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Fracture mechanics of brittle failures of concrete structures due to the propagation of a cracking zone indicates that the nominal stress at failure should not be constant but should decrease as the structure size increases. This size effect may be described by a simple size-effect law recently derived by dimensional analysis and similitude arguments. A formula for diagonal shear failure based on this size-effect law was published, verified, and calibrated by a large set of data from the literature. The present paper improves this previous formula in two respects: fJ) the effect of maximum aggregate size, distinct from the effect of the relative beam size, is incorporated and the formula is extended to cover the effect of stirrups on the shear capacity of concrete. The new formula is verified and calibrated according to a larger data set than before, consisting of several hundred test results compiled from the literature. [t is shown that the new formula achieves an appreciable reduction in the coefficient of variation of the deviations of the measured data from the prediction formula.

Fracture mechanics of brittle failures of concrete structures due to the propagation of a cracking zone indicates that the nominal stress at failure should not be constant but should decrease as the structure size increases. This size effect may be described by a simple size-effect law recently derived by dimensional analysis and similitude arguments. A formula for diagonal shear failure based on this size-effect law was published, verified, and calibrated by a large set of data from the literature. The present paper improves this previous formula in two respects: fJ) the effect of maximum aggregate size, distinct from the effect of the relative beam size, is incorporated and the formula is extended to cover the effect of stirrups on the shear capacity of concrete. The new formula is verified and calibrated according to a larger data set than before, consisting of several hundred test results compiled from the literature. [t is shown that the new formula achieves an appreciable reduction in the coefficient of variation of the deviations of the measured data from the prediction formula.

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TECHNICAL PAPER

Size and Stirrups

Fracture mechanics of brittle failures of concrete structures due to the

propagation of a cracking zone indicates that the nominal stress at

failure should not be constant but should decrease as the structure

size increases. This size effect may be described by a simple size-effect law recently derived by dimensional analysis and similitude arguments. A formula for diagonal shear failure based on this size-effect law was published, verified, and calibrated by a large set of data

from the literature. The present paper improves this previous formula in two respects: fJ) the effect of maximum aggregate size, distinct from the effect of the relative beam size, is incorporated and (2)

the formula is extended to cover the effect of stirrups on the shear

capacity of concrete. The new formula is verified and calibrated according to a larger data set than before, consisting of several hundred

test results compiled from the literature. [t is shown that the new formula achieves an appreciable reduction in the coefficient of variation

of the deviations of the measured data from the prediction formula.

Keywords: aggregate size; beams (supports); cracking (fracturing); crack prop

agation; failure: loads (forces); optimization; reinforced concrete; shear prop

erties; statistical analysis; stirrups; tests.

beams is a classical yet formidable problem that has

not been resolved to complete satisfaction despite several decades of study.I.J7 Although the design formulas

for diagonal shear have been gradually improved, they

still exhibit large errors that are in fact much greater

than the random errors in the measurements of strength

or of fracture energy. So there is clearly room for further improvement.

Until recently, the formulas proposed for diagonal

shear failure were either purely empirical or based on

plastic limit analysis. A new viewpoint was introduced

in 1981 by Reinhardt,lH.J9 who suggested that the design

formula be based on linear elastic fracture mechanics

and substantiated his suggestion by certain test results.

Subsequently, it was established 40 .41 that the size effect

implied by linear elastic fracture mechanics is too

strong in the case of concrete, and that brittle failures

of concrete structures are better described by nonlinear

fracture mechanics, which is based on the existence of

a large cracking zone at the fracture front and yields a

considerably weaker size effect.

law for brittle failures due to fractures that are blunted

by a zone of distributed cracking was derived 41 -44 and

shown to be approximately applicable to various brittle

failures of concrete structures, including the present

problem of diagonal shear failure in both nonprestressed 45 and prestressed beams,46 the punching

shear failure of slabs," the ring and beam failures of

unrein forced pipes:8 and torsional failures of longitudinally reinforced beams.49.5o A formula for diagonal

shear failure of beams without stirrups, incorporating

the size-effect law, was developed 45 and shown to offer

significantly reduced errors in comparison to the existing formulas of ACpl or CEB-FIP,52 which were developed on the basis of crack initiation rather than failure.

The purpose of the present study is to: (1) improve

the previously proposed formula based on the size-effect law by incorporating, in addition to the effect of

relative beam size, the effect of aggregate size; (2) recalibrating the formula with a larger data base, encompassing essentially all the adequately documented test

results that can be found in the literature; and (3) extending the formula to beams with stirrups.

SIZE-EFFECT LAW

In a previous paper,.5 Bazant and Kim derived and

justified by existing test data the following formulas for

the diagonal shear failure of beams with longitudinal

reinforcement but without stirrups [Fig. l(a)]

v=vo

-d-)-"

( l +~da

c

<

(1)

Received Nov. 21, 1986, and reviewed under Institute publication policies.

Copyright 1987, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including

the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion will be published in the MayJune 1988 ACI Materials Journal if received by Feb. \, 1988.

259

where

Vc = V/bd = nominal shear strength at failure

Vc= shear force at failure

b

beam width

d

beam depth measured to the axis of longitudinal

reinforcement

do = maximum aggregate size

a = shear span (equal to the distance of the concentrated load from the support when a simply supported beam is loaded symmetrically by two concentrated loads)

p = steel ratio for longitudinal reinforcement

f: = standard cylindrical compressive strength in psi

(6895Pa)

kit Ao = empirical constants (k l = 10)

Zdenek. P. Bazant, FACI, is a professor at Northwestern University, Evanston, III., where he recently served a five-year term as director of the Center for

Concrete and Geomaterials. Dr. Bazant is a registered structural engineer and

is on the editorial boards of a number of journals. He is Chairman of ACI

Committee 446, Fracture Mechanics; a member of ACI Committees 209, Creep

and Shrinkage in Concrete; 348, Structural Safety, and Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 334, Concrete Shell Design and Construction; and a fellow of ASCE,

RILEM, and the American Academy of Mechanics; and Chairman of RILEM's Creep Committee and of SMiRT's Concrete Structures Division.

Hsu-Huei Sun is a structural engineer at Corddry Carpenter Dietz and Zack

Engineers and Planners. He received his M.S. degree from Northwestern University, Evanston, III., and B.S.E. degree from National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China.

(2)

0.2~----------------------------------------~

(II)

0.1

PROPOSED FORMULA

C -0.1

"'<..

;>.

'-

~ -0.2

-0.3

nonlinear fracture mechanics - -0.4

-0.5+--.--r--r-'--~-r--r-.--.--.--r--r-.--.--.-~

0.6

0.8

1.4

1.2

1.6

1.8

2.2

log(dld)

0.2.-----------------------------------------~

(c)

#v

O+-----~~~------~~~------.r----------~

A

.......

1:

;>.

+

+

'b() -0.2

f1

3

C)

~"I"

'\.

-C

\.),

0.8

1.2

\,))"1"

+

+

+

V

d

tv

C - 10 pll3cv'f~.30()(hlp/(ald)5 J

0.6

+

+

-0.4

1.4

1.6

1.8

rIA

~A

i

i

+

2.2

xi

log(dld)

roo.0.0E- data

129

0.738

"Y

0.46

0.457

22.0

1.61

0

0

260

20

40

60

80

100

dido

ACI Materials Journal I July-August 1987

Eq. (2), which is quite similar to the formula currently used by ACI, has been derived by analyzing the

arch action and the composite beam action, and summing their contributions. 4

The size effect is due to the release of strain energy

from the beam into the cracking zone as the cracking

zone extends; the larger the structure, the greater is the

energy release. Eq. (1) expresses Bazant's size-effect

law,42 which was derived by dimensional analysis and

similitude arguments from two simplifying assumptions, namely that the energy loss due to cracking is a

function of both the fracture length and of the area of

the cracking zone assumed to have a constant width at

its front, proportional to the maximum aggregate size.

Although this size-effect law is approximate, it was

shown to capture the basic trend correctly when geometrically similar specimens of different sizes, failing in

a brittle manner, are considered.

For very small structure sizes d, such that d/'Aod.

<!i!: 1, Eq. (1) approaches the limiting case of plastic

limit analysis, which is characterized by absence of the

size effect. For very large structure sizes d, such that dl

'Aod. ~ 1, Eq. (1) approaches the limiting case of linear

elastic fracture mechanics. For normal beam sizes, Eq.

(1) describes a smooth transition between these two

limit cases.

Applicability of the size-effect law in Eq. (1) to

sfructures that contain no notches is further contingent

upon the assumption that the failure surfaces (cracks)

in beams of various sizes are geometrically similar, and

that the failure occurs when the front of the final crack

reaches approximately the same relative position within

the beam regardless of the size. These assumptions appear to agree with experimentally observed behavior.

It should be mentioned that the most general size-effect law for geometrically similar structures or specimens may be described by an asymptotic series expansion presented in Reference 43. The approximate sizeeffect law in Eq. (1) is then found to represent the first

two terms of this asymptotic series expansion. It has

been also shown45 ,53 that an improved size-effect law for

blunt fracture can be obtained as Vc = ~ (1 + ~~)- y"

with ~ = dl'Aod., in which r is an empirical constant.

In the course of the present study, however, it appeared that the existing test data for concrete, due to

their scatter as well as limited range, are insufficient for

determining r. The optimum values of r for the existing

diagonal shear data for beams ranged from 0.75 to 1;

the fits were about equally good for this entire range.

Therefore, the value r = 1 has been adopted.

Eq. (1) and (2) involve no size effect of beam width.

This means that the cracking is assumed to occur

roughly simultaneously through the thickness rather

than propagate across the thickness.

Fracture mechanics is not the only theory that yields

a size effect. A competing theory is the statistical Weibull theory. Although both theories can describe the

same size-effect data if their size range is rather limited, they have very different extrapolations to very

large sizes. While Weibull theory is certainly applicable

chain of brittle suddenly failing elements, it is questionable to apply it to diagonal shear failure. 44

There is no aspect in this problem that could be regarded as a failure of a one-dimensional chain of elements. The release of strain energy into a localized extending fracture front, which is the basis of fracture

mechanics, has nothing to do with Weibull's assumptions. It has also been pointed out 44 that if the material

parameters of the extreme value strength distribution

underlying Wei bull theory are calibrated by typical test

data for homogeneously stressed tensile specimens, and

the same material parameters are then used for the

cracking front zone, the statistical Weibull-type contribution to the size effect is found to be negligibly small,

due to the fact that the volume of the frOlital cracking

zone is rather small compared to the beam size.

In very large beams, significant size effect may also

be caused by diffusion phenomena, such as conduction

of hydration heat and diffusion of pore water. Larger

beams heat up more, and they also lose moisture more

slowly than small beams. For lack of information, the

diffusion size effects must be ignored in the analysis of

existing test data.

Eq. (1) and (2) were calibrated45 by a set of 296 data

points extracted from the literature. Unfortunately,

most of these data were not obtained with the size effect in mind, and therefore, the conclusions for the size

effect cannot be definite. Nevertheless, plotting the existing data in the proper variables, the existence of the

size effect was clearly demonstrated and it was shown

that the size effect did not disagree with the theoretical

size-effect law [Eq. (1)]. The scatter of the data was

large, since it was necessary to include in the comparison data obtained in different laboratories, with different concretes and test beams that were not geometrically similar. This produces a scatter of the data that is

large and obfuscates the precise trend with regard to the

beam size.

As for comparisons with the existing formulas of

ACpl and CEB-FIP ,52 the improvement achieved by

Eq. (1) and (2) was significant; the standard deviation

of the errors in Vu compared to the formula was found

to be 128 psi for the ACI formula, 148 psi for the CEBFIP formula, and 44.6 psi for Eq. (1) and (2). On the

other hand, the improvement over another previous excellent formula due to Zsuttyl8,21 was negligible when

the entire data set was considered. However, Zsutty's

formula gives no size effect and the presence of the size

effect is clearly verified by those scant data in which

beams of significantly diffent sizes were included in the

test series (see Fig. 5 of Reference 45).

PROPOSED GENERALIZED FORMULA

To cover the effect of maximum aggregate size d.,

Bazant53 derived by fracture ,mechanics considerations

the following generalization of Eq. (1)

Vc

+ v'coldA

+ :d.

(3)

261

where Co = empirical material constant having the dimension of length. By optimizing the fits of the test

data described in the sequel, the optimum values of the

empirical constants were found to be Co = 0.2 in., Ao =

25 and kl = 6.5. Note that for the aggregate size d a =

0.69 in. (17.5 mm), Eq. (2) and (3) are equivalent to the

original Eq. (1) and (2). In Reference 53 it was also

shown that the factor 1 + (col dY', which gives the

effect of aggregate size, agrees reasonably well with the

test results of Taylor25 and of Chana,30 which include a

wide range of maximum aggregate sizes.

With regard to the identification of material parameter values, Eq. (3) has the advantage that it can be algebraically transformed to a linear regression plot. This

plot is described by the equation Y = AX + C in

which

d

x=d

(4)

the test data plotted as Y versus X, one finds the slope

A and the Y-intercept C of the regression line, and the

material parameters are then obtained as Vo = 1/C and

Ao = CIA. This regression plot reveals the effect of the

relative size dl da.

Another algebraic rearrangement of Eq. (3) yields a

linear regression plot Y' = A X' + C ' in which

I

X'

= _1_

.fd.

Y' =

Ve

d)-V,

(1 + :;:-l'Od

(5)

slope and the Y' -intercept of this plot, the material pa3

~

Fig. 2-EJJect oj aggregate size in beams without stirrups

262

~)2. This type of regression reveals the effect of the

maximum aggregate size.

To verify the present formulation, one would ideally

need test data for geometrically similar beams of very

different sizes. Unfortunately, no such test data exist in

the literature. Most of the published test results pertain

to beams of the smallest possible size that can be made

with a given aggregate. Only a few test series, those indicated in Fig. l(b), give at least some information on

the size effect, although the size range of these data is

relatively limited. These data, obtained by Walraven,28

Bhal,19 Kani,16 Leonhardt and Walther, 8 Rusch et aI., 10

Taylor,25 and Chana,30 are plotted in Fig. l(a) through

(d).

The large scatter of these data is due principally to

the fact that the tests were made in different laboratories, on different concretes, and on geometrically dissimilar beams. Consequently, the error involves not

only the error of Eq. (3) but also the error of Eq. (2),

which enters Eq. (3). Nevertheless, the cost of producing a sufficiently large data set in one laboratory, on

the same concrete, and for geometrically similar beams,

would be high. First, one should exploit the information already available, even though it was not obtained

for the purpose of studying the size effect.

From Fig. l(a) through (c), it is clear that a significant size effect exists, since otherwise the trend of the

data in these figures would have to be horizontal. Furthermore, it is clear that the size effect according to

linear fracture mechanics, represented by the straight

line of slope - Y2 in Fig. l(a) and (c), would be too

strong. The size effect is intermediate between the

strength or yield criterion (limit analysis) and linear

elastic fracture mechanics. This corroborates the acceptability of the assumption of a blunted fracture

front from which Eq. (1) is derived. The size-effect plot

of the new formula in Fig. l(a) [with the corresponding

linear regression according to Eq. (4) and (5) and Fig.

l(b)] is compared to the size-effect plot of the previous

Baiant-Kim formula [Fig. l(c) and Eq. (1)], with corresponding linear regression [Fig. 1(d)].

It is seen that the new formula, which includes the

effect of aggregate size, significantly reduces the scatter. This is confirmed by the values of the coefficient of

variation w = S.D.!Y for the vertical deviations of the

data from the regression line, listed in Fig. 1, or the

regression correlation coefficient r. The notations are:

S.D. = standard deviation of the vertical differences

from the regression line; X, Y = coordinates of the

centroid of the data; the lines of W95 represent the 95

percent confidence limits; and, in Fig. 1, C 1 = vo[1 +

(0.2Idar"]. Compared to the previous Bazant-Kim formula, the present improved formula reduces the coefficient of variation of the errors from 0.457 to 0.246,

and increases the correlation coefficient from 0.46 to

0.75 [Fig. l(b) and (d)].

The linear regression plot of the same data, showing

the effect of maximum aggregate size and based on Eq.

(5), is presented in Fig. 2. Despite the very large scat-

relative beam size d/ do, there is also an effect of the

maximum aggregate size. If there were none, the trend

of the data in Fig. 2 would have to be horizontal.

Fig. 3(a) and (b) show comparison of the present

formulas [Eq. (2) and (3)] with 461 test results that have

been extracted from the literature. In addition to the

data used in Fig. 1, this large data set also includes the

test results of Ahmad et al. 37 Bhal,19 Bresler and Scordelis,1I Chana,30 Diaz de Cossio and Siess,6 Elzanaty et

al.,36 Gaston, Siess, and Newmark,4 Kani,15.16 Krefeld

and Thurston,14 Leonhardt and Walther, 8 Mathey and

Watstein,12 Mattock,20 Mattock and Wang/3 Moody et

al.,s Mphonde and Franz,34 Placas and Regan,24 Rajagop alan and Ferguson,17 Swamy and Bahia,35 Swamy,31

H. Taylor,25 Taylor and Brewer,7,13 van den Berg,9 and

Walraven. 28

Since the compilation of these data has been a rather

tedious process (requiring correspondence with some of

the authors to obtain various missing information), the

complete set of 461 data points is listed numerically in

Table 1. This makes it possible to verify the present

rules as well as to use these data for possible future improvements of the diagonal shear formula.

points in Fig. 3 do not cover the size effect, the effect

of the relative beam size d/ do is not as conspicuous as

in Fig. 1, but from the size-effect plot in Fig. 3(a) it is

still clear that a size effect exists. Fig. 3(c) shows a plot

of the measured values versus the calculated values of

the nominal shear stress at failure. If there were no

scatter and the formula were perfect, this plot would be

a straight line of Slope 1, passing through the origin. So

the deviations from this straight line are a measure of

the error.

For comparison, Fig. 3(b) and (d) show the same

plots for the previous BaZant-Kim formula. We see that

the present formula achieves a reduction of scatter, diminishing the coefficient of variation of the errors '"

from 0.292 to 0.242, and increasing the correlation

coefficient r from 0.923 to 0.952. Again, the lines

marked "'95 represent the 95 percent confidence limits.

GENERALIZATION FOR THE EFFECT OF

STIRRUPS

For a beam with both longitudinal reinforcement and

stirrups, the nominal ultimate shear stress at failure

may be expressed as

,."

.s

0.2

3.6

l+dl25d.

t*

Proposed Formula

.J1..

~ 1+v"0.2/d

6.5 pll~ fc+3OOO pl(a/d) ~. = Yc

(cl

3.2

It

...

0

strength or yield criterion

"""'

~

..."

+

+

1.5

(b) BAZANT. KIM (1984)

~t

or yield criterion

I+d/25d.

3.2

...~

.;;

2.8

il

~

~

.;;

+

+

+

..

.2

2.4

eli

-0.4

C-

5

\0 pill

Yc' [..'fc +3000.Jp/(ald ~

!:;

""

\.6

3.6

(d) BAlm. KIM (1984)

E5

~~...

+t

~ -0.2

::5....,

]":1

0.2

S.D. 57~si

r - O. 52

w

0.242

.g

-0.4

'-

2.4

eli

.......

I:...>

...~

.;;

~

2.8

~.,

']> -0.2

S.D. 62.4')Si

r = 0.92

w

= 0.292

.~

10 pl/l[';f~ .30()(),lpl(a/d)5 I

::5....,

1.5

log(dld,l

]":1

"E 5

~~...

1.6

1.6

2.4

2.8

3.2

3.6

Y., (Y.

in psi)

Fig. 3-Plots of measured versus calculated values of nominal shear strength for 461 available data for beams without stirrups (J psi = 6895 Pa)

ACI Materials Journal I July-August 1987

263

a

No.

1)

b

(In)

(In)

d

d.

f.

(In) (In) (pol)

A.

(in')

V.

Ob)

Ub)

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A.

81

B2

83

U

CI

C2

C3

C4

]1. 5

31. 5

ll.5

31. 5

]1. 5

31. 5

31. 5

31. 5

31. 5

31. 5

31. 5

31. 5

7.

7.

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7.

7.

1.

7.

7.

7.

7.

7.

7.

Al

A2

A3

AI

AS

A6

A7

AI

A9

AIO

All

A12

33.

n.

n.

n.

n.

n.

n.

n.

H.

n.

33.

33.

1.35

7.35

1.10

7.35

1.n

1. ) I

1. ) I

1.31

1.40

7.10

1.10

1.10

1.

1.

1.

1.

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1.

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4400

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2190

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1000

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1.19

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1.19

1.24

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13000

1'000

14000

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11450

13500

12000

11900

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5650

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17000

16000

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4500

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5650

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1.19

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4110

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4520

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4110

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I

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9000

11100

1200

12300

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7000

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11100

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5A3

llA2

12A2

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15A2

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19A2

20A2

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2AC

lAC

CAC

'AC

6AC

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42 OS

2020

2200

1980

U.s

2.7S

6515

)800

)810

)790

C2CO

40'0

..,.

...

..

.,...

.. . ,

..

...

O

.19

.CI9

078,

1. 26

C.

041,

O

.1,

4C. . . 9

.716

1.26

.419

C.

262~0

.. ]680

~OOOO

,.,65

87045

61005

196JS

~OOOO

389~~

~B4

~OOOO

~OOOO

52000

15

~OOOO

5912~

50000

50000

!tOOOO

lOBS

~C1IO

2236~

.19

38010

< 2~2S

56.,0

590'0

H130

7C 160

86205

96110

.7'6

1.26

C. .419

C. .419

.629

1.05

2. .419

6. .419

52000

6S~20

~2000

50000

50000

~OOOO

~OOOO

6J7J~

66200

6'200

66200

50000

11610

~OOOO

Note: The data of Clark (1951). Haddadin (1971), and Tsection data of RUsch (1972) are not used due to lack of information.

(6)

Vs represents the contribution of the yield forces in stirrups, and Vs represents the additional contribution due

to concrete. For the contribution of stirrups, plastic

limit analysis readily yields the expression

Vs

AJyv ( .

fu

smo: + coso:

(7)

where

Av

s

b

/Yv

0:

spacing of the stirrup

beam width

yield strength of stirrups

angle between the stirrups and the longitudinal

axis of the beam

stirrups has some beneficial effect on the magnitude of

vc ' this effect is neglected in the current code specifications, i.e., Vc is taken to be the same as in a beam with

no stirrups. The assumption that the magnitude of Vc is

unaffected by the presence of stirrups is more reason~

able when the design formula is based on the initial

cracking. However, design on the basis of initial cracking appears to be insufficient because the ratio of the

ultimate load to the initial cracking load decreases as

the beam size increases, thus causing the safety margin

against failure to be nonuniform. The ideal approach

would be to use design criteria for both the ultimate

load and the first cracking load. However, if only one

of these two criteria should be used, then the failure

load criterion is probably more reasonable from the

safety viewpoint.

The reason that the stirrups enhance the strength

contribution of concrete is probably due to several ef267

of simplicity, we assume a linear dependence, realizing

that the scatter of the test data makes it impossible to

calibrate any more complicated dependence. So we may

write

Pv,

Placas <I97D

a

....8

-....

--

a

a

a

a

a

a

D

(8)

>

.......

>

Q.

>

(T-Section)

0.5

0.005

0.01

Fig. 4-Effect of stirrup reinforcement ratio on diagonal shear strength of beams without stirrups

liP,

-0.4

= 40011+

tanh[ 2(a/d-2. 81

+-.--.--....-=r-....-'r-............-r''-r---r----r--r-r....,......,..-I

0.2

0.4

0.8

0.8

1.2

108

1.4

1.8

1.11

d.( 1 + P./P,)

stirrup ratio

fects. One of them is that cracks are forced to redistribute at a closer spacing and over a wider area. This

results in a smaller crack width and therefore, in an increased shear and tension transfer capability. Another

effect enhancing the beam strength arises from the fact

that the stirrups support the longitudinal bar and thus

prevent concrete splitting along the bar.

If one looks up the derivation of the size-effect law

in Reference 42, it transpires that redistribution of

cracking over a wider area should manifest itself in an

increase of coefficient An in Eq. (1) or (3). Thus, from

the viewpoint of the size effect, the proper way to

model the influence of stirrups on the strength contribution of concrete appears to be an increase of coefficient An as a function of the stirrup-reinforcement ratio

268

stirrup reinforcement ratio Pv for which Ao is doubled

compared to Ao for Pv = o.

The increase of concrete shear capacity described by

coefficient P can be realized only if the relative shear

span is not too small; roughly aid ~ 1.5. For smaller

shear spans, the stirrups do not appear to develop their

full yield capacity, as suggested by Zsutty.21 Therefore,

the value of coefficient Po cannot be constant, but must

change from 0 for aid < 1.5 to a finite value for larger

shear spans. The transition should, of course, be expected to be smooth rather than abrupt, and a smooth

formula is also preferable for certain numerical procedures or computer optimization of design. A simple

empirical formula that gives a smooth transition from

a zero value to a finite value is

and 5.6 have been approximately determined by optimization of data fits.

The available experimental evidence on the effect of

Pv on Vc is shown in Fig. 4, in which the ordinate is the

ratio of the measured Vc to the value of Vc calculated for

Pv ..... 00 ( or Ao ..... 00). The curve represents the trend

according to Eq. (8). Although the scatter is very large,

the increasing trend is nevertheless clearly apparent.

The effect of Pv is also evident from the regression in

Fig. 5.

Fig. 5 shows the effect of beam depth d on the contribution of concrete to the shear capacity of a beam

with stirrups. The existing test data, plotted in the figure, are those of Johnston and Cox, I Bresler and Scordelis," Mattock and Wang,33 Krefeld and Thurston,'4

Elzanatyet al.,36 and Placas and Regan. 24 The curve in

Fig. 5 shows the present formula. Although the data

scatter is very large, the presence of the size effect in

beams with stirrups is nevertheless evident.

Fig. 6 shows, for beams with stirrups, a plot of the

measured values of Vu versus the values calculated from

the formulas. The plot in Fig. 6(c) is based on the presently proposed equations [Eq. (3), (2), (6), (8), (9), and

(7)], and for comparison Fig. 6(d) shows the plot obtained when the effect of the stirrups is omitted, i.e.,

1/Po = o. We see that by considering the effect of stirrups, the coefficient of variation of the deviations from

the straight line is reduced from w := 0.156 to w :=

0.141 for this set of 87 data points. The improvement

due to considering the effect of stirrups on concrete caACI Materials Journal I July-August 1987

3~-------------------'~--~

(al ACI

(bl "z.sUTIY

++

Vc.ISOI(p(dJal'Jln fora/d<2.S

v c 60(f:pdIal ln fora/d12.S t

+. +

'.~

""'

.S

2.5

X ~ 328 psi

Y = 360 psi

No. of data 87

S. D. = 65 . 3 psi

r = 0.956

= 305 psi

Y = 360 psi

No. of data 87

S.D.=105psi

r.>

0.923

= 0.292

0.181

.-----------------------~~

(e)

CONSIDERING THE STIRRUPS EFFECT

PROPOSED FORMULA

S.D.~

56.2 psi

348 psi

360 i

X = 368 psi

Y = 360 psi

r

= 0.964

v = 0.141

r

v

No. of Data 87

No. of Data 87

Vq

v, +

~

a

=

=

0.95

0.156

l)l<\'>

Yo

pi,.

t .,.[K.. JOOO.!PiWdi>I6.selntl?>

jlt

2Sd.U.p/Pol

2.5

2.5

Nominal U/tif1lJ1le Shear Stress with Stirrups Calculated. loe( v,). (v. in psj)

Fig. 6-Plots of measured versus calculated values of mean nominal shear strength

for beams with stirrups (1 psi = 6895 Pa)

pacity is small but nevertheless appreciable. For comparison, Fig.6(a) and (b) show the same plots for the

current ACI specificationssl and for Zsut1y's formula l8

[also see Eq. (15) and (18) of Reference 36]. We see that

the coefficients of variation of the vertical deviations

from the straight line are for these two formulas 0.292

and 0.181, which is distinctly larger than the value for

the presently proposed formula. Note also the increased separation of the 95 percent confidence limits.

The same set of 87 data points is plotted in Fig. 7 to

show the size effect, i.e., the dependence of Vc on the

relative size dlda. Comparison with the proposed formulas is shown in Fig. 7(c) and (d), and despite large

scatter the presence of a downward trend representing

a size effect is clearly visible. By contrast, the scatter in

Fig. 7(a) for the ACI specification is so large that no

size effect is easily detected. This means that it would

make no sense to introduce the size effect into the ACI

formula without improving the form of the existing

formula itself, which was previously shown possible for

beams without stirrups.45

In all the preceding comparisons with tests, the formulas were made to represent the mean trend of the test

data. The design formulas should, however, be introduced in such a manner that most of the test data are

ACI Materials Journal I July-August 1987

by mUltiplying the formula for the mean trend by a

factor. According to the experimental evidence, a suitable adjustment is achieved by changing the value of kl

in Eq. (2) from 6.5 to 4.5. The plot of the measured

versus calculated values of the nominal shear strength

Vu for beams with stirrups is shown (for the design formula with k, = 4.5) in Fig. 8. In these plots, the majority of the test data should lie above the inclined

straight line, and we see that this is well satisfied for

Fig. 8(c) and (d) for the present formulas. However, for

the existing ACI formula there are more data points

falling significantly below this line, and also more data

points high above the straight line - a case that represents overdesign.

CONCLUSIONS

1. The previously proposed formula of Bazant and

Kim45 for diagonal shear failure of longitudinally reinforced beams without stirrups is improved by introducing, in addition to the effect of the relative beam size,

the effect of the maximum aggregate size. The new formula is calibrated according to a larger set of test data

than before, consisting of 461 test results that were

compiled from the literature.

269

(a)Ael

(b)

0.4

Z'!trITY

C- I

sorr: P(dla)4)111

c. 60 (f~ pdIa)1I1

for ald. 2.5

0.2

*

tl

+

+,

++

+t

C.1.2611;".

V.d

.0.2

13600p--~3.51t';"

M,

0.2 ~=====:::::r::::===,===,====,=======:::::r:==::;

(e)

~====:::c===,===,====,=======:::::r::::==;

(d) f>ROPOSED FORMt;LA.

PROPOSED fORMULA

JPS

strength or

l

Yield cnlenon

0~--------~----------~~------------4i----------T----------~~----------~

~

}

-0.2

mechanics

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.4

1.2

1.6

/oS(dld,l

/og(dld"l

Fig. 7-Size-ejject plots jor various jormulas jor beams with stirrups in comparison with test data

3.-------------------------~

ACI

(a)

...

(b) ZSlTITY

++

tt+

t ,

I'

+t++++

, it,

+t

,t+

,++

'

tt

t ,.,

t

+

*tit

'.

t

'\fad

Ye

C y "0.15

for aId (2.5

Vc = C F 60 (f~pd/a)1I3 for aId) 2.5

Mu

2*--.--~.__.--r_,,_,--.__r~

cy 15()[f~p(dla)4Jl/3

3.---------------------------~

(e)

t.

PROPOSED FORMULA

WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE

STIRRUPS EFFECT

..

'....

, 't, +

, t

,"

+'

.....

ttl

't' t

+ ,,~

'ft.

'+ +f'

.,, ,

+t

2.5

't+

'+

VII.

v. +

Va

v,. pjY"'

2f-_r-'r-.--.--.-,,-.--.-,,~

ft

~.

2.5

Nominal Ultimate Shear Stress with Stirrups Calculated. log(y,). (v. in psI)

jor various design jormulas

270

failure of reinforced concrete beams with stirrups. The

generalization of the formula takes into account the

fact that the presence of stirrups has a strengthening

effect on the shear capacity of concrete. The degree of

strengthening depends, however, on the shear span.

The resulting formula is calibrated according to a set of

87 test results compiled from the literature. The results

confirm that the size effect on the concrete shear

strength still exists in the presence of stirrups, but it is

milder than without stirrups.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Some of the theoretical fracture research relevant to the present

study has been supported under AFOSR Grant No. 83-0009 to

Northwestern University. Assistant Professor Jin-Keun Kim of Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, deserves

thanks for some stimulating discussions.

REFERENCES

1. Johnston, Bruce, and Cox, Kenneth C., "High Yield-Point Steel

as Tension Reinforcement in Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceeding V.

36, No.1, Sept. 1939, pp. 65-80.

2. Moretto, Oreste, "An Investigation of the Strength of Welded

Stirrups in Reinforced Concrete Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 42, No.2, Nov. 1945, pp. 141-164.

3. Clark, Arthur P., "Diagonal Tension in Reinforced Concrete

Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 48, No.2, Oct. 1951, pp.

145-156.

4. Gaston, J. R.; Siess, C. P.; and Newmark, N. M., "An Investigation of the Load-Deformation Characteristics of Reinforced

Concrete Beams up to the Point of Failure," Civil Engineering Studies, Structural Research Series No. 40, University of Illinois, Urbana,

Dec. 1952.

5. Moody, K. G.; Viest, l. M.; Elstner, R. c.; and Hognestad, E.,

"Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams. Part I-Tests of

Simple Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 51, No.3, Nov. 1954,

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6. Diaz de Cossio, Roger, and Siess, Chester P., "Behavior and

Strength in Shear of Beams and Frames without Web Reinforcement," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 56, NO.8 Feb. 1960, pp. 695735.

7. Taylor, R.,"Some Shear Tests on Reinforced Concrete Beams

without Shear Reinforcement," Magazine of Concrete Research

(London), V. 12, No. 36, Nov. 1960, pp. 145-154.

8. Leonhardt, Fritz, and Walther, Rene; "Beitrage zur Behandlung der Schubprobleme in Stahlbetonbau," Beton- und Stahlbetonbau (Berlin), Mar. 1962, pp. 54-64, and June 1962, pp. 141-149.

9. van den Berg, F. J., "Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete

Beams without Web Reinforcement. Part 2-Factors Affecting Load

at Diagonal Cracking," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 59, No. 11,

Nov. 1962, pp. 1587-1600.

10. Rusch, Hubert; Haugli, Finn Robert; and Mayer, Horst,

"Schubversuche an Stahlbeton-Rechteckbalken mit gleichmassing

verteilter Belastung," Bulletin No. 145, Deutscher Ausschuss fur

Stahlbeton, Berlin, 1962, pp. 4-30.

11. Bresler, Boris, and Scordelis, A. C., "Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 60, No.1,

Jan. 1963, pp. 51-74.

12. Mathey, Robert G., and Watstein, David, "Shear Strength of

Beams without Web Reinforcement," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V.

60, No.2, Feb. 1963, pp. 183-208.

13. Taylor, R., and Brewer, R. S., "The Effect of the Type of Aggregate on the Diagonal Cracking of Reinforced Concrete Beams,"

Magazine of Concrete Research (London), V. 15, No. 44, July 1963,

pp.87-92.

14. Krefeld, William 1., and Thurston, Charles W., "Studies of the

Shear and Diagonal Tension Strength of Simply Supported Rein-

Apr. 1966, pp. 451-476.

15. Kani, G. N. J., "Basic Facts Concerning Shear Failure," ACI

JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 63, No.6, June 1966, pp. 675-692.

16. Kani, G. N. J., "How Safe Are Our Large Reinforced Concrete Beams?," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 64, No.3, Mar. 1967,

pp. 128-141.

17. Rajagopalan, K. S., and Ferguson, Phil M., "Exploratory

Shear Tests Emphasizing Percentage of Longitudinal Steel," ACI

JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 65, No.8, Aug. 1968, pp. 634-638.

18. Zsutty, Theodore C., "Beam Shear Strength Prediction by

Analysis of Existing Data," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 65, No.

11, Nov. 1968, pp. 943-951.

19. Bhal, N. S., "Uber den Einfluss der Balkenhohe auf Schubtragfahigkeit von einfledrigen Stahlbetonbalken mit und ohne

Schubberwehrung," dissertation, Universitat Stuttgart, 1968, 124 pp.

20. Mattock, Alan H., "Diagonal Tension Cracking in Concrete

Beams with Axial Forces," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 95, ST9, Sept.

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21. Zsutty, Theodore C., "Shear Strength Prediction for Separate

Categories of Simple Beam Tests," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 68,

No.2, Feb. 1971, pp. 138-143.

22. Swamy, R. Narayan, and Qureshi, Schamsuddin A., "Strength,

Cracking, and Deformation Similitude in Reinforced T-Beams Under

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1971, pp. 187-195.

23. Haddadin, Munther J.; Hong, Sheu-Tien; and Mattock, Alan

H., "Shear Effectiveness in Reinforced Concrete Beams with Axial

Force," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 97, ST9, Sept. 1971, pp. 2277-2297.

24. Placas, Alexander, and Regan, Paul E., "Shear Failure of

Reinforced Concrete Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 68, No.

10, Oct. 1971, pp. 763-773.

25. Taylor, Howard P. J., "Shear Strength of Large Beams,"

Proceedings, ASCE, V. 98, STU, Nov. 1972, pp. 2473-2490.

26. Santiago, Samuel Diaz, and Hilsdorf, Hubert K., "Fracture

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27. Park, Robert, and Paulay, Thomas, Reinforced Concrete

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Technology, 1978, 36 pp.

29. Palakas, Michael N., and Darwin, David, "Shear Strength of

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Research, Lawrence, Sept. 1980, 198 pp.

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Reinforced Concrete under Shear Loading," Technical Report No.

543, Cement and Concrete Association, Wexham Springs, July 1981,

22 pp.

31. Swamy, R. N., and Al-Ta 'an, Sa'ad A., "Deformation and

Ultimate Strength in Flexure of Reinforced Concrete Beams Made

with Steel Fiber Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 78, No.5,

Sept.-Oct. 1981, pp. 395-405.

32. Kotsovos, Michael D., "Mechanisms of 'Shear' Failure,"

Magazine of Concrete Research (London), V. 35, No. 123, June 1983,

pp. 99-106.

33. Mattock, Alan H., and Wang, Zuhua, "Shear Strength of

Reinforced Concrete Members Subject to High Axial Compressive

Stress," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 81, No.3, May-June 1984,

pp. 287-298.

34. Mphonde, Andrew G., and Frantz, Gergory C., "Shear Tests

of High-and Low-Strength Concrete Beams Without Stirrups," ACI

JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 81, No.4, July-Aug. 1984, pp. 350-357.

35. Swamy, R. N., and Bahia, H. M., "The Effectiveness of Steel

Fibers as Shear Reinforcment," Concrete International: Design &

Construction, V. 7, No.3, Mar. 1'985 pp. 35-40.

36. Elzanaty, Ashraf H.; Nilson, Arthur H.; and Slate, Floyd 0.,

"Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using High-Strength

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1986, pp. 290-296.

271

37. Ahmad, Shuaib H.; Khaloo, A. R.; and Poveda, R., "Shear

Capacity of Reinforced High-Strength Concrete Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 83, No.2, Mar.-Apr. 1986, pp. 297-305.

38. Reinhardt, H. W., "Similitude of Brittle Fracture of Structural Concrete, ': Advanced Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete,

IABSE Colloquim, Delft, 1981, pp. 201-210.

39. Reinhardt, H. W., '~Scale Effect in Shear Tests in the Light of

Fracture Mechanics," Beton- und Stahlbetonbau (Berlin), No. I,

1981, pp. 19-21. (in German)

40. Bazant, Zdenek P., and Oh, B. H., "Crack Band Theory for

Fracture of Concrete," Materials and Structures, Research and Testing (RILEM, Paris), V. 16, No. 93, May-June 1983, pp. 155-177.

41. Bazant, Z. P., "Mechanics of Distributed Cracking," Applied

Mechanics Reviews, V. 39, No.5, May 1986, pp.675-705.

42. Bazant, Zdenek P., "Size Effect in Blunt Fracture: Concrete,

Rock, Metal," Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, V. 110, No.

4, Apr. 1984, pp. 518-535.

43. Bazant, Zdenek P., "Fracture Mechanics and Strain-Softening of Concrete,"Proceedings, U.S.-Japan Seminar on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures (Tokyo, 1985),

American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1986, pp. 121-150.

44. Bazant, Z. P., "Fracture Energy of Heterogeneous Materials

and Similitude," Proceedings, RILEM-SEM International Conference on Fracture of Concrete and Rock (Houston, June 1987), Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel.

45. Bazant, Zdenek P., and Kim, Jin-Keun, "Size Effect in Shear

Failure of Longitudinally Reinforced Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 81, No.5, Sept.-Oct. 1984, pp. 456-468. Also, Discussion, Proceedings V. 82, No.4, July-Aug. 1985, pp. 579-583.

272

46. BaZant, Zdenek P., and Cao, Zhiping, "Size Effect of Shear

Failure in Prestressed Concrete Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings

V. 83, No.2, Mar.-Apr. 1986, pp. 260-268.

47. BaZant, Zdenek P., and Cao, Zhiping, "Size Effect in Punching Shear Failure of Slabs," ACI Structural Journal, V. 84, No. I,

Jan.-Feb. 1987, pp.44-53.

48. BaZant, Zdenek P., and Cao, Zhiping, "Size Effect in Brittle

Failure of Unreinforced Pipes," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 83,

No.3, May-June 1986, pp. 369-373.

49. BaZant, Z. P., and Sener, S., "Size Effect in Torsional Failure

of Longitudinally Reinforced Concrete Beams," Report No. 86-9/

428s, Center for Concrete and Geomaterials, Northwestern University, Evanston, Sept. 1986. Also Journal of Structural Engineering,

ASCE, in press.

50. BaZant, Z. P.; Sener, S.; and Prat, P. C., "Size Effect Tests

of Torsional Failure of Beams," Report No. 86-12/428s, Center for

Concrete and Geomaterials, Northwestern University, Evanston, Dec.

1986, 18 pp.

51. ACI Committee 318, "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-83)," American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1983, III pp.

52. CEB-FIP Model Code for Concrete Strustures, 3rd Edition,

Comite: Euro-International du Beton/Federation Internatinale de la

Precontrainte, Paris (English Edition, Cement and Concrete Association, Wexham Springs), 1978, 348 pp.

53. BaZant, Zdenek P., and Kim, Jin-Keun, Authors' Closure to

Discussion of "Size Effect in Shear Failure of Longitudinally Reinforced Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 81, No.4, July-Aug.

1985, pp. 580-583.

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