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and concrete bridges with precast decks

Chang-Su Shim *, Pil-Goo Lee, Sung-Pil Chang

School of Civil, Urban and Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinlim-Dong,

Kwanak-gu, Seoul, South Korea

Received 12 November 1999; received in revised form 10 August 2000; accepted 24 August 2000

Abstract

For the design of the shear connection in steelconcrete composite bridges with precast

decks, design considerations were discussed, and experimental works on the push tests and

the bridge model test were performed. The characteristics of the shear connection in a precast

deck system are the filling material in shear pockets and the bedding layer between the precast

deck and the steel girder. Also, it is necessary to evaluate the structural behavior of the shear

connection in case of uniformly distributed shear connectors through experiments.

Based on the push tests, the behavior of the shear connection in a precast deck was discussed. In addition, the ultimate strength and the fatigue endurance of the shear connection

were estimated. As the thickness of the bedding layer increases, the ultimate strength decreases.

The shear load redistribution between shear connectors was verified through the experiment

on the bridge model, and shear connectors can therefore be distributed uniformly along the

span. Using the experimental results and the finite element analysis based on the partial interaction theory, the shear stiffness of the shear connection and the flexural stiffness of the bridge

were evaluated. 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Shear connection; Composite bridge; Precast deck; Design; Bedding layer; Filling material

1. Introduction

For the rapid replacement of the deteriorated concrete deck in steelconcrete composite bridges, the precast concrete deck system is very attractive and has been

widely used in several countries. Also, the system can be applied to the new construc* Corresponding author. Tel.: +82-2-880-7355; fax: +82-2-887-0349.

E-mail address: scs517@snu.ac.kr (C.-S. Shim).

0143-974X/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 1 4 3 - 9 7 4 X ( 0 0 ) 0 0 0 1 8 - 3

204

Nomenclature

Ash

a

Bh

dsh

ds

Em

fsu

N

Qu

sr

reduction factor considering bedding layer

bedding thickness

diameter of the stud shank

slip as a proportion of the diameter of the shank of the stud

the modulus of elasticity of mortar

tensile strength of the stud

number of fatigue loading at failure

static strength of the stud shear connection

stress range

tion of composite bridges, which have fewer steel girders and a wide spanning bridge

deck. Because the precast deck system needs no framework in place and can save

construction time, it can be applied especially to construction sites in the mountains,

sea, and crowded cities. In the case of the replacement of a deteriorated concrete

deck of a bridge located in a city, this system can minimize the traffic interference.

There are two types of precast deck system, half-depth and full-depth, and in this

paper, the full-depth precast deck system is considered. Design consideration should

be concentrated on the shear connection such as the bedding layer between the precast deck and the steel girder, and the transverse joints between the precast decks.

The filling material in the joints and the bedding layer is non-shrinkable mortar, and

the shear connector is a stud connector, which is commonly used and can be installed

in a narrow shear pocket.

For the design of shear connection in full-depth precast deck bridges, it is necessary to evaluate the ultimate strength and the fatigue endurance of the shear connection through experiments. Also, in the case of uniform distribution along the span,

which is necessary from an economic aspect in the precast deck system, the behavior

of the shear connection is to be investigated. In this paper, empirical equations for

the design of the shear connection are suggested through experimental works. Also,

design considerations are discussed.

2.1. Design considerations

Precast deck bridge systems are used for the replacement of deteriorated bridge

decks more frequently than a new construction. In the case of replacement, the precast decks should be designed considering the change of girder section and the connection details of the existing bridge. Therefore, a bedding layer is inevitable, and

205

the thickness of the layer should be determined by the configuration of the existing

bridge. Also, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of the bedding layer on the behavior

of the shear connection in precast decks.

An overview of the system in this paper is shown in Fig. 1. The precast deck

system requires a step-by-step construction sequence, such as: (1) removing the

deteriorated bridge decks; (2) preparing the girders, placing the rubber strips and

spacers; (3) positioning the precast decks; (4) filling the transverse joints with grout;

(5) applying longitudinal post-tensioning; (6) filling the bedding layer and the pockets

for stud shear connectors with non-shrink mortar.

Some considerations for the design of the shear connection can be discussed by

example of actual bridge rehabilitation. Fig. 2 shows the cross section of a simply

supported bridge with a 40-m span. For the design of precast decks in this bridge,

the following considerations should be made: the transverse slope, as shown in Fig.

2(a); the change of girder section along the span, such as the change of the upper

flange thickness (tFuf in Fig. 2(b)); and the connection details, such as the bolting

Fig. 2.

206

and the splicing. These bridge configurations can be reflected in designing the bedding layer and the hunch. In order to adjust the bridge deck elevation, the transverse

slope and the change of section can be reflected in the height of the hunch, but

connection details can only be reflected in the thickness of the bedding layer. Also,

it is necessary to reduce the change of mold for precast decks, considering the economic point of view. Therefore, the effect of the bedding layer on the behavior of

the shear connection should be evaluated through experimental works.

Several experiments were performed to build the design basis of the shear connection in a precast concrete bridge system [69]. The evaluation of shear connection

is usually done by push tests. From previous studies on the push test, the ultimate

strength of the shear connection mainly depends on the material properties of the

concrete, such as compressive strength, elastic modulus [1,2], and shank area and

tensile strength of the stud [1]. In the case of high compressive strength of the

concrete, the ultimate strength of the shear connection is expressed as a function of

the tensile strength of the stud Ashfsu, in AASHTO LRFD and EUROCODE-4 [3,4].

Experimental and analytical studies on the connections, the transverse joints and

the shear connection, are required to build a design basis for a composite bridge

with precast decks. The precast deck system in this paper needs longitudinal prestress

to prevent cracks in the transverse joints. Experiments were performed to determine

the effective longitudinal prestress, considering interface and fatigue behavior [5].

Push tests were performed to evaluate the ultimate strength of the shear connection

in a precast deck considering the compressive strength of the non-shrink mortar in

the shear pocket of the studs [6,7]. From the results of the push tests, the ultimate

strength of the shear connection is mainly affected by the shank diameter of the

stud. However, the compressive strength of the mortar, which is greater than 54.88

MPa, has negligible effect on the ultimate strength. Therefore, the empirical equation

is suggested as:

Qu9.971dsh66.061

(1)

where Qu is the the ultimate strength of the shear connection (kN), and dsh is the

shank diameter of the stud (mm).

The relationship between the elastic modulus and the compressive strength of the

mortar was estimated through several tests, and the empirical equation for shear

stiffness of the shear connection was suggested from the loadslip curves of push

tests [8,9]. Experiments on composite beams showed the capacity of shear load redistribution between studs through the fatigue test [9]. Experimental studies on shear

connection in a precast deck also show that the effect of the bedding layer on the

behavior of the shear connection is important. Therefore, additional push tests with

various bedding thickness are performed and the results are presented in this paper.

Fig. 3.

207

Push specimen.

3.1. Behavior of stud shear connection

The failure mode on the push specimen, as shown in Fig. 3, gives two important

characteristics of the shear connection in the precast deck. One is that cracks such

as ripping, splitting, and herringbone cracks occurred at the bedding layer at a relatively low load level. Fig. 4(a) shows the crack pattern at the bedding layer. The

bearing zone behind the stud is lost because of the crack, so that the flexural deformation at the upper part of the weld collar becomes larger. The other charactersitic

Fig. 4. Failure mode of stud shear connection. (a) Crack pattern in bedding layer, (b) deformed shape

of stud after failure.

208

Fig. 5.

is that the deformation capacity of the shear connection is greater than that in the

case of a cast-in-place concrete deck. Fig. 4(b) shows the deformed shape of the

stud after removing the deck.

The flexural strain 15 mm above the bottom of the stud is measured as shown in

Fig. 5. When cracks occur at the bedding layer, strain at the stud becomes tensile

immediately. Therefore, the bedding layer has a considerable effect on the behavior

of the shear connection in a precast deck.

3.2. Ultimate strength

The parameters considered in the tests are the diameter of the stud, the compressive

strength of the mortar, and the thickness of thebedding layer, as presented in Table

1. Shear pockets are placed in the precast slab for the installation of the stud connectors, and two stud connectors are installed longitudinally in each concrete slab. The

Table 1

Push specimen for static tests

Parameter

Specimen

B-16

B-19

B-22

Compressive

A-19

strength of

mortar (cube)

C-19

Bedding height D-0

D-40

Number of

specimen

Bedding height

(mm)

strength of

(mm)

mortar (N/mm2)

2

2

4

2

4

13

16

19

22

19

4

3

3

19

61.09

20

54.88

20

71.38

55.48

0

40

209

height of the stud is 150 mm and its tensile strength is 450 MPa. The dimension of

the steel beam is 300300 mm2, and the thickness of the flange is 15 mm.

It has been shown that the casting direction of the concrete around the stud connectors influences the static strength of the shear connection due to the bleeding of the

concrete. Therefore, in order to match the casting direction of the concrete in actual

steelconcrete composite bridges, specimens are made as follows. First, the web of

the H-shaped beam is cut into two parts, and then both flanges of the beam are

placed upwards. The studs are then welded to steel flanges and precast slabs are

placed on rubber strips attached to the edges of the steel flanges. Shear pockets are

then filled with non-shrink mortar simultaneously to make sure that each constituent

has the same properties. Spacers of the specified thickness are put on the flange to

ensure the thickness of the bedding layer. After curing, both flanges with slabs are

connected into one I-section to form a push-out specimen, as shown in Fig. 3. The

flange surfaces of the steel beam are lubricated using oil to remove the bond between

the mortar and the steel beam.

The results of the push tests are presented in Fig. 6. The failure mode of the shear

connection is the shear failure of the stud. As shown in Fig. 6, the ultimate strength

is mainly dependent on the stud shank area and is negligibly affected by the compressive strength of the mortar. Therefore, the empirical equation of the ultimate

strength is suggested as (2). The bedding layer also has a significant effect on the

ultimate strength, and its effect is considered in the empirical equation (3). The

bedding layer is thin and has no reinforcement. Therefore, it is too weak to take on

the role of bearing zone. The layer is easily cracked at relatively low load. Therefore,

it is good enough to deduce the linear relationships over the 040 mm range from

a practical point of view. The ultimate strength of the shear connection in a precast

deck is 75101% of the tensile strength of the stud.

Qua(0.362Ash18.714)

(2)

a10.0086(Bh20)

(3)

Here, Qu is the ultimate strength of the shear connection (kN), Ash is the area of the

stud shank (mm2), a is the reduction factor considering the bedding layer, and Bh

is the bedding thickness (mm).

Fig. 6. Ultimate strength of shear connection. (a) Shank diameter, (b) compressive strength, (c) bedding height.

210

4.1. Fatigue behavior

Fatigue tests on push specimens with a 20-mm bedding layer are performed to

estimate the fatigue endurance of the shear connection in a precast deck. In an actual

situation, the thickness of the bedding layer is generally about 20 mm. Push specimens are presented in Table 2. Mortars with three different compressive strengths

are used to fill the shear pockets, which are expressed as A, B, C series in this paper.

In evaluating the shear stiffness of the shear connection, two aspects should be

considered. One is the secant stiffness considering residual slip, and the other is the

tangential stiffness. As the range of shear load increases, the residual slip increases.

After some cycles of fatigue loading, the residual slip increases abruptly. Therefore,

the secant stiffness of the shear connection increases during fatigue tests, due to the

residual slip [8]. However, the tangential stiffness of the shear connection is nearly

constant during fatigue tests [7,9].

4.2. Fatigue endurance

Fig. 7 shows the fatigue endurance of the shear connection obtained from fatigue

tests. Based on the results, the empirical equation of the fatigue endurance is suggested as (4). The correlation of the equation is 0.87. Fatigue tests on push specimens

of various bedding thickness have not been performed yet. Therefore, further experiments for the effect of bedding thickness are necessary on the fatigue endurance of

shear connections in a precast deck.

log10 N7.88690.021sr

(4)

Here, N is the number of loadings and sr is the stress range of the stud shear connector (MPa).

Table 2

Fatigue tests

Specimen

Compressive strength

of mortar (MPa)

Maximum load

(kN)

Minimum load

(kN)

F150A

F170A

F130B

F150B

F180B

F130C

F150C

F180C

F180C

54.88

54.88

61.09

61.09

61.09

71.38

71.38

71.38

71.38

36.75

41.65

31.85

36.75

44.10

31.85

36.75

44.10

44.10

1.255

1.255

1.255

1.255

1.255

1.255

1.255

1.255

1.255

125.2

142.5

107.9

125.2

151.1

107.9

125.2

151.1

151.1

(A series)

(A series)

(B series)

(B series)

(B series)

(C series)

(C series)

(C series)

(C series)

Fig. 7.

211

5.1. Distribution of stud shear connectors

Regarding the characteristics of the precast deck bridge system, it is favorable to

distribute the shear pockets for studs uniformly. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the capability of shear load redistribution between shear connectors in shear

span. Generally, a stud connector is considered as a flexible shear connector, and

this is confirmed through the push tests mentioned above. Shear connection in a

precast deck has greater slip capacity than that in a cast-in-place concrete deck. It

is possible to distribute the shear connectors uniformly in a simply supported bridge

because the longitudinal shear by live load is nearly constant along the shear span.

However, considering temperature and shrinkage, it is advantageous to install the

shear connectors nearer to the support.

To evaluate the shear stiffness of the shear connection in precast decks and the

flexural stiffness of a composite bridge, a simply supported composite bridge model

with seven precast decks is fabricated. Also, a finite element model was constructed

considering partial interaction, and its results are compared with those of the experiment.

5.2. Bridge model details

A composite bridge model with two steel girders is designed and fabricated to

investigate the static and fatigue behavior of shear connection and its effects on the

flexural stiffness of the bridge. The model is a 8.0-m spanning, simply supported

bridge with seven precast decks, as shown in Fig. 8. A stud, 19150 mm2, is used

as the shear connector and three studs per pocket were distributed uniformly 400 m

apart. In order to eliminate the effect of prestressed compression in the precast slab

on the steel beam, composite action was achieved by filling the shear pocket of the

212

Fig. 8.

Bridge model. (a) Section, (b) precast panel, (c) steel details.

213

stud connectors with mortar after introducing longitudinal prestress. The degree of

shear connection, defined as the strength of the shear connection in a shear span, as

a proportion of the strength required for full shear connection, was anticipated to be

1.11 [10].

5.3. Material properties

Several materials were used in the bridge model, such as concrete, mortar,

reinforcement, studs, prestressing tendons. The material properties of each material

are listed in Table 3. The elastic modulus for the concrete and mortar is evaluated

through 100200 mm2 cylinder tests. Tension tests for reinforcement and studs are

also performed.

5.4. Fabrication of bridge model

Procedures for the fabrication of the bridge model are summarized here. Firstly,

precast decks are prefabricated in a precast-plant and are steam-cured for 24 h and

then air-cured for more than a month. Strips, which act as fillers, are attached at the

end surfaces of the precast panels. Stud shear connectors are welded on the upper

flanges of the steel beams, which are located on the supports. Rubber strips, used

for the bedding layer, are also attached on the upper flanges of the steel beams.

Then, precast decks are installed on the steel beams and the transverse joints between

precast decks are filled with non-shrinkable mortar. When the compressive strength

of the mortar is greater than that of the precast concrete, longitudinal prestress is

introduced, balancing the prestressing forces in the precast deck transversely. Then,

block-outs for stud connectors are filled with non-shrinkable mortar, and composite

action is achieved when the mortar has its design strength. Treatments, pouring and

curing, are performed carefully when the connections are filled with the mortar. Fig.

9 shows the completed bridge model.

Table 3

Material properties

Material

Property

Average value

Compressive strength

Elastic modulus

Compressive strength

Elastic modulus

Compressive strength

Elastic modulus

Tensile strength

Tensile strength

Tensile strength

Elastic modulus

42.0 MPa

2.36104 MPa

30.0 MPa

1.80104 MPa

33.0 MPa

1.86104 MPa

503.0 MPa

549.0 MPa

552 kN

1.9105 MPa

Mortar

Transverse joint

Shear pocket

Stud

Reinforcement

Prestressing tendon (d=24.3 mm)

214

Fig. 9.

The test specimen is placed simply on the supporting structures. The concentrated

load is applied through a steel plate bearing on a neoprene pad. The contact area is

modeled as a 200500 mm2 rectangle, which represents the contact area of a rear

tire of a heavy truck. Load is applied using an MTS closed loop electro-hydraulic

testing system. Static tests are performed by applying the truck load in the form of

equal concentrated forces, and two-point concentrated loads of 250 kN are applied

at the mid-span and the applied load is measured and controlled by a load cell and

a hydraulic pressure transducer, which are integral parts of the hydraulic loading

system. Fatigue load testing is performed in an effort to investigate the adequacy of

the connections under cyclic loading. The bridge model is subjected to two million

load cycles of simulated serviceable truck loading. Then the ultimate load test is

carried out to investigate the adequacy of the shear connections under ultimate

load conditions.

Vertical deflections and slips are measured at several points of the bridge model,

as shown in Fig. 10. Longitudinal strains in the studs at 20 mm above the root of

the stud were measured to estimate the relative connector loads. The prestressing

force is also measured at a anchorage by a center-hole type load cell. Electrical

resistance strain gages are mounted on the steel beam, the surface of the concrete

panel, and the stud connectors to measure the strain, as presented in Fig. 10.

During the fatigue tests, deflections and strains are measured frequently to observe

the behavior of the test specimen. The measured data are recorded electronically

using a digital voltmeter connected to a reed-type scanner, controlled by a microcomputer. Crack growth and widths are also carefully observed. During the tests, crack

215

occurrences and leakage in the connections, shear connections and transverse joints,

are carefully observed.

5.6. Finite element analysis

Partial interaction theory considering the shear stiffness of the shear connection

is used for the analysis of the composite beam. The assumptions used in the finite

element model of the composite beam are as follows: (1) the shear connection is

continuous and uniform along the beam; (2) plane sections remain plane in the slab

and beam respectively; (3) no separation takes place at the interface. The composite

beam element has 12 degrees of freedom, as shown in Fig. 11, and the program can

consider the strainstress curves of steel and concrete, and the loadslip curve of

the shear connection, respectively.

The shear stiffness of the shear connection in a composite bridge and the flexural

stiffness of the bridge are evaluated from linear elastic analysis using the results of

the experiment, such as deflection and slip. The shear stiffness obtained from the

bridge model is compared with that from the push tests. The results of the experiment

will be compared with those of the analysis in the following sections.

5.7. Behavior of shear connection

The results of the initial static test, deflections and slips indicate that the shear

connection behavior of the bridge can be considered as full interaction on comparison

with the results of the finite element analysis, as shown in Figs. 12 and 13. The

shear stiffness of the shear connection, obtained from the finite element analysis

presented in Fig. 11 using the results of the experiment, is infinite.

After the shear load at the interface of the steel beam and the concrete slab over-

216

Fig. 12.

Loaddeflection curve.

comes bonding and friction forces, the behavior of the shear connection can be considered as partial interaction. From the deflection data, the flexural stiffness of the

bridge is reduced up to 13.8% of the initial value, as presented in Fig. 12. Fig. 13

indicates that the slip increases as the load increases after the bonding is broken and

also shows that the slip does not occur until the shear force at the interface overcomes

the frictional resistance. From the results of stress at the stud, before bonding or

frictional resistance is overcome, the shear loads on the stud are very small, as shown

in Fig. 14. The magnitude of shear load on each stud is different because each shear

connection does not have the same shear stiffness. If the fatigue loads are applied

to the shear connection, stiffer shear connection will be damaged first and the shear

load will be transferred to other shear connections, i.e. shear load redistribution.

Fig. 13.

Fig. 14.

217

Loadslip curve.

Strain at stud shank. (a) Load-stress curves before and after bonding is broken, (b) friction effect.

After the shear load overcomes the frictional resistance, the tangential stiffness of

the shear connection evaluated from finite element analysis using the slip data, neglecting residual slip, is 150 kN/mm. The shear stiffness obtained from the results of

the push tests is 171 kN/mm [9], about 10% difference. Therefore, the shear stiffness

obtained from the push tests can be used in finite element analysis using partial

interaction theory.

During static testing, full composite action is evident since no slippage occurred

at the interface between the concrete panels and the steel girders at the haunches.

Full composite action is also evident in the strain across the depth of the beam (Fig.

15). Strain gages across the depth of the beam indicate that slippage does not occur

until a significant amount of fatigue is introduced, but after fatigue testing, a noticeable amount of slippage occurs

As a result of the experiment on the bridge model, the empirical equations obtained

218

Fig. 15.

from the push tests can be used in designing a bridge with full-depth precast decks.

In addition, redistribution of the shear loads on the stud shear connectors, which is

observed from the measured stresses of the stud connectors along the shear span, is

satisfactory. Therefore, it is possible to distribute the shear connectors uniformly,

and this is favorable for a precast deck system. Of course, the behavior of the shear

connection at the ultimate state should be verified through additional experiments.

Judging from the experiment, the bonding and friction prolong the fatigue life of

the shear connector [11].

For the design of the shear connection in a precast deck system, analytical and

experimental studies are performed. Characteristics of the shear connection are to

fill the shear pockets with a non-shrink mortar and incorporate a bedding layer.

In this paper, non-shrink mortar should have the same elastic modulus as precast

concrete to insure equal stiffness between the two materials. In the range of these

tests, the failure mode of the shear connection is shear failure of the stud connector,

and the ultimate strength of the shear connection can be expressed as the function

of the area of the stud shank. Therefore, the ultimate strength decreases as the thickness of the bedding layer increases. In designing the actual bridge, it is recommended

that the ultimate strength should be evaluated using the highest bedding layer for

conservative design.

Fatigue endurance is also investigated through push tests and further experiments

are necessary to investigate the effect of bedding thickness on the fatigue endurance

of the shear connection in a precast deck. The secant stiffness of the shear connection

increases during fatigue tests due to residual slip. However, the tangential stiffness

of the shear connection is nearly constant during fatigue tests.

Judging from the experiments on the bridge model, stud shear connectors in a

precast deck system can be distributed uniformly because of the deformation capacity

219

of the shear connection and the shear load redistribution. However, the effect of

shrinkage and temperature should be considered in the design of an actual bridge.

After bonding and frictional resistance are overcome, the flexural stiffness of the

bridge is reduced, and the behavior of the bridge can be estimated by finite element

analysis using the shear stiffness of the shear connection obtained from push tests.

Acknowledgements

This research was conducted as a cooperative project of the Seoul National University, the DAEWOO Institute of Construction Technology, and the Ministry of Construction and Transportation of Korea, and was partially supported by the POSCO

research foundation.

References

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Engng J Am Inst Steel Constr 1971;8:5564.

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[3] AASHTO LRFD Bridge design specifications, 2nd ed AASHTO, 1998. p. 6100.

[4] DD ENV 1994-1-1, Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures. British Standards

Institution, 1994. p. 108.

[5] Youn S-G, Shim C-S, Chung C-H, Chang S-P. Determination method for longitudinal prestressing

force in precast bridge deck. J Korean Soc Civil Engrs 1998;18(6):799810.

[6] Chang S-P, Kim J-H. Strength evaluation of stud shear connector in precast composite bridge. In:

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[7] Shim C-S, Kim J-H, Jang S-W, Chang S-P. Shear connection in steelconcrete composite bridge

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[8] Shim C-S, Chung C-H, Kim C-Y, Chang S-P. Shear stiffness of shear connection in full-depth

precast concrete deck bridge. J Korean Soc Steel Constr 1998;10(4):74958.

[9] Shim C-S, Kim J-H, Chung C-H, Chang S-P. The behavior of shear connection in a composite beam

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[10] Johnson RP, Molenstra N. Partial shear connection in composite beams for buildings. Proc Inst Civil

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