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INDUSTRIAL PLACEMENT REPORT

COUNTRY STYLE FOODS (PVT) LTD

W.D.M.H.PRABODHANI
AS72678/2011/2012
AS2012710

DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE &


TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF SRI JAYEWARDENEPURA
GANGODAWILA
NUGEGODA

DECLARATION
Industrial Placement Report submitted for the partial fulfillment of B.Sc. Special Degree in
Food Science and Technology (Course unit FST 496 5.0) by, W.D.M.Prabodhani
(Registration No: AS/72678/2011/20112Department of Food Science and Technology,
University of Sri Jayewardenepura.
I hereby certify that, W.D.M.H.Prabodhani has successfully completed the twelve weeks
Industrial/ Research/ Field Placement, from 15/02/2015 to 12/05/2015, at Country Style
Foods (Pvt) Ltd.

Internal Supervisor,

External Supervisor,

Dr. R.A.U.J. Marapana

Mr. Sarath Alahakoon

Senior lecturer,

Managing Director,

Department of Food Science &Technology,

Country Style Foods (Pvt)

Ltd,

Faculty of Applied Sciences,

No.57,

University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila,

St.Anthonys Road,

Nugegoda.

Kirimatiyagara ,

Sri Lanka

Kadawatha.

Date

Date

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Head of the Department Dr. Jagath
Wansapala, my internal supervisor Dr. R.A.U.J. Marapana and all other academic and nonacademic staff members of the Department of Food Science & Technology, USJP. I must say
that without them and their encouragement and support, I could not have been completed my
industrial training and this report.
And further I wish to convey my deepest gratitude to my external supervisor, Mr.
S.W.Alahakoon, Director, at Country Style Foods (Pvt) Ltd, since her great support,
guidance and motivation help me a lot throughout my training period to make it successful.
And also I would like to offer my heartiest gratitude to Mr.Luxman, Manager, Division of
Production and Mr.Buddhika, Manager, Quality Assurance & Research & Development,
Country Style Foods (Pvt) Ltd for his support and guidance to complete my training
successfully.
During my industrial training period I gained vast knowledge on how the theoretical things
apply in the industrial level and how to adopt in an industrial environment and how to deal
with the people who are working in a factory. Surely these things will help me very much in
my near future. To gain this experience and practical knowledge, all the staff members in the
microbiology laboratory, quality control laboratory, main stores, engineering division and the
staff and workers in the production division are helped me a lot. Therefore, especially I would
like to express my heartfelt gratitude to all these staff and supportive members and workers at
the Country Style Foods (Pvt) Ltd for their cordiality and friendliness & sharing their
knowledge and experience with me.

Finally I would like to thank my parents, friends and everybody whose names are not
mentioned here for the support and encouragement provided in order to complete my in plant
training successfully.

TRAINING OBJECTIVES

To obtain a practical knowledge to enhance the understanding of theoretical principals


learnt and to acquire skills and competence in the industrial field with right work
attitudes in order to effectively contribute to the field of food science and technology.

To interact with industry and propose positive changes in the process and identify
strategies to overcome the issues

To develop appropriate behavior and attributes within the work environment

To study physical, chemical and microbiological tests carried out for raw material,
within the process, final products and packaging materials

To study manufacturing process and how machineries work in Country Style Foods
(Pvt) Ltd

To get knowledge about water treatment process, Cleaning and sanitizing procedures
and hygienic practices, marketing strategies of the Country Style Foods (Pvt) Ltd

Improve the ability to work as a team and quality of the leadership

To increase the technical knowledge and technical achievements

To improve communication, social interaction abilities & problem solving abilities

To improve innovativeness

ABBREVIATIONS
CEO - Chief Executive Officer
CIP - Cleaning In Place
COB - Clot on Boiling
FIFO - First in first out
GMP - Good Manufacturing Practices
GRN - Goods Received Note
HTST - High Temperature Short Time Pasteurization
QA - Quality Assurance
R&D - Research and Development

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO COUNTRY STYLE FOODS
(PVT) LTD
1.1 OVERVIEW OF THE COMPANY
Country Style Foods Private Limited is a leading fruit beverage manufacturer in Sri
Lanka which was established in 1980. It operates under three directors and it owns one
factory and one plantation in Ragama and Polonnaruwa. Country Style Foods Private
Limited is mainly involves in fruit beverages processing and marketing using available
fruits. They produce the RTD using fruits that are available in Sri Lanka such as Papaya,
Mango, Pineapple, Wood Apple, Lime, Anoda and Ambarella.

Figure

Country Style Foods Private Limited provides vast range of fruit beverage products to the
local market and export market. These products are mainly categorized into five varieties,
namely milked base cool beverages, fruit based cool beverages, bottled drinking water ,
trading and herbal drink products. These Different types of Country Style Foods Private
Limited products are sold in the market under the brand name SMAK with the tag line Full
of natural goodness.

History

FIGURE 0.1.1: BRAND NAME OF THE COUNTRY


STYLE FOODS (PVT) LTD

of the company

Country Style Foods (Pvt) Ltd was a company which was initiated by an entrepreneurial
thought with the candle light of the late Mr D.J Alahakoon (Father) and Mrs. M.A Alahakoon
(Mother) by the present company directors Mr.Darmasiri and Sarath Alahakoon and Mr. Daya
Kumanayaka (first cousin).
Beginning with Motor spare parts, late Mr.D.J.Alahakoon has shown their children how an
ethical business can be developed by the values of hard work and dedication. Their mother
late Mrs.M.A.Alahkoon was a great woman who has immensely supported to their family by
developing her own hobby of making snacks and jam bottles in to a business. Her immense
courage and dedication towards the work, has lead the three brothers to help their Mother
with her business carried out in cottage level.
After engaging in higher studies, Mr Darmasiri Alahakoon who graduated as an Electronic
and electrical engineer and Mr. Sarath Alahakoon who graduated as an Agricultural engineer
with their cousin Mr. Daya Kumanayaka who had lot of experience in sales and marketing
activities, put a step forward to start their own company with the uplifted values they gain
during their Childhood.

During this period of late seventies, Maliban group of companies has made a very generous
offer to sell a factory they had in Nawathkuli, Jaffna. On 28th September 1979, the three
founder members Mr.Sarath Alahakoon, Mr.Darmasiri Alahakoon and Mr .Daya
Kumarnayaka together with Mr.Pathmasiri Dias (Brother in low who is an experienced
mechanical engineer) had made a historical visit to Jaffna in order to inspect the machinery
which was for sale.

By taking a firm decision to buy the machinery, they had requested the support from Bank of
Ceylon for financial assistance to buy the machinery and as well as a location to fix the
machinery at the same time. They purchased a 1.5 acre land with an abandoned building in
Kadawatha which was suitable to start the industry. Machines were shifted to Kadawatha and
after sometime undergoing various difficulties machines were in operation.
The initial staff consisted of one production manager, one driver, one porter and seven girls,
and at the beginning sales were done by two directors Mr.Sarath Alahakoon and Mr.Daya
Kumanayaka. As mentioned in the beginning on 5th February 1981, the first batch of drinks
was manufactured. It was pineapple and batch consisted of 400 bottles.

With the strength, willpower, determination and persistency their approach towards their
dream goal was unstoppable with all the effort and dedication they had done towards starting
their willful business, the three brothers wanted a powerful and meaningful word which gives
an energetic feeling to the consumer. The name SMAK was proposed by Mr. Dharmasiri
Alahakoon and now the well known SMAK fruit juices came to light upon the Sri Lanka
beverage industry.

FIGURE 1.2: THREE DIRECTORS OF THE COMPANY

Current status of the company


With the philosophical statement we do not produce anything that we could not give to our own
children now SMAK enjoys the highest market share for natural fruit drinks in the Sri Lankan
beverage industry.
Over the years company continued to expand its market share by performing effective marketing
approaches more vigorously by infusing more marketing expertise to this company. Effective
marketing with increased production and innovations were the reason for their success which was
under a broad knowledge well coordinated management team. Two way communication system
within the factory towards the top management, Worker motivation has continuously supported
for the growth of the company.
In addition to fruit drinks range, Country Style Food (PVT) Ltd Expanded ready to serve drinks
range for current trends and market demand for innovative products has fulfilled by SMAK by
introducing novel range of herbal products such as Ginger, Iramusu, Milk added drinks and
Isotonic drinks with a wide range of differentiated packaging techniques from 190ml glass
bottles, PET bottles, one way glass bottles and tetrapaks has gained its maximum success and

performance when it comes to consumer demand. Catering for the demand and considering about
the convenience and newer market trends, SMAK has been the ever enjoyed popular ready to
serve drink with its natural goodness and flavor among Sri Lanka as well as among its global
consumers.
Using SMAK brand name and distribution strengths, in addition to Ready to serve drinks they
manufacture and market Table water, Snacks, Bites and confectionary items as well.
With a broad range of marketing and enhanced transportation facilities SMAK is distributing
their products over every corner of Sri Lanka.

Due to their strict production and hygienic techniques Country Style Foods (Pvt) Ltd has
achieved highest international quality standard certifications such as ISO 22000, GMP and
HACCP as well as SL Standards SLS certifications.
To manage the broad production and effective marketing practices County Style Foods (Pvt)
Ltd has developed a strong and clear management structure which was evolved and
developed throughout the years.
In achieving such a customer demand with the reputation and excellence in the natural ready
to serve beverage industry, Country Style Foods (Pvt) Ltd, starting with a very basic
management team and organization structure in 1981 has grown in to an organization with a
very strong, dedicated and comprehensive management team and organization structure.
They have different sections and department under the board of directors for effective and
efficient management and also to achieve the marketing goals in an effective manner.
Though the sections and departments are separated for an efficient management, all of them
have a strong bond with each and every employee resembling a family who cares for each
other. This may be one of the key reasons for their success in the industry.

FIGURE 1.3: Product range of the company

Vision of the company


To be among the cooperate Leaders in natural based food and beverage industry, to cater to wide
range of markets with diversified range of products.

Mission of the company


Achieve total productivity in the natural based foods and beverage industry with most preferred
products prepared under strict hygienic conditions being mindful of the health and wealth of
entire society.

Divisions of the Company

Quality Assurance , Research and Development Division

Main Stores Division

Marketing Division

Finance Division

Purchasing Division

Production Division

Tetrapak Division

Personal and Administration Division

Transport Division

10 Table Water Division


11 Bio Product Division

MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE OF COMPANY

Products Profile
Country Style Foods (Pvt) Ltd are produced seventeen types of different products to the local
market and export market.

Product

Sizes
Glass bottles

Mixed Fruit Drink

Pet bottles
200ml

190ml

500ml
Wood Apple Drink

1l
200ml

190ml

500ml
Mango Drink

1l
200ml
500ml

190ml

1l
Mixed
Drink

Fruit

With

Lime

200ml

190ml

500ml
Chocolate Milk Drink

1l
-

190ml

Sherbet Milk Drink

190ml

Mango Blast Drink

190ml

Coffee Milk Drink

190ml

Anoda Drink

500ml

Ambarella Drink

200ml

500ml
200ml

Papaya
Drink

And

Mandarin

500ml
Lime Drink

200ml

Iramusu Drink

500ml

Active isotonic drink

500ml

500ml,

Pomegranate
Lemon

Bottled Water

1l
1.5l
5l

Product

sizes

Tetrapak

200ml

Wood apple drink


Mango drink
Mixed fruit drink
Pineapple drink

Nutrimate chocolate cup

30g

Figure 1. : SMAK products

COMPETITOR ANALYSIS
FOODS (PVT) LTD

FOR

COUNTRY

Product category

Main competitors

Fruit drinks

D Peiris & Co Ltd

STYLE

Tabasco Distributors (Pvt) Ltd


Yonaro Foods (pvt)Ltd
Cargills (Ceylon) PLC

Bottled water

American Premium Water Systems (Pvt) Ltd,


Tabasco Distributors (Pvt) Ltd
Frosty Marketing (Pvt) Ltd
Napco Group of Companies
C W Mackie PLC (Scan Products Division)

Herbal drink

D Peiris & Co Ltd

Milked based products

Milco company
Kothmale company
Richlife Dairies Limited

S
T
A
K
E
H
O
L
D
E
R
S

THE STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS OF COUNTRY STYLE FOODS (PVT) LTD

Customers:
Secondary
Male, female customers of
any age from all over the
country and foreign markets.

Auditors:

External auditors

Distribution channels:
Primary stakeholder

Suppliers:
Primary stakeholder
Local suppliers of raw materials
Foreign suppliers for some raw
materials
Stationary suppliers
Chemical suppliers

Employees And Employers


Primary stakeholder
Pressure groups:
Secondary stakeholder
Environmental pressure
groups insisting eco
friendly operations

Chapter 2
Production division
Agro processing and value addition to the major raw material input by the processing
activities is carried out within the production division. Production division is a much focused
section due to its various processes which involved production of ready to serve fruit drinks.
Sri Lanka is a country with a rich fruit base of abundance fruit production. This is mainly due
to the favorable climatic condition prevailing in the country. Due to the high availability of
the fruits, it is much more feasible to produce natural fruit juice with the existing potentials
and capabilities.
In order to finalize a well accepted product with required quality standards, production
division and its function plays a key role. Strict hygienic conditions are maintained within the
factory and only permitted people are allowed to enter.
Direct involvement in some of the production procedures are not allowed for unauthorized
people, and information regarding key tasks performed within this section was gathered with
the support from managing director Mr. Sarath Alahakoon, production manager Mr. Luxman
and deputy production manager Mr. Chandrasiri.

There are few subsections within the production division in order to plan the process
effectively and efficiently. Arranging the fruit processing into sub sections and assigning
work into different worker groups have made the production process more efficient.

Key sub sections within the production division:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fruit purchasing and storage section


Fruit washing section
Fruit cutting section
Fruit pulping section
Fruit boiling and pulp processing section
Glass bottle, PET bottle filling section

7. Labeling and storing section


8. Laboratory

Major production lines:


1. Fruits and herbal drinks in 190 ml glass bottles
2. Fruits and isotonic drinks in PET bottles
3. Milk drink in 190 ml glass bottles

Production infrastructure
The building which is used for fruit juice processing is hygienically designed with easy
cleaning ability to prevent any contamination to the products. The raw materials are moved
within the building for different processing levels without any path crossing, reducing the
contamination of the finished products by incoming dirty crops and other movements.
Well ventilated high roof is there in order to remove the heat generation from the processing.
Roof vent allow heat and steam to escape while providing a fresh flow of air move inside the
processing room. Vent is meshed to keep the insect and birds out of the room. Electric fans
are also there to minimize the heat and provide a favorable environment for workers to work.
All internal walls in the building are plastered and surface finished without allowing any
cracks which could harbor dirt or insects. Due to the quick dirt accumulation in lower parts of
the walls these areas are tiled.

Processing unit doors are always kept closed and they are fitted with strips of plastic hung
from the door inlets. These are to keep insects and birds out preventing access.
Floor is concreted and filled to avoid any cracks. It can be easily mopped after the production
using a disinfectant. Floor is also sloped to a drainage channel and it prevents the stagnant
forming and prevents any pest accumulation.
Water bath and taps are placed near the entrance to clean ourselves and workers before
entering to the production area.

Water supply and sanitation


Portable water is an essential requirement on fruit processing and they fulfill their water
requirement by main tap line. The water they obtain is chlorinated in order to prevent any
microbial attacks. Samples of water are periodically inspected and checked within the
laboratory and outside laboratories. In order to ensure the hygienic condition of water they
used for the production, water is moved through a UV treatment or boiling tank. Because of
the boiling system water gets more purified by destroying microorganisms. Equipment they
use such as knives, strains cutting boards and baskets are thoroughly cleaned with
disinfectants. All the field waste are collected in bins and moved to the composting unit
within the premises.

Production process planning


Twice week meetings are held between production, purchasing, cooperate affairs and finance
managers to plan and decide production plan for the week ahead.
Then daily before the production process startup, production process planning is done by the
production management team in order to think ahead to make sure that everything is in place
to carry out the required amount of production. Production manager together with the
production team works on to find the,

Number of workers required, available and their different jobs


Equipment needed for the particular production process
Amount of raw materials and ingredients required for the days production.
Packaging lines to be operated -190ml fruit or milk bottles, Tetra pack, PET etc.
The production manager decides the daily production rate with the availability of worker and
other inputs. In order to maintain consistent production, production manager is always plan
ahead of time and give the possible required amounts of major fruit raw materials which
would be needed in the upcoming week. This help the stores and purchasing division to
purchase and store the minimum required amount of raw materials to support the production
process to be carried out on time.
PROCESS DISCRIPTION
Fruit purchasing

Fruit purchasing activities


First step in processing is purchasing the raw materials for the production. Production
is mainly carried out with the major fruits such as mango, Pineapple, Wood apple, Lime,
Lemon, Anoda. The factory has registered fruit vendors who will fulfill the requirements of
the factory when purchasing fruits. These vendors are from Gampha, Minuwangoda,
Kurunagala, Kandy, Puttalam, Diwulapitiya areas who grow or collect fruits with special
consideration towards the maturity level and its postharvest handling aspects.

Fruits are always transported in trucks with acceptable packaging methods such as plastic
crates and gunny bags and weighing 20-40 depending in this type of fruits. The transportation
trucks are well ventilated. Over hood provide protection against the sun and other climatic
factors. The transported fruits are unloaded and weighed and careful supervision of the fruits
are continually carried out by the fruit purchasing executives. The fruits which do not agree
with the required quality standards are rejected.
All the fruit vendors are bonded to supply their product in the state required by the company
and both parties have the trust towards each other and maintain healthy relationships. These
vendors are supported by the company in order to maintain their continuous fruit
requirement.
Some of the fruits which are involved in the major production process are seasonal. For an
example wood apple is highly available in October to December period while pineapple is
available in August to January.
These seasonal fruits are purchased as much as possible during the peak periods and they are
preserved in cold storage for off season usage. By practicing this kind of method, they assure
a continuous market supply throughout the years. Best quality wood apples are purchased
from down south area as Monaragala, Hambanthota with less seeds and more flesh.
No specific variety concerned in juice making but high juice content of the flesh is an
advantage when pulp making. Therefor in papaya Sinta is preferred due to high juice
thickness. In pineapple both Mauritus and Kiwi varieties purchased with proper maturity.
In mango Walamba and Karthakolomban are preferred.
I. Fruit purchasing judgments are mainly based on
Sight: Color, Size, Shape
Tough: Texture, Hardness or Softness
Smell: Odor and Aroma
Taste : Sweetness, Sourness and Bitterness
Resonance: sound when tapped

II. Common factors considered when purchasing fruits

Fruits should not be ripened by any artificial method.

Fruits should be physically matured when they are harvested.

Fruits should be commercially matured

Fruits should possess its natural shape without any abnormalities.

Fruits should be free from derbies, bruises or any miscellaneous matter

Fruit grading and storage


After purchasing the fruits, Grading of fruits are carried out. Rotten fruits, matured
fruits, ripen fruits grading according to the variety is done to prevent any contamination as
well for the convenience in carrying out the future steps. The fruits are kept for in the storage
as required and with the production plan and required quantity the batch of fruits are send to
the washing section for further processes.
Fruits are always advised to store in plastic crates which are on wooden pellets where they
are placed 30cm away from the walls. This ensures the protection from floors and prevents
any contamination. Fruit storing also consider whether the fruits are ripening or matured.
First ripen fruits are send directly to the factory for pulp making and in fruit storage first in
first out concept is not applicable.
Fruit washing

Fruit
activity

washing

(Three sink method)


Washing is one of the

most

important section where

cleanliness

hygienic conditions are

maintained.

All

undergoing

three

the

fruits

washing

are
steps.

Incoming raw materials such as selected mango, papaya, lime, ambarella are washed within
this section. They use three sink method. It contains three tanks, every tank has good water
supply. They are tank 1,2 and 3. To prepare the washing tanks, first they cleaned the tanks
and then add 332l of water. After that 20g of chlorine powder or 1660ml of 1% chlorine water
is added to the 1st tank. Concentration of chlorine is 50ppm. 17g of sodium metabisulphate is
added to the 2nd tank. Concentration of so2 is 20ppm. Cleaned water is added to the third
tank. The volume of the water which they fill can be varying according to their requirement.
All the fruits are kept in first two tanks for few minutes and washed with clean water. This
ensures the removal of all the pest and pesticide residues, debris and any miscellaneous
matter which could be on the surface of the fruits.
Chlorine is used as disinfected agent to kill the microbes and wash the debris which remains
in the fruits. Its also act as an oxidizing agent. SMS is also used to kill the microbes by mean
time oxidizing the surface microbes. Employees use brushes to remove the debris that are on
the fruits. Using normal water excess chlorine and SMS is removed. Therefor fruits are free
from the chemicals. It ensures the quality of the raw material. After washing one batch, tanks
are cleaned before loading the next batch. During the washing process, some over ripen fruits
are broken. They remove these solid wastes to make compost. So washing process ensures
the quality.
There is a good drainage facility to remove the dirty water which used to wash the fruits.
After washing and disinfected the fruits, they are collected to plastic crates and moved them

towards peeling cutting and pulping section by the trollies. This is done immediately to
prevent the contaminations.

Washed fruit ready to give for fruit cutting

Fruit cutting and pulping

This section involves peeling off the fruit peel and cutting fruits in to pieces in order
to ease the pulping process. After receiving the washed fruits, employees cut the fruits
according to the production requirement. Manually and mechanically peeling and cutting is
done using well sharp stainless steel knives and cutter machine. All employees follow the
good personal hygienic practices soundly. They wear masks, nets, gloves, apron and boots.

All the processing equipments are made out from stainless steel. They use two large tables for
cutting and peeling off the fruits. Washed pineapples are peeled off and cut into small pieces.
It accommodates to enhance the juice capacity. Papaya is not peeled off, but it cuts into
pieces and removed the seeds which are available in the middle part.
Upper part of the mango peel is removed and then side parts are cut to check the damages.
Outer shell of the wood apple is removed by cracking the shell and middle portion is
extracted. Lime is also cut into small pieces but no necessary to peel off. Sometimes lime is
cut using a cutting machine. Ambarella is only cut using an ambarella cutter. So it is not
necessary to peel off and remove the seed. Seed and the peel are removed within the cutter
machine. It reduces the time waste to peel off the ambarella. After cutting the all fruits, it is
sent to the pulping section. They use plastic creates to put the fruits pieces. Pulping area is
located nearby the cutting area.

There are four pulper machines in the pulping area. They have different sizes of messes.
Pulper machine no.1 and no.4 are used for pineapple and papaya pulping process. Pulper
machine no.1 can be used for fruit varieties such as papaya, pineapple, lime, ambarella and
mango. For mango pulping, they change the mess of the pulper. The aperture size of the mess
is 5mm. Other varieties need 1mm aperture size mess.
For ambarella pulping, they put the load twice to get maximum pulp quantity. Peel is the
waste material for papaya, lime, ambarella pulping. For pineapple pulping peel and fibre both
are removed as waste. There are two brushes and two beaters use to make pulp and to
remove the peel respectively.
After extracting the pulp, they send it to the pulper machine no. 4 . It has two different size
messes. First aperture size is 2mm and second aperture size is 0.5mm. Finally they can get
clear pulp without any debris.

Figure :Pulper machine

Pulp preservation

Prepared fruit pulp can be preserved according to two methods.

1 Boiling for freeze

Weighted fruit pulp is transferred in to the open steam jacketed


pan and cooked, after reaching boil.

Pulp is poured in to the clean can and transferred in to the


freezer.

2 Adding preservatives

Weighted fruit pulp is transferred in to the open steam jacketed


pan and cooked, after reaching boiled.

Preservatives and acids are added in to the pulp and poured


in to the clean, sanitized plastic cans.

Cans are weighted and date, batch coded on the can. Filled cans
are stored in ambient temperature ware house.

Pulp processing
Separate kinds of pans are used for pulp processing. The following are the basic steps of fruit
pulp processing in to a final product of fruit juice.
All the ingredients including chemicals and sugar are weighed according to the recipe.
Fruit pulp is weighed according to the recipe.
Fruit pulp is weighed and sieved in to the pan.
Sugar is dissolved in hot water and sieved in to the pan.
The mixture is boiled using the steam.
Pulp is agitated while boiling using a paddle.
Coloring and citric acid is added and mixed well.
Small amount of hot water is added and boiled again.
Sugar level is checked and water added in requirements.
Laboratory checking is done for sugar level color and taste.
Secondary addition of colorings and sugar is done according to the laboratory
recommendations.
The mixture is boiled and rechecked.
Preservatives are added and mixed well.
Laboratory rechecking is done.
Mixture is filtered to the filling tank.

190ml Glass Bottle Washing and Inspection Section

Washing Section
Glass bottles are checked before sent the washing to ensure bottles are
free from;
Straw
Heavy worms and eggs
Damage bottles

Unclear and different shaped bottles

There are mainly two types of washing


Manual washing
Machinery washing

Machinery washing
Then 190ml empty glass bottles issued to machine through the conveyer
system to washing. Following methods can observed inside machinery and
Bottles labels removed of automatically brush system.
Hot Water bath
Hot Caustic Soda bath

Spraying hot Caustic Soda mixed water


Spraying warm water
Spraying cold water
Draining

Glass bottle washing machine


Washed bottles were checked after washing whether bottles are
washed properly, properly removed debris and any particles of
bottles and labels.

Every 01 hour checked quality of washed bottles quality using


phenoptheline. Few drops of phenoptheline were put into
properly washed bottles and checked colour of it.

Manual washing
If

bottles

contain

corrosion

and

un-removable

debrides

from

the

machinery washing that were sent for the manual washing. Manual
washing contained three washing tanks.
1

st

nd

tank washing with Teepol


tank clean water

rd

tank clean water

190 ml Inspection Section


Washed bottles again washing by manually used Johnston taps and high
pressure chlorinated water and checking quality of bottles used frozen
light and white background. Then bottles issued to filling area by conveyer
belt.

Removed white and dirty bottles, ten issued again bottle washing
section

Bottle Washing

Receiving the glass bottles

1st Quality checking

Store in plastic creates

Washing
using
2nd issued
forhigh
Issuing
to
the
pressure
chlorinated
inspection
production
water line

Final inspection
of the washed
bottles

Send for the drink


filling
Flow chart of190ml Glass Bottle Washing and Checking Section

Bottle are washed using high pressure chlorinated water

Bottle filling
There are three drink filling machineries within the processing area. Two of them are used for
the 190ml drink filling purposes and the other one is used for the PET bottles filling. During
the filling process, bottles are washing and then filling and capping occurred.
Production process of 190 ml glass bottle filling

190 ml glass bottle filling machine


Two drink filling machines are used in this section.one of them is used for the 190ml milk
filling and the other is used for the fruit drink filling purposes. When consider the filling
process, fist bottle s are washed then filled. After that crowns are fixed to the bottles. Then
filling bottles are passed through the steam tunnel for 3min and 30 s. The final temperature of
hot filling is around 94OC. While conveying filled bottles, they are manually inspected. Bottle
which are filled lesser than the standard level are rejected.
Milk based drinks are filled as the same way. But thereafter, special treatment is done to
enhance the shelf life of the product. It is ultra-high temperature operation.

Retort Operation

Retort operation is a kind of ultra high temperature operation. They use three auto claves for
this section.

Figure : Auto clave


Steam is the major energy source for retort operation. Before the retort operation starts, first
bottles are load into the auto clave. Then bottles are kept for 20min and 150psi pressure
maintain inside the chamber. The temperature of the chamber is 120oc.
After 20min, blowers are used to reduce the inside temperature to increase the handling of the
creates. Then after blowing the air, bottles are kept out of the auto clave. Hot water is poured
on to creates to wash out the drink which spills during the auto calving process. Finally all the
bottles are stack in the wooden creates. They keep for four days as the observation period to
identify the non-conformities.

Production process of PET bottle filling


Nectar filling section fills drink into different sizes such as 200 ml, 500
ml and 1L. When receiving the drink from production area its stock in
stock tank and then fill into PET bottle using filling and sealing machine.

Figure : PET bottle filling machine

Figure : PET bottle filling process

Drink
preparation

Sending into
stock tank

Drink filling
Checking filled
Place
in
Date
Coding
Cooling
Drying
the
the
bottles
corrugated
bottles

Wrapping using
hot air method
Flow chart of PET bottle filling process
Labeling and storing
After discharge from the filler, bottles are re inspected by workers again for broken or
unclean bottles and partially filled juices. The bottles are moved through a conveyer belt
towards the labeler and labeled bottles are finally re inspected for overall quality. Once the
label is attached, bottles are moved through an electronic sensor where manufactured, expire

date and batch number are placed on the label. The resulted bottles are packed in to crates and
moved to the finished goods stores.

Chapter 02
Stores Division
Introduction

All Finished products ready for sales and marketing as well as the raw material inputs and
factory related items need proper storage facilities. Proper inventory management ensures the
protection for all movable assets of the company for maximizing total productivity and
profitability of the company.
Country style foods (Pvt) Ltd maintain different storage areas with responsibilities falling
under different managers, which can be illustrated as follows:
As we are especially considering the related areas for our specialization, fresh fruit stores
area was mainly focused.

Fresh Fruit Stores


Fresh fruits are the major raw material input in fruit beverage industry. Due to the rapid
perishable nature of fruits, special post-harvest care and consideration is needed in order to
preserve the required quality of fruits.
When purchasing fruits from known vendors, special considerations are given, Harvesting
time during the day (morning), maturity level and harvesting method decides a well matured
and unblemished fruit for the processing level. Commercial maturity level of fruits is checked
when purchasing because the requirement is for juice processing.

The required quality aspects are continuously inspected with its post harvest aspects.
Pesticide and carbide, contaminations and physical damages are specially concerned.
Transportation of fruits in well ventilated trucks with proper stacking is insisted by the
company to minimize the damage to the fruits by the field heat removal. The fruit storage is
mainly done in plastic crates and preservation of the fruit flesh and pulp is achieved by
storing in cool rooms and freezer containers.
When storing the fruits, their physiological status is also considered where fruits are stored
with regard to their ethylene production and respiration rate. This aspect is responsible for
fruit ripening process.

Highly sensitive fruits with high respiration rates such as sour soup, mango and papaya must
be processed at the correct maturity level in order to preserve organoleptic and nutritional
aspects. Highly respirating fruits are releasing ethylene due to the autocatalytic ethylene
production and storage should be done in a manner to separate ripe fruits from mature fruits
because this will induce over ripening and large volume ripening. To control the ripening
process with regard to processing time period and requirement, separate storage system with
good ventilation and less heat buildup must be practiced.
Non climacteric fruits where no ripening after harvest such as wood apple therefore should be
specially inspected to check whether they are harvested at correct maturity stage. Purchased
fruits are stored to prevent any chemical, post harvest as well as pest damage.
In order to control pest problems, quarantine measures are practiced within the whole
premises. Therefore within the storage minimum or no pest damage is observed. Before
moving the fruits to the fruit processing area, three washing steps ensures
maximum cleanliness decontamination of fruits in order to maintain the hygienic
requirements of the fruit processing area and fruit beverages.

Production manager is responsible for determining the required amounts of fresh fruits to be
purchased and once the fruits are purchased, fresh fruit stores executive is responsible for
maintaining all the storage activities with a special knowledge on above mentioned aspects.
In addition to fresh fruit stores following are some of the major storage areas maintained
within the factory premises for the requirements of work to be carried out.

Finished goods stores


All the beverage items which are produced within the factory are stored within this section.
190 ml glass bottles
200 ml PET bottles
500 ml PET bottles

1000 ml PET bottles


200 ml tetra paks
The products are always requested to store on pallets which are stacked 30 cm away from
walls to avoid any external pest damage. Finished products are stored in such a way to
facilitate to first in first out system as well as easy movement within the stores for the fork lift
truck. Stores manager is responsible for maintaining and managing the inventory, supervising
the relevant stores workers as well as providing safety for the products.
Raw Material Stores
All the raw materials which are required for the production process are stored at the raw
material stores room on pallets with maximum care for hygiene.
Items stored:
Preservatives, crown corks, Citric acid, Skim milk powder, Table salt, Chocolate powder, Pet
bottle lids, clear tape, gum, labels

Trade item stores


Products which are stored only for the distribution purposes manufactured by outside
manufacturers under their quality control are known as trade item stores.
List of products:
Choco bubbles
Garlic mixed bite
Spicy bites
Onion bites
Hot and spicy mixture
Indian mixture

Kisses
Wafer sticks
Trade items are kept for a short period of time within the stores in order to utilize available
space, to avoid pest problems and to ensure sending a fresh product to the market.

Chapter 03
Quality assurance and R & D department
Introduction
Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes or defects in manufactured products
and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers; which ISO 9000

defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality


requirements will be fulfilled". This defect prevention in quality assurance differs subtly from
defect detection and rejection in quality control, and has been referred to as a shift left as it
focuses on quality earlier in the process.

Quality assurance comprises administrative and procedural activities implemented in a


quality system so that requirements and goals for a product, service or activity will be
fulfilled. It is the systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, monitoring of
processes and an associated feedback loop that confers error prevention. This can be
contrasted with quality control, which is focused on process output.
Within this department, following works are done;

Quality tests for drink products, drinking water and milk products
Quality tests for raw materials
Quality tests for packaging materials
Quality control of production process
Record keeping and analyzing
Research and development

Laboratory testing

Laboratory is playing important role in the factory by conducting testings


and maintaining natural taste of the drink. Mainly raw material and
product testing are conducted by laboratory. Mainly milk and fruit pulp is
tested to check the quality and the suitability of the material for
production.

RAW MATERIAL TESTING


TESTS FOR PULPS
pH
For all the pulps, ph should be measured using a digital ph meter.
Acidity
Acidity of the pulps is checked using a titration method.
10ml of pulp is taken and 100ml distilled water is added to it.
Then phenolphthalein is added and titrated with N/10 sodium hydroxide.
Colour change is colorless to pink colour.
SO2 content
SMS has been used as a preservative of the drinks for years. Titration method is used to
determine the SO2 content.
25ml of drink is taken into titration flasks.
Then 100ml of distilled water is added to it.
Sample is kept for 10 min.
10ml of 1:3 H2SO4 and few drops of starch solution added to it.
Then sample is titrated against N/10 Iodine solution until the colour change from blue to
colourless.

Brix value
Brix value of every batch of drink is measured using a brix meter.. There are three types of
pulps;
Fresh pulp
Boiled Pulp

Cold room pulp


Brix value should be 16-200
TASTE

Taste of the each sample is checked.

TEST FOR MILK

Organoleptic test, Gerber test, lacto meter reading, curdle test and pH
testing were done when receiving fresh milk.

TEST FOR WATER

Check caustic soda concentration of bath in bottle washing machine


using phenolphthalein and check pH by Bench top type pH meter.

Check the chlorine percentage of the water using a colorimeter.

TESTS FOR FINISHED PRODUCTS

pH
For all the finished drink, ph should be measured using a digital ph meter.

Acidity
Acidity of all the finished drink is checked using a titration method. Following method is
dene by them.
10ml of pulp is taken and 100ml distilled water is added to it.

Then phenolphthalein is added and titrated with N/10 sodium hydroxide.


Colour change is colorless to pink colour.
SO2 content
SMS has been used as a preservative of the drinks for years. Titration method is used to
determine the SO2 content. For all the finished products except tetrapak SO2 content is
checked and recorded. Following method is dene by them.
25ml of drink is taken into titration flasks.
Then 100ml of distilled water is added to it.
Sample is kept for 10 min.
10ml of 1:3 H2SO4 and few drops of starch solution added to it.
Then sample is titrated against N/10 Iodine solution until the colour change from blue to
colourless.
Brix value
Brix of the finished drink is measured using a brix meter. It gives the TSS in the product. Brix
value should be 160 according to the SLSI standard.
Appearance
Once the fruit drink samples are received, appearance is checked. Colour is the major
parameter for the appearance.
TASTE
Taste of the each sample is checked.

TEST FOR THE PACKAGING MATERIALS


GLASS BOTTLES
The quality of the each batch of new glass bottles is checked. These test are carried out for
190ml bottles of clear colour bottles. Weight, height, volume and the thickness of the glass

wall is checked to see whether they comply with set standards. Also the impact of tests are
done for glass bottles.
PET bottles
The quality of 200ml, 500ml and 100ml PET bottles also checked. The weight, height,
volume and the surface appearance are the parameters that have been checked.
Crowns and closures
The quality parameters of crowns such as crown corrosion, the diameter and the thickness of
crown are checked for new crown batch. Except the degree of the corrosion other parameters
are checked foe the PET closures.

CHAPTER 4

Tetra pak division


Introduction

Tetra Pak packages provide an efficient and environmentally sound way to distribute
foods both at ambient temperatures and under refrigerated conditions. Tetra Paks aseptic
carton packaging protects fresh food through aseptic processing, which ensures the longterm protection of delicate nutrients and flavors. The aseptic process destroys harmful microorganisms by exposing food to very high temperatures for just a few seconds and then, while
still in a sterile environment, cools, fills and seals it in a pre-sterilised carton.

Aseptic filling has become a very common form of delivering the liquid products to its end
users across the world. Slowly and gradually, but it has made a very prominent place of its
own in the current market and has proved that it is a very useful and one of the most superior,
easy to handle carrier for liquid products across the globe.

Tetra Pak aseptic processes allow liquid food to retain colour, texture, natural taste and
nutritional value for up to 12 months, without the need for preservatives or refrigeration. The
combination of aseptic processing and packaging reduces waste, makes distribution
extremely cost-efficient and converts your product into a consumer-ready format as well as
making it possible for you to reach consumers in remote locations.
Aseptic processing is the process by which a sterile (aseptic) product (typically food or
pharmaceutical) is packaged in a sterile container in a way that maintains sterility.
Sterility is achieved with a flash-heating process (temperature between 195 and 295 F (91 to
146 C)), which retains more nutrients and uses less energy than conventional sterilization
techniques such as retort or hot-fill canning. Aseptic food preservation methods allow
processed food to keep for long periods of time without preservatives, as long as they are not
opened. The aseptic packages are typically a mix of paper (70%), polyethylene (LDPE)
(24%), and aluminum (6%), with a tight polyethylene inside layer. Together these materials
form a tight seal against microbiological organisms, contaminants, and degradation,
eliminating the need for refrigeration.The first aseptic filling plant for milk was presented in
Switzerland in 1961.
Aseptic processing steps

Process hygienically safe product by using of following machineries:

CIP (Clean in Place) plant


Chilling Tank
Pasteurizer with Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE)
Aseptic filling machine (form fill seal machine)

Tetrapak Straw Applicator

Figure : Aseptic filling machine

Figure : Pasteurizer with Plate


Heat Exchanger (PHE)

Figure : Tetrapak straw applicator

Layers of packing Material

There are seven layers that are shown in below from inside to outside;

1. Inner PE layer : directly contact with the product


2. Adhesion layer : effectively bonds the inner PE layer and Aluminium foil that contact
the product
3. Aluminum foil layer : blocks light, air and pollution from the outside
4. PE layer : is used for lamination aluminum foil and paper board
5. Paper layer : provides stable packing strength
6. Printing layer : displays product image and gives high vision Impact
7. Outer PE layer : prevents dampness and blocks pollution from the outside

Fruits

Other
Ingredients

Packing
Materials

Master
Cartons

Fruit Grading &

Fruit Cutting & Pulping

Drink Preparation

Pasteurization

Drink filling & Packing

Date coding

Appling straw

Packing

Flow chat of the tetrapak production


CHAPTER 5: EFFULENT TREATMENT

Introduction
The fruit processing industry usually utilize considerable amount of fresh water
utilization as well as generation lots of waste water. Fruit washing, peeling, and pulp making
and other washing operation are some of the major steps involved with water use. Bottle
washing and cleaning process also generates waste water mixed with caustic soda. Waste
water generated from the final rinsing process of bottle washing is directed to a separate
collecting tank. The waste water is then supplied towards the filter by a pump and treated
with sand filter, carbon filter and micro filter continuously one by one and purified water is
then moved towards a tank which is then utilized for the cleaning and sanitation practices
within the premises.

WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS


Waste water derived from the fruit processing section is separately collected to a
special waste water treatment plant. It is designed to substantially degrade the organic sewage
which derived from the fruit waste.

Waste water treatment process consists with four major steps. They are;
o Equalization
o Anaerobic Digestion
o Aerobic Digestion
o Settlement
From this four steps, equalization process, chemical treatment is done to the waste
water and anaerobic digestion and aerobic digestion are consider as the processes which give
biological treatment to the water.

Equalization

Water is passed to Equalization Tanks for the chemical treatment process. This process is
known as Equalization since here the equal conditions are supplied for the whole effluent
water by adding chemicals. Effluent water is pumped to the Effluent treatment plant from
different manufacturing plants in the factory. According to the plant, pH of the water can be
varied.
Example;

Effluent from Sterilized milk Plant- pH>8

Effluent from Yoghurt manufacturing Plant- pH<7


In this tank, whole effluent water is treated by using chemicals to get equal pH value.

Here maintain the pH value in between 7-10.5. There is a pH meter to measures the pH of the
effluent water. If it is less, then bases such as Soda ash, Caustic soda are added. In the
equivalent tank, a constant flow rate is maintained by using similar inlet and outlet flow rates.
Agitators are used to evenly mix the chemicals in water.

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
Effluent water is then transferred to the anaerobic tank which is a rectangular basin
about 7-14 m deep to carry out the anaerobic digestion. It takes 1 days to complete the
anaerobic process. Up flow sludge blanket is in here.
Here the anaerobic bacteria decompose the organic matter in the waste water into
simple forms in the absence of Oxygen which are settled down and removed in the later part
of the process. Methane is also generated as a byproduct in biomass conversion process and it
is collected separately into another tank. The pH of the output of anaerobic tank should be in
between 6.5-8.0.

Hydrolysis

During hydrolysis, the first stage, bacteria transform the particulate organic substrate
into liquefied monomers and polymers i.e. proteins, carbohydrates and fats are transformed to
amino acids, monosaccharides and fatty acids respectively.
C6H10O4 + 2H2O C6H12O6 + 2H2

Acidogenesis

In the second stage, acidogenic bacteria transform the products of the first reaction
into short chain volatile acids, ketones, alcohols, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The principal
acidogenesis

stage

products

are

propionic

acid

(CH3CH2COOH),

butyric

acid

(CH3CH2CH2COOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), formic acid (HCOOH), lactic acid (C 3H6O3),
ethanol (C2H5OH) and methanol (CH3OH), among other.
C6H12O6 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2
C6H12O6 + 2H2 2CH3CH2COOH + 2H2O
C6H12O6 3CH3COOH

Methanogenesis

The final stage is called methanogenesis. During this stage, microorganisms convert the
hydrogen and acetic acid formed by the acid formers to methane gas and carbon dioxide. he
bacteria responsible for this conversion are called methanogens and are strict anaerobes.
Waste stabilization is accomplished when methane gas and carbon dioxide are produced.
CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2O
2C2H5OH + CO2 CH4 + 2CH3COOH
CH3COOH CH4 + CO2

AEROBIC DIGESTION

The output of the anaerobic tank is transferred to the aerobic tank and here aerobic
digestion is happen. There are three separated tanks and the water is firstly sent to the 1st
tank. The over flowing water from the 1st tank is then sent to the 2nd tank.
Tank I
Water from the Anaerobic Tank is come to this tank at first. Here water is mixed well.
Suitable amount of sludge is added to this tank as a culture. For that sludge get from
settlement tank can be used if their setting ability is less than 40%. Air blowers are used to
produce oxygen.
Tank II
Two aerators are used in this tank. Both aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes are happen
and organic matters in the water further breakdown in to simple molecules.

SETTLEMENT
Sedimentation tanks used in secondary treatment referred as clarifiers. Output of the
aerobic tank is then transferred to the settlement tank through gravity. In settlement tank,
water is allowed to stand for the sludge settlement. The accumulated sludge is automatically
removed from the bottom. Slugging process is carried out by separation.
Sloughed material is separated from liquid in a secondary classifier and discharged to sludge
processing where here sludge is moved to compost unit. Clarified liquid from the secondary
classifier recycled, filtered and released to the pond where group of fish is maintained as an
indicator to check the quality of water before released to outside.

Water treatment plant

CHAPTER 6
BIO PRODUCT DIVISION
INTRODUCTION
The fruit juice processing industry is an important part which is linked with the food
processing industry. It contributes to the economy of the country as well as the quality of
lives. But unfortunately fruit processing industry is one which also generate high amount of
organic waste with unsanitary conditions and major health issues, if disposed the wrong way.
As a fruit juice processing company County style foods (Pvt) Ltd has a considerable amount
of fruit residues which are collected daily basis and managed in a special compost unit.
The organic waste which is considered as a waste by many regulatory bodies has been
excepted as residue or resource within the company. This is because of its ability to generate
huge potential of benefits after it is transitioned to the form of compost. The evolved product
compost has played boosting actions in Polonnaruwa plantation to enrich the native
unfertilized soils there.

In order to manage the above mentioned key fields, bio products division together with its
team plays an appreciable role. As a processing factory it is normal to face the question and
problems from the neighbors and other environmentally concerned organizations, but here,
due to their effective management programme of solid waste, the company has overcome the
problems with ease. The concept of organic waste management and planning are gathered
from the ideas of the shadow of the company who is the managing director Mr. Sarath
Alahakoon.

In order to achieve the quality and certifications to make SMAK a renowned and well
accepted brand name, there policy of organic waste management had also played a vital role.

Compost unit
Compost is a biological product which is developed using biological waste
decomposition and then recycled as a natural fertilizer which enhances plant growth as well
as soil physical and chemical characteristics acting as a soil amendment. Composting is a bio
oxidative product with the introduction of integrated plant nutrients system and organic
farming concepts, the demand for good quality compost has been increasing day by day.
Due to its nature of fast simple and safe disposal of organic carbon waste, composting has
become one prominent way to answer the solid waste problem which is generated from the
fruit residues.
As the company is a major fruit processor within the country, a considerable amount of fruit
residues are collected as disposable matter within a day. Due to the lack of proper disposal
methods and with the potentials generated from the residues with the composting process,
Country style foods (Pvt) Ltd has created their own way of generating highly nutritious
compost using the fruit residues which are collected daily.
A separate area within the company premises is devoted for compost manufacturing process.
The process is well organized and managed by following the exact procedures of usual
compost generating process. They are practicing the heap method due to the heavy lot of
residue collected once a day and due to space limitations.

Normal organic residues which are derived after the production process are the basic inputs
for the process. They are fruit peels, fruit shells, fruit nuts, pineapple crowns, and sludge from
waste water treatment plant.

These are collected in bins and moved towards the composting area and the fruit residues are
separately loaded and chopped in to small particles using a mechanical chopper in order to
reduce the time of decomposition.

These chopped residues are then heaped and, after that mixed with a bucket of decomposing
recedive mixing is done once in every 7 days. Fully decomposed quality compost is
generated after about 45 to 60 days.
Due to the high nutrient content of the residues, the final compost product is also rich in
nutrient levels. Further nutrient addition could be achieved by mixing Gliricidia or cow dung
inoculums to achieve the enriched or go beyond that C: N ratio. Final compost generated
from their fruit residues rich in N, P, K values with comparisons to the SLS standards
specification.

Table: SLS Standards Specifications for compost generated from


organic wastes
Parameter

SLS standard 1246:2003

Our product

N% by mass

3.5

P% by mass

0.5

0.03

K% by mass

2.8

Moisture content
MgO

25<
0.5

15
0

CaO

0.7

The valued compost generated within the company premises is transported to Polonnaruwa
orchard in order to enhance the soil performances there. It truly acts as a soil reconditioner by
giving the biological, physical and chemical strength to the poor soils.
Managing the hidden assets by value adding and creating a real benefit by improvements on
soils in rural areas, the company is acting as model for the fellow peers in the business to
follow up without being a burden to the society and government. These kinds of
environmentally healthy approaches are continuously followed and investigated by the

Country style foods (Pvt) Ltd and for the well management of above processes, Bio products
division manager together with his team plays a major contributing role.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

a) Fruit wastage generated from the company


b) Initial compost heap
c) Mixing compost heap once in a two week
d) Final out put (compost)

Chapter 7
CLEANING & SANITIZING

Introduction
In a fruit processing plant, cleaning and sanitization play a vital role, since the quality of the
product is highly affected by the surrounding environment. A very minute contamination may
affect to the whole community. Therefore every possible measure should be taken to ensure
the cleaning and hygiene of the factory premises, machines and other equipment in the plant.
In addition to that, good sanitary conditions among workers also should be maintained.
Cleaning is the process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface.
Cleaning is accomplished using a cleaning agent that removes food, soil, rust stains, minerals,
or other deposits. Sanitizing is the process of reducing the number of microorganisms that are
on a properly cleaned surface to a safe level. A safe level is defined as a 99.999% reduction of
the number of disease microorganisms that are of public health importance. Sanitizing is
accomplished by using heat, radiation, or chemicals.

Cleaning Methods
Mainly, two methods are used.
Manual cleaning Use for cleaning of floor and wall of the plant, creates and fruit

washing tanks
Cleaning In Place (CIP) system Use for cleaning of machines
Manual Cleaning

Regardless of the automation and engineering built into a plants operation, there is usually a
need to manually clean the contact surfaces of the many small parts used in a normal days
operation. Cleaning of filters, valves, fruit washing tanks as well as floors and walls of the
plant is done by using manual cleaning. It involves;

Wash off remaining food soil with water.

Brush well by hand with detergents.

Wash off with hot water until slippery nature removes.

Cleaning of Premises and Working Surroundings

Chlorine powder is added to the floor and walls.

Then they are brushed well using a hand brush.

Finally floor and walls are washed well with water until no chemicals remaining.

Cleaning In Place (CIP) System


Clean-in-place (CIP) is a method of cleaning the interior surfaces of pipes, vessels, process
equipment, filters and associated fittings, without disassembly. The benefit to industries that
use CIP is that the cleaning is faster, less labor-intensive and more repeatable, and poses less
of a chemical exposure risk to people. For CIP, mostly used chemicals are 2% caustic soda,
1.5% nitric acid and hot water. This applies to the flow in pipes, heat exchangers, pumps,
valves, filling machines.
Steps of CIP System
1. Rinse with water
Water at normal room temperature is used for rinsing. Water is sprayed in to the equipment.
Rinsing is done for 2 minutes in order to remove the drink inside pipe lines etc. After rinsing
for 2 minutes, water is drained off.
2. Spray caustic soda
Then 2% of caustic soda at 80C is sprayed for 20 minutes under high pressure. Caustic soda
helps to remove fat from the surfaces.
3. Rinse with water
The remaining soda is rinsed by using hot water for 2 minutes.

4. Circulating Nitric Acid

Then 1% of nitric acid at 80C is circulated for 30 minutes. Nitric acid is added to remove
excess caustic soda and milk stones.
5. Rinse with water
Then the nitric acid is washed off with hot water.

Cleaning procedure of pulp machines


Before use pulping machine, used two types of water to clean.

Chlorinated water

Warm water

After use pulping machine, used this tree types of water to clean.

Pure water

Chlorinated water

Warm water

Cleaning of once a month

Follow pest control procedure and fumigation process

Hygienic Practices among Employees

Hand washing facilities which are foot operated at the entrance of production division

Employee should wash their hands before working, re-entering, after visit toilet and

after working.

Hands should be washed with liquid soap and rinsed in running water.

Employees must wear company uniform, cap /head-scarf, glouses and boots inside the

production division.

Uniforms, gloves, caps and boots should be clean.

Boots should be worn and they should be cleaned using sanitary agents.

Smoking, chewing and eating are prohibited inside the production division

Avoid coughing and sneezing over food contact surface.

Employees who are not in better healthy condition not allow entering the production

division

Outsiders must wear the coats and masks while entering into the production division.

Chapter
THE CASE STUDIES FOLLOWED DURING TRAINING

Introduction
During the training period, I was involved with many activities related to pineapple waste
utilization and packing material testing. Two major activities related to the fruit drink
preparation process were carried out on the following topics;
1. Introduce methods for pineapple waste utilization
2. Identify the problem related to the PET bottle closures
The reports done for each case study are attached below.

Special projects

Introduce methods for pineapple waste

utilization

Identify the problem related to the PET

bottle closures

Introduce
utilization
Introduction

methods

for

pineapple

waste

Waste utilization in fruits and vegetable processing industries is one of the


important and challengeable jobs around the world. It is anticipated that the
discarded fruits as well as its waste materials could be utilized for further
industrial purposes viz. fermentation, extraction of bioactive components,
extraction of functional ingredients etc. Pineapple waste is a by-product of the
pineapple processing industry and it consists of residual pulp, peels and skin.
These wastes can cause environmental pollution problems if not utilised.
Pineapple peel is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose and other carbohydrates.
Ensilaging of pineapple peels produces methane which can be used as a biogas.
Anaerobic digestion takes place and the digested slurry may find further
application as animal, poultry and fish feeds. Bromelain is present in pineapple
wastes.

Fruit residues may cause serious environmental problems, Since it


accumulates in agro-industrial yards without having Any significant and
commercial vaLue. Since disposal of these Wastes is expensive due to high costs
of transportation and a Limited availability of landfills they are unscrupulously.
Disposed causing concern as environmental problems. Furthermore, the
problem of disposing by-products is further Aggravated by legal restrictions. A
high level of bod and Cod in pineapple wastes add to further difficulties in
disposal
CONCLUSION

Pineapple is a tropical fruit which is consumed fresh or in a processed form. It


contains nutrients which are good for human health. It also contains antioxidants
and protease. It has therapeutic properties: malignant cell formation, thrombus
formation, inflammation, control of diarrhoea, dermatological and skin
debridement. As pineapple contains bromelain (protease), it can be incorporated
into foods which is an advantage to human health when taken orally.

SWOT ANALYSIS AND RECOMENDATIONS


SWOT Analysis
Strengths

Possess an experienced labor force and they work happily, being satisfied about their
salary. This means there are less internal disputes in the company.
Company is profitable so it gives an assurance for a stable future.
Has a high market share in the local market.
Company stays well ahead of its rivals in most aspects of the industry like quality,
research, development and economies of scale, safety, and advertising.
Company not only caters for domestic market but also exports its products to selected
countries.
SMAK have established reliable suppliers of raw materials.
The company also possesses an energetic, motivated management staff that seeks for
continuous improvement.
Well established sales and distribution network.
Strong brand images and excellent sales force.
Technological innovations and R & D capabilities.
Well established quality environmental management systems.

Weaknesses
Seasonality of the major raw material which is fruits.
Scarcity of workers.
Lack of storage facilities (for raw materials, Pulp storage and finished good storage)
Lack of high capacity machinery.
Lack of care for the workers (Relax areas and times)
Lack of marketing in out stations.
Lack of space required for compost unit.
Lack of efficient water treatment unit.

Cross functional disputes among work seems to create lot of inefficiencies in the
production department and reduce the effectiveness of work as well.

The company does not perform to its optimum level because of employee shortage and
lack of machinery.
Lack of efficient machinery to cater the huge demand.
The high temperature inside the factory reduces efficiency of the employees.
Certain workers are not well-acknowledged about the importance and value of their work
for the company and those aspects harm the brand loyalty.
Insufficient production capacity of some product ranges.
Limited land availability.
Workers welfare should be concerned more.
Opportunities
Growth of Sri Lankan market towards natural fruit beverages eliminating the carbonated
drinks.
Growth in Sri Lankan economy.
Increasing market opportunities and trend in herbal drinks and isotonic drinks.
Growing demand for healthy juice products in international as well as in local market (Ex:
low sugar, juices, Iramusu, Ginger)

Threats
With the current situation in the countrys and world economy, it is rather unwise and
risky to allocate large amount of resources on new projects or subsidiaries.
Even though automation can be implemented, it may cause many workers to lose their
jobs.
Large salary hikes are not possible.

Most SMAK products are not essential food items like rice or sugar, SMAK has a risk
of low demand in economically crisis situations. That is, people may opt to buy only essential
items due to financial difficulties.
Price competition for some product categories in the local market.

Recommendations
The following mentioned practices can be recommended to overcome weakness and have
better solutions to drive the organization towards a better future.
Improving the worker facilities
Improving the waste water treatment unit and more space should be allocated to compost
unit
Improving the storage facilities
Improving the marketing and sales operations in outstations more
Implementing efficient machinery for higher production
More automation should be introduced to the packing section.
Should always try to keep up with international standards.
Work force should be encouraged with higher salaries and increments to remain working
for the company.
To succeed the factory, it is needed to improve the productivity of the company, both at the
individual level and at the company-wide level.
Develop a strategy to improve productivity in the office and watch the profits grow.
Arrange staff performance management practices.
Each person in company should receive some form of time management training so that
she/he can learn to carry out their projects in the most effective manner.
Prizes or competitions can help to motivate workforce to improve productivity.

When making a sudden change in the office to improve productivity, they should provide
training to all the workers.
Share the new methods to improve productivity with all staff members-this may help to
improve an individual's productivity.

Take different personalities into account when they try to implement a new system. Some
workers will feel empowered by knowing that they can plan their time to fit in.
Encourage the employees to make use of technology, whenever possible, to save time.
Develop solutions for economically crisis situations in future.

Doing a reliable analysis on projects considering the present economic situation and also the
time value of money before involving in it.
Establishment of a proper sensory panel selected by standard procedures covering
responsible departments and improve the sensory skills and attitudes.
Developing more diverse product ranges