare in place and operation of the system will never
change due to location.

2.6.4 User Classes and Characteristics


User Characteristics:
The job seeker/employer should have the basic idea to operate (use) the system and he/she
already has the experience to work in the internet (browser). Default Language is English.

User Classes:
Some of the users identified for this system through use case analysis are listed below:
Students

Employers

Administrators

Design and Implementation Constraints


Some of the design and implementation constraints identified are listed below:
Student can view their profile by log in with their password and ids and can
view previous transection information, search book and reserve book etc.but cannot edit
other profiles, do not have any access to employers profile.
Similarly employer can log in with their password and ids and can edit student profile.
Payment facility may be restricted if the schooldont want this facility for some
reasons.
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This system is not support distributed database Facility.

Assumptions and Dependencies


Some functions are already created and informations available for use.

Roles and responsibilities are already established.

Administrator is already created.

Apportioning of Requirements :
It is possible in the future that a few additional features be implemented into this system.
Management System: This will allow the system to manage effectively the
other resources in the easiest way.

Training Facility: This will allow effectively train the staffs and improve the
quality of service of school.
OtherSchool department also included to the system : This will help the
school whole management system under the one system.

2.6.5 System Requirements and Analysis:


The following sections will introduce the numerous requirements of the system
from the point of view of different users and will introduce a number of decisions that
have been made regarding implementation. These sections also attempt to somewhat
describe the role of each user group in the system, discussing their individual roles
through the functions they can perform.

User Interface
The user interface for this system will have to be simple and clear. Most
importantly, the ages must be easy to read, easy to understand and accessible. The color
scheme should be appropriate to provide familiarity with the student, employer and there
should be no contrast issues.

Screen name

Description

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Log_in
Student/Employer
registration
View

Update fees status


Edit

Invoice
Borrow

View Borrowers

Return
Add book

Search book

Log into the system as an


Administrator/Student/Employer
Here student/employer details are
entered by the Administrator.
Here student/employer can view
his/her profiles and admin can
view both student and employer
profiles.
Here admin can update fees status
of school.
Here employee can
updateinformation of student and
other prospect that related to
library.
Here employer can
generatepayment Invoice
Here student can borrow book
from library of their choice which
they needed
Here employer can viewborrower
details
Here student can return books and
give penalty if any.
Here employer add new book in
library.
Here employer can search book

Student/Employer View Functionality:


Registration:Student/Employer will register by admin providing the system
with a way to associate a user to their registration(s). This will enable the system to
display personalized information

25

26|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

Registration System: The registration process will be as straightforward as


possible, using an intuitive form layout, with the necessary information being completed
in stages. When regarding supplementary documentation, such as photograph etc.,these
could be uploaded through the form in digital format, upon which it will be saved to the
database and associated with the registration, being accessible by administrator of the
system.

Administrator View Functionality:


Complete information Access: Viewing all of the recently submitted
information details is something the administrator will do on a regular basis. A list of all
the submitted information forms, able to delete and update that informations related to
the system.

Addand Delete and Allot: This will help the administrator to add new fees, book,
employee, student, class, sec etc. and allot different fees structure to different class for
different month and year.

System:
Validation: On the completion of each form in the system, the system will use
a set of validation functions to ensure that information is of the right type in each field.

2.6.6 Supplementary Requirements


Immediate Feedback: The System must try to answer all the queries of the
student/employers and it should provide immediate feedback after getting any request
from the student/employers.

Reduce the Cost of Admission Process: The main aim of the System is to
reduce the cost needed for book, student searching, borrowing, returning, fees payment,
searching defaulter etc.Process, so it automatically reduces the manual power needed to
perform the entire task and improve the quality of the work.

26

27|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

Make the Interface Simple as Possible: The System must provide the simple
and easy interface for beginners and also provide facilities for technical peoples who are
using the system. The interface must be simple as possible.

Reduced Time: To perform any task time is one of the important factors to
consider. If the system not utilize properly time, than the entire aim of system is fails and
the system is fails to reach its goal. So time take to process all these activities should be
less but the output should be effective.
Make the System as Global Unit: The System must provide facilities to tie
up with any other existing system and transformation of messages between that other
existing system should be not depend upon any other server architecture and any other
platform.

Other Nonfunctional Requirements:


Performance Requirements
Some Performance requirements identified is listed below:
The database shall be able to accommodate a minimum of 50000 records of
student and employers.

The software shall support use of multiple users at a time.

There are no other specific performance requirements that will affect development.
Security Requirements :
Some of the factors that are identified to protect the software from accidental or
malicious access, use, modification, destruction, or disclosure are described below.
Specific requirements in this area could include the need to:

Keep specific log or history data sets

Restrict communications between some areas of the program

27

28|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

Communication needs to be restricted when the application is validating the


user or license.
Keep daily backup that will help the if anything happen to the local server.

Reliability
Some of the attributes identified for the reliability is listed below:
All data storage for user variables will be committed to the database at the time
of entry.

Data corruption is prevented by applying the possible backup procedures and


techniques.

2.7 Software Engineering Paradigm applied


The Software Engineering Paradigm or the Software Development Strategy
applied in the Fees and Library Management System is the ITERATIVE WATERFALL
MODEL.
An iterative waterfall model does not attempt to start with a full specification of
requirements. Instead, development begins by specifying and implementing just part of
the software, which can then be reviewed in order to identify further requirements. This
process is then repeated, producing a new version of the software for each cycle of the
model.
In the iterative waterfall model, we work iteratively we create rough product
or product piece in one iteration, then review it and improve it in next iteration and so on
until its finished.

Feasibility
Study

Requirements analysis
And specification
28
Design

29|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

This model contains 6 phases:


1. Feasibility study
The feasibility study activity involves the analysis of the problem andcollection
of the relevant information relating to the product. The main aim of the feasibility
study is to determine whether it would be financially andtechnically feasible to
develop the product.

2.Requirement analysis and specification


The goal of this phase is to understand the exact requirements of thecustomer and
to document them properly. (SRS)

3. System Design
The goal of this phase is to transform the requirement specification into astructure
that is suitable for implementation in some programming language .

4. Testing
During this phase the design is tested in small modules in isolation from rest of
the software product. Then all the modules are integrated together and tested.

5. Implementation
Release of software inaugurates the operation and life cycle phase of theoperation.
The phases always occur in this order and do not overlap.
29

30|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

2.8 DATA MODELS


Data Flow Diagram:DFD is the one among the various methods to show the flow of the data
within the project. In this type of representation, the entities are
represented with the help of rectangular box and the process is represented
with the help of rounded rectangle or circle. The dataflow is represented
by means of the arrow with the indication of the direction of flow with
the help of the arrow pointer. The data files are shown with the help of
rectangle box with one side open. The data flow diagrams are the tools in
the top-down approach, moves from general requirements to more specific
requirements, illustrating the p rocess, movement, and the storage of data
in the system. In DFDs, processes are first identified and then the data
flow between the processes are isolated and derived. Thus processes are
focal point of the DFD. Data Flow Diagrams themselves stress the flo w
and transformation of the data within a system.
A DFD is also known as bubble chart, has the purpose of defining the
system requirement and it functionally decomposes the requirement specification
down to the lowest level of detail. It is a graphical tool used describe and analyse the
movement of data through the system manual or automated including the process
, stores of data and delays in the system .The bubbles represent the data
transformations and the line represents the flow of data in the system. The following
diagram illustrates the notations and symbols used to construct the DFD.

DFD Symbols:1. External Entity:


The producer or the consumer of information that resides outsides the bound of
the system to be modelled. The following rectangular shape denotes it.

30

31|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

2. Process:
It is the agent that performs the transformation of information from one state to
another. The following shape denotes it.

3. The Data Flow


A data flow connects the output of an object or process to the input of another
object or process. The arrows denote flow of intermediate data value within a
computation. The arrowhead indicated the direction of flow of data.

4. Data Store
A repository of data is a passive object within a DFD for later access. A data store
does not generate any operations on its own but merely responds to requests to
store and access data. The following shape denotes it.

Context
STUDENT

diagram
31

EMPLOYEE

32|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

search Book. /
reserveAcknowledgement

Get result/Feedback

search student./fee list

Fees & Library


management
system

Manages all function/

Search book/fees payment


Manages all process/

Search

Get result

Administrator
OUT PUT
2.9

1-level DFD
Request for login

Student
Data store

Login response
Request for login

employee

Login response

send login details

LOGIN

320.1

33|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

Request for login

Admin

Login response

Student

Data store

Request for book

library

Valid response send details

0.2

librarian

response

Request lib process


Valid response

Data store

Employee

FEES
Request fee process

sends necessary details

Valid response

0.3

Valid response

student
Send necessary
details

Request for changing password

Admin

Valid response

Data store

Change password

0.4
request for changing password

Employee

reply

Valid response

2-level-DFD (library)

request

Search book /
Search

Search result

0.2.1
Upload
resume

Student
Request for reserve the book

33
RESERVE

Book table

34|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

Request
Reserve
Confirmation message
Request result
Reserve request
Book Information

Request for transection

Borrow / return book

Borrowing table

Transection

ADMIN

0.2.3

Reply messages

confirmed

Reply of the request

Reply messages
Add new member/book/class/penalty

ADD

Data store

0.2.4
Add request

Reply messages
Update request
Update member/book/class/penalty

APPLY JOBS

UPDATE
0.2.5

Reply of the request

2-LEVEL- DFD (Fees)


Add fees
Add fees/ employee

Add
0.3.1

Fee added

34

fees

35|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

Add employee
ADMIN

Employee added
Request for update

Update request

Update

employee

Update employee

0.3.2
updated
Update result
Request fee/student/defaulter/emp

Finddefaulter/fee/student

student
/ employee

view

Profile details

0.3.3

result

Request details

fee

Finddefaulter

Employee

Profile details
result

Fee payment

result

Payment information

Fee
payment
0.3.4

payment
payment details

Print details
Generating reports

Print student
list

PRINT
0.3.5
Print invoice

Output

E-R Diagram:
ER Diagram (DEFINITION)

35

36|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

The most important consideration in designing the database is how to information


will be used. The various application and procedures that will be used the database
introduces the requirements upon the structure of data.
In a relational database, representation of data and data relationship is a collection
of tables. Each table has one or more columns.
The first step in creating a database is designing it. First plan what we require and
what data they will contain. It also determines how the tables were created. This is a very
important step and deserves careful considerations.
It should determine what things we want to store information about (entities) and
how these things are related (relationship). A useful technique in designing the database
is to draw a picture of the tables. This graphical display of database is called an Entity
Relationship Diagram (E-R Diagram). Usually, each box in E-R Diagram corresponds to
a foreign key.

An Entity

A Primary Key

A Partial Relationship

A Relationship

An Attribut

ISBN
c-id

C_name

Bname

book id

36

accno
Author

37|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

Category 1n

have

Book

copies

mmm
publish
er
name

Add

retur
n

Issue
n

class
section

emp-id

student

details

employee

S_i
d

Add
empname

Roll no
empn
qualificati
on

pay
collect
mn

fees

F_ID

37

DATE

F_Amount

38|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

CHAPTER-3
3. System Design
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Database design
3.3 User interface design
3.4 Modular Description
3.5 Test cases

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The most creative and challenging phase of system life cycle is system design.
The system design describes the final system and the process by which it is developed. It
refers to technical specification that will be applied in implementing the candidate
38

39|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

system. Designing the software means to plan how various part of the software are going
to meet the desired goals. It should be done the performance of the entire system. As a
result it may take more processing time, more coding and extra workload.
System design is a how to approach to the creation of the new system. This
important phase is composed of several steps. It provides the procedural details necessary
for implementing the system recommended in the feasibility. It gives emphasis on
translating the performance requirements to design specifications. System design goes
through two phases of development Logical design and Physical design.

3.2 DATABASE DESIGN


Usually a collection of interrelated is refer to as database. The database
contains information about the one particular enterprise. Database is design to manage a
large volume of information. The management of data involves both the definition of
structures for the storage of information and provision for mechanism manipulation of
information. In addition the database is system must provide for safety information stored
in the database, despite system crashes or unauthorized access.The detailed description
and usage of each table described briefly in the following section.

3.2.1 List Of Database Table:


a)Table name: userlogin

Field name
Login_id
Std_id
Name
U_name
pw

Data type
Integer
Integer
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar

Size
11
11
40
40
50

Constraints
primary
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null

Data type
integer
Varchar
Varchar

Size
11
50
50

Constraints
Primary key
Not null
Not null

b)Table name: user


Field name
id
username
password

39

40|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

c)Table name: Type


Field name
id
Key_skills

Data type
Integer
Varchar

Size
11
50

Constraints
Primary key
Not null

Data type
Integer
Varchar
Varchar

Size
20
30
15

Constraints
Primary key
Not null
Not null

Data type
Integer
Integer
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Integer
integer

Size
20
20
40
20
20
20
10
10

Constraints
Primary key
Foreign key
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null

Size
20
20

Constraints
Primary key
Not null

Size
11
30

Constraints
Primary key
Not null

d)Table name: section


Field name
sec_id
Sec
Class

e)Table name: receipt


Field name
receipt_id
student_id
accno
Borrow_id
Date_due
Date_return
Totaldays
Totalpays

f)Table name: payment


Field name
pay_id
amount

Data type
Integer
integer

g)Table name: bookreserve


Field name
resId
Accno

Data type
Integer
Integer

40

41|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

Std_id
timer
timeget
Status

Integer
integer
integer
Varchar

30
30
30
30

Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null

Data type
Integer
Integer
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
varchar
varchar

Size
40
30
30
30
30
50
50
50
50
40
30
80
50
50

Constraints
Primary key
Not_null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
null
null
null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null

Data type
Integer
Varchar
integer
integer
Date(system)
date
date
Varchar
integer
Varchar

Size
20
50
10
10
20
20
20
10
20

Constraints
primary key
Foreign key
Foreign key
Foreign key
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null

Size

Constraints

h)Table name: book


Field name
book_id
accno
Book_subject
Book_title
Book_class
Author1
Author2
Author3
Author4
Book_pub
Book_copies
isbn
copyright
status
i)Table name: borrow
Field name
borrow_id
accno
Class id
Std_id
Date borrow
Due date
Date return
Status
amount
item

j)Table name: borrower


Field name

Data type
41

42|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

std_id
Fname
Lname
Gender
Address
Contact number
Country
Photo
Type
Section
Class
Status
Dateadded
Sy

Integer
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
Varchar
date
Varchar

40
80
20
30
25
30
20
20
25
10
15
25
20
30

Primary key
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null
Not null

Data type
Varchar
Varchar
integer
Varchar

Size
50
50
15
50

Constraints
Not null
Not null
Primary key
Not null

Data type
Varchar
Varchar
integer
varchar

Size
50
50
15
200

Constraints
Not null
Not null
Primary key
Not null

k)Table name:admin
Field name
User_name
Password
U_id
Email

L) Table naeme: fees

Field name
fees_name
amount
fees_id
details

3.3 USER INTERFACE DESIGN

42

43|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

The first step in the user interface design activity focuses on the preparation of
input and the design of output reports in a form acceptable to the user.
User interface design consists of two steps input design and output design.

INPUT DESIGN
Input designing is a crucial part of any system design. Inaccurate input data are
the most common cause of error in data processing. Data entry can be control by input
design. Input design is the design phase; the expanded data flow diagram identifies
logical data flows, data stores, sources and destinations. The goal of designing input data
is to make data entry as easy as possible. In the case of Fees & Library Management
System muchemphasis has been given to this phase. To reduce input errors, either the
users are provided with choices to choose from, or invalid inputs are restricted. Here the
chances of entering invalid data are minimal.
While entering data, the operators need to know the following:
The field that is required to be fills up.
Field sequences, which most match that in the source document
The format in which data field is entered.
Keeping in view the user requirements, the inputs screens have been designed and
developed for easy and error free data entry. Based on the various types of inputs to be
fed to the computer in using the proposed system, all input screens have been designed
in real mode (GUI).

The details of all input screens are shown as follows:

43

44|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

44

45|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

OUTPUT DESIGN
Computer output is the most important and direct source of information to the
user. Efficient, intelligible output design should improve the systems relationship with
the user and help in decision making. A major form of output is a hard copy from the
printer. The output screens for displaying the information have been designed in such a
way that maximum information can be viewed using minimum effort and time.

The details of all output screens are shown as follows:

45

46|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

46

47|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

47

48|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

3.5TEST CASES
UNIT TEST CASES
Unit testing verifies the smallest module of the software designed. Using this
testing the entire module can be debugged very easily. The relative complexity of test
and the errors detected as a result its limited by the constrained scrap established for unit
testing. The relative complexity of test and the errors detected as a result its limited by
the constrained scrap established for unit testing.
Unit testing is considered an adjunct to the coding step. After source code has
been developed and verified for the syntax connection, unit test case designed starts.

SYSTEM TEST CASES


In the testing process the Demo versions of the software i.e. actual replica of the
existing system will be installed so that the users can use it as they like and give their
valuable suggestion and advice. There after security can be incorporated in the system.
In this phase we will be using both alpha and beta test, which will enable the user to check
the whole system thoroughly. The said Demo version software can be used for a period
of 15 days to 1 month and during this period only training of the proposed software will
be imported. This phase will allow the entire user to use the system in a much more
efficient way.
The design tests for software and other engineered products can be as challenging
as the initial design of the product itself. The objectives of the testing are the finding of
errors with a minimum amount of time and effort.

48

49|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

CHAPTER-4
4.Coding

49

50|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

CODEING:
<?php include('addtype.php'); ?>

<style>
.asss{ background:#3B5998; height:30px; color:#FFF; text-align:center; font-size:15px;
font-family:Verdana, Geneva, sans-serif; font-weight:bold; }
.jade{border:1px #333 solid; margin-top:20px;}
.trint:nth-child(2n+1){

background-color:#CCC;}
.trint:hover{ background:#E5E5E5;}
</style>
<script>
jQuery(function($){
$("#water").Watermark("Add Class I");
});

jQuery(function($){
$("#water1").Watermark("Add Class II");
});
jQuery(function($){
$("#water2").Watermark("Add Class III");
});
jQuery(function($){
$("#water3").Watermark("Add Class IV");
});
jQuery(function($){
50

51|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

$("#water4").Watermark("Add Class V");


});
jQuery(function($){
$("#water5").Watermark("Add Class VI");
});
jQuery(function($){
$("#water6").Watermark("Add Class VII");
});
jQuery(function($){
$("#water7").Watermark("Add Class VIII");
});
jQuery(function($){
$("#water8").Watermark("Add Class IX");
});
jQuery(function($){
$("#water9").Watermark("Add Class X");
});

</script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery.watermarkinput.js"></script>

<table border="0" width="830" style="margin-left:50px; margin-bottom:20px;">


<tr>
<td width="
50">
51

52|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<img src="icons/1.png" height="50">


</td><td align="left" style="font-size:25px; font-family:Verdana, Geneva, sansserif;">Change Year/Section</td>
</tr></table>
<?php
if(isset($_POST['addsec'])){
include('database/config.php');
$addsec=mysql_query("insert
into
tblsection
values('".$_POST['ad']."','".$_POST['yr_id']."')")or die(mysql_error());

(section,yr_id)

echo "<script>window.location='?addBorrower&year/section'</script>";

}
if(isset($_POST['edit'])){
include('database/config.php');
$addsec=mysql_query("update tblsection set section='".$_POST['ad']."' where
sec_id=$_GET[sec_id]")or die(mysql_error());
}

if(isset($_GET['edit'])){
$edit=mysql_query("select * from tblsection where sec_id=$_GET[sec_id]");
$row=mysql_fetch_array($edit);
}
if(isset($_GET['edit1'])){
$edit1=mysql_query("select * from tblsection where sec_id=$_GET[sec_id]");
$row1=mysql_fetch_array($edit1);
}
if(isset($_GET['edit2'])){
$edit2=mysql_query("select * from tblsection where sec_id=$_GET[sec_id]");
52

53|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

$row2=mysql_fetch_array($edit2);
}
if(isset($_GET['edit3'])){
$edit3=mysql_query("select * from tblsection where sec_id=$_GET[sec_id]");
$row3=mysql_fetch_array($edit3);
}
?>
<form action="" method="post">
<table border="0" width="180" class="jade" style="margin-left:50px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="3">Class I</td>
</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='I'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center"><a href="" class="jades" id=<?php echo $type['sec_id']; ?>><img
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>
<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

53

54|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >
<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row['section']; ?>" id="water" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

<?php }?>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>

54

value="Add"

style="

55|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->
<form action="" method="post">
<table border="0" width="180"class="jade" style="margin-left:20px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="3">Class II</td>
</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='II'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center">
<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit1&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >

55

56|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row1['section']; ?>" id="water1" name="ad"


style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit1'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

value="Add"

style="

<?php }?>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>
<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

<form action="" method="post">


<table border="0" width="180" class="jade" style="margin-left:20px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="3">Class III</td>
56

57|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='III'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center">
<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit2&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >
<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row2['section']; ?>" id="water2" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit2'])){?>

57

58|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

value="Add"

style="

<?php }?>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>
<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

<form action="" method="post">


<table border="0" width="180" class="jade" style="margin-left:20px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="4">Class IV</td>
</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='IV'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);

58

59|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center">
<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit2&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >
<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row2['section']; ?>" id="water3" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit2'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>

59

60|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

value="Add"

style="

<?php }?>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>

<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

<form action="" method="post">


<table border="0" width="180"class="jade" style="margin-left:50px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="3">Class V</td>
</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='V'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center">

60

61|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit3&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>

<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >
<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row3['section']; ?>" id="water4" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit3'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

<?php }?>
61

value="Add"

style="

62|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>
<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

<form action="" method="post">


<table border="0" width="180" class="jade" style="margin-left:20px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="3">Class VI</td>
</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='VI'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center">
<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit2&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>
</td>
62

echo

$type['sec_id'];

63|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"


style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >
<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row2['section']; ?>" id="water5" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit2'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

<?php }?>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>
63

value="Add"

style="

64|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

<form action="" method="post">


<table border="0" width="180" class="jade" style="margin-left:20px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="3">Class VII</td>
</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='VII'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center">
<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit2&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>

64

65|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<td height="30" colspan="3" >


<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row2['section']; ?>" id="water6" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit2'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

value="Add"

style="

<?php }?>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>
<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

<form action="" method="post">


<table border="0" width="180" class="jade" style="margin-left:20px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
65

66|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<td colspan="3">Class VIII</td>


</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='VIII'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center">
<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit2&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >
<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row2['section']; ?>" id="water6" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >

66

67|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<?php if(isset($_GET['edit2'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

value="Add"

style="

<?php }?>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>

<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

<form action="" method="post">


<table border="0" width="180" class="jade" style="margin-left:50px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="3">Class IX</td>
</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');

67

68|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='IX'";


$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
<td align="center">
<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit2&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >
<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row2['section']; ?>" id="water8" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit2'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>

68

69|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

value="Add"

style="

<?php }?>

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>

<!--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

<form action="" method="post">


<table border="0" width="180" class="jade" style="margin-left:20px; float:left; marginbottom:20px;">
<tr class="asss">
<td colspan="3">Class X</td>
</tr>
<?php
include('database/config.php');
$sqlclass="SELECT * FROM tblsection where yr_id='X'";
$rsclass=mysql_query($sqlclass);
while($type=mysql_fetch_array($rsclass)){ ?>
<tr class="trint">
<td width="110"><?php echo $type['section'];?></td>
69

70|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<td align="center">
<a
href=""
class="jades" id=<?php
src="icons/b_drop.png" height="15" ></a></td>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

?>><img

<td align="center">
<a href="?addBorrower&year/section&edit2&sec_id=<?php
?>"><img src="icons/b_edit.png" height="15" ></a>

echo

$type['sec_id'];

</td>
<input type="hidden" id="add" name="yr_id" value="<?php echo $type['yr_id']; ?>"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">

</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr>
<td height="30" colspan="3" >
<input type="text" value="<?php echo $row2['section']; ?>" id="water9" name="ad"
style=" padding:1px;width:165px;">
</td>
</tr>
<td height="20" bgcolor="#3B5998" colspan="3" >
<?php if(isset($_GET['edit2'])){?>
<input
type="submit"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

id="add"

name="edit"

value="Edit"

style="

<a href="?addBorrower&year/section" style="text-decoration:none; font-size:12pxl;


color:#FFF;">Cancel</a>
<?php
}else{?>
<input
type="submit"
id="add"
padding:1px;width:50px;">

name="addsec"

<?php }?>
70

value="Add"

style="

71|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

</td>
</tr>
</table>
</form>
<?php
error_reporting(0);
session_start();
include 'config.php';
$url=base64_encode(base64_encode("http://".$_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'].$_SERVER
['REQUEST_URI']));
if($_SESSION["user_id"]=="" and $_SESSION["username"]=="")
{
header("Location:403.html");
}
?>

<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<title>Fees Admin</title>
<meta content="IE=edge,chrome=1" http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<meta name="description" content="">
<meta name="author" content="">

71

72|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="lib/bootstrap/css/bootstrap.css">

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="stylesheets/theme.css">


<link rel="stylesheet" href="lib/font-awesome/css/font-awesome.css">

<script src="lib/jquery-1.7.2.min.js" type="text/javascript"></script>

<!-- Demo page code -->

<style type="text/css">
#line-chart {
height:300px;
width:800px;
margin: 0px auto;
margin-top: 1em;
}
.brand { font-family: georgia, serif; }
.brand .first {
color: #ccc;
font-style: italic;
}
.brand .second {
color: #fff;
font-weight: bold;
}
</style>
<?php
72

73|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

$strSQL="SELECT * from invoice_table where month='$month' AND


yr='$year'";
$objQuery=mysql_query($strSQL);
while($r=mysql_fetch_array($objQuery))
{
$stdid=$r['std_id'];
$strSQL="SELECT * from stdinformation where std_id!='$stdid'";
$objQuery = mysql_query($strSQL) or die ("Error Query [".$strSQL."]");
$Num_Rows = mysql_num_rows($objQuery);

// Per Page
if($_GET["Page_per"]){
$Per_Page =$_GET["Page_per"];
}
else
{
$Per_Page =5;
}
$Page = $_GET["Page"];

if(!($_GET["Page"] ))
{
$Page=1;
}

$First_Page = 1;

73

74|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

$Prev_Page = $Page-1;
$Next_Page = $Page+1;
$Last_Page = ceil($Num_Rows/$Per_Page);
$Page_Start = (($Per_Page*$Page)-$Per_Page);
if($Num_Rows<=$Per_Page)
{
$Num_Pages =1;
}
else if(($Num_Rows % $Per_Page)==0)
{
$Num_Pages =($Num_Rows/$Per_Page) ;
}
else
{
$Num_Pages =($Num_Rows/$Per_Page)+1;
$Num_Pages = (int)$Num_Pages;
}
$range=10;
$start = $Page;
$end = $Page;
if (($start % $range != 0) && ($end % $range != 0))
if ($end == $Last_Page)
{
$end = $Last_Page;
}

$strSQL .=" LIMIT $Page_Start , $Per_Page";


74

75|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

$objQuery = mysql_query($strSQL);
if (mysql_num_rows($objQuery)>0)
{
while($objResult = mysql_fetch_array($objQuery))
{
?>

<tr
align="center" height="30">

<td><?php echo $objResult['class']?></td>

<td><?php echo $objResult['sec']?></td>

<td><?php echo $objResult['roll']?></td>

<td><?php echo $objResult['name']?></td>

<td><?php echo $objResult['phone']?></td>


<td>
<a href="updatestudent.php?std_id=<?php echo $objResult['std_id']?>"><i class="iconpencil"></i></a>
<a href="studentlist.php?del=<?php echo $objResult['std_id']?>" class="input-small"><i
class="icon-remove"></i></a>
</td>
</tr>
<?php
}
}
75

76|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

?>
</tbody>
</table>
<?php }
?>
</div>
<div class="pagination">
<ul>
<?php
if(($Page-1)>0)
{
echo
"
<li><a
href='$_SERVER[SCRIPT_NAME]?Page=$First_Page&Page_per=$Per_Page'>"
?>
<?php echo "First";s ?>
<?php
echo "</a></li>";
echo
"<li><a
href='$_SERVER[SCRIPT_NAME]?Page=$Prev_Page&Page_per=$Per_Page'>"
?>
<?php echo "Previous"; ?>
<?php
echo "</a></li> ";
}

for($i=$start; $i<$end; $i++){


if($i<=$Num_Pages)
if($i != $Page)
76

77|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

{
echo
href='$_SERVER[SCRIPT_NAME]?Page=$i&Page_per=$Per_Page'>" ?>

"<li><a

<?php echo $i; ?>


<?php
echo "</a></li>";
}
else
{
?>
<li><a><?php echo $i; ?></a></li>
<?php
}
}
if($Page!=$Num_Pages)
{
echo
"
<li><a
='$_SERVER[SCRIPT_NAME]?Page=$Next_Page&Page_per=$Per_Page'>"

href

?>
<?php echo "Next"; ?>
<?php
echo "</a></li>";
}
if($Page!=$Last_Page)
{
echo
"
<li><a
='$_SERVER[SCRIPT_NAME]?Page=$Last_Page&Page_per=$Per_Page'>"
?>
77

href

78|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

<?php echo "Last"; ?>


<?php
echo "</a></li>";
}
}
?>

78

79|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

CHAPTER-5
5. Testing
5.1 Testing strategies used
5.2 Debugging

79

80|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

5. TESTING
Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents
the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. In fact, testing is the one step in
the software engineering process that could be viewed as destructive rather than
constructive.
A strategy for software testing integrates software test case design methods into a wellplanned series of steps that result in the successful construction of software. Testing is
the set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically. The
underlying motivation of program testing is to affirm software quality with methods that
can economically and effectively applied to both strategic to both large and small-scale
systems

TESTING OBJECTIVE:
The testing objectives are summarized in the following three steps:
1.

Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of


finding an error.

2.

A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an


as yet undiscovered error.

3.

A successful test is the one that uncover an as yet undiscovered


error.

Our objective is to design tests that systematically uncover different classes of errors
and do so with a minimum amount of time and effort.

TESTING PRINCIPLE:
All tests should be traceable to customer requirement.
Tests should be planned long before testing begins that is the testplanning can begin as soon as the requirement model is complete.
Testing should begin in the small and progress towards testing in the large. The first
plan and executed generally focus on individual program modules. As the testing
progresses, testing shifts focus in an attempt to find errors in integrated clusters of
modules and ultimately in the entire system.
The number of path permutations for even a moderately sized program is exceptionally
large. For this reason, it is impossible to execute every combination of paths during
80

81|P a g e FEES & LIBRARY MANGEMENT SYSTEM.

testing. It is possible, however to adequately cover program logic and to ensure that all
conditions in the procedural design have been exercised. To be more effective, testing
has highest probability of finding the errors.
The following are the attributes of a good test::
1. A good test has the high probability of finding the errors.
2. A good test is not redundant.
3. A good test should be best of breed.
4. A good test should be neither too simple nor too complex.
This process has two parts:
(a)

Planning: This involves writing and reviewing unit, integration,


functional, validation and acceptance test plans.

(b)
Execution: This involves executing these test plans, measuring,
collecting data and verifying if it meets the quality criteria set in the Quality Plan.
Data collected is used to make appropriate changes in the plans related to development
and testing.
The quality of a product or item can be achieved by ensuring that the product meets the
requirements by planning and conducting the following tests at various stages.

5.1 STRATEGIC APPROACH TO SOFTWARE TESTING


The software engineering process can be viewed as a spiral. Initially, system
engineering defines the role of software and leads to software requirement analysis where
the information domain, functions, behavior, performance, constraints and validation
criteria for software are established. Moving inward along the spiral, we come to design
and finally to coding. To develop computer software we spiral in along streamlines that
decrease the level of abstraction on each turn.
A strategy for software testing may also be viewed in the context of the spiral.
Unit testing begins at the vertex of the spiral and concentrates on each unit of the software
as implemented in source code. Testing progresses by moving outward along the spiral
to integration testing , where the focus is on the design and the construction of the
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software architecture. Taking another turn on outward on the spiral we encounter


validation testing where requirements established as part of software requirements
analysis are validated against the software that has been constructed. Finally we arrive at
system testing, where the software and other system elements are tested as a whole.
Table Given below outlines the tests that were performed on the system to ensure
correctness and unearth errors, which were subsequently debugged.

Testing
Phase

Objectives

Unit
Testing

The various functions within each program and


the program blocks are tested for proper working.

Module
Testing

A module is composed of various programs


Related to that module. Module testing is done to
check the module functionality and interaction
between units within a module

Integration
Testing

Integration testing is done to test the functionality and interfacing between


the modules.

Acceptance
Testing

Acceptance testing is done after implementation to


check if the system runs successfully in the
user environment/site.

Table shows the Tests Conducted on theFees & Library Management System.
UNIT TESTING
Unit Testing will be done to test field validations, navigation, functionality of the
programs and its blocks. These tests are applied on various functions within each program
and other critical program blocks.

MODULE TESTING
Module testing will be done to test the interaction between the various programs
within one module. It checks the functionality of each program with relation to other
programs within the same module. It then tests the overall functionality of each module.
INTEGRATION TESTING

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Integration testing is done to test the functionality and interfacing between the
modules. The system is built up of various modules, which work together to automate the
activities of the Fees & Library Management System management system. These
modules should work together in a seamless way to achieve the desired results.
Integration testing will test for this property of the modules. The modules display a cause
and effect relationship, if data in one module is changed, then it affects the data to change
in some other module also. Integration testing needs to check if the modifications do not
adversely affect some other modules.

ACCEPTANCE TESTING
Acceptance testing was done after the implementation of the system. The
acceptance testing will check if the system works correctly in the user environment and
if the entire user specified functionalities are present. It also tests if the system adheres to
the company policies and quality standard.

5.2 DEBUGGING
Debugging occurs as a consequence of successful testing. That is, when a test
case uncover an error, debugging can and should be an orderly process that result in the
removal of the error. Although debugging can should be an orderly process, it is still very
much an art.
The debugging process will always have one of the two outcomes:
The cause will be found, corrected, and removed, or
The cause will not be found
The software was tested thoroughly before implementation and when errors were
found they were corrected and removed.
After a through testing of the different aspect of the system as described above
the system is ready for implementation.

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CHAPTER-6
6.1

System

Security

measures

(Implementation of security for the project


developed)

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6.1 INTRODUCTION:
Definition:
The system security problem can be divided into four related issues1.
2.
3.
4.

Security
Integrity
Privacy
Confidentiality

1.Security:
It refers to the technical innovations and procedures applied to the hardware and the
operating system to protect against deliberate and accidental damages from a defined
threat. In contrast, data security is the protection of data from loss, disclose, modification
and destruction.
2.Integrity:
It refers to the proper functioning of the hardware and programs, appropriate physical
security and satisfy against external threats such as eavesdropping and wiretapping. In
comparison ,data integrity makes sure that data do not differ from original form and have
not been accidentally disclosed, altered or destroyed.
3. Privacy:
It defines the right of the users and the organizations to determine what information they
are willing to share with or accept from others and how the organization can be protected
against unwelcome ,unfair or excessive dissemination of information about it.
4.Confidentiality:
The term confidentiality is the special status given to the sensitive information in a
database to minimize the possible disclosure of information that characterizes its need for
protection. System security is the technical means of providing such protection .In
contrast , privacy is basically a procedure of how the information available are used.
Data privacy and security are issues that go beyond the scope of system development.
They are actually a social concern . An organization that depends heavily on the use of
databases requires special control to maintain viable information.

These controls are classified into three general categories85

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(i) Physical Security.


(ii) Database Security.
(iii)Application Security.
(iv) Operating System Level Security:

(i) Physical Security:


It refers the security or protection from fire ,flood or the other physical
damages.Physical security is the protection of personnel, hardware, programs,
networks, and data from physical circumstances and events that could cause serious
losses or damage to an enterprise, agency, or institution. This includes protection from
fire, natural disasters, burglary, theft, vandalism, and terrorism.There are three main
components to physical security. First, obstacles can be placed in the way of potential
attackers and sites can be hardened against accidents and environmental disasters. Such
measures can include multiple locks, fencing, walls, fireproof safes, and water
sprinklers. Second, surveillance and notification systems can be put in place, such as
lighting, heat sensors, smoke detectors, intrusion detectors, alarms, and cameras. Third,
methods can be implemented to apprehend attackers (preferably before any damage has
been done) and to recover quickly from accidents, fires, or natural disasters.

(ii)Database/data security:
Registration level authentication and authorization mechanisms should be
considered as an effective means of providing database security. Registration and
authorization provides abstraction .The primary benefit of abstraction is that of a single
sign on capability across multiple databases and database platforms. A single sign-on
system should store the database users credentials (login id and password), and
authenticate to the database on behalf of the user.Database security concerns the use of a
broad range of information security controls to protect databases (potentially including
the data, the database applications or stored functions, the database systems, the database
servers and the associated network links) against compromises of their confidentiality,
integrity and availability. It involves various types or categories of controls, such as
technical, procedural/administrative and physical. Database security is a specialist topic
within the broader realms of computer security, information security and risk
management.

(iii)Application Security:
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It refers to the control measures of the application software through passwords,


encryption and monitoring users on a regular basis. The client was given the application
software in floppies or compact disk, so that if some of the files get corrupted accidentally
or intentionally, the whole system can again be loaded from backup disks and the
database can be recovered back. Application security is the use of software, hardware,
and procedural methods to protect applications from external threats. Once an
afterthought in software design, security is becoming an increasingly important concern
during development as applications become more frequently accessible over networks
and are, as a result, vulnerable to a wide variety of threats. Security measures built into
applications and a sound application security routine minimize the likelihood that
unauthorized code will be able to manipulate applications to access, steal, modify, or
delete sensitive data.

(iv) Operating System Level Security:


In most operating environment there is lack of audit trails in most off shelf
software package. It is difficult to reconstruct transaction for audit purpose. As more
personal computers are linked to company mainframe so, remote users can access data,
the potential increase for alerting the data deliberately or by mistake.
It is becoming so obvious that the personal computer is adding security problems to
system installations. With the use of microcomputer the corporate environment, the
potential for misuse of information becomes enormous. Many of todays operating
system contains password; a would-be theft can copy at will.

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CHAPTER 7:
COST ESTIMATION OF THE PROJECT

7.1 Cost Estimation Of The Project

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Estimation of the cost for the development of the software is done using the
COCOMO (ConstructiveCost estimation Model). COCOMO is a heuristic estimation
technique.
The COCOMO Model was proposed by Boehm, 1981. Boehm postulated that any
software development project can be classified into any one of the following three
categories based on the development complexity: organic, semidetached and embedded.
1. Organic : We can consider a development project to be organic type, if the project
deals with developing a well-understood application program, the size of the
development team is reasonably small and the team members are experienced in
developing similar type of projects.
2. Semidetached : A development project can be considered to be of semidetached
type , if the development team consists of a mixture of experienced and inexperienced
staff. Team members may have limited experience on related systems but may be
unfamiliar with some aspects of the system being developed.
3. Embedded : A development project is considered to be of embedded type, if the
software being developed is strongly coupled to complex hardware, or if stringent
regulations on the operational procedure exist.

BASIC COCOMO MODEL


The basic COCOMO model gives an approximate estimate of the project parameters.
The basic COCOMO estimation model is given by the following expressions:
Effort =a1 * (KLOC)a2 PM
Tdev = b1 * (Effort)b2 Months
Where,
(a) KLOC is the estimated size of the software product expressed in Kilo Lines of Code.
(b) a1, a2, b1, b2 are constants for each category of software product.
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(c) Tdev is the estimated time to develop the software, expressed in months.
(d) Effort is the total effort required to develop the software product expressed in Person
Months.

Estimation of development effort


For the three classes of software products, the formulas for estimating the effort based on
the code size are given below :
Organic

: Effort = 2.4(KLOC)1.05 PM

Semidetached : Effort = 3.0(KLOC)1.12PM


Embedded

: Effort = 3.6(KLOC)1.20PM

Estimation of development time


For the three classes of software products, the formulas for estimating the development
time based on the effort are given below :
Organic

: Tdev = 2.5(Effort)0.38 Months

Semidetached

: Tdev = 2.5(Effort)0.35 Months

Embedded

: Tdev = 2.5(Effort)0.32 Months

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CHAPTER 8
8.1 Future Scope and Further Enhancement of the Project:

Future Scope and Further Enhancement of the Project:


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This system is designed & developed by keeping in mind the various problems that are
being faced by the admin/School keeping large records related to, LIBRARY AND
FINANCEmanually. It is an indispensable modern day tool as it is capable of keeping huge
amount of records and eventually retrieving it. As time progresses it will gain more
popularity in the field of any other survey related activities.
As for other future developments, it can be made more secured, better techniques can
be introduced for making it more user-friendly and more accurate. Moreover, if any
new scheme is implemented by the organization the system can be enhanced with
little modification of the existing database.

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CHAPTER 9:
CONCLUSION

Conclusion:
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The design of the system is done with great effort to understand the need of the users, the
various facilities in the day to day operation of a proposed system which intends to assist
Fees & Library Management System.The tool used for the developing the system are
. Dreamweaver
.

Wamp server

The designed software can be run on any IBM compatible machines providing the
minimum hardware and software requirements are satisfied. The software is intended to
serve the need of the proposed institute. The design of the software is made in such an
way that the user can operate the software using both key-board and the mouse. The
menus are designed in a very user friendly manner. There is some definite possibility of
enhancement of the software so as to fulfill the users requirement in future .People having
the knowledge of DBMS based packages can go for further enhancement of the software.

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CHAPTER 9
9.1 Bibliography

Bibilography:
1. Fundamentals of SOFTWARE ENGINEERING Rajib Mall
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2. Web Technologies BLACK BOOK KogenT Learning Solutions Inc. (dreamtech


PRESS)
3. www.w3schools.com, www.google.com,www.mysql.com.

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