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Short Circuit Studies

During Short Circuit Studies, power systems


are solved to obtain current magnitudes during
faults at different points in the network.
M Fault: Failure in a circuit which interferes with
the normal flow of current

Purposes of a Short Circuit Study


To design a PROTECTION scheme to prevent
damage to the electric equipment in case of the
occurrence of a fault.
Location of breakers
Selection of breakers
o Ratings of breakers

Proper adjustment of breakers


Coordination of the Protection
o Interruption of the current
o Isolation of the fault
o Sequence of operation
o Protection backup

When is a Short Circuit Study performed?

When designing the electrical installation


When changing operating conditions
When installing or removing equipment
When planning expansion
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Types of Faults

Symmetrical Faults
Faults involving the three-phases
o about only 5% of the cases

Easiest to evaluate
Required in a Short Circuit Study because they
are commonly the worst case

Unsymmetrical Faults
Faults involving some unbalance
o Line to ground faults (one phase to ground)
about 70% of the faults

o Line-to-line faults (between two phases)


about 25% of the faults are line-to-line faults

To solve for these faults, we require the use of


symmetrical components and sequence networks

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Faults in a Three-Phase Line

Solid three-phase fault


a
b
c

Three-phase to ground fault


a
b
c

Fault impedance

Line to ground fault


a
b
c

Line to ground fault through impedance


a
b
c

Fault impedance

Line-to-line fault
a
b
c

Line-to-line to ground fault


a
b
c

Fault impedance

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Transients in RL Circuits

R
+

vs = Ri + L

i(t)
Vs

di
dt

i ( 0) = 0

Vmax sin( wt + ) = Ri + L

di
dt

T h e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e c u r r e n t c o n t a i n s a f o r c e d r e sp o n s e ( s t e a d y s t a t e ),
a n d a t r a n s i e n t r e s p o n s e ( n a t u ral):
i(t) = i s t e a d y - state + i t r a n s i e n t
The steady - state or forced resp onse can b e obtained using phasors:
I steady -state =

V s V max

V
=
= m a x ( ) = I m a x
Z
Z
Z

i s t e a d y - s t a t e = I m a x sin ( w t + )
w h e r e: Z =

R 2 + w 2 L2

and

wL
= t a n 1

T h e t r a n s i e n t r e s p o n s e i s t h e n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e o f t h e c i r c u it, w h i c h i s t h e
s o l u t i o n t o t h e h o m o g e n e o u s d if f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n : R i + L
itransient = K e

di
= 0
dt

R
t
L

Therefore, the total response is:


i(t) = K e

R
t
L

if i(0) = 0 ,
and

+ I m a x sin ( w t + )
then

0 = I m a x sin ( ) + K e 0

K = I m a x sin ( ) = I m a x sin ( )

i(t) = I m a x

LR t

sin ( ) + sin ( w t + )
e

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

RL circuit

Plot for the current


i(t) = I max e

R
t
L

sin( ) + I max sin( wt + )

60

100
50

40

20
-50
0
0

0.05

0.1

-100 0

0.05

0.1

forced

natural
100
50

0
-50
-100
0.1

total current
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Short Circuit Current in a Synchronous Generator


Line current during a three-phase short circuit
600
400
200
0
-200
-400
transient

-600subtransient

steady-state

Transient generator equivalent

Subtransient generator equivalent

Ia
+
Ed
-

jXd

ra

Ia
+
Vt
-

+
Ed
-

Ed : Internal subtransient voltage


Vt : Terminal voltage
Xd : Subtransient reactance

jXd

ra

+
Vt
-

Ed : Internal transient voltage


Vt : Terminal voltage
Xd : Transient reactance

Steady-state generator equivalent

Ia
+
Ed
-

jXd

ra

+
Vt
-

Ed : Internal steady-state voltage


Vt : Terminal voltage
Xd: Steady-state reactance

Xd > Xd > Xd
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Short-Circuit Example: Unloaded Generator

GENERATOR
50 MVA, 13.8 KV
xd"=15%
xd'=25%
xd=80%

TRANSFORMER
50 MVA, 13.8-69 KV
x=10%

Three-phase
short circuit

Find the subtransient, transient, and steady-state


generator current when a three-phase short circuit occurs
at the high-voltage transformer terminals. Before the
fault, there is no load connected and the open circuit
voltage at the line terminals is 69KV. Neglect all
resistances.

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Solution
The equivalent circuits for subtransient, transient, and steadystate periods are shown below. Solving each one will give the
magnitude of the fault current during its corresponding stage
(subtransient, transient, and steady-state).
Subtransient solution:
+
1 p.u.
-

j0.15

j0.10
If

Transient solution:
+
1 p.u.
-

j0.25

j0.10
If

Steady-state solution:
+
1 p.u.
-

j0.80

j0.10
If

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Short-Circuit Currents for the Example

Since the generator is not supplying any current, we


assume Ed=Ed=Ed=100%
For each circuit, we find the short - circuit current as:
1
= j 4 p. u.
j0.25
1
Transient:
If '=
= j 2.857 p. u.
j0.35
1
Steady - state: If =
= j1111
p. u.
.
j0.90

Subtransient: If '' =

Generator currents are found using the base current:


50000
Ibase1 =
= 2091.85
amperes
3 138
.

( )

Generator current magnitudes are:


Subtransient: If ' ' = 4.000 x Ibase1 = 8367 amperes
Transient:

If ' = 2.857 x Ibase1 = 5976 amperes

Steady - state: If = 1.111 x Ibase1 = 2324 amperes

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Loaded Machine under Fault Conditions


P
GENERATOR
50 MVA, 13.8 KV
xd"=15%
xd'=25%
xd=80%
ra=2%

TRANSFORMER
50 MVA, 13.8-69 KV
x=10%
r=1%

Three-phase
short-circuit

Load
50MVA
69KV
pf=0.9 (-)

Assume a three-phase short-circuit occurs at point P.


To evaluate a fault during the subtransient or transient
period, we need to know the pre-fault current value IL.

Impedance diagram for the circuit before fault:

ra
+
Ed
-

jXd
IL

rt

jXt

Switch
'S'

Switch S is normally open.


Close it to simulate a fault at point P.

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Pre-Fault Conditions (subtransient)


The load current (pre-fault current) will help us
determine the internal voltage for the subtransient,
before the fault:

ra

jXd"

+
Ed"
-

rt

IL

jXt

+
Vt
-

P
+
Vf
-

E d ' ' = V t + ( ra + jXd ' ' ) I L = V f + [( ra + rt ) + j ( X t + X d ' ' )] I L

Neglecting transformer and generator resistances:

jXd"
+
Ed"
-

jXt
+ IL
Vt
-

P
+
Vf
-

If "
Z
Before the fault, If =0.

E d ' ' V t + jXd ' ' I L = V f + j( X t + X d ' ' ) I L


@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Pre-Fault Conditions (transient)

The corresponding internal voltage Ed for the transient is:

jXd'
+
Ed'
-

jXt
+ IL
Vt
-

P
If '

+
Vf
-

Before the fault, If =0.

Ed ' Vt + jXd ' I L = Vf + j( X t + X d ' ) I L

Fault Current
To simulate the fault, switch S is now closed.
Subtransient short - circuit current:
Transient short - circuit current:
Steady - state short - circuit current:

Ed "
j ( Xd " + Xt )
Ed '
If ' =
j ( Xd ' + Xt )
Ed
If =
j ( Xd + Xt )

If " =

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Multi-Machine System
P
GENERATOR

TRANSFORMER

Three-phase
short-circuit

Synchronous
MOTOR

Equivalent circuit before the fault:

jXt

jXg
+
Eg
-

P
+
Vf
-

IL

jXm
IL

+
Em
-

Steady-state

jXt

jXg'
+
Eg'
-

P
+
Vf
-

IL

jXm'
IL

+
Em'
-

Transient

jXt

jXg"
+
Eg"
-

IL

P
+
Vf
-

jXm"
IL

+
Em"
-

Subtransient
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Subtransient Short-Circuit Solution


1. Evaluate subtransient internal voltages for generator and
motor under the operating conditions (switch S open).
jXt

jXg"
+
Eg"
-

jXm"

P
If "=0

+
Vf
S -

IL

IL

+
Em"
-

Eg " = Vf + j ( Xt + Xg " ) IL
Em" = Vf jXm" IL
2. Close switch S, and find the current contribution from
generator and motor to the fault.

jXg"
+
Eg"
-

jXt
Ig"

jXm"

If "

Im"

Eg "
Ig " =
j ( Xt + Xg " )

+
Em"
-

Em "
Im " =
jXm"

If " = Ig " + Im"


@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Thvenin Equivalent Method


Same multi-machine example (2 machines).
Combining steps 1 and 2.

Eg "
Vf + j ( Xt + Xg " ) IL
=
Ig " =
j ( Xt + Xg " )
j ( Xt + Xg " )
Vf
Ig " =
+ IL
j ( Xt + Xg " )
Igf (lets name this term: Igf )

Em "
Vf jXm" IL
Im " =
=
jXm"
jXm"
Vf
Im" =
IL
jXm"
Imf (lets name this term: Imf )

Vf
Vf
If " = Ig " + Im" =
+ IL +
IL
j ( Xt + Xg " )
jXm"
Vf
Vf
If " =
+
j ( Xt + Xg " ) jXm"
Igf

Imf

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Thvenin Equivalent (continued)

Vf
Vf
+
j ( Xt + Xg " )
jXm"

If " =

Igf

Imf

This expression can be represented in the following circuit:


jXg"

jXt

Igf "
If "

If " =

jXm"

Vf
+

Imf "

If "

jXm"
Imf "
Igf "

+
Vf
-

j(Xg"+Xt)

Vf
Vf
1
1
+
= Vf
+
j ( Xt + X g " )
jXm "
jXm ' '
j ( Xt + Xg ' ' )

1
1
If ' ' = Vf
+
jXm "
jXtg

where: X tg = X t + Xg"

Vf
If " =
Zth

( Xtg )( Xm ' ' )


where: Zth = j

Xtg + X m ' '

Vf is the pre-fault voltage at the fault point (Thvenin voltage)


Zth is the Thvenin Impedance seen from the fault point.
If is the subtransient fault current.
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Thvenin Equivalent (continued)


Remember that the total subtransient generator current is
Ig = Igf +IL
and the subtransient motor current is
Im = Imf - IL

The same problem can be solved applying superposition.


The Pre-fault Solution plus the Thvenin Equivalent Solution

jXg"
+
Eg"
-

jXt
Ig"

P
If "

+
Vf
+
-Vf
-

jXm"
Im"

+
Em"
-

Vf is the pre-fault voltage at P and the short-circuit is


represented by two opposed Vf sources connected in series.

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Superposition and Thvenin


To obtain the total solution, we apply superposition:
1. The pre-fault solution is obtained with Eg, Em and Vf.
This will make
Ig1=IL,
Im1=-IL,
If =0.

jXg"

IL

jXt

+ Ig"1=IL
Eg"
-

jXm"
+
Vf
-

If "=0

Im"1=-IL

+
Em"
-

2. The contribution to the fault is obtained with -Vf only.


This will make
Ig2=Igf ,
Im2=Imf ,
If =Igf +Imf .
(Here is where we use the Thvenin equivalent)

jXg"

jXt

+ Ig"2=Igf"
Eg"=0
If "=Igf "+Imf "

jXm"
Vf
+

+
-Vf
-

Im"2=Imf "

+
Em"=0
-

3. Add steps 1 and 2. This will give the total fault currents
Ig=Igf +IL, Im=Imf -IL,
If=Igf +Imf .
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Summary of Fault Analysis Using Thvenin Method


Locate the fault point P.
Represent the system in admittance form.
Convert synchronous machines to their Norton
equivalents.
Build admittance matrix for nodal analysis [YBUS].

G1
G2
G3

..
.

Generators,
Transformers,
Loads,
Transmission
Lines, etc.

Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load j

Gi
FAULTED BUS P
+
If
Vf
If switch open If = 0
If switch closed Vf = 0
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 1
Find the pre-fault operating conditions.
Use steady-state values.
Name Vf the pre-fault voltage at point P.
With nodal analysis or Load Flow analysis obtain
prefault voltages V1o, V2o, V3o.Vf
Calculate currents Ig1, Ig2, Iline1, Iline2, ...

J1
J2

J3

Ji

Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m

System matrix
[Ybus]

..
.

According to the
method used to
determine the
pre-fault operating
conditions

P
If = 0

+
Vf = Vpre-fault
-

If = Fault current

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 1 (continued)

J1

Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m

J2
J3

Ji

..
.

System matrix
[Ybus]
P
If = 0

YB U S V = J
V 1 o Y1 1
o
V 2 Y 2 1
. .
=

V f Y p 1
. .


V n0 Y n 1
=
V 1 o Z 1 1
o
V 2 Z 2 1
. .

=
V f Z p 1
. .


V n0 Z n 1

V = Y

BUS

Y1 2

...

Y1 p

...

Y2 2

...

Y2 p

...

Yp2

...

Y pp

...

Yn 2

...

Yn p

...

Z 12
Z 22

...
...

Z1p
Z2p

...
...

Z p2

...

Z pp

...

Zn2

...

Z np

...

J = Z

Y1 n
Y2 n

Y pn

Yn n

BUS

+
Vf = Vpre-fault voltage
-

J1

J2

Jp = 0
.

Jn

This term is zero


because before
the fault
there is no
fault current
(switch is open)

Z 1n J 1

Z 2n J 2

Z pn J p = 0
.

Z n n J n

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 2
Find the Thvenin contribution to the fault.
Set all sources to zero (including synchronous motors
internal sources).
Use the subtransient, transient or steady-state
impedances depending on the solution desired.
Apply a voltage source -Vf at point P and solve
the network with this source only. This source injects
current -If into faulted node.
o This will give the fault current If and all changes
in voltages and currents needed.
Name voltage changes V1, V2, V3
Name current changes Ig1, Ig2,.,
Iline1, Iline2
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m

J1=0
J2=0

Machine Impedances

J3=0

(for Subtransient, Transient,


or Steady-state),

Ji=0

..
.

Transformers,
and Transmission
Lines
P
If
If
If

Vf
+
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 2 (continued)

Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m

J1 = 0
J2 = 0

Machine Impedances

J3 = 0

(for Subtransient, Transient,


or Steady-state),

Ji = 0

..
.

Transformers,
and Transmission
Lines
P
If
If
If

V 1 V 1 Z11
V 2 V 2 Z


21
. . .

=
=

Vp
Vf


Z p1
. . .

Vn

Vn


Z n1
This term equals -Vf
because -Vf is the voltage
that we need to add to
the prefault voltage Vf
to have a zero voltage
at point P

Z12

... Z1 p

Z 22

... Z2 p

Z p2

... Z pp

Zn2

... Z np

Vf
+

... Z1n 0
... Z 2 n 0

... Z pn If
.

... Znn 0

This matrix ZBUS is formed using the


appropriate impedances (subtransient,
transient or steady-state) to form YBUS
before inverting.
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 2 (continued)
The last e quations can be sim p lified to:
V 1 Z1 p
V 2 Z

2p
. .

= Z [ If
V
f

pp
. .

V
n

n p

or
V 1 = Z 1 p If ,
V 2 = Z 2 p If ,
.....
V p = V f = Z p p If ,
....
V n = Z n p If
from w h ich
V f = Z pp I f

If =

Vf
Z pp

where
I f is the fault current
V f is the pre - fault voltage at poi nt ' P '
Z p p is the Thvenin Im pedance
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 3
Add solutions for steps 1 and 2.
This is equivalent to solving the network with
the switch closed.

Voltages during the fault are


V1f=V10+V1, V2f=V2+V2, V3f=V3+V3,

at the fault Vp=Vf +(-Vf)=0


Currents during the fault are
Ig1+Ig1, Ig2+Ig2
Iline1+Iline1, Iline2+Iline2.

Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m

G1
G2
G3

..
.

System matrix
[Ybus]

Gi
P
If

+
Vf = 0
-

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Study Case: General Solution for Symmetrical Faults


The power system shown operates under steady-state

conditions with Eg1=1 0 p.u. and Eg2=0.9 30 p.u. when a


solid three-phase fault occurs at node 2.
Obtain the transient short-circuit currents in lines, generators and
transformers.
Evaluate the transient node voltages V1f, V2f and V3f during the
fault (transient period).

TRANSFORMER-1
Y-Y
Zt=0.01+j0.15 p.u.

TRANSFORMER-2
Y-Y
Transmission line 1-2 Zt=0.01+j0.20 p.u.
Z=0.03+j0.4p.u.

Fault
GENERATOR-1
Xd=85%
Xd'=25%
Xd"=10%
ra=1%

Transmission line 1-3


Z=0.05+j0.5 p.u.

GENERATOR-2
Xd=120%
Xd'=40%
Xd"=20%
Transmission line 2-3
ra=2%
Z=0.05+j0.5 p.u.

3
LOAD
R=10 p.u.

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 1. Pre-Fault Solution


Impedance diagram (all values in p.u.)
i12
z12

iG1

+
+
E1
-

z13

z23

+
V3
-

V1
-

zgt2

i23

i13

zgt1

zgt1=zg1+zt1=0.02+j1
z12=0.03+j0.4
z13=z23=0.05+j0.5
zgt2=zg2+zt2=0.03+j1.4
zLoad=10
E1=1

iG2

+
+
E2
-

V2
zLoad
-

E2=0.930

Admittance diagram (all values in p.u.)


y12

ygt2

y23

ygt1

y13

I2

I1

ygt1=0.02-j0.9996
y12=0.187-j2.486
y13=y23=0.198-j1.980
ygt2=0.0153-j0.714
yload=0.1
I1=0.02-j0.9996
I2=0.333-j0.549

To solve it, we use nodal analysis.


Y11 Y12 Y13 V1 J1


Y21 Y22 Y23 V2 = J2
Y31 Y32 Y33 V3 J3
0.405 j5466
.

- 0.187 + j2.486
- 0.198 + j1.980

- 0.187 + j2.486
0.399 - j5.180
- 0.198 + j1.980

- 0.198 + j1.980 V1 0.02 j 0.9996


- 0.198 + j1.980 V2 = 0.333 j0.549

0.496 j3.960 V3
0

V1 0.9297.1

V2 = 0.91610.2
V3 0.9207.2
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Pre-Fault Currents
Line Currents:
Line 1-2
I12=y12 (V1-V2)
I12 =(0.187-j2.486)(0.929 7.1- 0.916 10.2)
I12 = 0.129 151.9 p.u.
Line 1-3
I13=y13 (V1-V3)
I13 =(0.198-j1.980)(0.929 7.1- 0.920 7.2)
I13 = 0.019 87.4 p.u.
Line 2-3
I23=y23 (V2-V3)
I23 =(0.198-j1.980)(0.916 10.2- 0.920 7.2)
I23 = 0.096 18.9 p.u.
Generator Currents:
Generator 1
IG1= I12 + I13 = 0.129 151.9 + 0.019 87.4
IG1= 0.138 144.6
Generator 2
IG2= -I12 + I23 = -0.129 151.9 + 0.096 18.9
IG2= 0.224 24.2
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Power Balance (Pre-Fault)


To verify the solution, a real Power Balance is now
calculated (as an exercise):
Generated Power
Generator 1 + Transformer 1:
SG1=V1 IG1*= (0.929 7.1 )(0.138 144.6 )
SG1= -0.113 + j 0.061
PG1= - 0.113
(where the minus sign means this generator
absorbs P=0.113 p.u. and therefore is acting
as a motor)
QG1=0.061
Generator 2 + Transformer 2:
SG2=V2 IG2*= (0.916 10.2)(0.224 24.2 )
SG2=0.1986 - 0.0495i
PG2= 0.1986
QG2= - 0.0495 (this generator absorbs Q = 0.0495 p.u. and
still generates P = 0.1987 p.u., therefore this
machine acts as a generator)

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Power Balance (continued)

Absorbed Power
Load:
PLoad=(V3)2/Rload=(0.920) 2*0.1=0.0846 p.u.
Real Power dissipated in lines:
line 1-2: P=I12 2 * Rline12=(0.129) 2(0.03)=0.0005
line 1-3: P=I13 2 * Rline13=(0.019) 2(0.05)=0.00002
line 2-3: P=I23 2 * Rline23=(0.096) 2(0.05)=0.00046

The power balance is:


Pgenerated=Pabsorbed
PG2=PLoad+P line12+P line13+Pline23+Pabsorbed-G1
0.1986=0.0846+0.0005+0.00002+0.0004+0.113=0.1986

Note: Nodal analysis has been used to find the operating


conditions of the system before the fault. In practice, a
Load-flow solution would have been used instead.

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 2. Fault at Bus 2 (Thvenin Contribution)


To simulate a Fault at Bus 2, we will add the pre-fault
response to the Thvenin Contribution.
We use a source equal to the pre-fault voltage at point 2 and
set all the original sources to zero.
To solve this network for the transient period, we require the
use of transient values for the machines impedances.
The machine impedances for the transient period are:
zg1=0.01 + j 0.25,
zg2=0.03 + j0.4
Including transformers:
zgt1=(0.01+0.01)+j(0.25+0.15)=0.02 + j 0.40
zgt2=(0.02+0.01)+j(0.40+0.20)=0.03 + j 0.60
The matrix [YBUS] and its inverse [ZBUS] become:

Y BUS

0.509 j 6.960

= - 0.187 + j2.486

- 0.198 + j1.980

Z BUS = Y BUS

- 0.187 + j2.486
0.468 - j6.129
- 0.198 + j1.980

- 0.198 + j1.980

- 0.198 + j1.980
0.496 j 3.960

0.020 + j 0.275 0.014 + j0.186 0.023 + j0.229

= 0.014 + j0.186 0.024 + j0.319 0.025 + j0.251


0.023 + j0.229 0.025 + j0.251 0.061 + j 0.487

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Thvenin Contribution (step 2)


Fault current and changes in voltages are now obtained in
in the following way:
V 1 V 1
0

V 2 = Vf = Z BUS If
V 3 V 3
0
V 1

Vf

=
V 3

Z11

Z 21
Z 31

Z12
Z 22
Z 32

Z13 0

Z 23 If
Z 33 0

from where:
V 1 = Z11 0 + ( Z12 If ) + Z13 0 = Z12 If
V 2 = Vf = Z12 0 + ( Z 22 If ) + Z 23 0 = Z 22 If
V 3 = Z 31 0 + ( Z 32 If ) + Z 33 0 = Z 32 If
* Note that only elements from column ' P' are needed.
From the second equation:
Vf
Vf
Vf
If =
=
=
Z 22 Z 22 Z Thev
where Z 22 = Z Thev is the Thevenin impedance for a fault at node 2.

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Thvenin Contribution (step 2)


Fault current and changes in voltages are now calculated.
The Thvenin Impedance for a fault at bus 2 is:
Z22 = ZThev = 0.024 + j0.319
Using the pre - fault voltage at node 2:
Vf = V2 = 0.916 10.2
we find the fault current:
I'f =

Vf 0.916 10.2 0.916 10.2


=
=
= 2.862 75.4
Z22 0.024 + j0.319 0.320 85.6

The voltage changes at the other nodes are found from:


V1 = Z12 (-I' f ) = (0.014 + j0.186)(2.862 75.4+180 )
V2 = Z22 (-I' f ) = (0.024 + j0.319)(2.862 75.4+180 )
V3 = Z32 (-I'f ) = (0.025+ j0.251)(2.862 75.4+180 )
V1 = Z12 (-I' f ) = 0.533 169.7
V2 = Z22 (-I' f ) = 0.916 169.8 = Vf
V3 = Z32 (-I'f ) = 0.723 1712
.

@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Step 3. Fault Conditions

2
I12f '
1

Ig2f '

I32f '

If '=2.86275.4
3

Adding results from steps 1 and 2, we obtain the faulted voltages


at each node:
V1f = V10 + V1 = 0.9297.1 +0.533 -169.7 = 0.3982.7
V2f = V20 + V2 = 0.91610.2+0.916 -169.8 = 0
V3f = V30 + V3 = 0.920 7.2+0.723 -171.2 = 0.1991.3
The current contributions from the lines during the fault are:
I'12f = y12 ( V1f V2f ) = (0.187 j 2.486)(0.3982.70) = 0.992 82.9
I'32f = y32 ( V3f V2f ) = (0.198 j1.980)(0.3982.70) = 0.395 83.0
The generator contribution is found by Kirchhoff Currents Law
at the faulted node:
I'g2f = I' f I'12f I'32f = 1.497 68.5
All quantities have been calculated in per unit.
Results are for phase a.
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000