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T207/SEP

Specimen Examination Paper


ENGINEERING: MECHANICS,
MATERIALS, DESIGN

Time allowed: 3 hours

This examination is divided into TWO parts. You are advised to


spend about 90 minutes on each part.
Part A is worth 50 per cent of the overall marks for the
examination. You should attempt ALL questions in this part.
These questions require short responses across a wide range of
topics.
Part B is also worth 50 per cent of the overall marks for the
examination. You should answer any TWO questions from this
part. These questions probe more deeply your understanding of a
narrower theme.
Various data and formulae are printed at the end of the paper.
Graph paper is available from the invigilators, should you require
it.
At the end of the examination
Check that you have written your personal identifier and
examination number on each answer book used. Failure to do so
will mean that your work cannot be identified.
Put all your used answer books together with your signed desk
record on top. Fasten them in the top left corner with the round
paper fastener. Attach this question paper to the back of the
answer books with the flat paper clip.

Copyright 2011 The Open University


Printed in the United Kingdom

SUP 01375 5
4.1

*SUP013755*

PART A

Attempt ALL questions in Part A. Your answers to these questions will


together account for 50 per cent of your final exam mark. You should
spend about half the examination time on this part.

Question 1

(a) The back of a certain seat in a railway carriage is 100 mm thick. Explain why
it would be unreasonable to install 12 rows of seats in a compartment with a
floor length of 7 m. Suggest, with a brief justification, a more reasonable
number of rows. You may refer to data supplied at the end of the paper.
(4 marks)
(b) The external doors of a railway carriage are operated electro-pneumatically
by a push-button. The mean force required to operate the button supplied by
one manufacturer is specified as 14 N with a standard deviation of 2 N.
Explain why this product is not likely to be selected. You may refer to data
supplied at the end of the paper.
(4 marks)

Question 2

(a) Sketch a beam that is simply supported and use it to show where a point load
should be placed:
(i) to maximize the shear force in the beam
(ii) to maximize the bending moment.
(2 marks)
(b) A uniformly distributed load on a simple beam gives rise to distributions of
shear force and bending moment as shown in Figure 1. In a few words,
interpret these distributions and their consequences for beam design.
(4 marks)

L
2

wL

L
2

L
wL
2

wL
2

S
wL
2
0

_ wL
2

0
wL
8

Figure 1

Reproduced from Block 2 of T207 (for Question 2)

T207/SEP

Question 3

Explain in what ways a composite formed from fibres (of, say, carbon or glass)
embedded in a polymer matrix (say epoxy resin) has properties that are superior to
those of either constituent alone.
(5 marks)

Question 4

Determine the steady thrust that would enable a 200-tonne airliner to reach its
take-off speed (75 m s1), from rest, in 30 s. Explain in a few words why in
practice the thrust required will differ from that calculated by this simple model.
(4 marks)

Question 5

A permanent magnet motor in a small mechanical device has stall torque


s = 2.6 103 N m and no-load speed n = 860 rad s1 when connected to a
battery.
(a) Determine the gear ratio that will enable the output drive shaft to spin at
about 120 rpm (choose from 4:1, 16:1, 64:1 or 256:1).
(b) When driving a load, the motor shaft spins at three-quarters of its no-load
speed. Calculate the mechanical power that is generated by the motor under
these circumstances.
(6 marks)

Question 6

Describe briefly the difference between boundary lubrication and full-film


lubrication. Give one everyday example of each.
(6 marks)

Question 7

Identify:
(a) why a low value of yield stress is a desirable property in a metal that is to be
used to create useful shapes
(b) why that same property may be a disadvantage for a component in its final
form.
(4 marks)

Question 8

Explain, in no more than 100 words, a general or social need to which the bicycle
offers a possible solution today.
Hint: a spider diagram may help you plan your answer.
(5 marks)

Question 9

(a) Sketch a typical creep curve for a metal, labelling the axes and the three
regions of creep.
(4 marks)
(b) An alloy steel has a melting temperature of 1650 C. Determine the
maximum operating temperature that this steel can tolerate if it is not to
creep.
(2 marks)

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TURN OVER

PART B

Attempt TWO questions from Part B. Your answers to two questions will
account for 50 per cent of your final exam mark. You should spend about
half the examination time on this part.

Question 10

(a) List the three categories of solutions to engineering problems, and for each
one give a practical example that typifies the category.
(6 marks)
(b) Bimetallic strips are used to monitor and control temperature. Explain the
principle by which these strips function. When making a bimetallic strip
what materials, with respect to their properties, would be chosen to make the
strip most sensitive to a change in temperature?
(5 marks)
(c) (i)

Materials expand when heated; briefly describe why, at the atomic level,
this happens.

(ii) A hollow cylinder of aluminium 1 m long with a 40 mm outside


diameter is at a temperature of 20 C. What is the change in length and
circumference of the cylinder when it is cooled to 25 C?
(Note: the thermal co-efficient of expansion of aluminium is
24 106 K1.)
(iii) Assuming that the cylinder is fixed at both ends and that its wall
thickness is 7.5 mm, what force would be exerted by the cylinder during
this change in temperature?
(Note: the Youngs modulus for aluminium is 70 GPa.)
(3 + 6 + 5 = 14 marks)
(Total 25 marks)

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Question 11

Table 1 shows some typical values of the coefficient of static friction, s, for hard
steel on itself.
Table 1
Contact condition

Unlubricated

0.6

Lubricated, mineral oil

0.2

Lubricated, molybdenum disulphide

0.1

(a) A simple sliding bearing with hard steel surfaces supports a mass of 575 kg.
Assuming your mass is 75 kg and you can exert a horizontal force equivalent
to 80% of your weight, determine whether you would be capable of moving
the mass under any of these frictional conditions. (Take g = 9.8 m s2.)
(7 marks)
(b) Describe the microscopic processes between two surfaces during frictional
contact.
(4 marks)
(c) Briefly outline two mechanisms of wear when two surfaces are in contact.
(6 marks)
(d) The combined mass of a generating rotor and its hollow shaft is 450 tonnes,
the rotors diameter is 4.5 m, and the shafts hollow inner diameter is 0.75 m.
(i) Treating the rotor and shaft as one combined unit, calculate their second
moment of mass.
(ii) Calculate the kinetic energy of the rotor when it is spinning at

300 revolutions per minute.

(iii) Using the kinetic energy calculated in (ii), what distance in kilometres
could the unlubricated mass from part (a) be moved? Assume that in
this instance static friction is equal to dynamic friction.
(2 + 3 + 3 = 8 marks)
(Total 25 marks)

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TURN OVER

Question 12

(a) Table 2 shows the measured electrode potentials, relative to mild steel, for
metals in sea water. Calculate the cell potential and state which metal will
corrode for the following combinations:
(i)

copper deck plates held together with mild steel rivets

(ii) a titanium propeller shaft running in a graphite bearing


(iii) a lead weather shield in contact with a brass porthole.
(2 + 2 + 2 = 6 marks)
Table 2
Metal
Aluminium

Potential in sea water/volts


0.59

Brass

0.12

Copper

0.20

Graphite

0.42

Lead

0.22

Magnesium

1.40

Mild steel

Stainless steel

0.11

Titanium

0.30

Zinc

0.66

(b) Describe the difference in mechanisms of creep in metals and polymers, and
how temperature influences the rate of creep in both of these materials.
(8 marks)
(c) A cylindrical pressure vessel is used for chemical processing and is designed
to withstand a maximum pressure of 30 MN m2. The vessel has a mean
diameter of 5 m and a wall thickness of 250 mm. It is constructed from
welded plates of material with an ultimate tensile strength equal to
500 MN m2, a yield strength of 300 MN m2 and a toughness of
50 MN m3/2. Assume that the vessel is thin walled.
(i) Calculate the hoop stress at 75% of its design pressure.
(ii) State, with justification, whether or not this service condition represents
a high load on the structure.
(iii) During operation, an edge crack has been discovered in the vessel and
measured to be 10 mm long. What is the margin of safety with this
length of crack when the vessel is operating at full pressure? Take
Y = 1.12 for this geometry.
(4 + 3 + 4 = 11 marks)
(Total 25 marks)
[END OF QUESTIONS]

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Data
These tables relate to specific questions in Part A.
Table 3
Anthropometric data for adult (aged 1965 years) British
population (Pheasant, 1986)
Body dimension

Male

Female

Mean/mm

SD*/mm

Mean/mm

SD*/mm

Stature

1740

70

1610

62

Eye height

1630

69

1505

61

Shoulder height

1425

66

1310

58

Elbow height

1090

52

1005

46

Sitting height

910

36

850

35

Sitting eye height

790

35

740

33

Sitting shoulder height

595

32

555

31

Sitting elbow height

245

31

235

29

Thigh thickness

160

15

155

17

Buttock-to-knee length

595

31

570

30

Buttock-to-popliteal length

495

32

480

30

Knee height

545

32

500

27

Popliteal height

440

29

400

27

Shoulder breadth (bi-deltoid)

465

28

395

24

Hip breadth

360

29

370

38

Chest (bust) depth

250

22

250

27

Shoulder-to-elbow length

365

20

330

70

Elbow-to-fingertip length

475

21

430

19

Forward grip reach (from the


back of the shoulder blade)

780

34

705

31

Upper limb length

780

36

705

32

* SD = standard deviation

Table 4
Ergonomic data: maximum finger pushing force
(Haaland et al., 1963)
Digit
Mean force/N
Range/N

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Thumb

Index finger

Middle finger

Ring finger

Little finger

17

11

10

1420

814

812

510

39

TURN OVER

Equations
Equations are listed under the block in which they were first introduced.
Block 1

X = X X 0 = X 0 T
L = L0 (1 + T )
r = r0 exp( Ea / kT )
D = D0 exp( Ea / kT )
E 1
ln r = a + ln r0
k T

Block 2

I =

A y 2 dA

M E
= =
I
y R
PE = 2

EI
l2

M = F C = 3(n 1) 2 j
M = F C = 6(n 1) 3 j

M = 3g n2 6
E=

F
A

l
l

G=

F/A
=

K=

p
pV
=
V / V
V

EC = Emvm + Ef vf
1
v
v
= m + f
Ec Em Ef

KC =
8

EGC
a

EGC = ac
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Block 3

v = r
= t

= i + t
=

( 2 i2 )
2

= it + 12 t 2
v = u + at

s = ut + 12 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as
a(

=
f =

= v) = 2r =

v2
r

1
=
T 2

a = 2 y
F = ma

F=

d(mv)
dt

= I
P = Fv
P =

=I

d
= I
dt

a=

dv
dt

d
dt

F = mv 2 / r = mr 2

I = mr 2
I =

1 2
mr for shaft on axis
2

I =

1
m ( R 2 + r 2 ) for hollow shaft on axis
2

F = R
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TURN OVER

F = B I l sin


= s 1

n
P = IV

Ptherm = I 2 R
=

Pout
Pin

V E = IR

FD = v 2 CD A
2

FL = v 2 CL A
2

Block 4
1 2 1 2
mv + I
2
2

K total =

U grav = mgh
Q = mcT

= 1

T2
T1

Ev = p +

1 2
v + gh
2

v jet = 2gh0
m = vA
Q = vA

k=

QH
W

= G

=
=

10

d
dt

2r 3L
Cr

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Block 5
TH =

T
Tm

t = 0 + kd 1/ 2
K1 = Y a

da
m
= C ( K )
dN
hoop =

Pr
t

[END OF EXAMINATION PAPER]

T207/SEP

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