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WORKPLACE SAFETYCOMMITTEE

Initial & Re-Certification

PPT-057-06

Technical Assistance Manual


www.dli.state.pa.us
Click on Workers
Compensation icon
Click on Health & Safety
Division
Click on HandS System
Click on Workplace Safety
Committee Technical
Assistance Manual
PPT-057-06

Learning Objectives
Understand the role and functionality of a safety
committee
Understand basic hazard detection and inspection
methods
Understand (and apply) basic accident & incident
investigation techniques
Gain basic awareness of how drug & alcohol
abuse/addiction impacts the workplace
PPT-057-06

Program Purpose

Educate new committee members


Refresher training for existing members
Most important:
Help prevent accidents &
illnesses in the workplace!

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Hidden Costs of Accidents

Total Costs = Direct + Indirect Expenses


Direct (insured) = e.g. wage loss, medical
Indirect (uninsured, cost to company) = e.g.

downtime, property damage, morale of injured


worker and others in department, hiring,
training, possible OSHA citations

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Workplace Safety Committees

Role
and
Functionality

PPT-057-06

Safety Committee Purpose

Improve safety & health in the workplace

Involve employees in the safety function


Generate ideas for improving safety & health
Improve employee/management relations
Stimulate interest among employees

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Safety Committee Pitfalls

Busy supervisors can refer problems to


the Committee they should solve themselves
Only a small percentage of employees
participate on the Committee
Timeframe from when problem discovered to
meeting may be lengthy

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Safety Committee Pitfalls

Members may not be qualified to handle complex


issues and may only address superficial problems

Recommendations may be expensive or time


consuming and as a result may be overlooked

May create large workloads for the management


representative if only identification of hazards
occur

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Safety Committee Authority


Extent should be determined and communicated to
all employees; e.g.:

Empowered and endorsed by top management


Acts as a recommending body
Investigate accidents/incidents
Implement changes

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Safety Committee Structure

Single - One workplace, one committee


Centralized More than one workplace
One committee in a central location with
representation for each outlying workplace location

Multiple - More than one workplace

Separate individual committees at each workplace

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Safety Committee Structure


Committee Member Composition

- Minimum of 2 employer and 2 employee


representatives

- Number of employer representatives CANNOT


exceed number of employee representatives

- Quorum = 1/2 Plus 1


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Safety Committee Structure


Committee Members
Employer Authority to do one or more:
Select or hire an employee
Remove or terminate an employee
Direct the manner of employee performance
Control the employee
Employee Does not possess any authority or
responsibility described for the Employer
A person cannot function
as both of the above
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Safety Committee Function

Purpose: to detect hazards and prevent accidents


& illnesses

Must have formal (documented) monthly

meetings with Agenda & Minutes:


- Review & update safety training
- Develop safety work practices
- Recommend use of safety equipment/devices
- Accident/incident report reviews
- Action items from reports & safety inspections
- Avenue for employee safety-related issues
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Members Responsibilities

Attend meetings
Notify all employees in your area that you

are their representative on the Committee

Be watchful for unsafe conditions and acts


and report them

Be responsive to peoples concerns; follow up


Ask employees for safety suggestions and
concerns

Discuss safety issues with employees


Offer solutions not just problems
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Managements Responsibilities

Provide support (time, effort, money)


Resolve scheduling and personal conflicts
Provide realistic dates for correcting safety and
health concerns

Support training for Committee members


Provide leadership and direction
Attend Committee meetings
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Managements Responsibilities

Promote positive effects of Committee activities


on individual basis or at group meetings

Respond to recommendations in a timely manner


Promote safety within the organization

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Employees Responsibilities

Identify safety and health hazards


Report all unsafe conditions and practices
Make suggestions for improving workplace
safety

Participate in Committee activities/initiatives


Follow safe practices/procedures
Cooperate with Committee members
Consider becoming a Committee member
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Committee Chairperson

Accountable to top management


Sets the agenda
Coordinates meetings
Facilitates meetings
Ensures agenda is followed
Ensures everyone is heard

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Committee Chairperson
Options:
Safety person serves as Chairperson
Management and union co-chairs
Rotating Chairperson (yearly; each meeting)

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Safety Committee Certification


Can be done on-line using HandS system

Initial certification:
- After 6 months of functional committee
operation
- Within 30-90 days of insurance policy renewal
-Submit Form LIBC-372

Annual re-certification:
- Within 15-90 days of insurance policy renewal
- Submit Form LIBC-372R
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HandS

Health and Safety Divisions


online processing system

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Accessing the HandS System


Go to our website
www.dli.state.pa.us
Click Workers
Compensation
then
Health & Safety
Division
then
HandS System
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Review/Audit Overview
Random/Target Audits
30 day notification
Opening conference
Table top on-site audit
Information verification
Closing conference

Issue Compliance/Non-compliance Rating


(Preliminary)

Non-Compliance issues explained


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Successful Safety Committees

Competent -- dedicated
Support goals & objectives
Demonstrate team effort
Develop mutual trust, respect & support
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Objectives
Objectives should be: SMART
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Relevant
Time-limited
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Workplace Safety Committees

Hazard Detection
and
Identification

Is this safe?

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Hazard Detection & Identification

The following list shows the main ways to


identify hazards:

Walkthrough Surveys

Inspection Checklists
Past Records
Accident Investigations
Consultation
Documentation

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Risk vs. Hazard

Risk: The measure of the


probability and severity of
an adverse effect caused by
a hazard
Hazard: What causes the
risk; administrative or
physical (causes or has the
potential to cause a loss)

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Purpose of Safety Inspections


Identify potential hazards so they are corrected
before an injury occurs
Implement or improve safety
programs
Increase safety awareness
Display concern for workers safety
Communicate safety standards of performance
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Inspection vs. Audit

Are you AUDITING or INSPECTING?


Safety Inspections examine physical facilities
looking for unsafe conditions, unsafe acts,
housekeeping issues, etc.
Safety Audits examine procedures & policies

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Hazard Detection & Inspection

What is a hazard?
What should I look for?
What standards do I reference?
How do I perform the inspection?
How do I document the inspection?

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What is a Hazard?
An act or a condition in the workplace that has
the potential to cause injury, illness, or death to
a person and/or damage to company property,
equipment and materials

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What to Look for


High Hazard Areas: Equipment and operations
that involve energy transfer including: chemical,
mechanical, pneumatic, physical, electrical,
gravitational, etc. (Unsafe Conditions)
Procedures and behaviors, including: Use of
protective equipment, safe operating speeds,
following proper procedures, horseplay,
inattentive behavior, etc. (Unsafe Acts)

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Standards to Reference

OSHA
- Federal Regulations (29 CFR 1910)
- Available at www.osha.gov

PA Department of Labor & Industry


www.dli.state.pa.us

PA Department of Environmental Protection


www.depweb.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt

Other technical standards


(NFPA, ANSI, ASTM, ASME, etc.) get help
if necessary!
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How to Conduct an Inspection:

Observe processes, equipment, and work


locations for unsafe conditions

Obtain comments and suggestions from


employees

Review Records such as training, Safety


Data Sheets, Accident Reports, etc.

Formulate recommendations
Report findings to management
Follow-up for implementation
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Any Problems Here?

Chemical
storage
underneath
cabinet
Not all
chemicals
properly
labeled
Are chemicals
compatible
No lip on shelf

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What About Here?

Fire door held


open by fire
extinguisher
Location of
extinguisher
could be trip
& fall hazard

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Is this Okay?

No shoring
in trench

NO!

Working
below
unstable
rock
Unstable
soil in
trench

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What About This?

Storage next
to hot water
heater
Combustible
storage in
mechanical
room
Unsafe
storage
could fall on
somebody

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Any Issues Here?

Door possibly
closes on cord
damage to
cord

Cord across
walkway trip &
fall hazard

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What About Here?

Exit
blocked/obstructed
Exit access/aisle
blocked/obstructed
Storage creates trip
& fall hazard
Access to fire
extinguisher
blocked

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Do you see any Problems?

Electrical
cord frayed,
insulation
missing

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How to Document the Inspection

In Writing, In Writing, In Writing!

Email
Checklists.
Memorandums.
Written inspection reports..

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Safety
Inspections

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Safety Inspection Checklist

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Workplace Safety Committees

Accident/Incident
Investigation
and
Reporting

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Incident Ratio Model

Most Accident
Investigations
Conducted

1
29

Minor Injury
Few Investigations
Conducted

300

Near Miss

Death or Serious Injury

Bi
in gg
ju es
ry t
ca per
us c e
i n nt
g ag
po e
te of
nt
ia
l!

3,000

Unsafe Acts, Behaviors or Conditions


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Near Miss

What is a near miss?


How does it differ from an accident?
How does it differ from a hazard?

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What Is A Near Miss?

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Near Miss

We will read the definition of an accident


We call an accident an actual
We looked at the definition of a hazard
We call a hazard a potential

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Near Miss
Remembering the definition of a near miss
We would call it an ?????

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Near Miss

RIGHT --We call a near miss an almost


How does it resemble an accident?
It must be investigated immediately

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Near Miss

Near misses also have


a cause and effect
What would you say
was the cause of this
almost? What might
be the effect?
What changes would
you make?
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Near Miss

What impact would


changes make in the
slide?

previous

How would you prevent


from becoming an

this
actual?

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Reporting Near Miss Incidents

Why report near misses?

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Near Miss

Always remember, if you:


Eliminate or reduce all hazards
Investigate all near misses immediately
and make changes
You WILL reduce actuals

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Incident Investigation & Reporting

What is an accident?
What are the causes of an accident?
How do I investigate an accident?
What should I put in my report?
Whats next?

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Incident Investigation & Reporting

What is an accident?
An uncontrolled and/or unplanned release of
energy that causes or contributes to illness,
injury, death and/or damage to property,
equipment, or materials.

All accidents have a cause and effect!

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Incident Investigation & Reporting

What are the causes of an accident?


There are two basic causes of accidents:

Unsafe Acts
and
Unsafe Conditions

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Unsafe Acts vs. Unsafe Conditions

Behaviors
- Account for the vast

Environment
Represent only a

small fraction of
injuries

Cant
Recognize & Remedy

majority of injuries

Wont
Encourage & Enforce

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Unsafe Acts - Unsafe Conditions

Inadequate
Ventilation

Operating at
Improper Speed

Failure to Warn

Congested Area

Defective Tools,
Equipment or
Materials

Noise Exposure

Inadequate Guards

Inadequate PPE

Improper Lifting

Horseplay
Using Defective
Equipment
(Adapted from Bird & Germain, 1985)
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Unsafe Acts - Unsafe Conditions

Temperature
Extremes

Influence of Drugs
or Alcohol

Fire/Explosion
Hazard

Operating Without
Authority

Poor Illumination

Improper Loading
Inadequate Warning
System
Failure to Secure
Removing Safety
Devices
File Drawer Left
Open

(Adapted from Bird & Germain, 1985)


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Unsafe Act or Unsafe Condition?

Act: No guarding on
scaffold; unsafe set-up
for scaffold; no PPE

Condition: Items
stored in exit access,
obstructs exit width

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Unsafe Act or Unsafe Condition?

Act: Unsafe
ladder setup; no PPE

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Unsafe Act or Unsafe Condition?

Excessive
sawdust
on floor

Condition

No guard
on blade

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Unsafe Act or Unsafe Condition?

Act: Unsafe
set-up;
individual in
unsafe position

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Unsafe Act or Unsafe Condition?

Condition

Exposed wires

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Unsafe Act or Unsafe Condition?

Act

Man standing
on moveable
stairs being
raised by
forklift

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Accident/Incident Investigation

Review all reported


incidents causing
injury, damage or a
near miss
What happened
Identify the root
cause
Recommend
corrective measures
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Who Should do the Investigation?

First Line supervisor


Safety Committee
Safety Director/Safety Person
All of the above
A combination of the above

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Incident Investigation & Reporting

HOW DO I INVESTIGATE AN ACCIDENT/INCIDENT?


1. Call for first aid/emergency response
2. Secure the scene
3. Photograph the scene
4. Interview witnesses
5. Collect physical evidence

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Investigation Go Bag
Some suggestions:
Camera
Flashlight
Tape Measure
Surgical Gloves
Necessary PPE
Note Pad/Tablet
Sticky Notes
Pens
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Goal of the investigation

IS NOT TO:
Exonerate individuals or management

Satisfy insurance requirements


Defend a position for legal argument
Assign blame
Remember, fact finding not fault finding

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Interviewing Victims & Witnesses

Interview as soon as possible after the incident


Do not interrupt medical care to interview
Interview each person separately
Do not allow witnesses to confer prior to interview

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The Interview
Put the person at ease
People may be reluctant to discuss the incident
particularly if they think someone will get in
trouble
Reassure them that this is a fact finding
only
Remind them these facts will be used
prevent a recurrence of the incident

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process
to

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The Interview
Take notes!
Do not make suggestions:
If the person is stumbling over a
word or concept, do not help them out.
Ask open ended questions:
What did you see?
What happened?

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The Interview

Summarize what you have been told


Correct misunderstandings of the events
between you and the witness
Ask the witness/victim for recommendations
to prevent recurrence
These people will often have the best solution
to the problem

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Incident Investigation & Reporting

WHAT SHOULD I PUT IN MY REPORT?


1.

All the facts, statements, documents, photos,


etc. that were obtained during the investigation

2.

Remember, no opinions (e.g. I think that, I


believe that)

3.

Analysis of the cause

4.

Corrective actions

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Corrective Action
Told to be more careful
Explained safety rule on lifting
Instructed employee to read Safety Data
Sheet (SDS)
Had co-worker review proper procedures
ARE THESE EFFECTIVE MEANS OF CORRECTIVE
ACTION? WHAT DO YOU THINK?
Hint: Not really! These actions
do not really correct anything.
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Good Corrective Action


Met with employee to discuss accident and
reviewed proper procedures and then...
Observed employee perform the procedure
Showed employee SDS, reviewed how to
interpret; use of appropriate PPE
Checked for understanding
Plan to discuss with all employees in
department at next meeting
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Incident Investigation & Reporting

Whats next?
Follow-up!
Follow-up!
Follow-up!

Ensure that corrective actions are being


implemented.
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Incident Investigation - Summary

Accident & Incident Investigations


First Aid & Emergency Response
Secure Scene
Photograph/Document Scene
Interviews/Statements
Review Records
Prepare a Report:
Include Causes & Effects
Include Corrective Actions
Follow-up!
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Root Cause(s)
The cause of a problem which, if
adequately addressed, will prevent
a recurrence of that problem

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WEED OUT THE CAUSES OF INJURIES


AND ILLNESSES

Strains

Burns

Ung
ua

rded

m ac

n too
ls
Chemic
al spill

Conditions

Untrained

play
Horse

hine

Broke

Defectiv
e

Cuts

PPE

worker

Lack of time
Too much work

Create a h

azard

t injury
r
o
p
e
r
Fails to
Fails to inspect

Surface Causes of
the Accident

Behaviors

Fails to enforce
Fails to train

Inadequate training
No discipline procedures
No orientation process

DIRECT CAUSES OF
INJURY/ILLNESS

No recognition

Outdated Procedures

Inadequate training plan


No accountability policy

No inspection policy

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PPT-057-06

Root Causes of the


86
Accident
84

Drug-Free Workplaces in PA
Employee
Substance
Abuse
Awareness &
Prevention
(ESAAP)

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The Unseen Reality


Think PAs workplaces are
drug free? Think again.
75% of drug users are employed
Almost one in ten employees has
a substance abuse problem
24% of workers admit to drinking
during the workday at least once in
the past year
15% of U.S. workers report using
alcohol or being impaired on the
job in the past year
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The Cost of Substance Abuse

Increased Health Care Costs


Increased Workers
Compensation Premiums
Increased Workplace Violence

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Substance Abuse
Individuals who abuse drugs
or alcohol are three and a
half times more likely to be
involved in a workplace
accident compared to
individuals who do not
abuse drugs or alcohol
47% of industrial injuries
are directly related to
alcohol abuse or alcoholism
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Reasons for Not Implementing ESAAPs

Substance abuse is not a problem


Insufficient time to develop & maintain a policy
The policy would be too costly
Too much uncertainty about liability
Lack of information

REALIT
Y=
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Incentive to Implement ESAAPs


Only 1 out of every 5 Pennsylvania employers
plans to address substance abuse in the
workplace.
The number increased to 2 out of every 3 when
workers compensation premium discounts were
mentioned.*
*While PA presently has no provisions
for granting financial consideration for
implementing an ESAAP, this may be
legislatively addressed in the future

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ESAAP is an Effective Solution


Southern Pacific Railroad reports after they
implemented an ESAAP accidents dropped by
71%.
One electric supply company documents a
39% decrease in absenteeism after
implementation of an ESAAP.

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Substance Abuse
When someone has an addiction or abuses alcohol
and other drugs it affects themselves as well as
other people around them:
Emotionally
Behaviorally
Physically

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Emotional Effects

Aggression
Burnout
Anxiety
Depression
Paranoia
Denial

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Behavioral Effects
Slow reaction time
Impaired coordination
Slowed or slurred speech
Irritability
Excessive talking
Inability to sit still
Limited attention span
Poor motivation or lack of energy
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Physical Effects
Common performance problems may
include:

Poor attendance
- Tardiness
- Unexplained absences
- Long lunches
Co-workers or customer complaints
Mistakes
Missed deadlines
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Drugs of Abuse
Alcohol

Narcotics

Marijuana

Hallucinogens

Inhalants

Designer Drugs

Stimulants

Over the counter

Depressants

(OTC)
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Drug-Free Workplace Policy


Accomplishes two major things:
1. Sends a clear message that use of
alcohol and drugs in the workplace
is prohibited
2. Encourages employees who have
problems with alcohol and other
drugs
to voluntarily seek help

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Elements of ESAAPs

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A Safer, Drug-Free Workplace


Recognize the impact of alcohol and drug abuse on the
workplace
Understand and follow the Drug-Free Workplace Policy
Know the types of assistance available
Visit www.samhsa.gov, the website for the Substance
Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
(SAMHSA), maintained by the US Department of Health
and Human Services
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Additional Resources
To assist you in your program development, you can
contact us for your own PowerPoint copy of:
1. Drug & Alcohol Awareness-Employee and
2. Drug & Alcohol Awareness-Supervisor
Department of Labor and Industry
Bureau of Workers Compensation
Email: RA-LI-BWC-Safety@pa.gov
Phone: (717) 772-1635
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PATHS
PA Training for Health and Safety

PATHS is a no fee state-wide service providing


Pennsylvania employers and employees with
coordinated Health and Safety resources through
easy access and affordability

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PATHS
At the PATHS Website you can:
View . . . Health & Safety Training PowerPoint briefings
Access Safety Talks (Toolbox Talks)
Review . . . Course descriptions, objectives, and
schedules
Employers can register online to participate in webinars
and training sessions. Most sessions are free and are
open to everyone
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PATHS

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PATHS
To Access PATHS
www.dli.state.pa.us/PATHS

or
www.dli.state.pa.us
Workers Compensation
icon
Health & Safety Division
PATHS
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Contact Information
To contact a Health & Safety Training
Specialist:
Bureau of Workers Compensation
1171 South Cameron Street Room 324
Harrisburg, PA 17104-2501
717-772-1635
RA-LI-BWC-Safety@pa.gov

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HandS Tech Manual


Sample Programs found on following pages:
Safety Committee Compliance Checklist
Sample Bylaws
Sample Safety Policy
Sample Meeting Agenda
Sample Meeting Minutes

49
51
54
55
56

Sample Training Documentation


Sample Incident Investigation Report
PPE Program Checklist
Workplace Inspection Checklist
Safety Orientation

57
58-60
61-67
68-74
75

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Questions

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