You are on page 1of 34

# Short Circuit Studies

## During Short Circuit Studies, power systems

are solved to obtain current magnitudes during
faults at different points in the network.
M Fault: Failure in a circuit which interferes with
the normal flow of current

## Purposes of a Short Circuit Study

To design a PROTECTION scheme to prevent
damage to the electric equipment in case of the
occurrence of a fault.
Location of breakers
Selection of breakers
o Ratings of breakers

Coordination of the Protection
o Interruption of the current
o Isolation of the fault
o Sequence of operation
o Protection backup

## When designing the electrical installation

When changing operating conditions
When installing or removing equipment
When planning expansion

Types of Faults

Symmetrical Faults
Faults involving the three-phases
o about only 5% of the cases

Easiest to evaluate
Required in a Short Circuit Study because they
are commonly the worst case

Unsymmetrical Faults
Faults involving some unbalance
o Line to ground faults (one phase to ground)

## o Line-to-line faults (between two phases)

about 25% of the faults are line-to-line faults

## To solve for these faults, we require the use of

symmetrical components and sequence networks

a
b
c

a
b
c

Fault impedance

a
b
c

## Line to ground fault through impedance

a
b
c

Fault impedance

Line-to-line fault
a
b
c

## Line-to-line to ground fault

a
b
c

Fault impedance

Transients in RL Circuits

R
+

vs = Ri + L

i(t)
Vs

di
dt

i ( 0) = 0

Vmax sin( wt + ) = Ri + L

di
dt

T h e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e c u r r e n t c o n t a i n s a f o r c e d r e sp o n s e ( s t e a d y s t a t e ),
a n d a t r a n s i e n t r e s p o n s e ( n a t u ral):
i(t) = i s t e a d y - state + i t r a n s i e n t
The steady - state or forced resp onse can b e obtained using phasors:

V s V max

V
=
= m a x ( ) = I m a x
Z
Z
Z

i s t e a d y - s t a t e = I m a x sin ( w t + )
w h e r e: Z =

R 2 + w 2 L2

and

wL
= t a n 1

T h e t r a n s i e n t r e s p o n s e i s t h e n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e o f t h e c i r c u it, w h i c h i s t h e
s o l u t i o n t o t h e h o m o g e n e o u s d if f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n : R i + L
itransient = K e

di
= 0
dt

R
t
L

## Therefore, the total response is:

i(t) = K e

R
t
L

if i(0) = 0 ,
and

+ I m a x sin ( w t + )
then

0 = I m a x sin ( ) + K e 0

K = I m a x sin ( ) = I m a x sin ( )

i(t) = I m a x

LR t

sin ( ) + sin ( w t + )
e

RL circuit

i(t) = I max e

R
t
L

60

100
50

40

20
-50
0
0

0.05

0.1

-100 0

0.05

0.1

forced

natural
100
50

0
-50
-100
0.1

total current

## Short Circuit Current in a Synchronous Generator

Line current during a three-phase short circuit
600
400
200
0
-200
-400
transient

-600subtransient

Ia
+
Ed
-

jXd

ra

Ia
+
Vt
-

+
Ed
-

## Ed : Internal subtransient voltage

Vt : Terminal voltage
Xd : Subtransient reactance

jXd

ra

+
Vt
-

## Ed : Internal transient voltage

Vt : Terminal voltage
Xd : Transient reactance

Ia
+
Ed
-

jXd

ra

+
Vt
-

## Ed : Internal steady-state voltage

Vt : Terminal voltage

Xd > Xd > Xd

GENERATOR
50 MVA, 13.8 KV
xd"=15%
xd'=25%
xd=80%

TRANSFORMER
50 MVA, 13.8-69 KV
x=10%

Three-phase
short circuit

## Find the subtransient, transient, and steady-state

generator current when a three-phase short circuit occurs
at the high-voltage transformer terminals. Before the
fault, there is no load connected and the open circuit
voltage at the line terminals is 69KV. Neglect all
resistances.

Solution
The equivalent circuits for subtransient, transient, and steadystate periods are shown below. Solving each one will give the
magnitude of the fault current during its corresponding stage
Subtransient solution:
+
1 p.u.
-

j0.15

j0.10
If

Transient solution:
+
1 p.u.
-

j0.25

j0.10
If

+
1 p.u.
-

j0.80

j0.10
If

## Since the generator is not supplying any current, we

assume Ed=Ed=Ed=100%
For each circuit, we find the short - circuit current as:
1
= j 4 p. u.
j0.25
1
Transient:
If '=
= j 2.857 p. u.
j0.35
1
= j1111
p. u.
.
j0.90

Subtransient: If '' =

50000
Ibase1 =
= 2091.85
amperes
3 138
.

( )

## Generator current magnitudes are:

Subtransient: If ' ' = 4.000 x Ibase1 = 8367 amperes
Transient:

## Loaded Machine under Fault Conditions

P
GENERATOR
50 MVA, 13.8 KV
xd"=15%
xd'=25%
xd=80%
ra=2%

TRANSFORMER
50 MVA, 13.8-69 KV
x=10%
r=1%

Three-phase
short-circuit

50MVA
69KV
pf=0.9 (-)

## Assume a three-phase short-circuit occurs at point P.

To evaluate a fault during the subtransient or transient
period, we need to know the pre-fault current value IL.

ra
+
Ed
-

jXd
IL

rt

jXt

Switch
'S'

## Switch S is normally open.

Close it to simulate a fault at point P.

## Pre-Fault Conditions (subtransient)

The load current (pre-fault current) will help us
determine the internal voltage for the subtransient,
before the fault:

ra

jXd"

+
Ed"
-

rt

IL

jXt

+
Vt
-

P
+
Vf
-

## Neglecting transformer and generator resistances:

jXd"
+
Ed"
-

jXt
+ IL
Vt
-

P
+
Vf
-

If "
Z
Before the fault, If =0.

jXd'
+
Ed'
-

jXt
+ IL
Vt
-

P
If '

+
Vf
-

## Ed ' Vt + jXd ' I L = Vf + j( X t + X d ' ) I L

Fault Current
To simulate the fault, switch S is now closed.
Subtransient short - circuit current:
Transient short - circuit current:
Steady - state short - circuit current:

Ed "
j ( Xd " + Xt )
Ed '
If ' =
j ( Xd ' + Xt )
Ed
If =
j ( Xd + Xt )

If " =

Multi-Machine System
P
GENERATOR

TRANSFORMER

Three-phase
short-circuit

Synchronous
MOTOR

jXt

jXg
+
Eg
-

P
+
Vf
-

IL

jXm
IL

+
Em
-

jXt

jXg'
+
Eg'
-

P
+
Vf
-

IL

jXm'
IL

+
Em'
-

Transient

jXt

jXg"
+
Eg"
-

IL

P
+
Vf
-

jXm"
IL

+
Em"
-

Subtransient

## Subtransient Short-Circuit Solution

1. Evaluate subtransient internal voltages for generator and
motor under the operating conditions (switch S open).
jXt

jXg"
+
Eg"
-

jXm"

P
If "=0

+
Vf
S -

IL

IL

+
Em"
-

Eg " = Vf + j ( Xt + Xg " ) IL
Em" = Vf jXm" IL
2. Close switch S, and find the current contribution from
generator and motor to the fault.

jXg"
+
Eg"
-

jXt
Ig"

jXm"

If "

Im"

Eg "
Ig " =
j ( Xt + Xg " )

+
Em"
-

Em "
Im " =
jXm"

## Thvenin Equivalent Method

Same multi-machine example (2 machines).
Combining steps 1 and 2.

Eg "
Vf + j ( Xt + Xg " ) IL
=
Ig " =
j ( Xt + Xg " )
j ( Xt + Xg " )
Vf
Ig " =
+ IL
j ( Xt + Xg " )
Igf (lets name this term: Igf )

Em "
Vf jXm" IL
Im " =
=
jXm"
jXm"
Vf
Im" =
IL
jXm"
Imf (lets name this term: Imf )

Vf
Vf
If " = Ig " + Im" =
+ IL +
IL
j ( Xt + Xg " )
jXm"
Vf
Vf
If " =
+
j ( Xt + Xg " ) jXm"
Igf

Imf

Vf
Vf
+
j ( Xt + Xg " )
jXm"

If " =

Igf

Imf

## This expression can be represented in the following circuit:

jXg"

jXt

Igf "
If "

If " =

jXm"

Vf
+

Imf "

If "

jXm"
Imf "
Igf "

+
Vf
-

j(Xg"+Xt)

Vf
Vf
1
1
+
= Vf
+
j ( Xt + X g " )
jXm "
jXm ' '
j ( Xt + Xg ' ' )

1
1
If ' ' = Vf
+
jXm "
jXtg

where: X tg = X t + Xg"

Vf
If " =
Zth

where: Zth = j

## Vf is the pre-fault voltage at the fault point (Thvenin voltage)

Zth is the Thvenin Impedance seen from the fault point.
If is the subtransient fault current.

## Thvenin Equivalent (continued)

Remember that the total subtransient generator current is
Ig = Igf +IL
and the subtransient motor current is
Im = Imf - IL

## The same problem can be solved applying superposition.

The Pre-fault Solution plus the Thvenin Equivalent Solution

jXg"
+
Eg"
-

jXt
Ig"

P
If "

+
Vf
+
-Vf
-

jXm"
Im"

+
Em"
-

## Vf is the pre-fault voltage at P and the short-circuit is

represented by two opposed Vf sources connected in series.

## Superposition and Thvenin

To obtain the total solution, we apply superposition:
1. The pre-fault solution is obtained with Eg, Em and Vf.
This will make
Ig1=IL,
Im1=-IL,
If =0.

jXg"

IL

jXt

+ Ig"1=IL
Eg"
-

jXm"
+
Vf
-

If "=0

Im"1=-IL

+
Em"
-

## 2. The contribution to the fault is obtained with -Vf only.

This will make
Ig2=Igf ,
Im2=Imf ,
If =Igf +Imf .
(Here is where we use the Thvenin equivalent)

jXg"

jXt

+ Ig"2=Igf"
Eg"=0
If "=Igf "+Imf "

jXm"
Vf
+

+
-Vf
-

Im"2=Imf "

+
Em"=0
-

3. Add steps 1 and 2. This will give the total fault currents
Ig=Igf +IL, Im=Imf -IL,
If=Igf +Imf .

## Summary of Fault Analysis Using Thvenin Method

Locate the fault point P.
Represent the system in admittance form.
Convert synchronous machines to their Norton
equivalents.
Build admittance matrix for nodal analysis [YBUS].

G1
G2
G3

..
.

Generators,
Transformers,
Transmission
Lines, etc.

.
.

Gi
FAULTED BUS P
+
If
Vf
If switch open If = 0
If switch closed Vf = 0

Step 1
Find the pre-fault operating conditions.
Name Vf the pre-fault voltage at point P.
With nodal analysis or Load Flow analysis obtain
prefault voltages V1o, V2o, V3o.Vf
Calculate currents Ig1, Ig2, Iline1, Iline2, ...

J1
J2

J3

Ji

.
.

System matrix
[Ybus]

..
.

According to the
method used to
determine the
pre-fault operating
conditions

P
If = 0

+
Vf = Vpre-fault
-

If = Fault current

Step 1 (continued)

J1

.
.

J2
J3

Ji

..
.

System matrix
[Ybus]
P
If = 0

YB U S V = J
V 1 o Y1 1
o
V 2 Y 2 1
. .
=

V f Y p 1
. .

V n0 Y n 1
=
V 1 o Z 1 1
o
V 2 Z 2 1
. .

=
V f Z p 1
. .

V n0 Z n 1

V = Y

BUS

Y1 2

...

Y1 p

...

Y2 2

...

Y2 p

...

Yp2

...

Y pp

...

Yn 2

...

Yn p

...

Z 12
Z 22

...
...

Z1p
Z2p

...
...

Z p2

...

Z pp

...

Zn2

...

Z np

...

J = Z

Y1 n
Y2 n

Y pn

Yn n

BUS

+
Vf = Vpre-fault voltage
-

J1

J2

Jp = 0
.

Jn

## This term is zero

because before
the fault
there is no
fault current
(switch is open)

Z 1n J 1

Z 2n J 2

Z pn J p = 0
.

Z n n J n

Step 2
Find the Thvenin contribution to the fault.
Set all sources to zero (including synchronous motors
internal sources).
Use the subtransient, transient or steady-state
impedances depending on the solution desired.
Apply a voltage source -Vf at point P and solve
the network with this source only. This source injects
current -If into faulted node.
o This will give the fault current If and all changes
in voltages and currents needed.
Name voltage changes V1, V2, V3
Name current changes Ig1, Ig2,.,
Iline1, Iline2
.
.

J1=0
J2=0

Machine Impedances

J3=0

## (for Subtransient, Transient,

Ji=0

..
.

Transformers,
and Transmission
Lines
P
If
If
If

Vf
+

Step 2 (continued)

.
.

J1 = 0
J2 = 0

Machine Impedances

J3 = 0

## (for Subtransient, Transient,

Ji = 0

..
.

Transformers,
and Transmission
Lines
P
If
If
If

V 1 V 1 Z11
V 2 V 2 Z

21
. . .

=
=

Vp
Vf

Z p1
. . .

Vn

Vn

Z n1
This term equals -Vf
because -Vf is the voltage
that we need to add to
the prefault voltage Vf
to have a zero voltage
at point P

Z12

... Z1 p

Z 22

... Z2 p

Z p2

... Z pp

Zn2

... Z np

Vf
+

... Z1n 0
... Z 2 n 0

... Z pn If
.

... Znn 0

## This matrix ZBUS is formed using the

appropriate impedances (subtransient,
transient or steady-state) to form YBUS
before inverting.

Step 2 (continued)
The last e quations can be sim p lified to:
V 1 Z1 p
V 2 Z

2p
. .

= Z [ If
V
f

pp
. .

V
n

n p

or
V 1 = Z 1 p If ,
V 2 = Z 2 p If ,
.....
V p = V f = Z p p If ,
....
V n = Z n p If
from w h ich
V f = Z pp I f

If =

Vf
Z pp

where
I f is the fault current
V f is the pre - fault voltage at poi nt ' P '
Z p p is the Thvenin Im pedance

Step 3
Add solutions for steps 1 and 2.
This is equivalent to solving the network with
the switch closed.

## Voltages during the fault are

V1f=V10+V1, V2f=V2+V2, V3f=V3+V3,

## at the fault Vp=Vf +(-Vf)=0

Currents during the fault are
Ig1+Ig1, Ig2+Ig2
Iline1+Iline1, Iline2+Iline2.

.
.

G1
G2
G3

..
.

System matrix
[Ybus]

Gi
P
If

+
Vf = 0
-

## Study Case: General Solution for Symmetrical Faults

The power system shown operates under steady-state

## conditions with Eg1=1 0 p.u. and Eg2=0.9 30 p.u. when a

solid three-phase fault occurs at node 2.
Obtain the transient short-circuit currents in lines, generators and
transformers.
Evaluate the transient node voltages V1f, V2f and V3f during the
fault (transient period).

TRANSFORMER-1
Y-Y
Zt=0.01+j0.15 p.u.

TRANSFORMER-2
Y-Y
Transmission line 1-2 Zt=0.01+j0.20 p.u.
Z=0.03+j0.4p.u.

Fault
GENERATOR-1
Xd=85%
Xd'=25%
Xd"=10%
ra=1%

## Transmission line 1-3

Z=0.05+j0.5 p.u.

GENERATOR-2
Xd=120%
Xd'=40%
Xd"=20%
Transmission line 2-3
ra=2%
Z=0.05+j0.5 p.u.

3
R=10 p.u.

## Step 1. Pre-Fault Solution

Impedance diagram (all values in p.u.)
i12
z12

iG1

+
+
E1
-

z13

z23

+
V3
-

V1
-

zgt2

i23

i13

zgt1

zgt1=zg1+zt1=0.02+j1
z12=0.03+j0.4
z13=z23=0.05+j0.5
zgt2=zg2+zt2=0.03+j1.4
E1=1

iG2

+
+
E2
-

V2
-

E2=0.930

## Admittance diagram (all values in p.u.)

y12

ygt2

y23

ygt1

y13

I2

I1

ygt1=0.02-j0.9996
y12=0.187-j2.486
y13=y23=0.198-j1.980
ygt2=0.0153-j0.714
I1=0.02-j0.9996
I2=0.333-j0.549

## To solve it, we use nodal analysis.

Y11 Y12 Y13 V1 J1

Y21 Y22 Y23 V2 = J2
Y31 Y32 Y33 V3 J3
0.405 j5466
.

- 0.187 + j2.486
- 0.198 + j1.980

- 0.187 + j2.486
0.399 - j5.180
- 0.198 + j1.980

## - 0.198 + j1.980 V2 = 0.333 j0.549

0.496 j3.960 V3
0

V1 0.9297.1

V2 = 0.91610.2
V3 0.9207.2

Pre-Fault Currents
Line Currents:
Line 1-2
I12=y12 (V1-V2)
I12 =(0.187-j2.486)(0.929 7.1- 0.916 10.2)
I12 = 0.129 151.9 p.u.
Line 1-3
I13=y13 (V1-V3)
I13 =(0.198-j1.980)(0.929 7.1- 0.920 7.2)
I13 = 0.019 87.4 p.u.
Line 2-3
I23=y23 (V2-V3)
I23 =(0.198-j1.980)(0.916 10.2- 0.920 7.2)
I23 = 0.096 18.9 p.u.
Generator Currents:
Generator 1
IG1= I12 + I13 = 0.129 151.9 + 0.019 87.4
IG1= 0.138 144.6
Generator 2
IG2= -I12 + I23 = -0.129 151.9 + 0.096 18.9
IG2= 0.224 24.2

## Power Balance (Pre-Fault)

To verify the solution, a real Power Balance is now
calculated (as an exercise):
Generated Power
Generator 1 + Transformer 1:
SG1=V1 IG1*= (0.929 7.1 )(0.138 144.6 )
SG1= -0.113 + j 0.061
PG1= - 0.113
(where the minus sign means this generator
absorbs P=0.113 p.u. and therefore is acting
as a motor)
QG1=0.061
Generator 2 + Transformer 2:
SG2=V2 IG2*= (0.916 10.2)(0.224 24.2 )
SG2=0.1986 - 0.0495i
PG2= 0.1986
QG2= - 0.0495 (this generator absorbs Q = 0.0495 p.u. and
still generates P = 0.1987 p.u., therefore this
machine acts as a generator)

## Power Balance (continued)

Absorbed Power
Real Power dissipated in lines:
line 1-2: P=I12 2 * Rline12=(0.129) 2(0.03)=0.0005
line 1-3: P=I13 2 * Rline13=(0.019) 2(0.05)=0.00002
line 2-3: P=I23 2 * Rline23=(0.096) 2(0.05)=0.00046

## The power balance is:

Pgenerated=Pabsorbed
0.1986=0.0846+0.0005+0.00002+0.0004+0.113=0.1986

## Note: Nodal analysis has been used to find the operating

conditions of the system before the fault. In practice, a

## Step 2. Fault at Bus 2 (Thvenin Contribution)

To simulate a Fault at Bus 2, we will add the pre-fault
response to the Thvenin Contribution.
We use a source equal to the pre-fault voltage at point 2 and
set all the original sources to zero.
To solve this network for the transient period, we require the
use of transient values for the machines impedances.
The machine impedances for the transient period are:
zg1=0.01 + j 0.25,
zg2=0.03 + j0.4
Including transformers:
zgt1=(0.01+0.01)+j(0.25+0.15)=0.02 + j 0.40
zgt2=(0.02+0.01)+j(0.40+0.20)=0.03 + j 0.60
The matrix [YBUS] and its inverse [ZBUS] become:

Y BUS

0.509 j 6.960

= - 0.187 + j2.486

- 0.198 + j1.980

Z BUS = Y BUS

- 0.187 + j2.486
0.468 - j6.129
- 0.198 + j1.980

- 0.198 + j1.980

- 0.198 + j1.980
0.496 j 3.960

## = 0.014 + j0.186 0.024 + j0.319 0.025 + j0.251

0.023 + j0.229 0.025 + j0.251 0.061 + j 0.487

## Thvenin Contribution (step 2)

Fault current and changes in voltages are now obtained in
in the following way:
V 1 V 1
0

V 2 = Vf = Z BUS If
V 3 V 3
0
V 1

Vf

=
V 3

Z11

Z 21
Z 31

Z12
Z 22
Z 32

Z13 0

Z 23 If
Z 33 0

from where:
V 1 = Z11 0 + ( Z12 If ) + Z13 0 = Z12 If
V 2 = Vf = Z12 0 + ( Z 22 If ) + Z 23 0 = Z 22 If
V 3 = Z 31 0 + ( Z 32 If ) + Z 33 0 = Z 32 If
* Note that only elements from column ' P' are needed.
From the second equation:
Vf
Vf
Vf
If =
=
=
Z 22 Z 22 Z Thev
where Z 22 = Z Thev is the Thevenin impedance for a fault at node 2.

## Thvenin Contribution (step 2)

Fault current and changes in voltages are now calculated.
The Thvenin Impedance for a fault at bus 2 is:
Z22 = ZThev = 0.024 + j0.319
Using the pre - fault voltage at node 2:
Vf = V2 = 0.916 10.2
we find the fault current:
I'f =

## Vf 0.916 10.2 0.916 10.2

=
=
= 2.862 75.4
Z22 0.024 + j0.319 0.320 85.6

## The voltage changes at the other nodes are found from:

V1 = Z12 (-I' f ) = (0.014 + j0.186)(2.862 75.4+180 )
V2 = Z22 (-I' f ) = (0.024 + j0.319)(2.862 75.4+180 )
V3 = Z32 (-I'f ) = (0.025+ j0.251)(2.862 75.4+180 )
V1 = Z12 (-I' f ) = 0.533 169.7
V2 = Z22 (-I' f ) = 0.916 169.8 = Vf
V3 = Z32 (-I'f ) = 0.723 1712
.

2
I12f '
1

Ig2f '

I32f '

If '=2.86275.4
3

## Adding results from steps 1 and 2, we obtain the faulted voltages

at each node:
V1f = V10 + V1 = 0.9297.1 +0.533 -169.7 = 0.3982.7
V2f = V20 + V2 = 0.91610.2+0.916 -169.8 = 0
V3f = V30 + V3 = 0.920 7.2+0.723 -171.2 = 0.1991.3
The current contributions from the lines during the fault are:
I'12f = y12 ( V1f V2f ) = (0.187 j 2.486)(0.3982.70) = 0.992 82.9
I'32f = y32 ( V3f V2f ) = (0.198 j1.980)(0.3982.70) = 0.395 83.0
The generator contribution is found by Kirchhoff Currents Law
at the faulted node:
I'g2f = I' f I'12f I'32f = 1.497 68.5
All quantities have been calculated in per unit.
Results are for phase a.