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OPERATING SYSTEM

OPERATING SYSTEM

USER

COMPUTER

CPU

PRINTER

WHY OS IS NEEDED

CPU WORKS MUCH FASTER THAN INPUT


OUTPUT DEVICES,SO WE NEED A RESOURCE
MANAGER TO CONTROL ALL THE RESOURECS
AVAILABLE IN THE COMPUTER .THEN ONLY
THEYWILLBEUSEFULTOTHEUSER

Features of modern OS

Provide a user
interface
Organize files on disk
Allocating resource to
different users with
security control
Co-ordinate
programs to work
with devices and
other programs

Function of Operating System

OS as resource manager

Memory Management
IO Management
CPU Scheduling
IPC
Multitasking/Multiprogramming

OSinMemoryManagement

OS in Memory Management

OS in Memory Management

OS in IO Management & CPU Handling

Cannot allow CPU to do nothing while


waiting for a printer to complete one
printing job before giving it another job
HOW? Two concepts: 1. Channel and
2. Interrupt

OS in IO Management & CPU Handling

CHANNEL: a hardware sub-system that works


independently from the processor to transfer data
between peripherals and memory.
INTERRUPT: a processor facility that causes the CPU
to:
1. stop executing current instruction sequence,
2. save the content of the Program Counter (PC) on
the stack,
3. load the Program Counter with a new value.

OS in IO Management & CPU Handling

Current
instruction
sequence

PC

N+1
interrupt
:

Processorwaitstill
endofcurrent instruction
beforeactingoninterrupt

New
instruction
sequence

Interrupt
Vector
PC
Status

Returnfrom
Interrupt

SavePConstack
GetnewPCvaluefromthe
interruptvectorofthis
interruptline.

OS AS IPC(INTER PROCESS COMMUNICATION)

CPU IN
Multitasking/Multiprogramming

Memory partitioned into several pieces


CPU Starts a job
If the job is waiting for IO, the CPU can switch to another
task

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW

MS-DOS
Unix
Mac OS
Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Linux
Microsoft

Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows

3.x
95 & 98
CE
NT

Windows XP

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW-DOS

16-bitoperatingsystem,originally

single-user,singletask,limitedabilityto
shareresourcesacrossmachines.
Version3.1introducedsomemultiuserfunctions,&itwascalledasa
networkoperatingsystem(NOS)

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW-DOS

Developed for IBM personal


computers
Command Line Interface
Files dealing with Hardware consists of
Device Drivers (console unit handling)

MSDOS.SYS
IO.SYS
COMMAND.COM

SOME BASIC DOS COMMANDS

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- UNIX


Supportsmultipleusers,multiple

tasks
TCP/IPisitsinternetsuiteof
protocols.
ChoiceforLANserversrunning
largedatabasesandotherenterprisescalejobs.

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- UNIX

Unix -1970, Bell Labs


Client/Server Technology
Written in C language
Sharing Resources
Drawbacks

Lack of compatibility with different


versions
Lack of user-friendliness
Cryptic commands

SOME BASIC UNIX COMMANDS

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Mac OS

Macintosh OS 1984
By Apple Company
Integrates features of both UNIX & DOS
Easy access of Frequently used files
Supports Graphic Technologies namely
Quartz, OpenGL and QuickTime

Portability, Protected Memory and Suitable


for Internet Applications are the main
advantages

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows 3.x


(Windows 3.0, 3.1, 3.11,etc.,)

Windows 3.0 32 bit


Processor(80386)
Consists Virtual Device Drivers
(VxDs)

Extended Memory & Multi Tasking

Features of windows 3.0

Program Manager
File Manager
Print Manager

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows 3.x


(Windows 3.0, 3.1, 3.11,etc.,)

Peer-to-peer workgroup
Domain Networking support
LAN Connection
Centralized security
Remote access service

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEWWIN 95 & WIN 98

Windows 95

Designed to run 16-bit and 32-bit


applications.
Built-in Internet facilities, Dialup Networking,
Plug and Play
Networking, Graphical capabilities

Windows 98
1.
2.
3.

Improved Internet Connectivity


USP Connections (Universal Serial Bus/Port)
ICS (Internet Connection Sharing)

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows CE

Windows CE mainly used for handheld


devices i.e. Pocket PC.
Fall 1996 Handheld PC

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows CE

Pocket PC 2000

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows CE


Windows CE 2000

Pocket Word, Pocket Excel, Windows


Media Player
Handwriting recognition
Calendar, contacts, tasks

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows CE

Palm-size PC 2.0

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- LINUX

Before Linux
In 80s, Microsofts DOS was the dominated OS for
PC
Apple MAC is better, but expensive
UNIX is much better, but much much expensive.
People was looking for a UNIX based system, which
is cheaper and can run on PC
Both DOS, MAC and UNIX are proprietary, i.e., the
source code of their kernel is protected
No modification is possible without paying high
license fees

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- LINUX

GNU project
Established in 1984 by Richard Stallman, who
believes that software should be free from restrictions
against copying or modification in order to make
better and efficient computer programs
GNU is a recursive acronym for Gnu's Not Unix
Aim at developing a complete Unix-like operating
system which is free for copying and modification
Companies make their money by maintaining and
distributing the software, e.g. optimally packaging the
software with different tools (Red hat, Slack ware,
Mandrake, SuSE, etc)

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- LINUX

Beginning

of Linux

In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second year student


of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki,
developed the preliminary kernel of Linux, known as
Linux version 0.0.1

It was put to the Internet and received


enormous response from worldwide
software developers

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- LINUX

Linux

Today

Linux has been used for many computing platforms


PC, PDA, Supercomputer,
Current kernel version 2.4.20. 2.5 is coming
Not only character user interface but graphical user
interface

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- LINUX

Advantages

over Windows

It's almost free to relatively inexpensive


Source code is included
Linux is truly multi-user and multi-tasking

multiuser:

OS that can simultaneously serve a number of users


multitasking: OS that can simultaneously execute a number of
programs

Linux runs on equipment that other operating systems


consider too underpowered, e.g. 386 systems, PDA, etc

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- LINUX

Disadvantages

compared with Windows

Isn't as popular as Windows


No one commercial company is responsible for Linux
Linux is relatively hard to install, learn and use

Hence

currently, Linux is mainly used in


commercial applications, server implementation
More than 75% current network servers are
developed based on Linux or Unix systems

Due to the relatively high reliability

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEWWindows NT

Windows NT has its own NTFS file system,


but supports other file systems

FAT, HPFS, CDFS

Windows NT was designed (in part) as a


OSI-based Network Operating System
Windows NT can provide support for clientserver environments with high security
Support for NetBEUI, TCP/IP, IPX/SPX,
DECnet, AppleTalk, and others
NT implements virtual memory
No direct process memory control

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEWWindows XP

Much faster boot time

Goal: < 30 seconds from power-on to login


prompt

Native Support for CD writers and DVDROM


IEEE1394/FireWire support, System
Recovery
Driver Rollback Utility

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEWWindows XP - Driver Rollback

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows XP


Networking Improvements #1

Automatic
configurations of
networks available
if primary TCP/IP
settings are set to
Obtain
Automatically

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows XP


Networking Improvements #2

Built in firewall
(ICF)

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEWWindows XP Improvements

Application compatibility modes


LCD panel readability improvements
Smart start menu
Choice of interface styles
Remote desktop support

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows XP Application Compatibility Mode

Selects OS model
for application to
run under.
Restores
compatibility for
many applications
that didnt work
under Win2000.

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows XP


Improvements - LCD panel readability

Enhances text
quality on LCD
panels of all kinds.

Display properties
-> appearance ->
effects

Try it!

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows XP


Improvements - Smart Start Menu

Customizable
Moves icons for
frequently-used
apps for faster
access

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW- Windows XP UI


Improvements -Classic vs XP Style

THANK YOU