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Mary Bernal
G.S. Horne
English 1100, Section 71
21 November 2013
Annotated Bibliography
An Annotated Bibliography for Sources about Genetically Modified Food
Dona, Artemis, and Ioannis Arvanitoyannis. "Health Risks of Genetically Modified
Foods." Food Science and Nutrition 49.2 Nov. (2009): 164-175. Taylor & Francis. Web.
28 Oct 2013.
Dona, affiliated with the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology at the University of
Athens, and Arvanitoyannis working in the School of Agricultural Sciences at the University of
Thessaly, both closely study Food Engineering and Food Microbiology. In this article, they
review the effects on animal and human health resulting from an increase of anti-nutrients from
GMOs. They observe the effects of an animal injected with anti-nutrients commonly found in
genetically modified foods. This review helps to explain understand risks involved with
consuming genetically modified foods. The results from studies with genetically modified foods
indicate that they may cause several internal effects and may alter hematological and
immunologic parameters (164). This article is written for a scholarly publication, but allows
non-experts to find helpful insight about the hazards to their health from consuming genetically
modified foods. Although this article is 5 years old, it presents information that is still a relevant
to the arguments on genetically modified food. Unlike the other sources used in this annotated
bibliography, this article assessed studies on with animals and humans to clarify several risks that
can be caused by consuming genetically modified foods.

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Lendman, Stephen. "Potential Health Hazards of Genetically Engineered Foods." Global
Research. Global Research , 22 February 2009. Web. 30 Oct 2013.
Stephen Lendman is a well published author for the Centre for Research on Globalization. This
article provides insight on the results of several independent animal studies showing harm from
GMOs Genetically Modified Organism (2). Furthermore the studies offer compelling evidence
of potential harms to animals from GMOs. This evidence illustrates the significance of the risks
worldwide. This article is written for consumers to educate themselves about the risks,
understand how to reduce them, and has to act in our mutual self-interest. Published in October
2013, this current article is up to date on one of the biggest agricultural issues of this day and
age. Similar to the article by Dona and Arvanitoyannis, this article also shows evidence of the
harms GMOs can have on animals.

Qaim, Matin, and Shahzad Kouser. "Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security ." PLoS
One 8.6 Jun. (2013): n.p. ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source. Web. 28 Oct 2013.
Qaim works in the Department of Agricultural Economics at the University of Goettingen and
Kouser works in the Department of Environmental and Resource Economics at the University of
Faisalabad. In this article, they use comprehensive panel data collected over 6 years from farm
households in India to carry out household surveys that analyze food security effects widely
adopted insect-resistant genetically modified cotton Bacillus thuringiensis. This study displays
whether the development of genetically modified crops is seen as key to reduce hunger, or
whether this technology causes further risks to food security. The results of this research confirm
that the income gain through Bt cotton (7) adoption among smallholder farm households in
India have positive effects on food security, but not dietary quality. This article is written for a

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scholarly publication, but clearly presents information that can help those compare the
availability of food with dietary quality of the food. This article is only 5 months old and
presents most current research on the on-going health risks of genetically modified foods and
crops. Unlike other sources on this annotated bibliography, this article gives insight into a survey
conducted to understand the risks associated with genetically modified crops.

Schmidt, Charles. "Genetically Modified Foods: Breeding Uncertainty ." Environmental Health
Perspectives. 113.8 Aug. (2005): A526-A533. National Institute of Environmental
Science. Web. 30 Oct. 2013.
Schmidt received a masters degree in Public Health from the University of Massachusetts and is
a well published author who has written for Discover and Natural Science magazine. In this
article, Schmidt reviews the worldwide regulation, prohibition, and productions of genetically
modified crops and foods. He maps the increase of disease in GM-free zones (A 528)
compared to zones without regional bans of genetically modified crops. The author provides an
insightful analysis concluding the growth of genetically modified agriculture in the future is
inevitable. Although this article is over 8 years old, it provides insight to the on-going study of
nutrition depletion linked to genetically modified crops. Similar to the article written by Qaim
and Arvanitoyannis, this source reviews the potential increase of health problems related to the
growing production of genetically modified crops.