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1 (a)

= [2, 5, -7]

= [3, -6, -2]

a . b

(scalar product of

and

b
) = [2, 5, -7]. [3, -6, -2]

= (2x3)+(5x-6)+(-7x-2)
= 6-30+14
= -10

(b) Given, vector

=[3, -6, -2] = 3 -6 2

x2 + y 2 + z 2

||x|| =

32+(6)2+(2)2

9+36+ 4

Unit vector =

a . b

x
,
x

y
,
x

z
x

[( ) ( ) ( ) ]
3 6 2
,
,
7
7
7

= |a|.|b| cos

22+(5)2+(7)2

Here |a| =
|b| =

Cos =

=7

[(|| ||) (|| ||) (|| ||)]

(c)

49

32+(6)2+(2)2

a . b
|a|.|b| =

4+ 25+49
=

9+36+ 4

=
=

[ ( 2 i+ 5 j7 k ) . ( 3 i6 j 2 k ) ]
78 . 49

78
49

630+14
78 . 49

Cos =

cos1

10
78 . 49

10
78 . 49

= 99.30

(d) let us consider a vector has x= 0, y=1 and z=?


We also know that for a vectors to be perpendicular to each other,
their scalar product
has to be zero.
(2i+5j-7k).(xi+yj+zk) = 0
(2x0)+(5)(1)-7(z)=0
0 +5-7z =0
Z=

( 57 )

Hence the vector is [0,1,

( 23 )

2(a) Work done is a scalar product of force and displacement


Given, force

F = -2i +j +5k

Displacement
Work done

= -3i+5j+4k

F .

=(-2x-3) +(1x5) +(5x4)


= 6+5+20
= 31

(b) For

= -2i+j+5k

For

= -3i+5j+4k

|F| =

22 +(1)2 +52

|F| =

4+ 1+ 25

|F| =

30

32 +(5)2+ 42
S

9+25+16
|S| = 50

For the angle =0


For some displacement, work done

|F|S cos

minimum force applied is

|F| =
|S|cos
=

31
50 cos 0

31
50

3 (a) given,

a = [1, -3, 6] = i-3j+6k

b
= [4,-5,-2] = 4i-5j-2k
a X b

=|I

|1 -3 6|
|4 -5 -2|

k|
= 36i+26j+7k

it has to
Now, for this vector product to b perpendicular to a
satisfy.

(a X b)
. a

=0

(36i+26j+7k).(i-3j+6k) = 0

36-78+42 = 0
0=0
Hence perpendicular to

a .

Similarly

(a X b)
. b

=0

(36i+26j+7k). (4i-5j-2k) =0
144 -130 -14=0
0=0
Hence, perpendicular to

b
.

a = [1, -3, 6] = i-3j+6k

(b

b
= [4,-5,-2] = 4i-5j-2k
Let

c = [x,y,z]

Such that the condition which it satisfy

a .(b X c )

=0

|i
j
k|
( i-3j+6k). |4 -5 -2| = 0
|x y
z|
(i-3j+6k).[i(-5z+2y)-j(4z+2x)+k(4y+5x)] = 0
-5z+2y+12z+6x+24y+30x = 0
7z+26y+36x = 0
36x+26y+7z = 0
The value of x,y,z which satisfy above equation will give us vector C.
We can say that the vector

and

is independent vector, where as

are dependent
Vectors. Also as it satisfy a.(bXc) = 0, a is perpendicular to

( b X c )

given,

=[3,5,-4] = 3i+5j-4k

v
w

(a)

= [4,-3,-2] = 4i-3j-2k

v .
w [( 3 X 4 ) + ( 5 X 3 ) + (4 X2 ) ]
=
|
w|
[ ( 4 )2 + (3 )2+ (2 )2 ]

1215+8
29

5
29

w v

(b)

[( 3 X 4 ) + ( 5 X 3 ) + (4 X 2 ) ]

v .
w
|v|

[ ( 3 ) +( 5 ) +(4 ) ]
2

(c) Clearly the magnitude of

w v

(d) Direction also depends on

v .

5(a) if

is perpendicular to

a b

a . b
|b|

is depending on

a b

then.

|a||b|cos 90
|b|

5
52

v .

Becomes zero.

=0

(b) It is not possible as long as vector has magnitude and is never equal to
zero.
But if the vector such as dug in is projected it is undefined.

(c)

coincident.

a b

a . b
= |b|

b a

a b= b a

only if |

Magnitude of

a b

b . a
|b|

b
=| a
must be equal, it must be in direction of

ac

(d)

a ( b c )
a

Only when

a c

As

|a||c|
|c|

b c

in magnitude.

|b||c|
|c|

|b| put |a|


|a||c|
b c
a c
=
|c| =

In place of

Also a( b c ) = a( a c )
=

6(a) if

a . b

a c

a . c

this is possible only when

a . b -

a . c

=0

a.( b c

b c

b c

are equal magnitude.

=0

=0

b =c

(b)

a X b

a X c

Two non collinear vectors gives one products another vector must be
parallel to give same product, but not the plane is not same.

7(a) consider

= [x,y,z]

= [a,b,c]
|i

a X b

= |x
|a

b X a

= |i
|a
|x

z |

j
b
y

k |
c |

k| = (bz-cy)i j(az-xc)+k(ay-bx)
c|
z|

= -( a X b

8 (a)

a .(b X c )

(b) (a.b)X c

= (yc-zb)i (xc-za)j +k(xb-ay)

{x,y R}

= scalar
= vector product between a scalar and vector is not possible .

(c) (aXb)+(c.d) = addition between vector and scalar not possible .


(d) (a.b)+(c.d) = addition of two scales gives scalar.
(e) (aXb).(cXd) = scalar
(f)

X ( c X d )
(a X b)
= not possible

9. For Noah, North = 8 cos 23, East = 8 * sin 23


155 clockwise from North is southeast.

To determine the angle south of east, subtract 90

.
= 155 90 = 65
For Jude, South = 5 * sin 65, East = 5 * cos 65
Total North = 8 cos 23 5 * sin 65
This is approximately 2.83 N.
Total East = 8 * sin 23 + 5 * cos 65
This is approximately 5.23 N.
For the net force to be 0 N, Charlie must exert an equal force in the opposite direction.
Magnitude = (North^2 + East^2)
Magnitude = [(8 cos 23 5 * sin 65)^2 + (8 * sin 23 + 5 * cos 65)^2]
=(8.023055641 + 27.44649585)
= 6 N.

10.)
Using Law of Sines:
sin105/240 = sin /20
= 53.6
That angle includes a 15 angle, so the other part of the angle residing in QI is 53.6-15 = 38.6.
Therefore, the heading from due north is 90- 38.6 = 51.4.
The magnitude x can also be found using Law of Sines in that bottom triangle. Since = 53.6, the third
angle in that triangle is 180 - 105 - 53.6 = 21.4. Therefore:

sin 21.4/x = sin 105/240


Cross multiply to find x = 90.66 kph.
If the distance is 100km, then the time is distance divided by rate = 100/90.66 = 1.103 hours