Types of Faults
Symmetrical Faults
Faults involving the threephases
o about only 5% of the cases
Easiest to evaluate
Required in a Short Circuit Study because they
are commonly the worst case
Unsymmetrical Faults
Faults involving some unbalance
o Line to ground faults (one phase to ground)
about 70% of the faults
Fault impedance
Fault impedance
Linetoline fault
a
b
c
Fault impedance
Transients in RL Circuits
R
+
vs = Ri + L
i(t)
Vs
di
dt
i ( 0) = 0
Vmax sin( wt + ) = Ri + L
di
dt
T h e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e c u r r e n t c o n t a i n s a f o r c e d r e sp o n s e ( s t e a d y s t a t e ),
a n d a t r a n s i e n t r e s p o n s e ( n a t u ral):
i(t) = i s t e a d y  state + i t r a n s i e n t
The steady  state or forced resp onse can b e obtained using phasors:
I steady state =
V s V max
V
=
= m a x ( ) = I m a x
Z
Z
Z
i s t e a d y  s t a t e = I m a x sin ( w t + )
w h e r e: Z =
R 2 + w 2 L2
and
wL
= t a n 1
T h e t r a n s i e n t r e s p o n s e i s t h e n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e o f t h e c i r c u it, w h i c h i s t h e
s o l u t i o n t o t h e h o m o g e n e o u s d if f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n : R i + L
itransient = K e
di
= 0
dt
R
t
L
R
t
L
if i(0) = 0 ,
and
+ I m a x sin ( w t + )
then
0 = I m a x sin ( ) + K e 0
K = I m a x sin ( ) = I m a x sin ( )
i(t) = I m a x
LR t
sin ( ) + sin ( w t + )
e
RL circuit
R
t
L
60
100
50
40
20
50
0
0
0.05
0.1
100 0
0.05
0.1
forced
natural
100
50
0
50
100
0.1
total current
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
600subtransient
steadystate
Ia
+
Ed

jXd
ra
Ia
+
Vt

+
Ed

jXd
ra
+
Vt

Ia
+
Ed

jXd
ra
+
Vt

Xd > Xd > Xd
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
GENERATOR
50 MVA, 13.8 KV
xd"=15%
xd'=25%
xd=80%
TRANSFORMER
50 MVA, 13.869 KV
x=10%
Threephase
short circuit
Solution
The equivalent circuits for subtransient, transient, and steadystate periods are shown below. Solving each one will give the
magnitude of the fault current during its corresponding stage
(subtransient, transient, and steadystate).
Subtransient solution:
+
1 p.u.

j0.15
j0.10
If
Transient solution:
+
1 p.u.

j0.25
j0.10
If
Steadystate solution:
+
1 p.u.

j0.80
j0.10
If
Subtransient: If '' =
( )
TRANSFORMER
50 MVA, 13.869 KV
x=10%
r=1%
Threephase
shortcircuit
Load
50MVA
69KV
pf=0.9 ()
ra
+
Ed

jXd
IL
rt
jXt
Switch
'S'
ra
jXd"
+
Ed"

rt
IL
jXt
+
Vt

P
+
Vf

jXd"
+
Ed"

jXt
+ IL
Vt

P
+
Vf

If "
Z
Before the fault, If =0.
jXd'
+
Ed'

jXt
+ IL
Vt

P
If '
+
Vf

Fault Current
To simulate the fault, switch S is now closed.
Subtransient short  circuit current:
Transient short  circuit current:
Steady  state short  circuit current:
Ed "
j ( Xd " + Xt )
Ed '
If ' =
j ( Xd ' + Xt )
Ed
If =
j ( Xd + Xt )
If " =
MultiMachine System
P
GENERATOR
TRANSFORMER
Threephase
shortcircuit
Synchronous
MOTOR
jXt
jXg
+
Eg

P
+
Vf

IL
jXm
IL
+
Em

Steadystate
jXt
jXg'
+
Eg'

P
+
Vf

IL
jXm'
IL
+
Em'

Transient
jXt
jXg"
+
Eg"

IL
P
+
Vf

jXm"
IL
+
Em"

Subtransient
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
jXg"
+
Eg"

jXm"
P
If "=0
+
Vf
S 
IL
IL
+
Em"

Eg " = Vf + j ( Xt + Xg " ) IL
Em" = Vf jXm" IL
2. Close switch S, and find the current contribution from
generator and motor to the fault.
jXg"
+
Eg"

jXt
Ig"
jXm"
If "
Im"
Eg "
Ig " =
j ( Xt + Xg " )
+
Em"

Em "
Im " =
jXm"
Eg "
Vf + j ( Xt + Xg " ) IL
=
Ig " =
j ( Xt + Xg " )
j ( Xt + Xg " )
Vf
Ig " =
+ IL
j ( Xt + Xg " )
Igf (lets name this term: Igf )
Em "
Vf jXm" IL
Im " =
=
jXm"
jXm"
Vf
Im" =
IL
jXm"
Imf (lets name this term: Imf )
Vf
Vf
If " = Ig " + Im" =
+ IL +
IL
j ( Xt + Xg " )
jXm"
Vf
Vf
If " =
+
j ( Xt + Xg " ) jXm"
Igf
Imf
Vf
Vf
+
j ( Xt + Xg " )
jXm"
If " =
Igf
Imf
jXt
Igf "
If "
If " =
jXm"
Vf
+
Imf "
If "
jXm"
Imf "
Igf "
+
Vf

j(Xg"+Xt)
Vf
Vf
1
1
+
= Vf
+
j ( Xt + X g " )
jXm "
jXm ' '
j ( Xt + Xg ' ' )
1
1
If ' ' = Vf
+
jXm "
jXtg
where: X tg = X t + Xg"
Vf
If " =
Zth
jXg"
+
Eg"

jXt
Ig"
P
If "
+
Vf
+
Vf

jXm"
Im"
+
Em"

jXg"
IL
jXt
+ Ig"1=IL
Eg"

jXm"
+
Vf

If "=0
Im"1=IL
+
Em"

jXg"
jXt
+ Ig"2=Igf"
Eg"=0
If "=Igf "+Imf "
jXm"
Vf
+
+
Vf

Im"2=Imf "
+
Em"=0

3. Add steps 1 and 2. This will give the total fault currents
Ig=Igf +IL, Im=Imf IL,
If=Igf +Imf .
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
G1
G2
G3
..
.
Generators,
Transformers,
Loads,
Transmission
Lines, etc.
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load j
Gi
FAULTED BUS P
+
If
Vf
If switch open If = 0
If switch closed Vf = 0
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
Step 1
Find the prefault operating conditions.
Use steadystate values.
Name Vf the prefault voltage at point P.
With nodal analysis or Load Flow analysis obtain
prefault voltages V1o, V2o, V3o.Vf
Calculate currents Ig1, Ig2, Iline1, Iline2, ...
J1
J2
J3
Ji
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m
System matrix
[Ybus]
..
.
According to the
method used to
determine the
prefault operating
conditions
P
If = 0
+
Vf = Vprefault

If = Fault current
Step 1 (continued)
J1
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m
J2
J3
Ji
..
.
System matrix
[Ybus]
P
If = 0
YB U S V = J
V 1 o Y1 1
o
V 2 Y 2 1
. .
=
V f Y p 1
. .
V n0 Y n 1
=
V 1 o Z 1 1
o
V 2 Z 2 1
. .
=
V f Z p 1
. .
V n0 Z n 1
V = Y
BUS
Y1 2
...
Y1 p
...
Y2 2
...
Y2 p
...
Yp2
...
Y pp
...
Yn 2
...
Yn p
...
Z 12
Z 22
...
...
Z1p
Z2p
...
...
Z p2
...
Z pp
...
Zn2
...
Z np
...
J = Z
Y1 n
Y2 n
Y pn
Yn n
BUS
+
Vf = Vprefault voltage

J1
J2
Jp = 0
.
Jn
Z 1n J 1
Z 2n J 2
Z pn J p = 0
.
Z n n J n
Step 2
Find the Thvenin contribution to the fault.
Set all sources to zero (including synchronous motors
internal sources).
Use the subtransient, transient or steadystate
impedances depending on the solution desired.
Apply a voltage source Vf at point P and solve
the network with this source only. This source injects
current If into faulted node.
o This will give the fault current If and all changes
in voltages and currents needed.
Name voltage changes V1, V2, V3
Name current changes Ig1, Ig2,.,
Iline1, Iline2
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m
J1=0
J2=0
Machine Impedances
J3=0
Ji=0
..
.
Transformers,
and Transmission
Lines
P
If
If
If
Vf
+
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
Step 2 (continued)
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m
J1 = 0
J2 = 0
Machine Impedances
J3 = 0
Ji = 0
..
.
Transformers,
and Transmission
Lines
P
If
If
If
V 1 V 1 Z11
V 2 V 2 Z
21
. . .
=
=
Vp
Vf
Z p1
. . .
Vn
Vn
Z n1
This term equals Vf
because Vf is the voltage
that we need to add to
the prefault voltage Vf
to have a zero voltage
at point P
Z12
... Z1 p
Z 22
... Z2 p
Z p2
... Z pp
Zn2
... Z np
Vf
+
... Z1n 0
... Z 2 n 0
... Z pn If
.
... Znn 0
Step 2 (continued)
The last e quations can be sim p lified to:
V 1 Z1 p
V 2 Z
2p
. .
= Z [ If
V
f
pp
. .
V
n
n p
or
V 1 = Z 1 p If ,
V 2 = Z 2 p If ,
.....
V p = V f = Z p p If ,
....
V n = Z n p If
from w h ich
V f = Z pp I f
If =
Vf
Z pp
where
I f is the fault current
V f is the pre  fault voltage at poi nt ' P '
Z p p is the Thvenin Im pedance
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
Step 3
Add solutions for steps 1 and 2.
This is equivalent to solving the network with
the switch closed.
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
.
.
Load m
G1
G2
G3
..
.
System matrix
[Ybus]
Gi
P
If
+
Vf = 0

TRANSFORMER1
YY
Zt=0.01+j0.15 p.u.
TRANSFORMER2
YY
Transmission line 12 Zt=0.01+j0.20 p.u.
Z=0.03+j0.4p.u.
Fault
GENERATOR1
Xd=85%
Xd'=25%
Xd"=10%
ra=1%
GENERATOR2
Xd=120%
Xd'=40%
Xd"=20%
Transmission line 23
ra=2%
Z=0.05+j0.5 p.u.
3
LOAD
R=10 p.u.
iG1
+
+
E1

z13
z23
+
V3

V1

zgt2
i23
i13
zgt1
zgt1=zg1+zt1=0.02+j1
z12=0.03+j0.4
z13=z23=0.05+j0.5
zgt2=zg2+zt2=0.03+j1.4
zLoad=10
E1=1
iG2
+
+
E2

V2
zLoad

E2=0.930
ygt2
y23
ygt1
y13
I2
I1
ygt1=0.02j0.9996
y12=0.187j2.486
y13=y23=0.198j1.980
ygt2=0.0153j0.714
yload=0.1
I1=0.02j0.9996
I2=0.333j0.549
Y21 Y22 Y23 V2 = J2
Y31 Y32 Y33 V3 J3
0.405 j5466
.
 0.187 + j2.486
 0.198 + j1.980
 0.187 + j2.486
0.399  j5.180
 0.198 + j1.980
0.496 j3.960 V3
0
V1 0.9297.1
V2 = 0.91610.2
V3 0.9207.2
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
PreFault Currents
Line Currents:
Line 12
I12=y12 (V1V2)
I12 =(0.187j2.486)(0.929 7.1 0.916 10.2)
I12 = 0.129 151.9 p.u.
Line 13
I13=y13 (V1V3)
I13 =(0.198j1.980)(0.929 7.1 0.920 7.2)
I13 = 0.019 87.4 p.u.
Line 23
I23=y23 (V2V3)
I23 =(0.198j1.980)(0.916 10.2 0.920 7.2)
I23 = 0.096 18.9 p.u.
Generator Currents:
Generator 1
IG1= I12 + I13 = 0.129 151.9 + 0.019 87.4
IG1= 0.138 144.6
Generator 2
IG2= I12 + I23 = 0.129 151.9 + 0.096 18.9
IG2= 0.224 24.2
@ Salvador Acevedo, 2000
Absorbed Power
Load:
PLoad=(V3)2/Rload=(0.920) 2*0.1=0.0846 p.u.
Real Power dissipated in lines:
line 12: P=I12 2 * Rline12=(0.129) 2(0.03)=0.0005
line 13: P=I13 2 * Rline13=(0.019) 2(0.05)=0.00002
line 23: P=I23 2 * Rline23=(0.096) 2(0.05)=0.00046
Y BUS
0.509 j 6.960
=  0.187 + j2.486
 0.198 + j1.980
Z BUS = Y BUS
 0.187 + j2.486
0.468  j6.129
 0.198 + j1.980
 0.198 + j1.980
 0.198 + j1.980
0.496 j 3.960
V 2 = Vf = Z BUS If
V 3 V 3
0
V 1
Vf
=
V 3
Z11
Z 21
Z 31
Z12
Z 22
Z 32
Z13 0
Z 23 If
Z 33 0
from where:
V 1 = Z11 0 + ( Z12 If ) + Z13 0 = Z12 If
V 2 = Vf = Z12 0 + ( Z 22 If ) + Z 23 0 = Z 22 If
V 3 = Z 31 0 + ( Z 32 If ) + Z 33 0 = Z 32 If
* Note that only elements from column ' P' are needed.
From the second equation:
Vf
Vf
Vf
If =
=
=
Z 22 Z 22 Z Thev
where Z 22 = Z Thev is the Thevenin impedance for a fault at node 2.
2
I12f '
1
Ig2f '
I32f '
If '=2.86275.4
3