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PHY 2049 FALL 2000 EXAM 1 (MAKEUP)

1. A sphere of radius R with a spherical cavity of radius R/2, as shown, is charged with
a uniform charge density . Find the electric eld at the point P at a distance R from
the center of the sphere on the same side where the cavity is. Hint: A uniformly charged
sphere with a cavity can be viewed as a superposition of two spheres: a solid sphere of radius
R without a cavity and uniformly charged with a charge density and a smaller sphere of
radius R/2 uniformly charged with a charge density . In the place where the two spheres
overlap, one would equivalently get a zero charge density. Volume of a sphere of radius r is
4
r 3 . Answer: 2kR/3
3

The electric eld on the surface of a sphere of radius R and charge Q is Esphere = kQ/R2 .
The charge is related to the charge density and the volume of the sphere Q = ()(4R3 /3).
This gives
kQ
4kR
k 4R3
Esphere = 2 = 2
=
.
R
R
3
3
E1 is the electric eld at the surface of a uniformly charged sphere of radius R and charge
density . E2 is the electric eld at a distance R exterior to a sphere of radius R/2 and
charge density . Using the general expression for the electric eld at the surface of a
sphere, the net electric eld is
E = E1 + E2
4kR 4k() R2
+
=
3
3
4kR 2k

=
3
3
2kR
.
=
3
2. An atom of hydrogen is a proton with an electron orbiting it along a circular path of
diameter d = 1010 m. What must be the velocity of an electron so that it could remain
on this orbit? Express the answer in terms of the speed of light c = 3 108 m/s. Hint:
the centripetal acceleration for a particle moving with velocity v along a circular orbit of
radius r is a = v 2 /r. Electron mass is m = 9 1031 kg and the elementary charge is

e = 1.6 1019 C. Answer: 0.0075c.


The force is

k|e|| e|
ke2
F =
= 2 .
r2
r
2
Newtons second law is F = mac = mv /r. Substituting
m

ke2
v2
=
r
r2

ke2
v =
mr
=



 (8.99 109


Nm2 /C2 )(1.6 1019 C)2


(9 1031 kg)(0.5 1010 m)

= 2.26 106 m/s.


In terms of c, v/c = (2.26 106 m/s)/(3 108 m/s) = 0.0075.
3. Two charges of the same sign and value are placed along y-axis at y = d and y = d.
Find the x-coordinate of a point
P along the axis x (x > 0) where the strength of electric
eld is maximal. Answer: d/ 2

y=d
r

E1
P (x=?)

x
E2

r
y=-d

Since the charges and distances to P are equal, the electric elds will have the same
magnitude. The net electric eld is
 = E1 + E2
E
= (E1 cos + E1 sin ) + (E2 cos E2 sin )
= 2E1 cos
kQ x
E = 2 2
r r
2kQx
.
=
2
(x + d2 )3/2

To nd the maximum, use the rst derivative test.




(x2 + d2 )3/2 ( 32 (x2 + d2 )1/2 2x)x


dE
= 2kQ
dx
(x2 + d2 )3

2kQ x2 + d2 2
0 =
(x + d2 3x2 )
(x2 + d2 )3
2x2 = d2
d
x = .
2

 will experience an electrostatic force. The


4. A negative charge placed in electric eld E
direction of this force: Answer: opposite to the electric eld vector.
 If the charge q is negative,
The force is related to the external electric eld by F = q E.
the force and the electric eld will be in opposite directions.
5. Three charges of the same sign and value q are placed in the corners of
a square with a
2
side d as shown in the gure. Find the force acting on charge 2. Answer: 2 dq 2 k
1

F3
F1

From the diagram


F = F1 + F3
= F1 F3.

Since the charges and the distances are equal, the forces have the same magnitude
F1 = F3 =

k|q||q|
kq 2
=
.
d2
d2

The magnitude of the net force is




F =

(F1 )2 + (F2 )2 =

2 F1 =

kq 2
2 2.
d

6. Two charges of the same sign and value q are separated by some distance d as shown in
the gure. A third charge is placed in the center point right between them so the net force

F13

F12

on each of the charges is zero. Find the value of the third charge in terms of q. Answer:
q/4.
If all three charges have the same sign, q1 and q2 will be repelled outward. Therefore,
the sign of q3 must be opposite the signs of the other charges. The forces on q1 is
F1 = F12 + F13
= F12 + F13
F1 = F12 + F13
k|q1 ||q2 | k|q1 ||q3 |
0 =
+
(r12 )2
(r13 )2
k|q||q| k|q||q3 |
= 2 + d 2
d
(2)
= |q| + 4|q3 |
|q|
|q3 | =
4
Remembering that the sign on q3 is the opposite to the sign of q gives q3 = q/4.
7. A charge Q is placed in the center of a shell of radius R. The ux of electric eld
through the shell surface is 0 . What is the new ux through the shell surface, if its radius
is doubled? Answer: 0 .
Gausss law states that the total ux through a closed surface is proportional to the
total charge enclosed by the surface. Since the charge is unchanged, the ux is still 0 .
 = (ax)i, with a = 2 N/Cm. Find the
8. The electric eld in three dimensions is E
approximate amount of electric charge inside a cube with a side of 1 m and oriented as
shown in the gure. Answer: 18 pC
y

Applying Gausss law over the six sides of the cube




 dA

E

 dA
1 +
E

 dA
2 +
E

 dA
3 +
E

 dA
4 +
E

 dA
5 +
E

 dA
 6.
E

Let L = 1 m be the length of a cube edge. Assume also that the sides are enumerated as
follows:
Area
1
2
3
4
5
6

Location
yz plane
parallel to yz plane at x = L
xy plane
parallel to xy plane at z = L
xz plane
parallel to xz plane at y = L

 dA

E
Normal

E(x = 0) dA

E(x = L) dA

k
0

0
k

 is in the x direction, there is only a ux through sides 1 and 2. The ux through


Since E
side 1 is also zero since when x = 0, E = ax = 0. The total ux is

 dA
2
E
E(x = L) dA

= E(x = L)

dA

= a(L)(Area of side 1)
= aL(L2 )
= 2 Nm2 /C.
Gauss law implies qenc = 0 = 1.77 1011 C.
9. An atom of hydrogen is a proton with an electron orbiting it along a circular path of
radius R. This can be viewed as a proton (charge e) surrounded by a uniformly charged
ring with a total charge e. Find the electric eld along the line of symmetry (z-axis as
2
shown in gure) at a distance z so that z  R. Answer: 3eR
k
2z 4

11
00
00
11
R
00
11
0
1
001
11
0

11
00
00
11

Ering

Echarge

 = E


E
charge + Ering

E = Echarge Ering
k| e|z
k|e|
2
=
2
z
(R + z 2 )3/2


1
z
= ke 2 2
z
(R + z 2 )3/2


1
z
= ke 2 2
z
(z ((R/z)2 + 1))3/2

ke
R
1 1+ 2
2
z
z

3/2

ke
3 R2
2 1 (1 +
z
2 z2
ke 3 R2
= 2
z 2 z2
3keR2
=
.
2z 4

The binomial expansion has been used to nd (1 + (R2 /z 2 ))3/2 1 + (3/2)(R2 /z 2 ).


10. Two very small spheres have equal masses m, and charges of the same sign and value q,
and hang on strings of length L as shown in gure. Due to the repulsive force, the spheres
are separated by some distance d - nd this distance.
that d  L so that you can
 Assume
q2 k
3
use the approximation tan sin . Answer: 2L mg

00
11
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
00
11
11
00
11
00
11
L
00
11
00
0011
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
T
00
11
00
11
F
001
0011
11
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
mg
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
d=?
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
The conditions of equilibrium


Fx = F T sin
0 = F T sin
F = T sin

and


Fy = T cos mg

0 = T cos mg
mg = T cos .
Dividing the two equations
F
T sin
=
mg
T cos
F = mg tan
The repulsive force is electrostatic, F = kq 2 /d2 . For small , use tan sin . From the
diagram, sin = (d/2)/L = d/2L. Substituting
kq 2
d
= mg
2
d
2L
kq 2 2L = mgd3

2kq 2 L
.
d = 3
mg