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08

2013
Fall

22 April

Hysteresis Curves
B01504120/
Group Number: 24
Professor:
Teacher Assistant:

N a t i o n a l Ta i w a n U n i v e r s i t y

I.

Purpose:
1. To understand more about Hysteresis Curve.

II.

III.

Abstract
Hysteresis refers to systems that have memory, where the
effects of the current input (or stimulus) to the system are
experienced with a certain delay in time. Such a system may
exhibit path dependence, or "rate-independent memory"
(Mielke & Roubicek 2003). Hysteresis phenomena occur in
magnetic materials, ferromagnetic materials and ferroelectric
materials, as well as in the elastic, electric, and magnetic
behavior of materials, in which a lag occurs between the
application and the removal of a force or field and its
subsequent effect. Electric hysteresis occurs when applying a
varying electric field, and elastic hysteresis occurs in response
to a varying force. The term "hysteresis" is sometimes used in
other fields, such as economics or biology, where it describes
a memory, or lagging effect.
Principle
A great deal of information can be learned about the magnetic
properties of a material by studying its hysteresis loop. A
hysteresis loop shows the relationship between the induced
magnetic flux density (B) and the magnetizing force (H). It is
often referred to as the B-H loop. An example hysteresis loop
is shown below.

The loop is generated by measuring the magnetic flux of a


ferromagnetic material while the magnetizing force is
changed. A ferromagnetic material that has never been
previously magnetized or has been thoroughly demagnetized
will follow the dashed line as H is increased. As the line
demonstrates, the greater the amount of current applied
(H+), the stronger the magnetic field in the component (B+).
At point "a" almost all of the magnetic domains are aligned
and an additional increase in the magnetizing force will
produce very little increase in magnetic flux. The material has
reached the point of magnetic saturation. When H is reduced
to zero, the curve will move from point "a" to point "b." At this
point, it can be seen that some magnetic flux remains in the
material even though the magnetizing force is zero. This is
referred to as the point of retentivity on the graph and
indicates the remanence or level of residual magnetism in the
material. (Some of the magnetic domains remain aligned but
some have lost their alignment.) As the magnetizing force is
reversed, the curve moves to point "c", where the flux has
been reduced to zero. This is called the point of coercivity on
the curve. (The reversed magnetizing force has flipped
enough of the domains so that the net flux within the material
is zero.) The force required to remove the residual magnetism
from the material is called the coercive force or coercivity of
the material.
As the magnetizing force is increased in the negative
direction, the material will again become magnetically
saturated but in the opposite direction (point "d"). Reducing H

to zero brings the curve to point "e." It will have a level of


residual magnetism equal to that achieved in the other
direction. Increasing H back in the positive direction will return
B to zero. Notice that the curve did not return to the origin of
the graph because some force is required to remove the
residual magnetism. The curve will take a different path from
point "f" back to the saturation point where it with complete
the loop.
From the hysteresis loop, a number of primary magnetic
properties of a material can be determined.
1. Retentivity - A measure of the residual flux density
corresponding to the saturation induction of a magnetic
material. In other words, it is a material's ability to retain a
certain amount of residual magnetic field when the
magnetizing force is removed after achieving saturation. (The
value of B at point b on the hysteresis curve.)
2. Residual Magnetism or Residual Flux - the magnetic flux
density that remains in a material when the magnetizing force
is zero. Note that residual magnetism and retentivity are the
same when the material has been magnetized to the
saturation point. However, the level of residual magnetism
may be lower than the retentivity value when the magnetizing
force did not reach the saturation level.
3. Coercive Force - The amount of reverse magnetic field which
must be applied to a magnetic material to make the magnetic
flux return to zero. (The value of H at point c on the hysteresis
curve.)
4. Permeability, m - A property of a material that describes the
ease with which a magnetic flux is established in the
component.
5. Reluctance - Is the opposition that a ferromagnetic material
shows to the establishment of a magnetic field. Reluctance is
analogous to the resistance in an electrical circuit.
The shape of the hysteresis loop tells a great deal about the
material being magnetized. The hysteresis curves of two
different materials are shown in the graph.
Relative to other materials, a material with a wider hysteresis
loop has:

Lower Permeability

Higher Retentivity

Higher Coercivity

Higher Reluctance

Higher
Magnetism

Residual

Relative
to
other
materials,
a
material
with
the
narrower
hysteresis loop has:

Higher Permeability

Lower Retentivity

Lower Coercivity

Lower Reluctance

Lower Residual Magnetism.


In magnetic particle testing, the level of residual magnetism is
important. Residual magnetic fields are affected by the
permeability, which can be related to the carbon content and
alloying of the material. A component with high carbon
content will have low permeability and will retain more
magnetic flux than a material with low carbon content.

Magnetic Field Orientation and Flaw Detectability


To properly inspect a component for cracks or
other defects, it is important to understand that
the orientation between the magnetic lines of
force and the flaw is very important. There are two
general types of magnetic fields that can be
established within a component.
A longitudinal magnetic field has magnetic
lines of force that run parallel to the long axis
of the part. Longitudinal magnetization of a
component can be accomplished using the
longitudinal field set up by a coil or solenoid.
It can also be accomplished using permanent
magnets or electromagnets.

A circular magnetic field has magnetic lines


of force that run circumferentially around the
perimeter of a part. A circular magnetic field
is induced in an article by either passing
current through the component or by passing
current through a conductor surrounded by
the component.
The type of magnetic field established is determined by the method
used to magnetize the specimen. Being able to magnetize the part
in two directions is important because the best detection of defects
occurs when the lines of magnetic force are established at right
angles to the longest dimension of the defect. This orientation
creates the largest disruption of the magnetic field within the part
and the greatest flux leakage at the surface of the part. As can be
seen in the image below, if the magnetic field is parallel to the
defect, the field will see little disruption and no flux leakage field will
be produced.

An orientation of 45 to 90 degrees between the magnetic field and


the defect is necessary to form an indication. Since defects may
occur in various and unknown directions, each part is normally
magnetized in two directions at right angles to each other. If the
component below is considered, it is known that passing current
through the part from end to end will establish a circular magnetic
field that will be 90 degrees to the direction of the current.
Therefore, defects that have a significant dimension in the direction
of the current (longitudinal defects) should be detectable.
Alternately, transverse-type defects will not be detectable with
circular magnetization.

IV.

Experiment Procedure
Take two identical solenoids home shelves, so both the same distance from
the magnetometer, and its vertical pointer. Figure 4, connected to the DC
power supply, current account and the commutator, pay attention to the
two solenoid current direction opposite to be offset by both the magnetic
field.

Will be transferred to 0N commutator position, and open the DC power


supply, adjust the current so that no more than 2 amps, so both sides of
the solenoid to adjust the location of the pointer to magnetometer to stay
fixed in place, that the two magnetic field generated in the Statistics
Department entirely offset.

Be adjusted once every 0.2 amperes current, and record the angle of
deflection magnetometer.

Up to saturation, then the same in order to reduce the current of 0.2 amps
each, record the yaw angle. Until the current is zero, the commutator
switch ON position to another ON Department, to change the current
direction, and then continue to increase the current of 0.2 amps each,
record the yaw angle, until saturated.

The same, and saturated, reduce the current of 0.2 amps each, record the
yaw angle, until the current is zero, the 0N commutator switch position,
and then continue to increase the current of 0.2 amps each, record the yaw
angle, until saturation, a hysteresis loop to complete the steps.

The proceeds of the deflection angle for tan and current graphics, have
hysteresis curve.

V.

Data

Tan(teta1
Tan(teta2
)
teta2
)
0
0
0
0
0.3639702
0.2679491
20
34
15
92
0.7002075
0.5773502
35
38
30
69
1.0723687
45
1
47
1
1.3763819
1.6003345
54
2
58
29
1.7320508
2.2460367
60
08
66
74
2.1445069
3.2708526
65
21
73
18
2.7474774
4.3314758
70
19
77
74
3.0776835
4.7046301
72
37
78
09
4.3314758
5.1445540
77
74
79
16
4.0107809
5.6712818
76
34
80
2
4.7046301
6.6911562
78
09
81.5
38
5.1445540
8.1443464
79
16
83
28
5.6712818
11.430052
80
2
85
3
5.6712818
14.300666
80
2
86
26
6.3137515
14.300666
81
15
86
26
7.1153697
14.300666
82
22
86
26
6.3137515
14.300666
81
15
86
26
5.6712818
14.300666
80
2
86
26
5.6712818
14.300666
80
2
86
26
5.6712818
10.385397
80
2
84.5
08
5.6712818
9.5143644
80
2
84
54
4.7046301
9.5143644
78
09
84
54

Teta1

76
75
75
70
70
65
60
50
40
20
-35
-65
-75
-80
-82
-83
-85
-85
-86
-89

4.0107809
34
3.7320508
08
3.7320508
08
2.7474774
19
2.7474774
19
2.1445069
21
1.7320508
08
1.1917535
93
0.8390996
31
0.3639702
34
0.7002075
38
2.1445069
21
3.7320508
08
5.6712818
2
7.1153697
22
8.1443464
28
11.430052
3
11.430052
3
14.300666
26
57.289961

82
80
79
77
75
72
70
64
52
33
10
-12
-35
-47
-55.5
-62
-70
-70.5
-71
-72

7.1153697
22
5.6712818
2
5.1445540
16
4.3314758
74
3.7320508
08
3.0776835
37
2.7474774
19
2.0503038
42
1.2799416
32
0.6494075
93
0.1763269
81
0.2125565
62
0.7002075
38
1.0723687
1
1.4550090
29
1.8807264
65
2.7474774
19
2.8239128
86
2.9042108
78
3.0776835

-89
-89
-89
-89
-88
-88
-88
-87
-86
-86
-86
-86
-85
-85
-85
-85

63
57.289961
63
57.289961
63
57.289961
63
57.289961
63
28.636253
28
28.636253
28
28.636253
28
19.081136
69
14.300666
26
14.300666
26
14.300666
26
14.300666
26
11.430052
3
11.430052
3
11.430052
3
11.430052
3

-73
-74
-76
-77
-77
-78
-77
-77
-77
-76
-76
-75
-74
-73
-71
-70

37
3.2708526
18
3.4874144
44
4.0107809
34
4.3314758
74
4.3314758
74
4.7046301
09
4.3314758
74
4.3314758
74
4.3314758
74
4.0107809
34
4.0107809
34
3.7320508
08
3.4874144
44
3.2708526
18
2.9042108
78
2.7474774
19

-83
-80
-76
-70
-55
-30
40
40
50
55
62
65
68
70
72
74
76
76
78
78
80

8.1443464
28
5.6712818
2
4.0107809
34
2.7474774
19
1.4281480
07
0.5773502
69
0.8390996
31
0.8390996
31
1.1917535
93
1.4281480
07
1.8807264
65
2.1445069
21
2.4750868
53
2.7474774
19
3.0776835
37
3.4874144
44
4.0107809
34
4.0107809
34
4.7046301
09
4.7046301
09
5.6712818
2

-68
-65
-60.5
-55
-44
-29
-3
20
41
56.5
66
70
75
78
79
81
82
85
85
85
85

2.4750868
53
2.1445069
21
1.7674940
16
1.4281480
07
0.9656887
75
0.5543090
51
0.0524077
79
0.3639702
34
0.8692867
38
1.5108351
94
2.2460367
74
2.7474774
19
3.7320508
08
4.7046301
09
5.1445540
16
6.3137515
15
7.1153697
22
11.430052
3
11.430052
3
11.430052
3
11.430052
3

Experiment 1

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Experiment 2

VI.

Error Analysis
As you can see above, after we try to draw the graph the
graph doesnt look like a hysteresis graph. Only graph 2
teta vs I that look like a hysteresis curve. The error of this
may graph may be caused by this:

1.
To AC magnetic coil for the iron bar to when one should
be careful not to place too long, otherwise the heat as the
relationship between the electronic movement, although to
magnetic entirely; but due to thermal expansion's sake, make
iron bars can not get stuck in the circle out. The power
required to pay close attention to avoid damage to equipment.
2.
Slow increase in current increases when the note not to
be excessive, or the draw of the curve may not be smooth,
resulting in considerable error. 2 See discussion principle.

3.
Observation of hard and soft iron bar iron bar hysteresis
curves. Hard iron bars of the curve can be found in large, soft
iron bar smaller narrow curve. Namely the hard iron bars were
more obvious hysteresis, this material is suitable for a more
suitable for moving coil loudspeaker, and the header part of
the permanent magnet. The hysteresis loops of soft iron bar
less obvious, less energy consumption curve of the small size,
said. Soft iron in the transformers, electromagnets, magnetic
tapes and computer disks very useful.
4.
Use of the experimental principle, in order to make an
object to the magnetic (demagnetize), for example: tape
heads, need to make it through a series of magnetic field has
been to reduce the hysteresis curve. Shock magnetic field by
the AC current through a coil to generate. Coil start close to
the object to be magnetized, and then slowly go away from
the magnetic objective can be achieved.

VII.
1

Problems

Why magnetic material has magnetic power?


Magnetic and electronic material as long as the movement is
related to a motion of electrons in atoms to establish the atomic
current, and the formation of magnetic dipole moment and
magnetic field.
Atomic angular momentum quantum mechanics is the quantum
of the (quantized), that is only an integer multiple of the basic
unit appears: L = nh = 0, h, 2h ... ..., to L = h on behalf of the
orbit angular momentum L, spin and revolution The relationship
between = eL/2m = eh/4m. This amount is called Bohr
magnetic element (Bohr magneton), its value is 9.2710-24Am2.
In most of the material, each atom of the angular momentum in a
different direction, so then all the atomic magnetic dipole
moment to the average, be equal to zero, but there is a magnetic
source.
According to quantum mechanics, each electron has a definite
spin angular momentum (spin angular momentum). We can e
around an imaginary axis within the spin, it generates an internal
current of change. Because the spin magnetic dipole moment
born just mean Bohr magnetic element. In many atoms and ions,
the spin angular momentum are reversed in pairs, the result
would be no net magnetic dipole moment. Sometimes one or two
electronic to pairs, this time change was a permanent atomic

magnetic dipole. The presence or absence of this magnetic


dipole, the number and intensity of the effects and cause antimagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic material.

In the experiment, if the current look too much added.


What impact? Why not?
Current size of the control of the external magnetic field strength,
if the current is too much at once added, the samples were
magnetized in the magnetic field change increased at this time if
the current book value in the back, then the measured magnetic
field will be slightly larger than actual value, because the induced
magnetic field 1, but bigger, and not the original magnetization
curve along the back, resulting in experimental error. Therefore,
experiments should be carefully and slowly increase the current.
0.2

In the experiment, every increase of 0.2 amps to stay


current by the time difference is large. What will the
phenomenon? Why not?
In ferromagnetic materials, each atom is because one or two
electrons and a magnetic moment since; the size of 1mm size of
these magnetic moments of the magnetic line field (magnetic
domain) completely parallel. In a magnetic field applied parallel
to the magnetic field domain will increase, while the other
magnetic field will be narrowed; when larger 0.2 amps per stay
by the difference in time increases, allowing an external
magnetic field and magnetic field the sample will yield more
complete heat balance; reverse magnetic field of the sample
because of time better than a long field with the same tendency
to. Induction of the magnetic field caused by large hysteresis
curve outward expansion of the experiment more accurate.

Ferromagnetic material in a hand of soft magnetic


materials and hard magnetic materials, they were living
in public in what application?
Soft Ferromagnets
The general range of applications for soft magnets is clear from
the table above. It is also clear that we want the hystereses loop
as "flat" as possible, and as steeply inclined as possible.
Moreover, quite generally we would like the material to have a
high resistivity.
The requirements concerning the maximum frequency with
which one can run through the hystereses loop are more
specialized: Most power applications do not need high
frequencies, but the microwave community would love to
have more magnetic materials still "working" at 100 Ghz or

so.
Besides trial and error, what are the guiding principles for
designing soft magnetic materials? There are simple basic
answers, but it is not so simple to turn these insights into
products:
Essentially, remanence is directly related to the ease of
movement of domain walls. If they can move easily in
response to magnetic fields, remanence (and coercivity) will
be low and the hystereses loop is flat.
The essential quantities to control, partially mentioned before,
therefore are:
The density of domain walls. The fewer domain walls you
have to move around, the easier it is going to be.
The density of defects able to "pin" domain walls. These are
not just the classical lattice defects encountered in neat
single- or polycrystalline material, but also the cavities,
inclusion of second phases, scratches, microcracks or
whatever in real sintered or hot-pressed material mixtures.
The general anisotropy of the magnetic properties; including
the anisotropy of the magnetization ("easy" and "hard"
direction, of the magnetostriction, or even induced the shape
of magnetic particles embedded in a non-magnetic matrix
(we must expect, e.g. that elongated particles behave
differently if their major axis is in the direction of the field or
perpendicular to it). Large anisotropies generally tend to
induce large obstacles to domain movement.
Hard Ferromagnet
CATEGORY #1
Applications that make use of the tractive and/or repelling force of the magnet,
i.e., the attraction between a magnet and a soft magnetic material, such as a
piece of iron or steel, or the attraction or repulsion between two magnets, is used
to do mechanical work. The following applications are in this category:

Magnetic separators, magnetic holding devices, such as magnetic latches.

Magnetic torque drives

Magnetic bearing devices

CATEGORY #2
Applications that make use of the magnetic field of the magnet to convert
mechanical energy to electrical energy. Some of these applications are:

Magnetos

Generators and alternators

Eddy current brakes (used widely for watt-hour meter damping). (This
application could be listed under electrical to mechanical energy

conversion; but as mechanical energy is used to create the eddy currents,


it will be discussed with this group.)
CATEGORY #3
Applications that make use of the magnetic field of the magnet to convert
electrical energy to mechanical energy. Some of these applications are:

Motors

Meters

Loudspeakers

Relays

Actuators, linear, and rotational

CATEGORY #4
Applications that use the magnetic field of the magnet to direct, shape and
control electron or ion beams. Some of these applications follow:

Magnetic focused cathode-ray tubes

Traveling Wave Tubes

Magnetrons, BWOs, Klystrons

Ion Pumps

Cyclotrons