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Breast

cancer
By: Brittany Tokurah
Makoulako Fofana
& Tyson Jones

What is breast
cancer?
As defined by the National
Cancer Institute, breast cancer
is the cancer that forms in the
tissues of the breast, usually
the ducts (Tubes that carry
milk to the nipple) and lobules
(glands that create milk).

Breast
Anatomy
1. Chest Wall
2. Pectoralis
Muscle
3. Lobules
4. Nipple
5. Areola
6. Lactiferous
ducts
7. Fatty Tissue
8. Skin

Location of breast cancer

Image from the American Cancer Society website

The malignant
tumor can invade
into the surrounding
tissues and lymph
nodes to spread
(metastasize) to
distant areas in the
body.

History
Leading cause of death of women between ages
40 and 55.
It is the second most common cancer among
women, with about 235,000 new cases each
year.
Breast cancer is known as a womans disease,
but men also develop breast cancer.
Survival rates today are higher ever due to
advances in diagnosis and treatment.

Cases of breast cancer in


2011
New cases of
breast cancer

Deaths from breast


cancer

230,480 (Female)

39,520(Female)

2,140 (Male)

450 (Male)

Signs and symptoms


A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the
underarm area
A change in the size or shape of the breast
Nipple discharge or tenderness, or the nipple
pulled back (inverted) into the breast
Ridges or pitting of the breast, making the skin
look like the skin of an orange
A change in the look or feel of the skin of the
breast, areola or nipple such as warmth, swelling,
redness or scaliness

Stages of breast cancer


Stage

Definition

Stage 0

Cancer cells remain inside the breast duct and lobules

Stage I

Cancer is 2 centimeter big but still in breast (lymph nodes


clear)
Stage IIA No tumor in breast but cancer cells in axillary lymph
nodes(under arm)
Or
tumor is 2 cm or smaller and has spread into axillary lymph
nodes
Or
tumor between 2-5 cm and has not spread into axillary lymph
nodes
Stage IIB Tumor is between 2-5 cm and has spread into lymph nodes
Or
The tumor is larger than 5 cm and has not spread to the axillary
lymph nodes

Stage

Definition

Stage IIIA

No tumor found in breast. Cancer is located in axillary lymph


nodes that are sticking together or to other structures, or cancer is
found in lymph nodes near breastbone
Or
The tumor is any size. Cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes,
which are sticking together or to other structures, or cancer is
found in lymph nodes near breastbone

Stage IIIB

The tumor is any size and has spread to the chest wall and /or skin
of breast
AND
may have spread to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped
together or sticking to other structures or cancer is found in lymph
nodes near breastbone

Stage

Definition

Stage
IIIC

There may either be no sign of cancer in the breast or tumor may be


any size and may have spread to the chest wall and/or skin of
breast
AND
The cancer has spread to lymph nodes above or below collarbone
AND
The cancer may have spread to axillary lymph nodes or to lymph
nodes bear the breastbone

Stage IV

The cancer has spread or metastasized to other parts of the


body

Stage 2
Stage 1

Stage 4

Stage 3

Risk Factors

Risk factors you cannot control


Gender
Even though women have more breast cells than men,
the main reason they develop more breast cancer is due
to exposure to female hormones estrogen and
progeterone.

Age
The risk of cancer development increases as you age.
Only 1 of 8 invasive breast cancers are found in women
younger than 45, while almost 2 of 3 invasive breast
cancers are found in women age 55 or older. Half of all
women diagnosed are age 65.

Risk factors you cannot


control
Genetic risk factors
About 5% to 10% are thought to be hereditary, inherited
from a parent.

Family history
Having a first-degree relative such as mother, sister, or
daughter doubles a womans risk of breast cancer. While
having 2 first-degree relatives triple the risk of breast
cancer. This is a significant factor, BUT 85% of women
who get breast cancer do not have a family history of
this disease.

Personal history of breast cancer


A woman with breast cancer on one breast increases her
risk of developing breast cancer on the other breast by
3-4 fold.

Risk factors you cannot control


Race and ethnicity
White women are slightly more likely to develop breast
cancer than African-American women, but AfricanAmerican women are more likely to die from this cancer.
In ages under 45 however, breast cancer is more
common in African-American women. Asian, Hispanic,
and Native-American women have a lower risk of
developing and dying from breast cancer.

Dense breast tissue


Women with denser breast tissue (more glandular tissue
and less fatty tissue) have a higher risk of breast cancer.

Risk factors you cannot


control
Menstrual periods
Women who started menstruating at an early age
(before age 12) and/or went through menopause at a
later age (after age 55) have been though more
menstrual cycles and have an increased risk of breast
cancer due to longer exposure to estrogen and
progesterone.

Previous chest radiation


Women who have had radiation therapy to the chest
area as treatment to another cancer have a slightly
increased risk of breast cancer. Even though the risk
varies with the patients age they were exposed to
radiation. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not
seem to increase breast cancer risk.

Risk factors that CAN be


controlled

Diet and lifestyle

A diet high in saturated fat


and alcoholic intake of
more than two drinks per
day increases the risk of
breast cancer, while
physical activities
decrease the risk. In one
study, a woman who did
1.25-2.5 hours of brisk
walking per week reduced
her risk by 18%.

Risk factors that CAN be


controlled
Weight
Obesity and overweight increases the risk of breast
cancer, especially for women after menopause.

Reproductive history
Having your first child at an age past 30 or not having
given birth slightly increases the risk, as pregnancy
reduces a womans total number of menstrual cycles.
Taking birth control pills also increases the risk.

Prevention
Avoiding risk factor and increasing
protective factors may prevent
breast cancer.
Changing lifestyle or eating habits.
Avoiding things known to cause
cancer.
Taking medicines to treat a
precancerous condition or to keep
cancer from starting.

How to do a Partner Self Breast


Exam

How to do a Partner Self Breast


Exam

What is a Mammogram?
A mammogram is the current gold
standard non-invasive technique for
reliable early detection of breast cancer.

Types of Mammograms
Screening Mammograms
Are used to check for
breast cancer in women
who do not have signs or
symptoms of breast
cancer.
These x-ray images make
it possible to detect
tumors and micro
calcifications.
Helps with early detection
and treatment.

Diagnostic Mammograms
Are used to check for
breast cancer after a
lump or other signs and
symptoms of the disease
have been found.
These x-rays take much
longer and also are used
in certain circumstances
like breast implants.

How is a
Mammogram
done?
You will stand in front of a
special X-ray machine.
A technologist will place your
breast on a clear plastic plate.
Another plate will firmly press
your breast from above.
The plates will flatten the
breast, holding it still while the Xray is being taken. You will feel
some pressure.
The other breast will be X-rayed
in the same way.
The steps are then repeated to
make a side view of each breast.
Wait for you results.

Normal vs. Abnormal


Mammogram
Normal

Abnormal

**An abnormal mammogram does not always mean that there is cancer. But you will
need to have additional mammograms, tests, or exams before the doctor can tell for
sure.

Treatments
Screening for early detection
Surgery
Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy
Hormonal therapy
Treatment methods are classified as local or systemic.
Local treatments (such as surgery and radiation therapy)
remove, destroy or control cancer cells in a specific area.
Systemic treatments, such as chemotherapy and hormonal
therapy, destroy or control cancer cells throughout the body.
Depending on your condition, you may receive a single
treatment or a combination of therapies given at the same
time or in succession.

Breast cancer
awareness

Spread the word and save lives

Discussions

References
American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/BreastCancer/DetailedGuide/breast-ca
ncer-what-is-breast-cancer
Breast Cancer organization
http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/what_is_bc.j
sp
National Breast Cancer Foundation
http://
www.nationalbreastcancer.org/about-breast-cancer/risk-factors.aspx
National Cancer institute
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/breast
University of California San Francisco Medical center
http://www.Ucsfhealth.org/conditions/breast-cancer/