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Assingment 5

Proof the Theorems of Differentiation


Let f and g the functions that are differentiable at the point a. function

f
g

g(a) 0 , is also differentiable at a.


'

'

g ( a ) f ( a )f ( a ) g ( a )
f '
( a )=
,
g
g2( a )

()

if g(a) 0

First plug the quotient into the definition of the derivative and rewrite the quotient.
f ( a+h ) f ( a )

g ( a+h ) g ( a )
f
( a )=lim
g
h
h 0
'

()

lim

h0

1 f ( a+h ) g ( a )f ( a ) g (a+h)
h
g ( a+h ) g( a)

f '
1 f ( a+h ) g ( a )f ( a ) g ( a ) + f ( a ) g ( a )f (a)g( a+h)
=lim
g
h 0 h
g ( a+ h ) g (a)

()

'

f ( a+h ) g ( a )f ( a ) g ( a ) + f ( a ) g ( a )f (a) g( a+h)


f
1
=lim
g
h
h 0 g ( a+h ) g(a)

()

Note that all we did was interchange the two denominators. Since we are multiplying
the fractions we can do this.
Next, the larger fraction can be broken up as follows.
f ( a+ h ) g ( a )f ( a ) g ( a ) f ( a ) g ( a ) f (a)g(a+h)
f '
1
=lim
+
g
h
h
h 0 g ( a+h ) g(a)

()

In the first fraction we will factor a g(a) and in the second we will factor a
f (a) . This gives,

f ( a+ h )f ( a )
g ( a+h )g(a)
f '
1
=lim
g (a )
f (a)
g
h
h
h 0 g ( a+h ) g( a)

()

We can now use the basic properties of limits to write this as,

((

f '
1
=
lim g( a)
g
lim g ( a+h ) lim g (a) h 0

()

h0

h 0

The individual limits are,


g' (a)=lim
h 0

g ( a+ h )g( a)
h

g(a)=lim g ( a+h )
h 0

g(a)=lim g ( a )
h 0

f ' (a)=lim

h0

f ( a+ h )f (a)
h

f (a)=lim f ( a+ h )
h 0

f (a)=lim f ( a )
h 0

lim f ( a+ h )f ( a )
h 0

)(

lim f (a)
h 0

lim g ( a+h )g ( a )
h0

))

The first two limits in each row are nothing more than the definition the derivative for
g(a) and f (a) respectively. Recall that the limit of a constant is just the
constant. Well since the limit is only concerned with allowing h to go to zero as far as
its concerned g(a) and f (a) are constants since changing h will not change a.
Note that the function is probably not a constant, however as far as the limit is
concerned the function can be treated as a constant.
Plugging in the limits and doing some rearranging gives,
f '
1
(a)=
( g ( a ) f ' ( a ) f ( a ) g' ( a ) )
g
g (a) g (a )

()

g ( a ) f ' (a)f ( a ) g' (a)


f '
(a)=
g
g2 ( a)

()

Theres the quotient rule

if g(a) 0 .. proven