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83 Aufrufe20 SeitenAn example of C3 coursework.

Jun 21, 2016

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An example of C3 coursework.

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

83 Aufrufe

An example of C3 coursework.

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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C3 Coursework

In this coursework I will be using three different methods to solve an

equation. These are the:

Change of sign method which involves a decimal search

Newton-Raphson method

Rearrangement of f(x) = 0 to x = g(x)

I will use each of these methods to find a success and a failure and at the

end will identify the practicalities of each method in different situations

compared to each other.

If we were to graph an equation with roots to the equation f(x) = 0, it

would be seen that the equation will cross or touch the line. When it

crosses the x axis, the value of f(x) = 0 will change from a positive to a

negative number between two intervals either side of the actual root. We

can keep narrowing the intervals to keep getting closer to the actual root

value but the value will never actually be met, which is why I am going to

test this method to three decimal places. I will then repeat this between

this two integers until a change of sign occurs again.

By using a decimal search where integers are chosen to put into the

equation f(x) = 0, I can find two values that lay either side of the actual

route.

Example

I will use this method to solve the equation 0.5x+2x30x+24.2 = 0.

To do this I will find the values of f(x) = 0.5x+2x30x+24.2 and detail

where the value of the f(x) changes from a positive value to a negative. As

seen in the graph plotted in autograph, there are three roots for this

equation. I will be searching for the second root.

Consecutive integers take the place of x in the function. If the function of

0 is used we arrive at the answer 24.2:

f(0) = 0.5x0+2x030x0+24.2 = 24.2

Equation 1

1

Joseph Wheatland

With the function of 1 we can see that the answer is now negative

(Equation 2). This means there is a root in this interval. We can now

narrow down this search to locate the root in the 0-1 range.

f(1) = 0.5x1+2x130x1+24.2 = -3.3

Equation 2

f(0) =

f(1) = -3.3

As the f(0) is positive and f(1) is negative this tells us the graph must

cross the x axis between 0 and 1. We can now narrow down one of the

roots to being in the range (0, 1)

Figure 1: f(x) = 0.5x+2x30x+24.2

It is now possible to do a decimal search in which I will split the interval

into ten and will again calculate the values of f(x) for the values of x in the

0-1 interval until a change in sign occurs. This step is repeated until the

accuracy comes to four decimal places and the number can be accurately

rounded to 3 decimal places.

Joseph Wheatland

Step 1

Step 2

x

f(x)

f(x)

1

-3.3

160.7

168.2

0.9

0.815

161.7

5

144.2

f(x)

Root in interval

0.8

118.7

1.736

1.736 (0.8,0.9)

88.2

1.4779

21

55.7

1.2204

24.2

84-3.3

0.9636

Root in interval (0,1)

-23.8

94

as there is a change of

-34.3

0.7075

sign

-31.8

52

where the line crosses

-13.3

0.4520

x

63

0.1972 Root in interval

0.86

28

(0.86,0.87)

0.87

Step 4

x

f(x)

Step 0.0569

5

0.1972

3

0.86

28

0.1717

0.861

81

0.1463

0.862

4

0.1209

0.863

06

0.0954

0.864

78

0.0700

0.865

57

0.0446

0.866

43

0.0192 Root in interval

0.867

35

(0.867,0.868)

0.0061

0.868

7

x

-7

-6

-5

X -4

0.8 -3

-2

0.81

-1

0.820

1

0.832

3

0.844

5

0.85

Joseph Wheatland

x

0.867

0.8671

0.8672

0.8673

Step 5

0.8674

0.8675

0.8676

0.8677

0.8678

f(x)

0.0192

35

0.0166

95

0.0141

54

0.0116

14

0.0090

74

0.0065

34

0.0039

94

0.0014

54

0.0010

9

Root in interval

(0.8677,0.8678)

This data has split the values of x into equal intervals so as to get the

degree of accuracy as desired (4 decimal places). We can now diagnose

that f(x) = 0 for 0.8677 < x < 0.8678. This means that the value of the

root is 0.868 (3 d.p) and the former value of f(x) describes the error

bounds of the answer. If we were to again search for a change of sign

between 0.8677 and 0.8678 then it would yield us a more accurate

answer. Our error bound proves our answer is not the definitive one.

Joseph Wheatland

Interval (0.8677, 0.8678)

f(0.8677)

is

POSITIVE

f(0.8678)

is

NEGATIVE

[0.8677,0.8678]

The decimal search method I undertook was a success as the function

crosses the x axis between the values of 0.8677 and 0.8678 (figure 2).

When the x axis is intersected, f(x) = 0. Therefore, as the value of

f(0.8677) is positive and the value of f(0.8678) is negative, we know that

there is an intersection trapped between these two points and hence a

root.

In some cases this method will fail when there are two or more roots in

close proximity in an integer range. If this is the case, then when we do

the integer search only one change of sign may be noticed and roots

could be overlooked. Without the help of a graph we could miss them

altogether and the method would be a failure as not all the roots would

have been found.

Im using the equation 0.5x+2x30x+59 = 0 to find a failure using the

change of sign method. To do this I will find the values of the function f(x)

= 0.5x+2x30x+59 which have an intersection between them and

therefore a change of sign. With an integer search it appears as if there

are no roots between these

values as the sign

x

f(x)

0

59

remains positive throughout

and doesnt change

1

2

3 5

4

5

31.5

11

0.5

3

21.5

Joseph Wheatland

(figure 3). But as we can see on the graph between three and four there

are two roots. It is not picked up by this method as the sign changes back

to positive in the same interval.

Figure 3: f(x) = 0.5x+2x30x+59

As the two roots havent been picked up with the decimal search and a

success is only a success when all the roots can be found with the

is positive

Integer search

doesnt pick up

these two roots

is positive too

Newton Raphson

The newton Raphson method uses an iterative formula to calculate new

values of x which become more accurate to the actual value of the root.

This iteration works by finding the point at which a tangent to the curve

crosses the x axis. This new value of x is inputted into the iterative

formula and will find a tangent which crosses the x axis closer to the

actual root each time.

f (x n )

The iterative formula used can be generalised to xn+1 = xn - '

f (x n)

The starting point for the formula is known as x0 which is an integer which

lays near the root you are attempting to find. Given this initial integer

estimate, we can use this numerical method to find an estimate to the

root.

Let f(x) = x+27x+5x2.4. The equation f(x) = 0 has two roots (figure 4)

between [-1,0] and [0,1]. We will find both of the roots using the Newton

Raphson method starting with the right root ([0,1]).

x

-3

-2

-1

0

6

1

2

f(x)

198.6

87.6

18.6

-2.4

30.6

123.6

below indicates a change

of sign twice which leads

us to the conclusion that

there are two roots.

Joseph Wheatland

To begin this method it first requires an estimate for the root. This value

(x0) will be 0 as it lies reasonably close to the root. Therefore:

x0 = 0

f(x) = x+27x+5x2.4

f(x) = 3x2+54x+5.

This can be substituted into the general formula in place of xn as follows:

Xn+1 = xn -

X 1 = x0 -

f ( x0 )

f ' ( x 0)

= Xn+1 = xn -

x 30 +27 x 20 +5 x0 2.4

3 x 20+ 54 x 0+5

x 3n +27 x 2n +5 xn 2.4

3 x 2n+ 54 x n+5

0327 02+ 5 02.4

3 0 2+54 0+5

=0-

= 0.48

Now that we have a value for x1 this can be substituted into the iterative

formula again to give out another answer closer to that of the root.

Instead of x0 we now substitute it with x1, and the x1 at the beginning of

the formula becomes an x2 as it will find the second iteration.

3

x2 = x1 -

x 1 +27 x 1+ 5 x 12.4

2

3 x 1+54 x1 +5

= 0.48 -

2

3 0.48 +54 0.48+5

0.277

While this process can be repeated to achieve a greater accuracy it is

much easier to use software to calculate the values of x3 etc. as it will find

better values quickly with much less rounding error.

Joseph Wheatland

is put into the formula,

the tangent crosses the

x axis closer to the root.

The answer becomes

more accurate.

xn

0

0.4799

9

0.2797

1

0.2240

12

0.2190

14

0.2189

73

0.2189

73

0.2189

73

0.2189

73

change in

xn

0.479999

982

0.200289

505

0.055698

736

0.004997

567

Figure 5:

Newton

Raphson

tangent

x+27x+5x2.4

line converges

towards the root very rapidly.

It has only taken

eight iterations to find the

exact route and after

five the digits remained fixed

to six decimal places.

4.07E-05

Starting at 0 (xo)in figure 5,

this graph illustrates

how a line is created which

shoots towards the

2.70E-09

curve up or down and creates

a tangent which then

2.78E-17

shoots off to the x axis. This

point now becomes

x1. The line shoots to the

curve of y= f(x)

0

again and another tangent

forms which shoots

of to the x axis. When this crosses the x axis it is closer to the root and

more accurate to the roots real value. This point is known as x2. This

process repeats and will get more accurate each time. As the iterations

occur, the change in xn becomes less and less as it reaches closer towards

the root, until it is miniscule or reaches zero. This means the method has

found when the f(x) = 0 and hence the root. The line in this case is

converging to a value near 0.218973.

The root between [0,1] is 0.21897 to five significant figures in this case

with the solution bounds of 0.218965<x<0.218975. We know the root is

between these two values as we evaluate f(0.218965) and f(0.2189750)

for a change of sign.

X

X

X

0

3

1

2

Joseph Wheatland

F(0.218965) = -0.000143453025

F(0.218965) = 2.62292106E-005

0.21897 0.000005

The change of sign means there is definitely a root in between the values

and both of these numbers round to 0.21897 so we can say for certain this

is the answer to this root to five significant figures.

There is one more root that lies between [-1,0] that still needs to be found.

Again the same method will be used as before but the value of x0 will be

changed to -1 as it is closer to this root and will find it in fewer iterations.

We can see that the method has found the root with ease in only five

Curve of

y=x+27x+5x2.4

X

0

iterations once

root as -0.40881 to five

A failure in the case of the

method can be defined when

diverges away from the

starting integer or when a

again.

Xn

0.59565217

4

0.44278177

5

0.41042812

6

0.40881290

9

0.40880885

3

0.40880885

3

significant figures.

change in

xn

0.404347

826

9 fixed

0.152870

399

figures

0.032353

649

0.001615

216

4.06E-06

2.56E-11

failure

newton Raphson

either the line

closest root from the

different root is found

Joseph Wheatland

than the one we are searching for. This could happen due to the gradient of the

tangent being very close to zero and not reaching the x axis for a long time as it

has a steep crossing point or the function is discontinuous and the tangent is

formed but the new value of xn doesnt hit the curve again.

Let f(x) = (2x3-4x2+1)1/3 (Figure 5.1) I will attempt to find the root on the far right

in the interval [1,2] in this example for the equation f(x) = 0.

If we take x0 to equal 2 then the expected outcome would be for the root on the

left of this number to be found. However, due to a steep x axis where the line

crosses the turning point the tangent is thrown off from where it should go and

the x1 value is now on the left of the root (figure 5.2). When the line goes from

the x2 number to x3 the intersection of the x axis is further away from the root we

are searching for too. As there is a very low gradient when the line shoots

vertical towards the line from x3, the line now diverges into infinity in the

opposite

direction from the local root.

X4

X4

X3

X1

X0

X2

Figure

The line first goes onto the other

side of the root we are looking for.

5.2

x

change

10

intersection at the x axis show that

a large divergence away from our

root has occurred

Joseph Wheatland

1.6250

01

2.6593

33

1.1952

28

2.7405

8

in xn

0.37499

909

1.03433

18

1.46410

49

3.93580

32

X = g(x) method

This third method is known at the x = g(x) method which involves

rearranging the equation f(x) = 0 to x= g(x). This new function can then

be used as an iterative formula. When using this method, the function y =

g(x) is plotted against y=x and the points at which these points intersect

will now satisfy the equation f(x) = 0.

I am going to use the x = g(x) method to solve 2x -3x-2x +0.7=0 so let

f(x) = 2x -3x-2x +0.7=0 (figure 6).

To do this I will use the iteration xn+1 = g(xn) where g(x) is a

rearrangement of the equation 2x -3x-2x +0.7=0 into the form x = g(x).

2x = 2x3-3x2+0.7

X = (2x3-3x2+0.7)/2

Xn+1 = (2xn3-3xn2+0.7)/2

allows us two then divide by

two to leave an x on one side.

This leaves the formula in the

new x = g(x) form.

created with each iteration and substituted

back into the formula for a more accurate

11 each time.

answer

Joseph Wheatland

An integer search can be used now to see which number to use for the

starting value of this formula (x0). In figure 7 there are three turning

points which signifies there are three roots. I am going to focus on the root

between [0,1] so I will make x0 = 0

x

-1

0

1

2

3

f(x)

-2.3

0.7

-2.3

0.7

21.7

Figure

7

This method

Raphson

be found by

method. Using x0 = 0 the first iteration can

substituting into the formula

X1 = (2x03-

As this is an iterative formula that repeats its steps it is once again much

quicker to use software to figure out further iterations. Figure 8 shows

the equations y = x and y = g(x) plotted against each other with the

original y =f(x) also in view. The two latter functions cross at the same x

value as the middle root in the equation f(x) = 0. This is because the

Y=

x

Y=

g(x)

Y=

f(x)

functions

each

Figure 8:

g(x) =

are

just rearrangements of

other.

y = f(x) = 2x -3x-2x +0.7, y =

(2x3-3x2+0.7)/2, y = x

12

Joseph Wheatland

x

0.35

0.209125

0.293545821

0.24604087

0.274090192

0.257902994

0.267383216

0.261875561

0.2650909

0.263219004

0.264310564

0.263674645

0.264045323

0.263829323

0.263955213

0.26388185

0.263924605

0.263899688

0.26391421

0.263905747

0.263910679

0.263907805

0.26390948

0.263908504

0.263909072

0.263908741

0.263908934

change in xn

0.35

0.140875

0.084420821

0.047504951

0.028049322

0.016187198

0.009480222

0.005507655

0.003215338

0.001871896

0.001091559

0.000635919

0.000370678

0.000215999

0.000125889

7.34E-05

4.28E-05

2.49E-05

1.45E-05

8.46E-06

4.93E-06

2.87E-06

1.68E-06

9.76E-07

5.69E-07

3.32E-07

1.93E-07

there are six fixed figures for the value of the root. The

value can be rounded to 0.26391 (5 sig. figures). We can

check that there actually is a root near this value by

creating solution bounds and checking for a change of

sign between 0.263905 and 0.263915.

F(0.263905) = 1.22284989E-005

F(0.263915) = -1.94271918E-005

There is a change of sign indicating a root lies between

these numbers and both of these numbers round to

0.26391 so this is the correct root to five significant

figures.

fixed significant

figures

pattern is relatively simple to spot the pattern the line takes. The initial

integer estimate of 0 (bottom left of figure 9) is followed up the curve to

the curve y = g(x) and then a horizontal line leads right to the y = x line

as part of the first iteration. The x coordinate of this point is now x1. The

line goes vertical towards the y = g(x) line again and repeats the same

pattern in the next iteration. When the horizontal line drawn reaches the

y=x curve again, this point can be known as x2. Ultimately the line

converges towards the point where y = x and y = g(x) cross which is the

13

Joseph Wheatland

looking for.

Root of f(x) =

0

X1

X3

X2

Y = x has

gradient of 1

Fig

X0

Y=g(x) line

steeper than y

=x

ure 9

The

reason

for the

cobweb like shape is due to the

magnitude of the root for g(x) when calculated at the root.

When the value of g(x) lies in the bounds -1 < g'(x) <0, the

line

will converge on the root with the cobweb effect. If the root

was higher than zero a staircase pattern would occur instead. Anything

below -1 or above 1 will lead to a failure. In the case of this graph the line

y = x has a gradient of one. The blue line is steeper than the red line

which means that the g(x) lies within the bounds -1<g(x)<0 and forms

the cobweb effect.

Failure of the x = g(x) method

Normally the line used to visualise this method will converge in either a

staircase or cobweb towards an intersection between the equation y = x

and y = g(x) if it is successful. However a failure will do the exact

opposite. It would diverge away from the point of intersection and shoot

off into infinity as it cant reach a point on a curve. Failure would also

constitute finding the wrong root which is not the closest root to the

starting integer.

I am going to once again rearrange my equation f(x) = 0 into the form x =

g(x).

14

Joseph Wheatland

x

rearrange this into the form x=( 3x +0.35)1 /2 . The iteration for this

3

1/2

equation is xn+1 = (xn xn +0.35) .

I will choose a different root to work on this time between the integers [2,-1]. The intersection is nearest to the integer -2 so I will make the value

of x0 equal -2. At first glance (figure 10) it is clear to see that the gradient

of the equation y = g(x) is much higher than that of y = x which has a

gradient of 1. This means that g(x)>1; we would expect the line to

diverge away from the intersection in a staircase like pattern. This isnt

too clear to see however as after the line hits y = x for the second time, it

tries to go vertical but shoots to infinity. The line visualising x = g(x) is

very steep so the line created will not reach it. The graph does in fact

diverge away from the intersection as expected (in a staircase pattern)

therefore. The table below shows that the graph is not converging at all

towards the desired too and is in fact moving further away with each

iteration in the interval [-2,-1].

X0

Y=x

X1

X2

Y=

g(x)

Figure 10

2x -3x2x +0.7

x

0

1

2

-2

-2.825

9.685

-449.2

-23.3

-62.682

1516.82

181884169.

8

2

3 x 1

g(x) = 2 3

7

x x +

The value for x is the root we

30

found earlier.

15

Y=f(

x)

Joseph Wheatland

3(0.26391)21

g(x) =

7

30

The value of g(x) is below -1 so a cobweb diverging pattern is formed as

we expected.

2

(0.26391)3(0.26391)+

Each method has its own benefits in different situations and now Ill

compare them by selecting a previously used equation and completing it

using all three methods. In finding a success for the x = g(x) method I

used the equation 2x -3x-2x +0.7=0. Im going to use each method to

solve the root which lies between the integers [0,1].

Decimal search

n

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

x

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

0.26

0.27

0.261

0.262

0.263

0.264

0.2631

0.2632

0.2633

0.2634

0.2635

0.2636

0.2637

0.2638

0.2639

0.264

0.2639

1

f(x) = 2x -3x-2x

+0.7

0.7

0.472

0.196

-0.116

0.166222

0.136096

0.105634

0.074848

0.04375

0.012352

-0.019334

0.009196162

0.006037456

0.002875894

-0.000288512

0.002559581

0.00224324

0.00192687

0.001610472

0.001294046

0.000977591

0.000661108

0.000344596

2.80562E-05

-0.000288512

-3.59931E-06

16

Joseph Wheatland

0.2639

01

0.2639

02

0.2639

03

0.2639

04

0.2639

05

0.2639

06

0.2639

07

0.2639

08

0.2639

09

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

has taken 34 iterations to trap

the root between 0.263908

and 0.263909. This means

that the value of the root in

the interval [0.1] is 0.26391 to

five significant figures.

2.48907E-05

2.17252E-05

1.85596E-05

1.53941E-05

1.22285E-05

9.06294E-06

5.89738E-06

2.73182E-06

-4.33743E-07

Newton Raphson

n

x

0

1

2

0

0.35

0.26627

0.26391

1

0.26390

9

0.26390

9

3

4

5

6x^2-6x-2

0.350000336

0.266270398

0.263911335

0.263908863

2.64E-01

2.64E-01

between 0.26390 and 0.26391 in five iterations.

F(0.26390) = 2.8056238E-005

F(0.26391) = -3.59931106E-00

The value of the root is between these two numbers so we can say that the root is

0.26391 to five significant figures.

X = g(x)

x

n

0

1

2

3

0.35

0.2091

25

0.2935

46

0.2460

41

change in

xn

0.35

0.140875

0.084420

821

0.047504

951

0.26391 to five significant

figures after 23 iterations. The

root is trapped between

0.26390 and 0.26391.

17

Joseph Wheatland

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

0.2740

9

0.2579

03

0.2673

83

0.2618

76

0.2650

91

0.2632

19

0.2643

11

0.2636

75

0.2640

45

0.2638

29

0.2639

55

0.2638

82

0.2639

25

0.2639

0.2639

14

0.2639

06

0.2639

11

0.2639

08

0.2639

09

0.2639

09

0.028049

322

0.016187

198

0.009480

222

0.005507

655

0.003215

338

0.001871

896

0.001091

559

0.000635

919

0.000370

678

0.000215

999

0.000125

889

7.34E-05

4.28E-05

2.49E-05

1.45E-05

8.46E-06

4.93E-06

2.87E-06

1.68E-06

9.76E-07

with a varying number of steps. The accuracy was

achieved in:

34 iterations for the change in sign method

5 iterations for the newton Raphson method

23 iterations for the x = g(x) method

Comparing all three methods, the newton Raphson

method worked a lot faster to find out the root to the

18

Joseph Wheatland

example. The change of sign method was the slowest

but the easiest to understand while x = g(x) was in the

middle of the other two for speed and is also difficult to

do compared to the change of sign method. The x =

g(x) and newton Raphson methods are more tasking

but were much quicker in getting the required

accuracy, but the x = g(x) method was still a deal

slower than the newton Raphson.

The easiest method by far was the change in sign, as it

didnt require software for ease of use and you could

keep narrowing it down to a high accuracy. This method

requires a lot of work to do in spreadsheet software

involving formula manipulation but the ease of use and

little understanding required, give this method good

merit.

hand and rounding errors occurred. However with the

help of the autograph software and excel the results

were very easy to achieve as the computer could

repeat the iterations with ease. The method does

require being able to differentiate though so it is one of

the more difficult methods. The general formula means

all that is required is a reasonable estimate for the root

which lays near the intersection of the x axis you are

searching for. As the answers can be substituted each

time it doesnt vary too much, although it is time

consuming if software isnt available to you.

19

Joseph Wheatland

requires the ability to rearrange f(x) = 0. This method

converges faster than the decimal search method but

slower than the newton Raphson. It can take a long

time to converge though as not all rearrangements of

the equation into g(x) form would be suitable. If

spreadsheet software was available then the time

consuming convergence issue would not occur.

If only spreadsheet software was available then the

easiest method to use would be the change in sign as

the rows can be auto completed once the general

formula is interpreted. It is easier to spot if an error has

occurred too. But without software it is possible for the

user to overlook the possibility of more than one sign

change in an interval. Autograph is a helpful factor in

the x = g(x) method especially as just from looking at

the steepness of the rearranged curve compared to y =

x suggests if the outcome will converge, diverge,

staircase or cobweb. The visualisations that graphing

software provide for the newton Raphson method too

means that you can tell if the particular equation is

going to work early on.

20

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