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Development of High Strength

Concrete using Metakaolin

Table of Contents
Chapter 1..........................................................................................................................................4
INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................4
1.1.

What is High strength concrete.........................................................................................5

1.2.

Selection of Materials.......................................................................................................6

1.2.1.

Cement.......................................................................................................................6

1.2.2.

Fine aggregate............................................................................................................6

1.2.3.

Coarse aggregate........................................................................................................7

1.2.4.

Water..........................................................................................................................7

1.2.5.

Chemical Admixtures................................................................................................7

1.2.6.

Mineral admixtures....................................................................................................8

1.2.7.

Metakaolin.................................................................................................................8

1.2.8.

Flyash.........................................................................................................................9

1.3. Research needs:....................................................................................................................9


1.4. Summary:............................................................................................................................11
Chapter 2........................................................................................................................................12
LITERATURE SURVEY..............................................................................................................12
2.1. Summary.............................................................................................................................17
2.2. Research objective..............................................................................................................18
2.3. Scope of the study...............................................................................................................18
Chapter 3........................................................................................................................................19
MATERIAL AND TESTING....................................................................................................19
3.1. Materials.............................................................................................................................19
3.2. Testing.................................................................................................................................20
3.2.1. Normal consistency.....................................................................................................20
3.2.2. Initial and final setting time.........................................................................................20
3.2.3. Specific gravity of Cement..........................................................................................21
3.2.4. Compressive strength of binder materials...................................................................21
3.2.5. Aggregate crushing value of coarse aggregates...........................................................22
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3.2.6. Specific gravity of coarse aggregate and water absorption test...................................22
3.2.7. Aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates..............................................................22
3.2.8. Specific gravity of Metakaolin....................................................................................22
3.2.9. Specific gravity of Flyash............................................................................................22
3.2.10. Marsh cone test..........................................................................................................23
3.3. summary.............................................................................................................................24
Chapter 4........................................................................................................................................25
METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................25
4.1. Mix design for HSC............................................................................................................27
4.2. Tests on fresh and hardened concrete.................................................................................27
4.3. Summary.............................................................................................................................29
Chapter 5........................................................................................................................................30
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS.........................................................................................................30
5.1. Tests on fresh concrete........................................................................................................30
5.2. Cube compression test........................................................................................................32
CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................37
FUTURE SCOPE..........................................................................................................................38
PRACTICAL PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERD...............................................................................39

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Concrete is a widely used structural material consisting essentially of a binder and mineral filler.
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It has the unique distinction of being the only construction material actually manufactured on the
site, whereas other materials are merely shaped to use at the worksite. Good or bad concrete is
made from the same discrete materials like, grains of sand, gravel or pieces of crushed rock and
the innumerable fine particles of cement powder mixed with water. Ever since the times of
Romans, there has been a continuous efforts by research workers in the field of cement and
concrete technology to produce better cements resulting in concretes of overall improved quality.
The normal strength concrete with its range of compressive strength from 30 to 50Mpa
widely used in the building industry for different types of constructions. The development of
Prestressing techniques in 1930 emphasized the importance of high strength concrete to
withstand the high compressive stresses developed in prestressed concrete structural elements.
By proper selection and proportioning of ingredients and improved methods of manufacture,
concrete with a compressive strength ranging from 30 to 50Mpa can be produced, using the
natural aggregates and the common types of cements commercially available in the market. With
the development of vibration techniques as a means of compacting concrete, even extremely dry
and stiff mixes, having lower water / cement ratios, have been successfully used to produce good
concrete of high strength. Recent developments in the technology of concrete have conclusively
shown the possibility of producing high strength concrete, which had any desired 28 days cube
compressive strength ranging from 80 to 120Mpa, by using the modern cement and the natural
aggregates.
It is not only strong, economical and takes the shape of the form in which it is placed, but it is
also aesthetically satisfying. However experience has shown that concrete is vulnerable to
deterioration, unless precautionary measures are taken during the design and production. For this
we need to understand the influence of components on the behavior of concrete and to produce a
concrete mix within closely controlled tolerances.

The conventional Portland cement concrete is found deficient in respect of:

Durability in severe environs (shorter service life and frequent maintenance)


Time of construction (slower gain of strength)
Energy absorption capacity (for earthquake resistant structures)

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Repair and retrofitting jobs.

1.1. What is High strength concrete


High strength concrete is defined based on its compressive strength at a given age. High strength
concrete refers to that concrete which has a 28days compressive strength ranging from 50100Mpa.
TYPICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE:
Concrete Types
Normal strength concrete
High strength concrete
Ultra- high strength concrete
Especial concrete

Concrete Strength
20 - 50Mpa
50 100Mpa
100-150Mpa
>150Mpa

High strength concrete is achieved by reducing porosity, in-homogeneity and micro-cracks in


the hydrated cement paste and the transition zone. Consequently, there is a reduction of the
thickness of the interfacial transition zone in High strength concrete. The densification of the
interfacial transition zone allows for efficient load transfer between the cement mortar and coarse
aggregates, contributing to the strength of the concrete.
HSC permits the use of reduced sizes of structural members, increased building height
in congested area and early removal of framework. The use of HSC in prestressed concrete
construction makes greater span-depth ratio, early transfer of prestress and application of service
loads. Low permeability characteristics of HSC reduce the risk of corrosion in steel and attack of
aggressive chemicals. This permits the use of HSC in marine/offshore structure, nuclear power
plants, bridges and places of extreme and adverse climatic conditions. Eventually HSC reduces
maintenance and repair cost. High Strength Concrete does not require special ingredients or
special equipments. High strength concrete is not a special type of concrete. It comprises of the
same materials as that of the conventional cement concrete. The use of some mineral and
chemical admixtures like Metakaolin, Silica Fume, Blast furnace slag and Super plasticizer
enhance the strength, durability and workability qualities to a very high extent.

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1.2. Selection of Materials


The production of High strength concrete involves the following three important interrelated
steps:

Selection of suitable ingredients for concrete having the desired rheological properties,
strength etc

Determination of relative quantities of the ingredients in order to produce strength.

Careful quality control of every phase of the concrete making process.

The main ingredients of High Strength Concrete are


1.2.1.

Cement
Physical and chemical characteristics of cement play a vital role in developing

strength and controlling rheology of fresh concrete. Fineness affects water requirements for
consistency. When looking for cement to be used in High strength concrete one should choose
cement containing as little C3A as possible because the lower amount of C 3A, the easier to
control the rheology and lesser the problems of cement-super plasticizer compatibility. Finally
from strength point of view, this cement should be finally ground and contain a fair amount of
C3S.

1.2.2.

Fine aggregate
Both river sand and crushed stones may be used. Coarser sand may be preferred as

finer sand increases the water demand of concrete and very fine sand may not be essential in
High strength concrete as it usually has larger content of fine particles in the form of cement and
mineral admixtures such as fly ash, etc. The sand particles should also pack to give minimum
void ratio as the test results show that higher void content leads to requirement of more mixing
water.

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1.2.3.

Coarse aggregate
The coarse aggregate is the strongest and least porous component of concrete.

Coarse aggregate in cement concrete contributes to the heterogeneity of the cement concrete and
there is weak interface between cement matrix and aggregate surface in cement concrete. This
results in lower strength of cement concrete by restricting the maximum size of aggregate and
also by making the transition zone stronger. By usage of mineral admixtures, the cement concrete
becomes more homogeneous and there is marked enhancement in the strength properties as well
as durability characteristics of concrete. The strength of High strength concrete may be
controlled by the strength of the coarse aggregate, which is not normally the case with the
conventional cement concrete. Hence, the selection of coarse aggregate would be an important
step in High strength concrete design mix.

1.2.4.

Water
Water is an important ingredient of concrete as it actively participates in the

chemical reactions with cement. The strength of cement concrete comes mainly from the binding
action of the hydrated cement gel. The requirement of water should be reduced to that required
for chemical reaction of unhydrated cement as the excess water would end up in only formation
of undesirable voids in the hardened cement paste in concrete. From High strength concrete mix
design considerations, it is important to have the compatibility between the given cement and the
chemical/mineral admixtures along with the water used for mixing.

1.2.5.

Chemical Admixtures
Chemical admixtures are the essential ingredients in the concrete mix, as they

increase the efficiency of cement paste by improving workability of the mix and there by
resulting in considerable decrease of water requirement.
Different types of chemical admixtures are

Plasticizers

Super plasticizers

Retarders

Air entraining agents

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Placticizers and super placticizers help to disperse the cement particles in the mix and promote
mobility of the concrete mix. Retarders help in reduction of initial rate of hydration of cement, so
that fresh concrete retains its workability for a longer time. Air entraining agents artificially
introduce air bubbles that increase workability of the mix and enhance the resistance to
deterioration due to freezing and thawing actions.

1.2.6.

Mineral admixtures
The major difference between conventional cement concrete and High strength

concrete is essentially the use of mineral admixtures in the latter. Some of the mineral admixtures
are

Fly ash

Metakaolin

Silica fumes

Carbon black powder

Anhydrous gypsum based mineral additives

Mineral admixtures like Fly Ash, Metakaolin and Silica fume act as pozzolonic
materials as well as fine fillers, thereby the microstructure of the hardened cement
matrix becomes denser and stronger. The use of silica fume fills the space between
cement particles and between aggregate and cement particles. It is worth while noting
that addition of silica fume to the concrete mix does not impart any strength to it, but
acts as a rapid catalyst to gain the early age strength.

1.2.7.

Metakaolin

Metakaolin is refined kaolin clay that is fired (calcined) under carefully controlled conditions to
create an amorphous aluminosilicate that is reactive in concrete. Like other pozzolans (fly ash
and silica fume are two common pozzolans), metakaolin reacts with the calcium hydroxide
(lime) byproducts produced during cement hydration.
Calcium hydroxide accounts for up to 25% of the Ordinary Portland cement, and calcium
hydroxide does not contribute to the concretes strength or durability. Metakaolin combines with
the calcium hydroxide to produce additional cementing compounds, the material responsible for
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holding concrete together. Less calcium hydroxide and more cementing compounds means
stronger concrete.
Metakaolin is compatible with most concrete admixtures, such as superplasticizers, retarders,
accelerators, etc.

1.2.8.

Flyash

Most Flyash is pozzolanic, which means its a siliceous or siliceous-and-aluminous material that
reacts with calcium hydroxide to form a cement. When Portland cement reacts with water, it
produces a hydrated calcium silicate (CSH) and lime. The hydrated silicate develops strength and
the lime fills the voids. Properly selected fly ash reacts with the lime to form CSHthe same
cementing product as in Portland cement. This reaction of fly ash with lime in concrete improves
strength.. Special care must be taken in selecting fly ash to ensure improved properties in
concrete.
The most important benefit is reduced permeability to water and aggressive
chemicals. Properly cured concrete made with fly ash creates a denser
product because the sizes of the pores are reduced. This increases strength
and reduces permeability. Flyash also benefits precast concrete by reducing
permeability, which is the leading cause of premature failure, better
workability,

pumpability,

cohesiveness,

finish,

ultimate

strength,

and

durability. The fine particles in fly ash help to reduce bleeding and
segregation and improve pumpability and finishing, especially in lean mixes.

1.3. Research needs:

The main need of this hour is to develop high strength concrete, as economical as
possible and in an eco friendly manner.

The usage of supplementary materials like fly ash, silica fume, which are also a
byproduct of manufacturing industries, need a thorough understanding before dealing
them in the concrete mix.

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The usage of the superplasticizer in the current situation has to be dealt with utmost
importance.

The development of high strength concrete has to take care of the practical conditions
at the site, such as workability with increase in more complex structures.

HSC offers many advantages over conventional concrete. The higher compressive
strength of concrete results reduction in sizes of columns and increases available floor
space.

Admixtures are chemical substances which are added in small amounts just before or
during the mixing, and which helps to achieve higher strength by decreasing w/c ratio
at the same workability.

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1.4. Summary:

High strength concrete is relatively a new class of advanced cementitious composite


materials whose mechanical and durability properties are far better than conventional
concrete.

HSC has notorious advantages such as, high resistance to frost and deicer scaling
damage, ease of replacement, high toughness and impact resistance, ease of
compaction without segregation .

HSC works out to be economical, even though its initial cost is higher than that of
conventional concrete.

The use of HSC in construction enhances the service life of the structures and the
structures suffer less damage which would reduce the overall cost.

HSC consistently meets requirements for workability and strength development


which therefore needs more stringent requirements on material selection than lower
strength concrete.

Compressive strength as high as 90Mpa can be obtained by using OPC, naturally


available coarse and fine aggregates. However, use of lower w/c ratio along with
admixtures is the most vital factor to be considered in HSC productions.

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Chapter 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
Literature review is a background studies that aims to review the critical points of recent
information. All of information gained via internet, journals, conference papers and books is
gathered to get a better idea and inspiration on this project.
In this chapter, the similar previous projects that developed by others is reviewed and discussed
to give critical review and also to choose the suitable equipment and method before starting the
project implementation.
Caijun Shi, Jianfan Xiao, Dehui Wang, Zhengyu Huang and Zhi Fang et.al[1], proposed A
review on high strength concrete: Raw materials and mixture design, high strength
concrete (HSC) refers to cement-based materials exhibiting compressive strength higher than 50
MPa, high ductility, and excellent durability. This paper reviews the theoretical principles, raw
materials, mixture design methods, and preparation techniques for HSC. Reduction in porosity,
improvement in microstructure, enhancement in homogeneity, and increase in toughness are four
basic principles for HSC design. Raw materials, preparation technique, and curing regimes have
significant influence on properties of HSC. The use of widely available supplementary
cementitious materials, such as fly ash, Metakaolin and slag for partial/complete
addition/replacement of cement, could significantly reduce the materials cost without sacrifice of
strength. The use of high temperature curing results in denser microstructure and better
performance than room temperature curing does, but obviously limits its applications of HSC.
Thus, preparation of HSC using widely available raw materials, common technology, such as
conventional casting and room temperature curing, are trends for production of HSC.
The main principles for HSC design are reduction in porosity, improvement in
microstructure, enhancement in homogeneity, and increase in toughness. Raw materials,
preparation technique and curing regimes have significant influence on properties of HSC. At the
same time, HSC with proper amount of those supplementary cementitious materials could
achieve compressive strength of 50100 MPa after normal curing regime.

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Nikhil K. Kulkarni et.al [2], proposed Strength of Plain Cement Concrete with Partial
addition of Cement by Metakaolin and replacement of Fly Ash in terms of improved
performance on compressive strength and flexural strengths, Experimental work was
carried out to investigate the effect of Metakaolin and Fly ash by partial addition and replacing
cement repectively and keeping same water cement ratio to ordinary concrete & Metakaolin and
fly ash. In this program 48 cube samples of size 150mmx150mmx150mm for different
percentages of addition of Metakaolin and Fly ash with partial replacement of cement were
casted and tested. The concrete mixes had 0%, 5%,10%,15% of Fly ash and Meta Kaolin,
replacing cement partially, so as to determine the best proportion, which would give maximum
compressive strength. Beam specimens were casted and tested for their flexural strength. The
dimensions of each beam were 750mmx150mmx150mm.The beams were tested on universal
testing machine to verify their flexural strength after 7days, 28 days of curing with single point
load. The results are compared with the beams of varying flexural strength of
Plain Cement Concrete, Plain Cement Concrete with Metakaolin & Fly ash.
Plain concrete is a brittle material and fails suddenly. Addition of Metakaolin & partial
replacement of Fly ash to concrete changes its brittle mode of failure into a more ductile one and
improves the concrete ductility. The compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete
increases with Metakaolin & fly ash content. It is true up to 12% replacement if we replace
cement by more than 12% strength starts reducing. Therefore it always preferable to use
Metakaolin & Fly ash with 10% replacement of cement and it gives us better result.
Martin Cyr, Minh Trinh et.al [3],

proposed Effect Of Cement Type On Metakaolin

Effciency It is acknowledged in the literature that the performance of supplementary


cementing materials such as fly ash or silica fume often depends on the characteristics of the
cement used. This work aims to show that this dependence also concerns metakaolin.
Compressive strength tests were carried out between 2 days and 2 years using one flash
metakaolin and a panel of 11 cements having a wide range of characteristics. At 28 days of age,
the difference in terms of strength activity index could reach 0.4 between the most and the least
efficient cements.
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The hydration of MK pastes followed by XRD and thermal analysis showed that the
pozzolanic reaction involving MK was postponed with low-C3A cements, as characterized by a
delay of portlandite consumption and stratlingite formation.
Several mechanisms are reviewed and discussed with the aim of explaining the role of cement in
the development of the pozzolanic activity of MK. As with other SCMs, the mechanical
efficiency of MK is strongly dependent on the type of cement used. For instance, the strength
activity index (SAI) of MK with two different cements could be as different as 0.58 vs. 0.18 at
28 days. Among the 11 cements tested,which had awide range of characteristics (fineness and
C3A, C3S, sulphate and alkali contents), low-C 3A cements systematically showed the worst
performance C3A, C4AF and SO3 contents, as well as the strength of the reference without MK,
seem to be fairly well correlated with the efficiency of the cement-MK combinations, while the
fineness of cements, and their C3S, C2S, and Na2Oeq contents were not correlated with SAI. As
shown by XRD and thermal analysis,MK presents different kinetics of reaction depending on the
type of cement used: the pozzolanic reaction is postponed with low-C 3A cements compared to
normal Portland cement, as characterized by a delay of portlandite consumption and stratlingite
formation. This difference of behaviors between the cements could be related to several
mechanisms, probably occurring simultaneously: portlandite deficit in one cement compared to
another, variation in heat released and thermo-activation, difference of sulphate activation and of
the alkalinity and pH of the pore solution.
Ping Duan, Zhonghe Shui et.al [4], proposed Effects of Metakaolin, silica fume and slag on
pore structure, interfacial transition zone and compressive strength of concrete, In this
study The pore structure and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) of concrete incorporating slag,
silica fume and Metakaolin were analyzed in. Some techniques such as mercury intrusion
porosimetry (MIP), microhardness testing and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were
employed to characterize
the effects of slag, silica fume and Metakaolin on the pore structure, microhardness and
morphology of the ITZ at 28 and 180 days. The traditional properties such as compressive
strength were experimentally evaluated in relation to pore characteristics and ITZ. Meanwhile,
the influence of silicon, as the major component of slag, silica fume and meta kaolin, on
thermodynamic stability of hydrate phases was further investigated.
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The experimental results show that mineral admixtures have positive impact on pore
refinement and ITZ enhancement of concrete especially at later curing stages. The effect of the
mineral admixtures on microstructure is in the sequence: Metakaolin > silica fume > slag. The
development of the compressive strength is related to the evolution of the pore structure and ITZ.
Thermodynamic stability analysis indicates that if mineral admixtures are added to the CaO
Al2O3CaSO4H2O system, the phase assemblage of C 6AsH32 and C3AS0.8H4.4, which represents a
member of the solid solution series Ca 3Al2(SiO4)3_x(OH)4x, has a lower Gibbs free energy of
reaction and is therefore thermodynamically more stable than monosulfoaluminate at
temperatures from 1 to 990C.
Manmohan . D and Mehta. P et.al [5],

proposed Influence of Pozzolanic, Slag, And

Chemical Admixtures on Pore Size Distribution and Permeability of Hardened Cement


Pastes which investigated how the pore size distribution and permeability of Portland cement
pastes are modified by the addition of pozzolonic admixtures, Metakaolin and chloride salts.
Durability of concrete is greatly influenced by the permeability of the cement paste which
in turn is governed by the pore size distribution. Some mineral and chemical admixtures are
known to enhance the durability of Portland cement.
The study showed that effectiveness of pozzolans in reducing the volume of large pores
and permeability was found to depend on the reactivity of the pozzolan used. Large addition of
Metakaolin increased the total pore volume, however the pore size distribution was shifted
towards finer pores and therefore the permeability of the paste was reduced. Among the chloride,
magnesium chloride was most effective in reducing both the volume of large pores and
permeability of the cement paste.
S.M.A. El-Gamal, M.S. Amin et.al [6], proposed Hydration characteristics and compressive
strength of hardened cement pastes containing Metakaolin, In this study the effect of
inclusion of Metakaolin (MK) to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the hydration
characteristics and microstructure of hardened OPCMK pastes was studied. The OPCMK
blends were prepared by the partial substitution of OPC by MK (4, 6, 10 and 15 weight %). The
fresh pastes were made using an initial water/solid (W/S) ratio of 0.27 by weight and then
hydrated for various time intervals. At the end of each hydration time, the hardened blended
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cement pastes were tested for compressive strength, free lime content, combined water content,
X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM).
The compressive strength results revealed that the inclusion of Metakaolin into OPC improved
the mechanical properties of MKOPC pastes during almost all ages of hydration, especially
with the paste containing 10 wt% MK. The compressive strength values obtained for OPC paste
blended with 4% silica fume (SF) and 6% MK are comparable to those of the neat OPC paste.
The DSC thermograms and XRD diffractograms obtained for some selected hardened pastes
indicated the formation of amorphous calcium silicate hydrates, calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates,
calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. SEM micrographs showed the formation of a
dense microstructure for the hardened OPCMK and OPCMK-SF pastes as compared to the
neat OPC paste after 90 days of hydration.
P. R. Wankhede, V. A. Fulari et.al [7], proposed Effect of Fly ASH on Properties of Concrete,

Experimental work was carried out to investigate the effect of Fly Ash on Properties of Concrete.
In the study. Use of fly ash in concrete imparts several environmental benefits and thus it is
ecofriendly. It saves the requirement for the same strength thus saving of raw materials such as
limestone, coal etc required for manufacture of cement. Fly ash is pozzolanic material & it
improving the properties of concrete like compressive strength & Durability. The results obtained
are discussed and compared with the available literature.
It has been found that Slump loss of concrete increases with increase in w/c ratio of
concrete. For w/c ratio 0.35 without any admixtures, initial slump cannot be measured by slump
cone test as it is very less. Ultimate compressive strength of concrete goes on decreasing with
increase in w/c ratio of concrete. Slump loss of concrete goes on increasing with increase of
quantity of fly ash. Concrete with 7%, 9%, 12% replacement of cement with fly ash shows good
compressive strength for 28 days than normal concrete for 0.35 w/c ratio. But in the case of 20%
replacement of cement with fly ash ultimate compressive strength of concrete decreases.

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2.1. Summary

High strength concrete can be produced using conventional raw materials. Reduction in
porosity, improvement in microstructure, enhancement in homogeneity, and increase in
toughness are four basic principles for HSC design. Raw materials, preparation
technique, and curing regimes have significant influence on properties of HSC. The use
of widely available Supplementary cementitious materials, such as Flyash, Metakaolin
and Blast furnance slag for partial addition/replacement of cement, could significantly

reduce the materials cost without sacrifice of strength.


Plain concrete is a brittle material and fails suddenly. Addition of Metakaolin & partial
replacement of Fly ash to concrete changes its brittle mode of failure into a more ductile
one and improves the concrete ductility. The compressive strength and flexural strength
of concrete increases with Metakaolin & fly ash content. It is true up to 12% replacement

if we replace cement by more than 12% strength starts reducing.


The mechanical efficiency of MK is strongly dependent on the type of cement used. The
pozzolanic reaction is postponed with low-C 3A cements compared to normal Portland
cement, as characterized by a delay of portlandite consumption and stratlingite formation.
This difference of behaviors between the cements could be related to several

mechanisms, probably occurring simultaneously.


Durability of concrete is greatly influenced by the permeability of the cement paste which
in turn is governed by the pore size distribution. Some mineral and chemical admixtures
enhance the durability of Portland cement. Effectiveness of pozzolans in reducing the
volume of large pores and permeability depends on the reactivity of the pozzolan used.
Large addition of Metakaolin increases the total pore volume, however the pore size

distribution shifts towards finer pores and therefore the permeability of the paste reduces.
Fly ash is Pozzolanic material & it improving the properties of concrete like compressive
strength & Durability. Slump loss of concrete increases with increase in w/c ratio of
concrete. Ultimate compressive strength of concrete goes on decreasing with increase in
w/c ratio of concrete. Slump loss of concrete goes on increasing with increase of quantity
of fly ash. Partial replacement up to 12% increases the 28days compressive strength
whereas replacement above 15 20% reduces the 28 days compressive strength.

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2.2. Research objective


2.3. Scope of the study

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Type
OPC
MK

Sio2
21.8
52.3

Al2O3
4.8
44.9

Fe2O3
3.8
0.4

CaO
63.3
0.5

SO3 MgO
Na2O
K2O
2.2
0.9
0.21 Development
0.46
of High Strength
Concrete
<0.1
0.2 using
0.12 Metakaolin
0.02

FAs
h

9.91

20.8

49.0

1.92

0.21

<0.01

4.11

<0.01

Chapter 3
MATERIAL AND TESTING
3.1. Materials
The following are the materials that were used in this investigation. The chemical composition of
ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Metakaolin (MK) and Fly Ash are presented in Table 1.

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), 53 Grade conforming to BIS: 12269 1987 (specific

gravity: 3.15).
Metakaolin as mineral admixture in dry densified form was obtained from Chennai
conforming to ASTM C 1240 (specific gravity: 2.54).
FlyAsh as mineral admixture in dry densified form was obtained from RMC plant,
Tatuguni, Bengaluru conforming to ASTM C 1241 (specific gravity: 2.06).
Superplasticizer (chemical admixture) based on Polycarboxy ethylene PC 20 was
obtained from Bengaluru conforming to BIS: 9103 1999 and ASTM C-494.
Locally available quarried and crushed granite stones confirming to graded aggregate of
nominal size 12.5 mm as per table 2 of BIS: 383 1970 (specific gravity: 2.82) as Coarse
aggregates (CA).
Locally available river sand confirming to grading zone II of table 4 BIS: 383-1970
(specific gravity: 2.60, fineness modulus: 2.964) as fine aggregates (FA).
Table1. Chemical Composition of OPC, MK and FlyAsh

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Cement
FAsh
MK (g)
(g)
(g)
325.5
24.5
32.55
322.0
28.0
32.20
318.5
31.5
31.85
325.5
24.5
35.81
322.0
28.0
35.42
318.5
31.5
35.04
Cement (g)
FAsh (g)
325.5
24.5
39.06
322.0
28.0
38.64
325.5
24.5
318.5
31.5
38.22
322.0
28.0
318.5
31.5
325.5
24.5
322.0
28.0
318.5
31.5
325.5
24.5
322.0
28.0
318.5
31.5

Water
w/c ratio
Penetration
Initial setting
final setting
(ml)
( mm)
time (min)
time (min)
Development
126.24
0.33
6
37 of High Strength
750
Concrete
using Metakaolin
133.77
0.35
7
32
720
133.64
0.35
5
34
745
138.90
0.36
6
39
776
145.24
0.38
7
41
810
146.31
0.38
7
45
845
MK (g)
Water (ml)
w/c ratio
Penetration
Normal
132.28
0.34
7
39
768
consistency
139.92
0.36
6
36( mm)
754
32.55
126.24
0.33
6
0.33
139.78
0.36
6
40
806
32.20
133.77
0.35
7
0.35
31.85
133.64
0.35
5
0.35
35.81
138.90
0.36
6
0.36
35.42
145.24
0.38
7
0.38
35.04
146.31
0.38
7
0.38
39.06
132.28
0.34
7
0.34
38.64
139.92
0.36
6
0.36
38.22
139.78
0.36
6
0.36

3.2. Testing
3.2.1. Normal consistency
Normal consistency on binder materials i.e. Cement, Metakaolin, Flyash were carried out as
per BIS: 269 1989 and IS: 4031 1988 ( Part 4) by adding metakaoin by 10, 11, 12 percent
and replacing Flyash by 7, 8 ,9 percent. The details of the mix proportions and normal
consistency are given in table2 and detailed procedure is given in Appendix B.1.
Table2. Details of mix proportion for normal consistency

3.2.2. Initial and fnal setting time


Initial and final setting time were carried out as per BIS: 269 1989 and IS: 4031 1988
( Part 5) by adding metakaolin by 10, 11, 12 percent and replacing Flyash by 7, 8 ,9 percent.
Initial and final setting time conforms to IS specifications. The details of the mix proportions
and initial and final setting time are given in Table3 and detailed procedure is given in
Appendix B.2.
Table3. Details of mix proportion for initial and final setting time

3.2.3. Specifc gravity of Cement


Specific gravity of Cement was carried out as per BIS: 269 1989 and IS: 4031 1988 on OPC
53 Grade cement conforming to BIS: 12269 1987. Test results showed a specific gravity of 3.15
which conforms to the IS specifications. Detailed procedure are given in Appendix B.3.
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3.2.4. Compressive strength of binder materials


Compressive strength of binder materials i.e. Cement, Metakaolin, Flyash was carried out as per
BIS: 269 1989 , IS 12269 1987, IS: 4031 1988( Part4) and IS: 4031-1988) on cube moulds
of size 75 x 75 x 75mm by varying mix proportions of binder materials. The test results showed
confirmation of binder materials to IS specifications under constant compressive load and it was
able to develop the required compressive strength of concrete. The details of the mix proportions
of compressive strength of binder material are given in table4 and detailed procedure are given in
Appendix B.4.
Table4. Details of mix proportion for compressive strength of Binder materials

3.2.5. Aggregate crushing value of coarse aggregates


Cement
(g)
325.5
322.0
318.5
325.5
322.0
318.5
325.5
322.0
318.5

FAsh
(g)
24.5
28.0
31.5
24.5
28.0
31.5
24.5
28.0
31.5

MK
(g)
32.55
32.20
31.85
35.81
35.42
35.04
39.06
38.64
38.22

Water
(ml)
126.24
133.77
133.64
138.90
145.24
146.31
132.28
139.92
139.78

w/c
ratio
0.33
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.38
0.38
0.34
0.36
0.36

Weight
(g)
701
722
730
734
724
732
738
750
722

Load
(KN)
50
85
85
80
85
80
100
120
70

Compressive
strength (N/mm2)
8.89
15.11
15.11
14.22
15.11
14.22
17.78
21.33
12.44

Aggregate crushing value of coarse aggregates was carried out as per BIS:2386- 1963(Part 4) on
aggregates passing through 12.5 mm and retaining on 6.3 mm. Test results showed low crushing
values under a uniform loading of 4 tonne per minute until the total loading of 40 tonne. The
details of the aggregate crushing value procedure are given in Appendix B.5.

3.2.6. Specifc gravity of coarse aggregate and water


absorption test
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate and water absorption test was carried out as per BIS: 383
1970 on Locally available quarried and crushed granite stones confirming to graded aggregate of
nominal size 12.5 mm. Test results showed a specific gravity of 2.82 and water absorption of
31% which conforms to the IS specifications. Detailed procedure is given in Appendix B.6.

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3.2.7. Aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates


Aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates was carried out as per BIS:2386- 1963(Part 4) on
aggregates passing through 12.5 mm and retaining on 6.3 mm. Test results showed low impact
value which implies high resistance to impact load. The details of the aggregate crushing value
procedure are given in Appendix B.7.

3.2.8. Specifc gravity of Metakaolin


Specific gravity of Metakaolin was carried out confirming to ASTM C 1240 on MK. Test results
showed a specific gravity of 2.54 which conforms to the IS specifications. Detailed procedure are
given in Appendix B.8.

3.2.9. Specifc gravity of Flyash


Specific gravity of Flyash was carried out confirming to ASTM C 1241 on Flyash. Test results
showed a specific gravity of 2.06 which conforms to the IS specifications. Detailed procedure are
given in Appendix B.9.

3.2.10. Marsh cone test


Marsh cone test was carried out as per BIS 12269-1987 from which the optimum dosage of
Superplasticizer PCE based (PC20) was found to be 1.5% by weight of OPC 53 Grade cement.
Detailed procedure are given in Appendix B.10

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450
400
350
300
250
Marsh cone time in sec

200
150
100
50
0
1.1000000000000001 2

Superplasticizer dosage percent by weight of cement

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3.3. summary

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Chapter 4
METHODOLOGY
Conventional design that comprise of beams, columns, brick/block in fills and plastering have
inherent inefficiencies during construction.
So, Apart from using more intensive man power and longer construction duration, there are some
inherent difficulties in achieving high quality.

To put the concrete into service at much earlier age.


To build high rise buildings by reducing column size and decrease dead load of

structures.
To build the superstructure of long span bridges and to enhance the durability of bridge

decks.
To satisfy the specific needs of special applications such as durability ,modulus of
elasticity and flexural strength.

Thus the challenges and difficulties involved in the construction push us into improvising the
concrete mix to achieve high strength concrete with new supplementary materials in the most
Eco-friendly manner.
So along these lines the research work was conducted as follows;
Literature Review
The first step in our research work was to gather and review relevant literature, mix design,
specifications, materials, new or existing products, research findings and current practice used to
produce high strength concrete.
The information gathered from papers, journals, on material properties, mix proportions and
other factors have been used in the understanding the development on high strength concrete.
The group members designed M60 mix. This mix was used to verify the resulting concrete
properties produced by the inclusion of different supplementary cementitious materials and
concrete admixtures.
Metakaolin was found to reduce permeability, increase early compressive strength, reduce
bleeding.
Fly ash was found to increased workability, reduce heat of hydration and increase ultimate
compressive strength of concrete.
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Superplasticisers increased workability and decreased water demand for concrete mixes.
After all these we started casting of moulds as per the following schedule
We used 150x150mm size moulds for casting and compacted well by using vibrator and hand
compaction .Then moulds were filled and kept and after 24hours it was de moulded and kept for
curing in a tank of size 1.5x1m at optimum temperature of 27degree Celsius. This is done to
protect concrete from loss of moisture. Good curing can help mitigate the appearance of un
planned cracking.
Testing moulds was removed and testing was done under compressive testing machine to obtain
a required compressive strength .This process was carried out on 28th day from moulding.
Our aim was to develop High Compressive Strength hence casted only 150x150mm moulds. To
know the relation between compressive strength and tensile strength one can cast cylindrical
moulds for further study.

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4.1. Mix design for HSC


Since there is no existing method of mix design found suitable for HSC, a simplified mix design
procedure is formulated by combining the BIS method, ACI methods for concrete mix design
and the available literatures on HSC. The formulation of mix and detailed design procedure is
given in Appendix A.
A concrete mix proportion of characteristic target mean compressive strength of 60Mpa was
designed without any mineral admixtures. To get the optimum proportions, trial mixes were
obtained by adding 10, 11, 12 percent of the mass of cement by metakaolin and replacing 7, 8, 9
percent flyash. In all the above combinations, a superplasticizer (SP) was used at 1.5% by weight
of the binder for obtaining workable concrete. The details of composition of the ternary blended
concrete mixture are given in Table 2.

4.2. Tests on fresh and hardened concrete


Workability tests such as slump test was carried out for fresh concrete as per BIS specifications,
keeping the dosage of superplasticizer as constant at 1.5% by weight of binder. For hardened
concrete, cube compression strength test on 150 mm size cubes at the age of 28 days of curing
were carried out using 2000KN capacity compression testing machine as per BIS : 516-1959.

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Cement
Content
(kg/m3)

MK
%

550

MK10

600

MK10

550

MK11

600

MK11

550

MK12

FAsh
%

W/C
ratio

Ceme
nt (kg)

FAsh
(g)

7%

0.29

2.25

172.0

225.0

Fine aggregates
(FA) kg
2.36mm
down
3.4

7%

0.32

2.25

172.0

225.0

3.4

1.74

2.86

8%

0.29

2.23

195.0

223.0

3.4

1.74

2.86

8%

0.32

2.23

195.0

223.0

3.4

1.74

2.86

9%
9%
7%

0.29
0.32
0.29

2.20
2.20
2.49

218.4
218.4
184.6

220.0
220.0
249.0

3.4
3.4
3.4

1.74
1.74
1.74

2.86
2.86
2.86

7%

0.32

2.49

184.6

249.0

3.4

1.74

2.86

8%
8%
9%

0.29
0.32
0.29

2.46
2.46
2.43

210.6
210.6
239.0

246.0
246.0
243.0

3.4
3.4
3.4

1.74
1.74
1.74

2.86
2.86
2.86

9%

0.32

2.43

239.0

243.0

3.4

1.74

2.86

7%
7%
8%
8%
9%
9%
7%

0.29
0.32
0.29
0.32
0.29
0.32
0.29

2.08
2.08
2.06
2.06
2.04
2.04
2.44

156.8
156.8
179.2
179.2
201.6
201.6

229.5
229.5
226.4
226.4
224.2
224.2
269.0

3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4

1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.74

2.86
2.86
2.86
2.86
2.86
2.86
2.86

7%

0.32

2.44

269.0

3.4

1.74

2.86

184.
1
184.
1

MK
(g)

Coarse aggregates
(CA) kg
16mm 12.5mm
down
down
1.74
2.86

8%
8%
9%

0.29
0.32
0.29

2.42
2.42
2.39

210.2
210.2
236.4

266.1
266.1
263.2

3.4
3.4
3.4

1.74
1.74
1.74

2.86
2.86
2.86

9%

0.32

2.39

236.4

263.2

3.4

1.74

2.86

7%

0.29

249.
9

1.74

2.86

2.08

156.
8

3.4

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2015-2016

SP

Water
(ml)

PC-20
(g)

33.7
5
33.7
5
33.4
5
33.4
5
33
33
37.3
5
37.3
5
36.9
36.9
36.4
5
36.4
5
31.2
31.2
30.9
30.9
30.6
30.6

787

36.6

840

36.6
36.3
36.3
35.8
5
35.8
5

927
839
926

31.2

722

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852
768
847
765
844
848
936
846
933
845
932
718
790
715
789
714
788

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Development of High Strength


Concrete using Metakaolin
3.4
1.74
2.86
156. 229.
2.08
8
1
31.2
8%
0.29
3.4
1.74
2.86
179. 226.
2.06
2
6
30.9
8%
0.32
3.4
1.74
2.86
179. 226.
2.06
2
6
30.9
9%
0.29
3.4
1.74
2.86
201. 224.
30.4
2.03
6
2
5
9%
0.32
3.4
1.74
2.86
201. 224.
30.4
2.03
6
2
5
600
MK12
7%
0.29
3.4
1.74
2.86
184. 294.
36.7
2.45
8
6
5
7%
0.32
3.4
1.74
2.86
184. 270.
36.7
2.45
8
0
5
8%
0.29
3.4
1.74
2.86
211. 267.
2.42
2
1
36.3
8%
0.32
3.4
1.74
2.86
211. 267.
2.42
2
1
36.3
9%
0.29
3.4
1.74
2.86
237. 264.
2.40
6
2
36
9%
0.32
3.4
1.74
2.86
237. 264.
2.40
6
2
36
Table2. Details of HSC trail mixes for characteristic target mean compressive strength of 60MPa
7%

0.32

4.3. Summary

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790
715
789
714
788
851
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930
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Chapter 5
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
5.1. Tests on fresh concrete
The variation in slump of different % replacement of FlyAsh in high strength concrete is given in
graph (a), (b) ,(c), (d), (e), (f) While observing the characteristic of fresh concrete of different
mixes, it was noted that, the concrete matrix when replaced by different proportion of MK and
FAsh, the workability increases with increasing quantity of FAsh. As a result, good workability
will be achieved. The increase in the percentage of replacement of FAsh results in more paste
volume, which also contributes to a reduction in bleeding. It is to be noted that all the mixtures
used in this work exhibited slumps less than 50 mm which is considered as very low.

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CC- 550 kg/m^3


MK10%

CC- 550 kg/m^3


MK11%

90
80
70
60
50

Slump in mm

Slump in mm 40
30
20
10

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

0
Fash7% Fash8% Fash9%

(a)

(b)

CC- 550 kg/m^3


MK12%

CC- 550 kg/m^3


MK10%

120

90

100

80
70

80

Slump in mm

60

60

50

40

Slump in mm 40
30

20

20

10
0
Fash7% Fash8% Fash9%

(c)

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CC- 600 kg/m^3


MK11%

CC- 600 kg/m^3


MK12%

80

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

Slump in mm 40

Slump in mm 40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0
Fash7%Fash8%Fash9%

(e)

0
Fash7% Fash8% Fash9%

(f)

5.2. Cube compression test


For the cube compression testing of concrete, 150mm cubes were employed. All the cubes
were tested in saturated condition, after wiping out the surface moisture. For each trial mix
combination, two cubes were tested at the age of 28 days of curing. The tests were carried out
at a uniform stress after the specimen has been centered in the testing machine. The variations
in the strength of concrete with increasing addition level of OPC by MK and replacement by
FASH and MK-FAsh blend are shown in graph. The strength of metakaolin concrete increases
systematically with an increase in metakaolin level at all curing times. The maximum
compressive strength for mixes obtained by replacement of 8% of OPC with FAsh and
addition of 11% MK at w/c ratio 0.29 at 28 th day testing is 88 MPa which clearly shows this
concrete is High Strength Concrete (> 60 MPa). That is, as the metakaolin content increases
from 0%, the compressive strength gradually increases until metakaolin content reaches 11%
and thereafter, increases at a diminishing rate. This is due to the fact that the compressive
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strength increases in concrete due to the pozzolanic reaction and filler effect of the metakaolin.
In the pozzolanic reaction, the metakaolin reacts with calcium hydroxide (which is a hydration
product of cement) and produces more C-S-H gel. C-S-H gel is the source of strength of
hardened concrete, as it is the binder which binds the aggregate together.
From the graph it is seen that the strength increases up to 8% replacement of FAsh and
thereafter, starts increasing at a diminishing rate. The increase in strength may be due to the
fact that the cement replacement of around 8% increases the finer particles in the mix, which
increase its density by filling the voids. Another reason for increase in strength may be due to
extra availability of Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 whose presence up to certain percentage increases
the strength of concrete by combining with other constituents of cement during the progress of
hydration.

COMPARISION OF CEMENT CONTENT

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MK10%

MK11%

28 Days Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

28 Days Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

MK12%
100
90
80
70
60
28 Days Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

50
40
30
20
10
0

INFERENCE : 550 Kg/m3 cement for all percent of Flyash gives less strength compared to
600kg/m^3 cement content

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COMPARISION OF DIFFERENT MK %

Cement content 550Kg/m^3


(W/C - 0.29)

Cement content 550Kg/m^3


W/C - 0.32

28 DAYS Compress ive Strength ( N/mm2 )

(a)

28 DAYS Compressive Strength ( N/mm2 )

(b)

For all percent of MK at varying percent 7,8,9 % FLYASH STRENGTH INCREASES TILL 8%
And thereafter starts increasing at a diminishing rate.

Cement content 600Kg/m^3


W/C - 0.29

Cement content 600Kg/m^3


W/C - 0.32

28 DAYS Compress ive Strength ( N/mm2 )

(c)
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28 DAYS Compress ive Strength ( N/mm2 )

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Inference: at MK10% ,11%,12% the strength increases with increase in FAsh content. Strength
varies drastically with addition of 8% Fash compared to 7% flyash. But there is no drastic
increase in strength at 9% flyash in comparison with 8% fly ash
COMPARISION B/W W/C RATIO

MK10%

MK11%

W/C - 0.29

W/C - 0.29

W/C - 0.32

W/C - 0.32

28 DAYS Compressive Strength ( N/mm2 )

decreases drastically

28 DAYS Compressive Strength ( N/mm2 )

there is no noticeable decrease in the strength

MK12%

W/C - 0.29
W/C - 0.32
28 Days Co mpressive Strength (N/mm2)

There is slight decrease in strength

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For all percentages of flyash the the strength decreses as the water cement ratio increases.

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CONCLUSION
Based on the investigation carried out on the ternary blended HSC mixes, the following
conclusions are drawn.

A simplified mix design procedure for HSC using MK-Fash blend and superplasticizer is
formulated by combining BIS & ACI code methods of mix design and available
literatures on HSC
The optimum percentage of cement replacement by MK,Fash are 11%, 8% at W/C ratio
0.29
The BIS: 456-2000 code underestimates the flexural strength for HSC.
Use of MK & Fash in concrete reduces the workability in terms of slump.

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FUTURE SCOPE

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PRACTICAL PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERD

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Appendix A. Detailed mix design procedure for HSC


A.1. Target mean strength
The target mean strength (fck) is calculated as follows:
(f ck) = fck + (t x S) with usual BIS notations. When adequate data is not available to establish
(fck) value can be determined from the following table 1 as given by ACI Report 318.
Table 1 Target mean strength when data are not available to establish a standard deviation
Specified characteristic compressive strength, f ck (MPa) Target mean compressive strength, fck (MPa)

Less than 20.5

fck + 6.9

20.5 - 34.5

fck + 8.3

More than 34.5

fck + 9.7

A.2. Selection of maximum size of coarse aggregate (CA)


The maximum size of the coarse aggregate is selected from the following table 2 as given by
ACI Report 211.4R.93.
Table 2 Maximum size of coarse aggregate
Required concrete strength (Mpa)

Maximum aggregate size ( mm)

Less than 62

20-25

Greater than or equal to 62

10-12.5

A.3. Estimation of
free water content
The water content to obtain the desired workability depends upon the amount of water and
amount of superplasticizer and its characteristics. However, the saturation point of the
superplasticizer is known, and then the water dosage is obtained based on table 3. If the
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saturation point is not known, it is suggested that a water content of 145 litres/m 3 shall be
taken to start with.
Table 3 Determination of the minimum water dosage
Saturation point

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

(%)
Water dosage
(l/m3)

120 to 125

125 to 135

135 to 145

145 to 155

155 to 165

A.4. Superplasticizer dosage


The superplasticizer dosage is obtained from the dosage at the saturation point. If the saturation
point is not known, it is suggested that a trial dosage of 1.0% shall be taken to start with.
A.5. Estimation of air content
The air content (approximate amount of entrapped air) to be expected in HSC is obtained from
table 4 as given by ACI Report 211.4R.93 for the maximum size of CA having been used.
However, it is suggested that an initial estimate of entrapped air content shall be taken as 1.5% or
less since it is HSC, and then be adjusted on the basis of the result obtained with the trial mix.
Table 4 Approximate entrapped air content
Nominal maximum size of

Entrapped air, as percent of

coarse aggregate (mm)

volume of concrete

10
12.5
20

2.5
2.0
1.5

25

1.0

A.6. Selection of coarse aggregate (CA) content


The coarse aggregate content is obtained based on the method described in table 5 as a function
of the typical particle shape. If there is any doubt about the shape of the CA or if the shape of it is
not known, it is suggested that a CA content of 1000 kg/m 3 of concrete shall be taken to start
with. The CA so selected should satisfy the requirements of grading and other requirements of
BIS: 383 1970.
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Table 5 Coarse aggregate content


Coarse aggregate Elongated or Flat Average
particle shape
Coarse aggregate
dosage (kg/m3)
950-1000
1000-1050

Cubic

Rounded

1050-1100

1100-1150

A.7. Selection of water-binder (w/b) ratio


The water-binder ratio for the target mean compressive strength is chosen from figure 1, the
proposed w/b ratio Vs compressive strength relationship. The w/b ratio so chosen is checked
against the limiting w/c ratio for the requirements of durability as per table 5 of BIS: 456 2000,
and the lower of the two values is adopted.

Fig. 1 Proposed w/b ratio Vs compressive strength relationship

A.8. Calculation of binder contents


The binder or cementitious contents per m3 of concrete is calculated from the w/b ratio and the
quantity of water content per m3 of concrete. Assuming the percentage replacement of cement by
MK & RM (0-14%), the MK & RM content is obtained from the total binder contents. The
remaining binder content is composed of cement. The cement content so calculated is checked
against the minimum cement content for the requirements of durability as per table 5 and 6 of
BIS: 456 2000 and the greater of the two values is adopted.
A.10. Estimation of fine aggregate (FA) content
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The absolute volume of FA is obtained from the following equation (1)

The fine aggregate content per unit volume of concrete is obtained by multiplying the absolute
volume of fine aggregate and the specific gravity of the fine aggregate.
A.11. Moisture adjustments
The actual quantities of CA, FA and water content are calculated after allowing necessary
corrections for water absorption and free (surface) moisture content of aggregates. The volume
of water included in the liquid superplasticizer is calculated and subtracted from the initial
mixing water.
A.12. Unit mass of concrete
The mass of concrete per unit volume is calculated by adding the masses of the concrete
ingredients.

Appendix B: Test procedures for materials


B.1. NORMAL CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT
(IS: 269 1989 and IS: 4031 1988 ( Part 4 ))

Standard consistency of cement is that consistency which will permit the vicat plunger to
penetrate to a point 5 to 7 mm from the bottom of the vicat mould.
PROCEDURE

1. Prepare paste of weighed quantity of Cement, Metakaolin, Fly Ash with a weighted
quantity of water.
2. Take care that the time of gauging is not less than 3 minutes, not more than 5minutes
and the gauging shall be completed before setting occurs.
3. Fill the vicat mould with this paste, the mould resting upon a non- porous plate.
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4. After completely filling the moulds, trim off the surface of the paste, making it in
level with the top of the mould. The mould may slightly be shaken to expel the air.
5. Place the test block with the mould, together with the non porous resting plate,
under the rod bearing the plunger( 10mm diameter), lower the plunger gently to touch
the surface of the test block and quickly release, allowing it penetrate into the paste.
6. This operation shall be carried out immediately after filling the mould.
7. Prepare trial paste with varying percentages of water and test as described above until
vicat plunger makes penetration in the range of 5 7mm from the bottom of the vicat
mould.
8. Express the amount of water as a percentage by weight of the dry cement.
B.2. INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT
(IS: 269 1989 and IS: 4031 1988 ( Part 5 ))

Setting time is the time interval for which the cement products remain in plastic
condition.
Initial setting time is regarded as the time elapsed between the moment that the water is
added to the cement to the time that the paste starts losing its plasticity.
Final setting time is the time elapsed between the moment the water is added to the e
time when the paste has completely lost its plasticity and has attained sufficient firmness
to resist certain pressure.
PROCEDURE

1. Prepare a neat cement paste by gauging 300gms of cement with 0.85 times the water
required to give a paste of standard consistency.
2. Take care that the time of gauging is not less than 3 minutes, not more than 5minutes
and the gauging shall be completed before setting occurs.
3. Start a stop- watch at the instant when water is added to the cement.
4. Fill the mould with the cement paste gauged as above the mould resting on a nonporous .
5. Fill the mould completely and smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with
the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared in the mould is the test block
Determination of initial setting time:
1. Place the test blocks confined in the mould and rest it on the non-porous plate, under
the rod bearing initial setting needle, lower the needle gently in contact with the
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surface of the test block and quickly release, allowing it to contact with the surface of
the test block and quickly release, allowing it to penetrate into the test block.
2. In the beginning, the needle will completely pierce the test block.
3. Repeat this procedure until the needle, when brought in contact with the test block
and release as described above, fails to pierce the block to a point 5 to 7 mm
measured from the bottom of the mould shall be the initial setting time.

Determination of final setting time:


1. Replace the needle of the vicat apparatus by the needle with an annular attachment.
2. The cement shall be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently
to the surface of the test block, the needle makes an impression on the surface of test
block while the attachment fails to do so.
3. The period elapsed between the time when water is added to the cement and the time
at which the needle makes an impression on the surface of test block while the
attachment fails to do so shall be the final setting time.

B.3. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF CEMENT


( IS: 269 1989 and IS: 4031 1988 )

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Specific gravity is the ratio between weights of a given volume of material and weight of
an equal volume of water.

PROCEDURE

1. Clean and dry the specific gravity bottle and weigh it with the stopper (W1).
2. Fill the specific gravity bottle with cement sample at least half of the bottle and weigh
with stopper(W2).
3. Fill the specific gravity bottle containing the cement, with kerosene ( free from water)
placing the stopper and weigh it (W3).
4. After weighing the bottle, the bottle shall be cleaned and dried again.
5. Ten fill it with fresh kerosene and weigh it with stopper (W4).
6. Remove the kerosene from the bottle and fill it with full of water and weigh it with
stopper (W5).
7. Calculate specific gravity using the formula
Specific gravity of cement , Sc=

(W 2W 1 )(W 4W 1)
( ( W 4W 1 ) ( W 3W 2 ) )(W 5W 1)

B.4. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CEMENT


(IS: 269 1989 , IS 12269 1987, IS: 4031 1988( Part4) and IS: 4031-1988)

Compressive strength of cement is determined in order to verify whether the cement


conforms to IS specifications and whether it will be able to develop the required
compressive strength of concrete.

PROCEDURE

Take 200gm of cement and 600gm in the proportion 1:3 by weight in a pan.
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1. Mix the cement and sand in dry condition with a trowel for 1minitues and then add water.
The quantity of water shall be (p/4+3)% of combined weight of cement and sand where, p
is the % of water required to produce a paste of standard consistency determined earlier.
2. Add water and mix it until the mixture is of uniform colour. The time of mixing shall not
be < 3 minutes & not > 4 minutes.
3. Immediately after mixing the mortar, place the mortar in the cube mould and prod with
the help of the rod. The mortar shall be prodded 20 times in about 8 sec to ensure
elimination of entrained air. If vibrator is used, the period of vibration shall be 2minitues
at the specified speed of 12000+-400 vibrations /minutes.
4. Then place the cube moulds in temperature of 272 o C and 90% relative humidity for 24
hours. After 24 hours remove the cubes from the mould and immediately submerge in
clean water till testing.
5. Take out the cubes from water just before testing. Testing should be done on their sides
without any packing. The rate of loading should be 350 kg/cm 2/minute and uniform. Test
should be conducted for 3 cubes and report the average value as the test result for 28 day
compressive strength.
B.5. AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE

Crushing value of aggregates is a measure which relatively gives an idea of its resistance
to crushing under a compressive load applied gradually.

PROCEDURE

Coarse aggregate passing 12.5mm IS sieve and retained on a10mm. IS sieve and heated at 100 to
110C for 4 hours and cooled to room temperature.
1. Put the cylinder in position on the base plate and weigh it (W)
2. Put the sample in 3 layers, each layer being subjected to 25 strokes using the tamping rod,
and weigh it (W1)
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3. Level the surface of aggregate carefully and insert the plunger so that it rests horizontally
on the surface, care being taken to ensure that the plunger does not jam in the cylinder.
4. Place the cylinder with plunger on the loading platform of the compression testing
machine.
5. Apply load at a uniform rate so that a total load of 40T is applied in 10 minutes.
6. Release the load and remove the material from the cylinder.
7. Sieve the material with 2.36mm IS sieve, care being taken to avoid loss of fines.
8. Weigh the fraction passing through the IS sieve (W2).
9. Calculate the aggregate crushing value using the formula,

Aggregate crushing value=

W 2 X 100
W 1W

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Figure 1: Aggregate Crushing value apparatus


B.6. SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION TEST

The specific gravity of an aggregate is considered to be a measure of strength or quality


of the material. Stones having low specific gravity are generally weaker than those with
higher specific gravity values.

PROCEDURE

1.

About 2 kg of aggregate sample is washed thoroughly to remove fines, drained and


placed in wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22- 32 C
and a cover of at least 5cm of water above the top of basket.

2. Immediately after immersion the entrapped air is removed from the sample by lifting the
basket containing it 25 mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to drop at the rate
of about one drop per second. The basket and aggregate should remain completely
immersed in water for a period of 24 hour afterwards.
3. The basket and the sample are weighed while suspended in water at a temperature of 22
32C. The weight while suspended in water is noted (W1g).
4. The basket and aggregates are removed from water and allowed to drain for a few
minutes, after which the aggregates are transferred to the dry absorbent clothes. The
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empty basket is then returned to the tank of water jolted 25 times and weighed in water
(W2g).
5. The aggregates placed on the absorbent clothes are surface dried till no further moisture
could be removed by this cloth. Then the aggregates are transferred to the second dry
cloth spread in single layer and allowed to dry for at least 10 minutes until the aggregates
are completely surface dry. The surface dried aggregate is then weighed (W3 g).
6. Specific gravity is calculated using the formula,
Specific gravity = (dry weight of the aggregate /Weight of equal volume of water)

W3
(W 3( W 1W 2 ))

WATER ABSORPTION TEST

1. The sample should be thoroughly washed to remove finer particles and dust, drained and
then placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between
22 and 32oC.
2. After immersion, the entrapped air should be removed by lifting the basket and allowing
it to drop 25 times in 25 seconds. The basket and sample should remain immersed for a
period of 24 + hrs afterwards.
3. The basket and aggregates should then be removed from the water, allowed to drain for a
few minutes, after which the aggregates should be gently emptied from the basket on to
one of the dry clothes and gently surface-dried with the cloth, transferring it to a second
dry cloth when the first would remove no further moisture. The aggregates should be
spread on the second cloth and exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight till it
appears to be completely surface-dry. The aggregates should be weighed (Weight A).
4. The aggregates should then be placed in an oven at a temperature of 100 to 110 oC for
24hrs. It should then be removed from the oven, cooled and weighed (Weight B).
Water absorption = [(A B)/B] x 100%.

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B.7. AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE

Aggregate impact value is a measure of resistance to sudden impact or shock, which may
differ from its resistance to gradually applied compressive load.

PROCEDURE

1. The test sample should conform to the following grading:


Passing through 16mm IS Sieve 100%
Retention on 12.5mm IS Sieve 100%

Passing through 12.5mm IS Sieve 100%


Retention on 6.3mm IS Sieve 100%

2. The sample should be oven-dried for 4hrs. at a temperature of 100 to 110oC and cooled.

3. The measure should be about one-third full with the prepared aggregates and tamped with
25 strokes of the tamping rod.

4. Add two more layer in similar manner, so that the cylinder is full.

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5. Strike off the surplus aggregates.

6. The net weight of the aggregates in the measure should be determined to the nearest gram
(W ).
7. The cup of the impact testing machine should be fixed firmly in position on the base of
the machine and the whole of the test sample placed in it and compacted by 25 strokes of
the tamping rod.
8. The hammer should be raised to 380mm above the upper surface of the aggregates in the
cup and allowed to fall freely onto the aggregates. The test sample should be subjected to
a total of 15 such blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second.
9. Remove the crushed aggregates from the cup and sieve it through 2.36mm IS sieve until
no further significant amount passes in one minute. Weigh the fraction passing the sieve
to an accuracy of 1gm. Also, weigh the fraction retained in the sieve.
10. Compute the aggregate impact value using formula,
Aggregate impact value=

W2
X 100
W1

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B.8. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF METAKALIN


(conforming

to ASTM C 1240)

Specific gravity is the ratio between weights of a given volume of material and weight of
an equal volume of water.

PROCEDURE

1. Clean and dry the specific gravity bottle and weigh it with the stopper (W1).
2. Fill the specific gravity bottle with cement sample at least half of the bottle and weigh
with stopper(W2).
3. Fill the specific gravity bottle containing the metakaolin, with kerosene ( free from water)
placing the stopper and weigh it (W3).
4. After weighing the bottle, the bottle shall be cleaned and dried again.
5. Ten fill it with fresh kerosene and weigh it with stopper (W4).
6. Remove the kerosene from the bottle and fill it with full of water and weigh it with
stopper (W5).
7. Calculate specific gravity using the formula
Specific gravity of cement , Sc=

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(W 2W 1 )(W 4W 1)
( ( W 4W 1 ) ( W 3W 2 ) )(W 5W 1)

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B.9. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FLYASH
(conforming

to ASTM C 1240)

Specific gravity is the ratio between weights of a given volume of material and weight of
an equal volume of water.

PROCEDURE

1. Clean and dry the specific gravity bottle and weigh it with the stopper (W1).
2. Fill the specific gravity bottle with cement sample at least half of the bottle and weigh
with stopper(W2).
3. Fill the specific gravity bottle containing the flyash, with kerosene ( free from water)
placing the stopper and weigh it (W3).
4. After weighing the bottle, the bottle shall be cleaned and dried again.
5. Ten fill it with fresh kerosene and weigh it with stopper (W4).
6. Remove the kerosene from the bottle and fill it with full of water and weigh it with
stopper (W5).
7. Calculate specific gravity using the formula
Specific gravity of cement , Sc=

(W 2W 1 )(W 4W 1)
( ( W 4W 1 ) ( W 3W 2 ) )(W 5W 1)

Appendix C: Tests on fresh concrete


C.1. Slump test

Slump test is carried out to determine the workability of that concrete mix.
PROCEDURE

1. Mix the dry constituents thoroughly to get a uniform colour and then add water.
2. The internal surface of the mould is to be thoroughly cleaned and placed on a smooth,
horizontal, rigid and non-absorbent surface.
3. Place the mixed concrete in the cleaned slump cone in 4 layers each. Approximately in
height of the mould. Tamp each layer 25 times with tamping rod.
4. Remove the cone immediately, rising it slowly and carefully in the vertical direction.
5. As soon as the concrete settlement comes to a stop, measure the subsistence of the
concrete in cms, which gives the slump.
Appendix D: Test on hardened concrete
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D.1. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CEMENT CONCRETE


(IS: 516- 1959)
SAMPLING

1. Clean the mounds and apply oil


2. Fill the concrete in the molds in layers approximately 5cm thick.
3. Compact each layer with not less than 35strokes per layer using a tamping rod (steel bar
16mm diameter and 60cm long, bullet pointed at lower end).
4. Level the top surface and smoothen it with a trowel.
CURING

The test specimens are stored in moist air for 24hours and after this period the specimens are
marked and removed from the moulds and kept submerged in clear fresh water until taken out
prior to test.

PROCEDURE

1. Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess water
from the surface.
2. Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m.
3. Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine.
4. Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the
opposite sides of the cube cast.
5. Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine.
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6.

Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the
specimen.

7. Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of
140kg/cm2/minute till the specimen fails.
8. Record the maximum load.
9. Calculate compressive strength of cement concrete using formula,
compressive strength=

Load
Area

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