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1)

-Guidance
Included in CIMAH (Control of Industrial
Major Accident Hazards)
Hazard Identification
Types and quantities of hazardous materials
in the area
Location of the hazardous material facilities.
Nature of the hazard most likely to be
produced as a result of spillage or
releases.

2) Vulnerability Analysis
- The range of the vulnerable zone and the
conditions that influences the impact. size
of release, wind direction, topography.
- The size and types of population expected to
be at risk.
- Risk to the environment

3) Risk Analysis
- Evaluate the probability of damage either to
individuals or to the community due to the
release
- Evaluate actual damage which might occur.
Include information on:
- event probability
- relevant environment phenomena
- types of harm to people
- Indirect hazards / risk

On April 25th 26th, 1986 the Worlds worst


nuclear power accident occurred at Chernobyl in
the former USSR (now Ukraine).
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant located 80
miles north of Kiev had 4 reactors and whilst
testing reactor number 4 numerous safety
procedures were disregarded. At 1.23 am the
chain reaction in the reactor became out of
control creating explosions and a fireball which
blew off the reactors heavy steel and concrete
lid.
Killed more than 30 people immediately, and
135,00 people had to be evacuated within 20
miles radius.

Lack of A Safety Culture inability to remedy


design weaknesses.
Design Fault In The RBMK Reactor instability
at low power and thus may experience a
rapid, uncvontrollable power increase.
Violation of Procedures by technicians while
running test
Communications Breakdown between test
team and reactor operations personnel.

As Reactor Four was to be shutdown for


routine maintenance on the 25th April 1986 it
was decided to take advantage of this to run
a test.
At about 23:00 hours on 25th April the grid
controller agreed to a further reduction in
power.
The operators tried to raise the power by
freeing all the controls rods manually and at
01:00 hour on 26th April the reactor stabilsed
at 200MW.

Shortly afterwards an increase in coolant flow


and a drop in steam pressure occurred requiring
the operators to withdraw nearly all the rods. The
reactor then became very unstable and the
operators had to make adjustments every few
seconds to maintain a constant power.
At this time the operators reduced the flow of
feed water to maintain the steam pressure. Also
pumps that were powered by the slowing turbine
provided less and less cooling to the reactor.
This created additional steam in the cooling
channels (positive void coefficient) and the
operators could not control a power surge
estimated to 100 time the nominal power.

The sudden increase in temperature caused


part of the fuel to rupture fuel particles then
reacted with the water creating a steam
explosion which destroyed the reactor core. A
second explosion added to destruction two
minutes later.

Increase In Thyroid Cancer

Anxiety
Depression
Helplessness and despair leading to, social
withdrawal and loss of hope for the future.
Other disorders attributable to mental stress

Control measures limit industrial and


agricultural activities reducing the range of
products the area was able to export.
A need to build a new town named Slavutich
for the personnel of the Chernobyl power
plant.
Villages had to be decontaminated and major
work
Had to be carried out on infrastructure for
example water and gas.

Demographic indications in contaminated


areas suggest that these areas are
experiencing a decline as :
i) the birth rate has decreased
ii) The work force has migrated from
contaminated areas to uncontaminated areas
thus in turn resulting in a shortage of labour
and professional staff.
The affected areas suffered major disruption
to normal life and economic activity in
particular with regard to agriculture and
forestry production.

$12.8 billion of disruption occurred to the


Soviet Economy.
A victim mentality has occurred in the area
due ristristions of activities making life
difficult and unsetting.

After the Chernobyl accident radioactive


material was widely dispersed and was
measurable and resulted in effects over a vast
area. The effects have been felt all over
practically the whole of the northern
hemisphere.