80 views

Uploaded by sayondeep

- 4 7 4 8 ppt
- OVERHEAD LINEA
- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10
- AE51
- Buckling
- Matlab Manual1
- Biz - Quatitative.Managment.Method Chapter.03
- Matlab Introduct
- 9Mathematic.pdf
- Introduction to Mobile Robotics - Burgard.pdf
- Matrices
- Question Bank of 12 Class
- 2014+02+19
- Recommended Knowledge in Mathematical Sciences
- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10
- Matrices
- Chap4
- L10_Matrix Formulation of LPPs.pdf
- Algebra Notes
- Programs of Bca 2nd Sem 106 p

You are on page 1of 2

MATRICES &

DETERMINANTS

Mathematics Fundamentals

(iii) Nilpotent if Ak = O when k is a positive integer.

Least value of k is called the index of the

nilpotent matrix.

(iv) Involutary if A2 = I.

The matrix obtained from a matrix A = [aij]m n by

changing its rows into columns and columns of A into

rows is called the transpose of A and is denoted by A.

A square matrix a = [aij]n n is said to be

(i) Symmetric if aij = aji for all i and j i.e. if A = A.

(ii) Skew-symmetric if

aij = aji for all i and j i.e., if A = A.

Every square matrix A can be uniquely written as sum

of a symmetric and a skew-symmetric matrix.

1

1

1

A=

(A + A) +

(A A) where

(A + A) is

2

2

2

1

(A A) is skew-symmetric.

symmetric and

2

Let A = [aij]m n be a given matrix. Then the matrix

obtained from A by replacing all the elements by their

conjugate complex is called the conjugate of the matrix

A and is denoted by A = [aij ] .

Matrices :

An m n matrix is a rectangular array of mn numbers

(real or complex) arranged in an ordered set of m

horizontal lines called rows and n vertical lines called

columns enclosed in parentheses. An m n matrix A

is usually written as :

a11 a12 ... a1 j ... a1n

a

21 a22 ... a2 j ... a2 n

M

M

A=

M

M

Where 1 i m and 1 j n

and is written in compact form as A = [aij]m n

A matrix A = [aij]m n is called

(i) a rectangular matrix if m n

(ii) a square matrix if m = n

(iii) a row matrix or row vector if m = 1

(iv) a column matrix or column vector if n = 1

(v) a null matrix if aij = 0 for all i, j and is denoted by

O m n

(vi) a diagonal matrix if aij = 0 for i j

Properties :

( )

(i) A = A

elements aii are equal

Two matrices can be added only when thye are of same

order. If A = [aij]m n and B = [bij]m n, then sum of A

and B is denoted by A + B and is a matrix [aij + bij]m n

The product of two matrices A and B, written as AB,

is defined in this very order of matrices if number of

columns of A (pre factor) is equal to the number of

rows of B (post factor). If AB is defined , we say that

A and B are conformable for multiplication in the

order AB.

If A = [aij]m n and B = [bij]n p, then their product AB

is a matrix C = [cij]m p where

Cij = sum of the products of elements of ith row of A

with the corresponding elements of jth column of B.

Types of matrices :

(i) Idempotent if A2 = A

(ii) Periodic if Ak+1 = A for some positive integer k.

The least value of k is called the period of A.

(ii) (A + B) = A + B

(iii) ( A) = A , where is a scalar

(iv) (A B) = A B .

Determinant :

Consider the set of linear equations a1x + b1y = 0 and

a2x + b2y = 0, where on eliminating x and y we get

the eliminant a1b2 a2b1 = 0; or symbolically, we

write in the determinant notation

a1

b1

a2

b2

a1b2 a2b1 = 0

a b

of the 2 2 order determinant 1 1 having 2

a2 b2

rows and 2 columns.

Similarly, a determinant of 3 3 order can be

expanded as :

44

MAY 2011

a1

b1

c1

a2

b2

c 2 = a1

a3

b3

c3

b2

c2

b3

c3

b1

a2

c2

a3

c3

+ c1

a2

b2

a3

b3

1

adj. A.

A is given by A1 =

|A|

Reversal law : If A, B, C are invertible matrices of same

order, then

(i) (AB)1 = B1 A1

(ii) (ABC)1 = C1 B1 A1

Criterion of consistency of a system of linear equations

= a1(b2c3 b3c2) a2(b1c3 b3c1) + a3(b1c2 b2c1)

= ( aibjck)

To every square matrix A = [aij]m n is associated a

number of function called the determinant of A and is

denoted by | A | or det A.

Thus, | A | =

a11

a12

... a1n

a 21

a22

... a2 n

M

an1

M

an 2

unique solution if | A | 0 and the unique solution is

given by X = A1B.

(ii) Cramers Rule : If | A | 0 and X = (x1, x2,..., xn)

| Ai |

where

then for each i =1, 2, 3, , n ; xi =

|A|

Ai is the matrix obtained from A by replacing the

ith column with B.

(iii) If | A | = 0 and (adj. A) B = O, then the system

AX = B is consistent and has infinitely many

solutions.

M

... a nn

deleting ith row and jth column is called a submatrix

of A. The determinant of this submatrix is called a

minor or aij.

Sum of products of elements of a row (or column) in

a det with their corresponding cofactors is equal to

the value of the determinant.

n

i.e.,

AX = B is inconsistent.

i =1

ij

has only null solution or trivial solution

(i.e., x1 = 0, x2 = 0, . xn = 0)

(vi) If | A | = 0, then the system AX = O has non-null

solution.

(i) Area of a triangle having vertices at (x1, y1), (x2, y2)

x1 y1 1

1

x2 y 2 1

and (x3, y3) is given by

2

x3 y 3 1

Cij = | A |.

j =1

of a determinant ate either identical or

proportional, then the determinant is zero.

(ii) If A is a square matrix of order n, then

| kA | = kn | A |.

(iii) If is determinant of order n and is the

determinant obtained from by replacing the

elements by the corresponding cofactors, then

(ii) Three points A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) are

collinear iff area of ABC = 0.

A square matrix A is called an orthogonal matrix if

AA = AA = I.

n1

=

(iv) Determinant of a skew-symmetric matrix of odd

order is always zero.

The determinant of a square matrix can be evaluated

by expanding from any row or column.

If A = [aij]n n is a square matrix and Cij is the

cofactor of aij in A, then the transpose of the matrix

obtained from A after replacing each element by the

corresponding cofactor is called the adjoint of A and

is denoted by adj. A.

(i) The determinant of a unitary matrix is of modulus

unity.

(ii) If A is a unitary matrix then A, A , A, A1 are

unitary.

(iii) Product of two unitary matrices is unitary.

Properties of adjoint of a square matrix

(i) If A is a square matrix of order n, then

A . (adj. A) = (adj . A) A = | A | In.

(ii) If | A | = 0, then A (adj. A) = (adj. A) A = O.

Differentiation of Determinants :

Let A = | C1 C2 C3 | is a determinant then

dA

= | C1 C2 C3 | + | C1 C2 C3 | + | C1 C2 C3 |

dx

Same process we have for row.

(iii) | adj . A | = | A |n 1 if | A | 0

(iv) adj. (AB) = (adj. B) (adj. A).

(v) adj. (adj. A) = | A |n 2 A.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE

column (or row) at a time, keeping others unchanged.

45

MAY 2011

- 4 7 4 8 pptUploaded byapi-199670769
- OVERHEAD LINEAUploaded byeddisonfh
- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- AE51Uploaded byMahadev
- BucklingUploaded by8986103t
- Matlab Manual1Uploaded byvenkatcharms
- Biz - Quatitative.Managment.Method Chapter.03Uploaded byphannarith
- Matlab IntroductUploaded byCarlos Enrique Godoy Sifontes
- 9Mathematic.pdfUploaded bydivakar suman
- Introduction to Mobile Robotics - Burgard.pdfUploaded bySantiago Garrido Bullón
- MatricesUploaded byJennifer Richmond
- Question Bank of 12 ClassUploaded byShantanuSingh
- 2014+02+19Uploaded byfidi
- Recommended Knowledge in Mathematical SciencesUploaded byelgallo764315
- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- MatricesUploaded byRichard Lu
- Chap4Uploaded bySheidaHa
- L10_Matrix Formulation of LPPs.pdfUploaded byNirmit
- Algebra NotesUploaded bynileshgughane
- Programs of Bca 2nd Sem 106 pUploaded byRahul Gupta
- MIT18_06S10_pset7_s10_solnUploaded bydjoseph_1
- Lay Linalg5!02!03Uploaded byfrankjamison
- LADW_2017-09-04_introUploaded byViktor Speicher
- KEM BAGAN LALANG -MATHEMATICSUploaded byaikieyut
- 1st_lesson_Econometrics(1)Uploaded byjovanamarceta89
- Vectors n Matrices ClassifiedsUploaded byShaamini
- Representing Rubik's Cube in AplUploaded byLuis Felipe
- Patter Generation in Diffusive NetworksUploaded byondra
- MVA-I for B. S.4 Years VI sem. P. U. Practical 14.02.18fnl;.docxUploaded byfazalulbasit9796
- Lecture6 Linear AlgebraUploaded bySirish Kamarajugadda

- AuditReport_2016Uploaded bysayondeep
- 2010-previous-year-paper-od.pdfUploaded bysayondeep
- 1st Year B.tech Syllabus Revised 18.08.10Uploaded bySoumya Sinha
- 6565-Tata.pdfUploaded bysayondeep
- Fee Structure EnggUploaded bySachin Kumar
- Linux Shell Pg MgUploaded bysayondeep
- Linux Shell Pg MgUploaded bysayondeep
- NocUploaded bysayondeep
- Cbse Blueprint PhysicsUploaded bysayondeep
- p2Uploaded byamishadalal
- DBMS Lab AssignmentsUploaded bysayondeep
- IMG_20141026_0001Uploaded bysayondeep
- X RAYUploaded bysayondeep
- MATRICES.pdfUploaded bysayondeep
- DSA--Q6.pdfUploaded bysayondeep
- DPPS-01 DeterminantUploaded bysayondeep
- DPPS MatrixUploaded bysayondeep
- AnswersUploaded bysayondeep
- DPPS___4__Nulcear_Physics___Radioactive__10-6-14Uploaded bysayondeep
- SBIChallanUploaded bysayondeep
- DPPS___3__Atomic_Structure-1__03-6-14Uploaded bysayondeep
- Introduction and Mode of ActionUploaded bysayondeep
- JEE Main Online Application Format 2014 (NITs and IITs Jonit Entrance Exam)Uploaded bysayondeep
- DPPS___5__Nulcear_Physics___Radioactive__14-6-14Uploaded bysayondeep
- UsesUploaded bysayondeep
- Top National Level Engineering Entrance ExamsUploaded bysayondeep
- DLP_FormUploaded bysayondeep
- ET_factsUploaded bysayondeep
- ALT-CodesUploaded byAriesPrincess~Slyffindor

- Chapter4 DifferentiationUploaded byRoni Abdurahman
- CS 201_Chapter 2 - Spring 13Uploaded byسيدجبنة
- Singh 2017Uploaded byMelati Ayusari
- Complex NumbersUploaded bydaniel_gao_2
- Explain and Use a Computer Algorithm for Using Gauss EliminationUploaded byMauricio Rojas Valdivia
- MTL 506 - Tutorial Sheet 3Uploaded byvamgadu
- Thesis IntegrationsUploaded byYaj Bhattacharya
- WMA01_01_que_20190109 fwdfdw AAxUploaded byHamza Tahir Iqbal
- (Synthesis Lectures on Control and Mechatronics) Mathukumalli Vidyasagar-Control System Synthesis - A Factorization Approach, Part II (Synthesis Lectures on Control and Mechatronics) -Morgan & ClaypoUploaded byVenkat Subbu
- hw02Uploaded bylewiebachelier
- Coordinate TransformationsUploaded bykgupta27
- dividing decimals.docxUploaded byElvin Nobleza Palao
- 9807080Uploaded bymlmilleratmit
- Demonstration of Goldbach's conjectureUploaded byIdriss Olivier Bado
- Qualifying Test – Master Programme in MathematicsUploaded bySyedAhsanKamal
- Math152_2015Uploaded byLoganHarper
- Multiple IntegralsUploaded byPancham Alva
- Higher-order functions - Functional ProgrammingUploaded byNiculcea Radu
- Lagrange InterpolationUploaded byKuhu Koyaliya
- Calculus Success in 20 Minutes a Day2ndEdition[1]Uploaded bydangeroussheep
- Sage TutorialUploaded byAnonymous RsPjrrzfI4
- Differential EquationsUploaded byAltammar13
- Lesson 21.Derivative of Exponential Functions .pptxUploaded byFlory Mendoza
- R. Bartle, D. Sherbert Instructors Manual - Introduction to Real AnalysisUploaded byAnonymous dkML2wzU
- ProblemsUploaded byKamal Lohia
- A Non-linear Black-Scholes EquationUploaded byHadiBies
- SOLUCIONARIO ESTATICA DEL BEER 7MA ED. CAPITULO 7 PAG: 1-23Uploaded byAlejandra Chaves
- Chapter 2Uploaded bySheenaKaur
- ON THE NON HOMOGENEOUS HEPTIC DIOPHANTINE EQUATION (X2- Y2)(8X2 + 8Y2 -14XY) = 19 (X2 –Y2) Z5Uploaded byesatjournals
- Conic SectionsUploaded byjohnbyro