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Example 1.

A counterflow, concentric tube heat exchanger is used to cool the lubricating oil for
a large industrial gas turbine engine. The flow rate of cooling water through the inner tube (Di =
25 mm) is 0.2 kg/s, while the flow rate of oil though the outer annulus (Do = 45 mm) is 0.1 kg/s.
The oil and water enter at temperatures of 100 and 30 C, respectively. How long must the tube
be made if the outlet temperature of the oil is to be 60 C?

Solution 1 LMTD Method:


Known: Fluid flow rates and inlet temperatures for a counterflow, concentric tube heat
exchanger of prescribed inner and outer diameter.
Find: Tube length to achieve a desired hot fluid outlet temperature.
Assumptions:
1. Negligible heat loss to the surroundings.
2. Constant properties.
3. Negligible tube wall thermal resistance and fouling factors.
Properties : Unused engine oil (Th 80 o C 353 K ) : c p 2131 J/kg K, 3.25 10 -2 N s/m 2 ,
k 0.138W/m K; Water( Tc 35o C) : c p 4178 J/kg K, 725 10 -6 N s/m 2 , k 0.625W/m
K, Pr 4.85.

Analysis: The required heat transfer rate may be obtained from the overall energy balance for
the hot fluid.

Q m h c p ,h (Th ,i Th ,o )
Q (0.1) kg/s (2131) J/kg K (100 - 60)K 8524 W
The water outlet temperature is
Tc ,o

Q
Tc ,i
m c c p ,c

Tc ,o

8524 W
30 o C 40.2 o C
(0.2) kg/s (4178) J/kg K

Accordingl y, use of T c 35o C to evaluate the water properties was a good choice. The required heat
exchanger length may now be obtained :
Q U A LMTD
where A Di L
LMTD

(Th ,i Tc ,o ) (Th ,o Tc ,i )

ln Th,i Tc ,o / Th ,o Tc ,i

59.8 30
43.2 o C
ln 59.8/30

The overall heat transfer coefficient is

1
1 / hi 1 / ho

For water flow through the tube,

Re D

4 m c
4 (0.2)kg/s

14,050
Di 0.025m 725 10 6 N s/m 2

Accordingly, the flow is turbulent and the convection may be computed

Nu D 0.023 Re D

4/5

Pr 0.4

Nu D 0.02314,050
Hence

hi NuD

4/5

4.850.4 90

90 0.625W/m K 2250 W/m 2 K


k

0.025m
Di

For the flow of oil through the annulus, the hydraulic diameter is
Dh Do Di 0.02m

And the Reynolds number is


Re D
Re D

Vm Dh Do Di
m h

2
2

Do Di / 4

4 m h
4 0.1kg/s

56.0
Do Di 0.045 0.025m 3.25 10 -2 kg/s m

The annular flow is therefore laminar. Assuming uniform temperature among the inner surface
of the annulus and a perfectly insulated outer surface, the convection coefficient at the inner
surface may be obtained with (Di/Do) = 0.56.

Nui

and

ho 5.56

ho Dh
5.56
k

0.138 W/m K 38.4 W/m 2 K


0.020m

The overall convection coefficient is then

1
37.8 W/m 2 K
2
(1 / 2250 W/m K) (1/38.4 W/m K)
2

and from the rate equation it follows that

8524W
Q

66.5 m
2
U Di LMTD 37.8W/m K 0.025m 43.2 o C

Solution 2 NTU- Method:


We can solve for tube length L from total heat exchanger area A. So solve A from the basic
definition of NTU:

NTU

C NTU
U A
A min
C min
U

Determine Cmin by solving for Ch and Cc and comparing:


C h m h C Ph

W s 213 W
0.1 kg 2131 J

s
kg
K
J
K

C c m c C Pc

W s 836 W
0.2 kg 4178 J

s
kg
K
J
K

So
C min C h 213 W

As before

1
1 / hi 1 / ho

1
37.8 W/m 2 K
(1 / 2250 W/m K) (1/38.4 W/m 2 K)
2

Next, we need to determine the value for NTU. Since NTU depends on the effectiveness and
the capacity ratio Cr, we solve for these quantities:

C
C r min
C max

213 W
836 W

0.25

C h Thi Tho
C min Thi Tci

Since
C min C h

Then

Thi Tho
Thi Tci

100 60
100 30

0.57

For counterflow heat exchangers,

1
1
ln

C r 1 C r 1
For Cr = 0.25 and = 0.57
NTU

NTU = 0.92
Solving for area A

C min NTU
U

213 W 0.92
m
A

38.4 W 2
m K

5.1 m 2

So the length

A
D

5.1 m 2
65 m
0.025 m

The answer varies somewhat from the previous value, but within the accuracy of needed for
engineering design.