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Ulysses B.

Paguio
BSEE 79/ BSECE 80 MIT
1st EDITION

1.

Definition of Electrical Terms and Units

1.2 VOLTAGE is the electrical pressure that causes

the positively charged atoms to move through a


conductor material. This is also referred to as
electromotive force.
1.3 VOLT unit of voltage named after Alessandro

Volta.
1.4 AMPERE unit of electric current named after

Andre Ampere.

1.5 WATT unit of electrical power energy

named after James Watt.


1.6 RESISTANCE is the opposition to the flow

of current.
1.7 OHMS unit of resistance named after

Gerry Ohms.
1.8 CONDUCTANCE allows the flow of

current.

1.9 MHO unit of conductance.


2.0 CONDUCTOR material that allows the

flow of electric current.


2.1 INSULATOR material that resists the flow

of electric current.
2.2 CURRENT rate of flow of electric force in

the conductor.

2.3 VA volt-ampere, unit of apparent power.


2.4 PROTONS positively charged atoms.
2.5 ELECTONS negatively charged atoms.
2.6 DIRECT CURRENT flow of electricity in one

direction. Sources are dry cell or storage battery.

2.7 ALTERNATING CURRENT flow of electricity

that changes in strength. Its strength according


to active wave which is sinusoidal in nature =. It
reverses its direction on each alternation.

2.8 OHMS LAW the higher the voltage, the larger the

current and the higher the resistance, the lower the


current.
I=V/R

2.9 KILOWATT-HOUR(KW-HR) unit of electric energy

which is sold to customer.

2.10 SPECIFIC RESISTANCE another term is resistivity,

a resistance offered by a unit use of the material.

2.11 CIRCULAR MIL (CM) area of a circle having

diameter of 1 mil.
CM = D2 ; 1000 mil = 1 inch
1MCM = 1000 CM

2.12 CAPACITOR also named condenser-any device

that stores electric charges so as to possess


electrical charges.

2.13 CAPACITANCE is a measure of how a capacitor

stores an electrical charge.

2.14 FARAD unit of capacitance.

Q= CE
2.15 ELASTANCE reciprocal of capacitance.
2.16 DARAF unit of elastance, reciprocal farad.

2.17 INDUCTANCE a measure of how much

counter electromotive force is generated in a


circuit for a change in current through the
circuit.
2.18 HENRY unit of inductance named after

Joseph Henry.

II.

ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS AND


LEGENDS
A
2.1.
- ammeter
V

2.2
2.3
2.4

- voltmeter
W

kW
h

- wattmeter
- kilowatt-hour meter

2.5

- resistor

2.6

- capacitor

2.7 inductor or choke coil


2.8

DC

- Direct Current

2.9

AC

2.10

- battery cell or storage cell

2.11

2.12

2.13

- Alternating Current

- generator
- relay
- normally open contact (NO)

2.13

- normally closed contact (NC)

2.14 VM

- varmeter

2.15

PF

- power factor meter

2.16

FM

- frequency meter

2.17

G
D

- ground detector

2.18 MSB

- main switch board

2.19

- auxilliary switch board

2.20
2.21
2.22

ASB

ESB

MCC

- energy switch board


- motor control center
- semiconductor diode

2.23

- transistor

2.24

- photoelectric cell

2.25

SYN

- synchroscope

2.26

- switch

2.27

- 3 way switch

2.28

- water light type switch

2.29

- flush type switch

2.30

- 2 pole receptacle

2.31

- 2 pole receptacle w/
grounding
contact
2.32
- flush type 2 pole receptacle

2.33

- Nm waterlight type bell

2.34

- waterlight type bell

2.35

- engine control console

2.36

- boiler control panel

2.37

- data logger

2.38

lighting arrester

2.39

surge arrester

2.40

ground (earth)

2.41

ground (frame)

2.42

service entrace

2.43

- safety switch

2.44

circuit breaker

2.45

- fuse

2.46

main distribution panel

2.47

single pole switch

2.48
2.49
2.50
2.51
2.52
2.53
2.54
2.55
2.56

S2 duplex switch
S2P double pole switch
S3P three pole switch
S3W three way switch
S4W four way switch
S4W four way switch
SAD - automatic door switch
SK key operated switch
SM master selector switch

2.57 SRM
2.58
2.59
2.60
2.61

remote control switch


junction box switch
pull box switch
power panel board
lighting panel board

2.62

- ceiling incandescent lamp

2.63

- wall incandescent lamp

2.64

- ceiling fan

2.65

- wall clock

2.66

- single convenience

2.67

- duplex convenient outlet

2.68 - waterproof convenience outlet


2.69 - cooking range outlet
2.70 - telephone outlet
2.71 - intercom outlet

2.72
2.73

- push button

2.74

- buzzer

2.75

- bell

2.76

- horn

2.78

- amplifier

2.79

- annunciator

2.80

- loudspeaker

2.81

- heat detector

2.82

- conduit wiring

2.83

- open wiring

2.84

- underground wiring

2.85

2.86

FA

2.87

E
FA
T

- emergency wiring
- fire alarm wiring
- telephone wiring

2.89

IC

IC

2.90

CCTV

- intercom wiring
CCTV

wiring
2.91 - ac generator
2.92 -dc generator
2.93 - ac motor

- closed circuit TV

2.94

2.95

-dc motor

-- converter, transmitter

Electric Circuits

a closed path for electric

current to flow.
Ohms Law states that the current flowing in
an electric circuit is directly proportional to
impressed electromotive force applied to the
circuit and inversely proportional to the
resistance of the circuit.
E= IR
Where: E= impressed voltage
I= drawn current in ampere
R = resistance in ohms

Electric Power

rate of using or consuming a


substantial amount of electrical energy.
P= EI
P=E2/R
P=I2R
Where: P=electrical power in watts
V =voltage in volts
I = current in ampere
R = resistance in ohms
other units of Electrical Power:
1 horsepower (1HP) = 746 watts
1 kilowatt (1KW) = 1000 watts
1 megawatt (1MW) = 1,000,000 watts

Kilowatt-Hour (KW-HR)

a unit in w/c electrical

energy is sold to customer.


KW-HR = Pt
Where: P electrical energy in watts
t time in hours
Ohms Law states that the current flowing in an
electric circuit is directly proportional to impressed
electromotive force applied to the circuit and
inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit.
E= IR
Where: E= impressed voltage
I= drawn current in ampere
R = resistance in ohms

R =L/A

where: R= resistance in ohms


L= length in meter
A= conductor cross sectional area in mil, CM
(circular mil)
= resistivity
the above equation states that the resistance of
a specific conductor is directly proportional to
its length and inversely proportional to its cross
sectional area depending on the element of its
conductor whether copper, zinc.

Example Problem No. 1


What amount of current in a circuit having a
resistance of 10 ohms on a 100 volts circuit.
Solution: I=E/R ; I= 100V/10 = 10 amperes
What is the voltage impressed across a
resistance of 3 ohms if a 20A current is flowing
to the electric circuit
E= IR ; E= 20A x 3 = 60 volts

i.

ii.
iii.

Generator a machine that converts


mechanical energy to electrical
energy.
Prime Mover a machine that drives
the generator
Parts of A DC Generator
a. Yoke another term is frame w/c is
cylindrical in form in w/c an even no.
of poles are bolted, either made in
cast iron or cast steel.

b. Armature Core and Winding the core is


cylindrical in form made from sheet laminations w/
slots that carry the armature windings.
c. Poles and Field Windings used to generate the
magnetic lines of flux.
d. Commutator cylindrical in shape and consists
of hard drawn copper conductor insulated from each
other and is sometimes called as mechanical rectifier.
e. Brushes used to connect the external load
circuit to the armature. It is made from carbon
particles that are held in position by spring pressures.

iv. Exciter an external equipment used to supply


voltage to the field windings of a generator.
v. Separately-excited Generator field winding is
excited from its own generated in the armature.
vi. Empirical Formula of DC Generator
E= PNZ/60a
Where:
E= generated emf volts
P= no. of poles
N= speed of prime mover in rpm
Z= no. of armature conductors
=flux per pole in weber
a= no. of armature current paths
1 weber = 1 x 108 maxwells

viii. Short Generator the field and


armature windings are connected across
each other.
E= V + IaRa
Ia = ISH + I
ISH = V/RSH
I=P/V

ix. Series Generator the field and


armature windings are connected in
series.
E = V + Ia (Ra + Rf)

Ia = I f + I

x. Long Shunt Compound Generator the


series field winding is connected in
series w/ the armature winding while the
short field winding is connected across
the series combination.
Ia = ISH + I
ISH = V/RSH
I=P/V
E= V + Ia (Ra + RSH)

xi. Short Shunt Compound Generator the


series winding is connected in series w/
the load while the short field winding is
connected across the armature winding.

Ia = I + Ish
I =Ise
E = V + IaRa + IseRse
I=P/V
Ish =V + IseRse/Rsh
Where:
E = generated emf volts
V = terminal or load voltage in volt
Ra = armature winding resistance in ohms
Rsh = shunt field winding resistance in ohms
Rse = series field winding resistance in ohms
Ia = armature current in ampere
Ish = shunt field current in ampere
I = load current in ampere
P = power drawn by the load in watts

xii. Power Generated (Pg) in the armature


of a DC Generator
P = EIg
xiii. Voltage Regulation (VR) percentage
use in voltage at the terminals of a
generator when the load is removed.
% VR = (VNL VFL X 100%)/ VFL
Where: VNL = no. load terminal voltage in
volts
VFL = full load terminal voltage in volts

xiv. Requirements of operating DC


generators in parallel:
a. Same external load
characteristics or behaviors are
loaded
b. Terminal voltage of each
machine must be equal
c. Terminal polarity must be the
same

The basic parts of a DC generator are the same basic parts of a


DC motor.

Counter or back emf voltage included into the armature


conductors of a DC motor when the armature rotates.

Torque characteristics of a DC motor


The speed (N) of a DC motor is directly proportional to the
back emf (Eb) and inversely proportional as the flux ()
generated per pole.
The Torque (T) exerted by the DC motor is directly
proportional to both the armature current drawn and the flux
() generated per pole
T=K1 Ia
Where K0 & K1 proportionality constant

Horsepower rating of a DC motor- maximum safest mechanical

power it can deliver to the load.


Where HP= mechanical power in horsepower
N= speed of the motor in Rpm
T=torque exerted by the motor (N-m/J)
K=proportionality constant
= 44,760 if T is in newton-meter
= 33,000 if T is in pound-foot
Reversion of Rotation
The direction of rotation of a DC motor is reversed be any of the
following methods
Interchange the terminals of the armature windings
Interchange the terminals of the field windings

Speed Controls
The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by
varying the resistance of a rheostat connected in
series in any of the following:
A rheostat in series with the armature windings
A rheostat in series with the field windings
(most common method)
A rheostat in series with the supply terminals

It is an alternating current generator. The working


principle is the same as that of a DC generator,
however, in alternators it is the field which is made
to rotate while the armature is kept stationary.
Basic parts of an alternator
Rotor (armature)- moving parts
Stator (field poles and winding)- Stationary parts
Relation between speed, poles and frequency of
the generated emf
where N=speed in rpm
P=no. of poles
f=frequency in hertz

Purpose of the open and short circuit

tests:
To evaluate the synchronous impedance and
asynchronous reactance of the alternator per phase.
Where Zs-synchronous impedance per phase
Xs-reactance per phase

Requirements for parallel operation of

alternators;
Operating frequency must be equal.
Line to line voltage must be equal.
Phase sequence must be equal.

Transformers- a static device used to transform electrical

energy from one voltage to another without a change in


wave shape and frequency:

Classifications according to care used:


Core type transformer
Shell type transformer

According to method of cooling the windings:

Self cooled transformer


Oil self cooled transformer
Force oil cooled transformer
Source air cooled transformer

According to purpose or applications


Distribution type transformer
Instrument type transformer like current and voltage
transformers
Power transformer
Welding transformer
Rectifier transformer
Regulating transformer
Lighting transformer

According to voltage transformation


Step-up transformer (low to high)
Step-down transformer (high to low)

A. Electrical Tools
Classifications:
Hand tools- tools operated by hands without
the need of electricity to operate it.
Examples: screwdrivers, electrical pliers,
hacksaw, etc.
Machine tools- tools operated by our hands
with electricity to operate it.
Examples: Soldering gun, electric pipe cutter etc.

Basic type of electrical tools:


C-clamp- used in holding objects together while they
are being assembled.
Center punch-used for marking metal parts
Electrician knife- used by electricians to remove
insulation of large wires or being cables
File-used to remove rough edges
Gimlet-used to make an initial hole for wood screws
Hacksaw-used for cutting metals
Hammer-used for striking hard objects like nails etc.
Claw hammer- used for pulling nails
Ball pen hammer- used to flatten metal surfaces
Soft-laced hammer-used in rewinding jobs

Hand drill and bitt used for boring holes


Hickey-used in bending small size pipes
Micrometer-used to measure the diameter of small wires
in mills
Pipe cutter- used to cut small pipes
Pipe threader- used in threading pipes like RSC
Pipe vise- used to hold down the pipes while being cut
Pliers-used for cutting, twisting or gripping electrical
components
Lineman pliers- side cutting pliers
Long nose pliers- used for twisting, cutting and gripping
or holding wires
Diagonal pliers-simply called cutter
Mechanical pliers

Puller- used for pulling out gears, bushings and


hearings
Reamor- used to cut away rough edges of
surfaces inside the pipe after being cut
Push Pull Pipe Rule- a length measuring tool
Screwdrivers-used to turn or drive screws with
slotted threads
Standard screw driver
Philipps screw driver
Stubb screw driver short in length
Wire stripper- used in removing the insulation of
small size wires

Wrenches- used to tighten or loosen objects


Adjustable wrench- size is adjustable
Open-end wrench- used to grip the nut
only in two sides
Box wrench- used to grip the nut in all
sides
Allen wrench- used for hexagonally shaped
nuts
Vise-grip wrench- used to lock on objects
and grip it
Pipe wrench- used for gripping pipes only

Types

of indicating instruments
according to construction:
Permanent magnet moving coil meter- also
known as darsonval meter, a coil wound on
soft iron core placed between the poles of a
permanent magnet. The needle of the meter
is attached to a core and will deflect in
proportion to the current in the coil. This was
invented by Arsen d Arsonval and named in
honor of Galvani

ADVANTAGES:
*Very accurate
*Requires small
operating current
*Energy consumption
is low
*Scale is linear

DISADVANTAGES

:
*Only used in DC

measurements
*Cost is high
*Error due to aging
of springs and
magnets

Moving Iron Meter- also called iron vane meter,


two pieces of triangular pieces of soft iron called
vanes are placed inside a coil of wire. One iron
vane is free to move while the other is fixed.
Pointer of the meter is connected to the moving
vane. Once current flows through the coil,
moving vane will repel with the fixed bar and
move causing the pointer to deflect in proportion
to the current flowing through the coil.

ADVANTAGES:

*Cheapest
*Used in both AC &
DC measurements
*Can stand for
momentary loads

DISADVANTAGES

*It consumes more


energy
*Error is high
*Scale is non linear

Dynamometer- basically consists of

fixed coil (current coil) & a moving coil


(potential coil). This is based on the
principle that a mechanical force exists
between two current carrying conductors.
Moving coil is attached to the moving
parts under the action of deflecting
torque, pointer moves over the scale.

ADVANTAGES:

*Used both in AC &


DC measurements
*Not affected by
external fields

DISADVANTAGES

:
*Not uniform scale
*More expensive
than the 2 meters
*Resistivity is low

VII-ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS IN BUILDING


7.1 Service Entrance:
-defined as that portion of the supply conductor which extends from the
street main duct or transformer to the service or switchboard of the building
supply. The National Electrical Code (NEC) defined it as the conductor and
equipment for delivering energy from the electrical supply system of the premises
served. It is categorized as overhead or underground service.
a) Overhead service entrance- is the common type of service wire installed by
electrical power supply companies (Like MERALCO and Electric Cooperatives)
for industrial, commercial and residential consumer users. A service drop is
connected from the nearest utility pole to the building service entrance point and
enter the building through the weather head down to the electric power meter.

b) Underground service entrance- consists of a conduit raceway extending from


the property line where it is tapped to the main. The cable recommended for such
purpose is the USE type (Underground Service Entrance) cable. Most buildings
service entrances are connected to the secondary line voltage below 600 volts.
Service entrance can be 2, 3 or 4 wires including a grounded neutral wire.
Service entrance may be 2 wires of 120/240 volts or 4 wires with 120/208 or
277/400 volts for larger installations. Size of wires series from 60, 100 or 200
Amperes depending on the demand load but generally 2 wires service entrance
does not exceed 60 Amperes.
c) Electric meter- is generally installed outside the building at the property line
wall or electric posts ready access to the utility meter reader, making it difficult to
tamper or to install jumpers.

d) Feeder- as per National Electric Code (NEC) it is defined as all circuit


conductors between the service equipment or the generator switchboard of an
insulated plant and the final branch circuit over current device.

e) Main- is a feeder interior wiring extending from the service switch, generator
bus or inverter bus to the main distribution center or electric servcie equipments.

f) Phase conductor wires are color coded:


a) neutral- white or grey color
b) First Hot Line A- black color
c) Second Hot Line B0 red color
-neutral conductor wire carries no current when the load on line A and line B are
equal, since neutral line is grounded, it is neutral zero potential being ahlf way in
voltage between line A & B.

g) Various electrical diagram representations;


I. Block diagram- type of representation wherein major equipments are
represented by rectangles or blocks.
II. Riser diagram- type of representation showing the spatial relations
between components.
III. One line or single line diagram- used electrical symbols instead of
blocks.

h) System voltage- is the power supply by a utility company like MERALCO and
Electric Cooperative or what the transformer produces.

i) Utilization voltage- is the current being utilized after some normal voltage drop.
Electric motors are rated at utilization voltage. Transformer is rated at 240/480
volt while an electric motor is 230/460 volts. To indicate that a motor is rated at
480 volts is not correct. Motors for 208 and 240 volt system are rated at 200 and
230 volts and so on. They cannot be changed interchangeably without serious
effect on the motor performance. Thus, when specifying transformer, use the
system voltage for electric motors use utilization voltage, a 4% utilization voltage
drop is within the internal motor tolerance.

j) Grounding and Ground fault


i. Ground- NEC defines it as zero voltage. The purpose of grounding the
circuit should not be broken or fused to maintain a solid and uninterrupted
connection to the ground. An established ground automatically becomes the
reference for all voltage in the system.
ii. Grounding could be accomplished by;
1. Connecting to a buried cold water main.
2. Connecting to a ground rod.
3. Connecting to a buried ground plate.
iii. Code requires that all new installations shall use grounded outlets
such as GFI &GFCI devices
on all appliances circuits particularly on
outdoor and bathroom locations of outlets.

k) Reasons for Grounding the Circuit System:


1. To prevent a sustained contact between the low voltage secondary
line and the high voltage primary line in case of insulation fire.
2. To prevent single grounds from being noticed or detected while
second ground occurs that could totally disable the secondary line.
3. To facilitate in locating the ground faults.
4. To protect against a short sudden rush of electric current in the
circuit.
5. To establish a neutral at zero potential not to be interrupted by
switches or protective devices.
6. To connect the service entrance to ground only at one point and to
use colored wires for easy identification.

l) Circuit Safe Load


i. Brach Circuit- is the technical term for house wiring installation that
varies in sizes depending upon the load it is to serve. Load refers to the
electricity drawn or consumed by lighting fixtures, appliances, equipments etc.
ii. The code provides that wirings for electrical circuitry shall be of the
types RHW , T, THW, TW, THWN, XNHW in a raceway or cables.
iii. That on a 20 Ampere circuit, a single appliance shall not draw a
current in excess of 16 Amperes.
v. That if, a branch circuit, a single appliance draw shall not exceed 24
amperes.
vi. That on a 20 Amperes circuit, a single appliance draw shall not
exceed 24 amperes.
vii. That a heavy lamp holders shall be rated not less than750 watts.
viii. That a 30, 40 Amperes circuit shall not be used for fixed lighting
residence.

ix. When loads are connected for a long period of time, actual load shall
be computed not too exceed 80% of the fuse rating, long period of time refers to
electric motors, air conditioner and other similar units with a continuous rating.
x. That a continuous type load shall be considered 125% of the actual
load in all load calculations.
xi. A single receptacle on individual branch circuit shall have a rating of
not less than a circuit.
xii. Receptacles leading portable and or steady appliance shall be
limited to loads of 80% of their rating that is;
a) 12A for 15A receptacle
b) 16A for 20A receptacle
c) 24A for 30A receptacle
xiii. The no. of outlets in a circuit shall be limited to:
6 outlets on a 15A circuit
8 outlets on a 20A circuit
xiv. All receptacle outlets of 20 Amperes or less rating in one family and
multifamily dwelling and in guest rooms of hotels and motels except those
connected to the receptacle circuits specified in Section 3.3.13 of the code shall
be considered as outlets for general illumination and no additional load
calculations shall be required for such outlets.

VIII-ILLUMINATION AND ELECTRICAL BILLING


OF MATERIALS
8-1 Illumination- defined as the intensity of light per unit per unit area. This is
simply lighting and we are referring to man made lighting. Daylight being
excellent is not included indeed, we assure a night time condition.

8-2 Electric Illumination- is the production of light by means of electricity and its
applications to provide efficient, comfortable and safe vision. When we speak of
lighting design, we refer to only two things;
(a) quantity of light &
(b) quality of light

8-3 Quantity of Light- refers to the amount of illumination or luminous flux per unit
area. It can be measured and handled because it deals with the no. of light
fixtures required for a certain area.

8-4 Quality of Light- refers to the distribution of brightness in the lighting


installation. It deals with essential nature or characteristics of light. It is the
mixture of all items related to the illumination that the quantity of light which
includes several elements such as:
1. Brightness
5. Brightness ration or contrast
2. Glare
6. Diffusions
3. Color
7. Aesthetics
4. Psychological reaction & fixtures 8. Economics

There are four factors that affect illumination:


1.Brightness- is the light that seems to radiate from an object being viewed.
Brightness or luminance is the luminous flux light emitted, transmitted or
reflected from a surface.
2.Contrast- is the difference in brightness or the brightness ratio between and
object to its background. The recommended ratio between an object and the
object being viewed is normally seen 3:1
3.Glare- is a strong, steady, dazzling light or reflection. The quality of lighting
must also include the visual comfort of the system which is the absence of glare.
The excessive luminance and or excessive luminance ratio in the field of vision is
referred as glare.

There are two (2) types of glare:


1. Direct glare- is an annoying brightness of light in persons normal field
of vision.
2. Indirect or reflected glare- is serious and difficult to control & is
technically glossy object.

i.

When the discomfort glare is caused by the light source in the field of vision,
it is known as direct discomfort glare

ii.

When the glare is caused by reflection of light source in a viewed surface, it


is called reflected or veiling reflections.

4. Diffuseness- refers to the control of shadows cast by light. It is the degree to


which light is shadowless and is a function of the no. of directions to which light
collides with a particular point and the comparative intensities.
i. Perfect Diffusion- is an equal intensity of light dashing from all
directions producing shadows

ii. There are three (3) characteristics that defined a particular coloration:
(a) Hue- is the quality attributed by which we recognize and describe
colors as red, yellow, green, violet, and so on.
(b) Brilliance or Value- is the difference between the resultant colors of
the same hue such as white which is most brilliant of the neutral colors while
black is the least.
(c) Saturation or Chromate- is the difference from the purity of colors,
colors of high saturation must be used in a well lit spaces.

8-5 Estimating Illumination and Brightness


1-Three types of luminance meter available:
(a) Comparator type- requires the operator to make a brightness
equivalence judgment between the target and the background
(b) Direct Reading Type- basically an illumination meter equipped with a
hooded cell arranged to block oblique light.
(c) Accurate laboratory Instrument- this is suitable for fieldwork.
2- Foot Candle (FC)- is the amount of light flux density. It is the unit of measure
used when describing the amount of light in a room expressed in lumens per
square foot
(a) Foot candle meter- measured the quantity of light and the degree of
illumination.
(b) Foot Lambert (FL)- defined as the luminance of a surface reflecting,
transmitting or emitting the lumen (lm) of illumination per square foot of area in
the direction of being viewed or the conventional unit of brightness or luminance.
The quantity called Light Flux Density is the common term foot candle (fc)
represented by the formula:

(b) Foot Lambert (FL)- defined as the luminance of a surface reflecting,


transmitting or emitting the lumen (lm) of illumination per square foot of area in
the direction of being viewed or the conventional unit of brightness or luminance.
The quantity called Light Flux Density is the common term foot candle (fc)
represented by the formula:
Foot candle=Lumens
Area
i.

EXAMPLE 1: A 20 watt fluorescent lamp, 120 cm (48 in.) long produces


3,200 lumens of light in a room having a dimension of 10x20 ft. Find the
illumination on the floor.
SOLUTION: Foot candle (fc) = Lumens
Area
= 3,200 / m
10x20 ft.
= 16 foot candle

ii. Rule of thumb 10-30-30 illumination level is here presented:


10 foot candle is adequate for halls and corridors
30 foot candle is sufficient for areas between work stations such as in
offices than desk areas
50 foot candle is satisfactory on spaces where office work is being done
iii. Luminance or brightness of a diffusely reflecting surface is equal to the
product of the illumination and the reflectance.
LUMINANCE = ILLUMINATION x REFLECTANCE FACTOR OR
FOOTLAMBERT = FOOT CANDLE x REFLECTANCE FACTOR
EXAMPLE: Find the luminance if the reflectance factor of the wall is
40% having a foot candle illumination.
Foot lambert

= foot candle x Refelectance factor


= 16 x 40%
= 6.4

3- Lighting Units in Metric Measures


i. In the metric system of measure, the distance is expressed in feet and
the area in square feet. Under the metric system, the distance and the area are
expressed in meters and square meters respectively, thus:
Lumens flux remains in Lux hot
Illumination or light flux expressed in Lux, thus;
Lux = Lumens
Area (sq. m.)
ii. In metric system, luminance or brightness is expressed in Lambert
which is defined as the luminance or brightness of a surface reflecting,
transmitting or emitting one lumen per square centimeter. Millilambert is
conveniently used than the lambert because the value of lambert because the
value of the lambert is greater than that is usually encountered.

EXAMPLE: A 40 watts x 120 cm. Long fluorescent lamp produces 3,200 lumens
of light in a room having a general dimension of 10 ft x 20 ft. Compute the
illumination on the floor comparing the English and Metric Units.
SOLUTION: BY COMPARISON

EXAMPLE: Compute the brightness of a fixture with a 1 x 4 plastic diffuser


having a transmittance of 0.6 & illuminated by 2 pieces 3,200 lumens lamp
assuming 100% use of light flux.
SOLUTION:
LUMINANCE

= TOTAL LUMENS x TRANSMISSION FACTOR


AREA OF DIFFUSER
= 2 pcs x 3200 x 0.6
1 x 4
= 960 foot lambert

To obtain metric equivalent


Millilambert
= Foot lambert x 1.076
= 960 x 1.076
= 1, 032.96 millilambert

4-Terms, units and conversion factors;


(a)Illumination (E)- intensity of light per unit area.
(b)Light- the energy radiated in the form of luminous flux taht produces sensation
to the eyes .
(c)Lumen 9lm)- unit of luminous flux
(d)Candlepower (l)- the light radiating capability of a light source.
I=
- total lumens produced by the lamp
4X
(e) Candle or Candela- unit of candle power

(f) Coefficient of Utilization (Cu)- ratio of the lumens actually received by a


particular surface to the total lumens emitted by the luminous source. This is
dependent on the type of lamp, type of lighting system and color of the room.
Cu

= Lumens received
Lumens emitted
(g) Depreciation Factor (Df)- is the factor related to clearness of the lamp
including the room, replacement of lamp after recommended life etc.
Df

= Illumination when everything is new


Illumination under actual condition

(h) Efficacy- ratio of luminous output to the input power in watts.


Efficacy = Lumen Output
Wattage consumed
(i)Foot Candle (Fc)- unit of illumination when foot is taken as the unit of length.
Fc = lumens
n2

(j) Lux (Lx)- unit of illumination when meter is taken as the unit of length.
lux

= lumens
m2

1 foot candle = 10.76 lux

4- Laws of Illumination
a) the illumination on a surface is directly proportional to the luminous
intensity of the illuminating source.
b) the illumination on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of
the distance between the illuminating source and the surface.

4- Laws of Illumination
a)the illumination on a surface is directly proportional to the luminous intensity of
the illuminating source.
b)the illumination on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between the illuminating source and the surface
c)the illumination on a surface is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle
made by the normal to the illuminated surface with the direction of the incident
flux.

c) the illumination on a surface is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle


made by the normal to the illuminated surface with the direction of the incident
flux.

Where

E illumination at point P
l luminous intensity of the light source
d distance of the light source to point P
h mounting height or distance of the light source from the surface
x horizontal distance of the light source to point P
angle of incidence

Example: A light having a candle power of 100 candela is having 10 ft. directly
above the working table. What is intensity of illumination of a point on the table?
Solution: Since the point of interest is directly above the lamp O = is zero
degree.

8.6 Electrical Lighting Materials:


1.Incandescent Lamp most commonly used lamp. Characteristics are as
follows:
a) Cost is cheaper
b) Fast starting and small in size
c) Only 70% of output power is connected to light
d) Sensitive to voltage fluctuations
e) Life span is short
2. Fluorescent Lamp one of the commonly used lamp, second to
incandescent lamp.
Characteristics are as follows:
a) For same light output, it consumes lesser energy output
b) Pleasant light output and high efficiency
c) Life span is longer
d) Not sensitive to voltage fluctuations
e) Noisy due to ballast hum

3. Mercury Lamp a combination of the arc discharge characteristics of the


fluorescent lamp and the shape of an incandescent lamp.
4. Sodium lamp high intensity discharge lamp
5. Tungsten Halogen Lamp also known as quartz lamp, a special type of
incandescent lamp
6. Metal Halide Lamp basically a mercury lamp with a certain innovation of its
arc tube.

IX NOTE ON RA 7920
RA 7920 REPUBLIC ACT # 7920 known as New Electrical Engineering Law
1.Composite of the Board
Board of Electrical Engineering shall be created as a collegial body
under the general supervision and administrative control of the Professional
Regulation Commission, hereinafter called the Commission composed of a
Chairman and 2 members to be appointed by the President of the Philippines
from among the nominees of the Commissioner , who were chosen from the
nominees of the Commissioner of the PRC, hereinafter called the Commissioner,
who were chosen from the nominees of the integrated and accredited association
of electrical engineers and allied fields.
2.Power and Duties of the Board:
a) Supervise and regulate the practice of electrical engineering in the Phil.
b) Determine and evaluate the qualifications of the applicants for
registration with or without licensure examination and for special permit.
c) Prepare the examination questions and prescribe the syllabi of the
subject and their relative weights for the licensure examinations.
d) Prescribe, amend or revise the requirements for PEE and the subjects
for the licensure examinations for REE & RME and their relative weight
subject for the approval of the Commission.

e) Register successful applicants for PEE and applicants who have passed
the licensure examination for REE and RME and their relative weight
subject to the approval of the Commission.
f) Look into the conditions affecting the practice of electrical engineering
profession and conduct ocular inspection to places where registrants
practice their profession.
g) Promulgate duties and regulations including the code of ethics,
administrative duties, orders and issuances to carry out the provisions of
this act.
h) Investigate violations of the Act and the rules and regulations, Code of
Ethics administrative duties, orders and issuances promulgated by the
Board.
i) Issues subpoena to secure the attendance of the respondents or
witnesses or the production of documents relative to the investigation
conducted.
j) Delegate the investigation of the case to the Chairman, a member of the
board or a PRC Attorney.
k) Render decision, order or resolution on preliminary investigation or
inquiry and shall become final and executory unless appealed with the
Commission within 15 days from the receipt of the copy.
l) After due notice and hearing, cancel exam results & or bar an examinee
from future examination, refuse or deter his registration; reprimand the
applicant with stern warning, suspend the practice of his profession,
revoke his cert. of registration, to detest his name from the roll of PEEs,

m) To administer oath in connection with the administration, implementation


of the enforcement of the Act.
n) Submit annual report on the proceedings and accomplishments during
the year and recommendations of the Board to the Commission after the
close of each year.
o) Prosecute or institute criminal action against any violation of the Act and
or the rules and regulations of the Board.
p) Adopt an official seal.
q) Coordinate with the DECS in prescribing, amending and or revising the
courses.
r) Prescribe guidelines and criteria on the CPE (Continuing Professional
Education) program for PEEs, REEs, & RMEs and renew their
professional licenses after compliance with the CPE requirements.
s) Perform such other functions and duties as may be necessary to
implement effectively the Act.
3.Qualifications of Board Members
a) Be a natural born Filipino citizen and a resident in the Phil. for at least
five (5) consecutive years.
b) Be at least thirty-five (35) years of age proven integrity with high moral
values in this personal as well as in his professional conduct.

c) Be a person with no final conviction by the court of an offense involving


moral turpitude.
d) Be a holder of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical
Engineering (BSEE) from a university, school, college, academy or
institute duly constituted, recognized and accredited by the Phil.
government.
e) Be professional Electrical Engineer (PEE) with valid certificate of
registration and a valid professional license duly qualified to practice
electrical engineering in the Philippines.
f) Have practiced electrical engineering for a period of not less than ten
years (10) prior to his appointment with a sworn statement as such.
g) Not b an official member of the faculty or have a percuniary interest in
any university, college, school or institution conferring a bachelors
degree in electrical engineering for at least three (3) years prior to his
appointment and is not connected with the review center, with any group
or association where review classes or lectures in preparation for the
licensure examinations are offered.

4. Terms of Service
The members of the Board shall hold office for a term of three (3) years
from the date of appointment until their successors shall have been
appointed and qualified. Vacancies in the Board shall be filled up by the
President from the list of recommended selected by the Commissioner who
were chosen from the list of nominees submitted by the integrated and
accredited association for the unexpired term only.
5. Removal of Board Member
Any member of the Board may be removed by the President of the Phil.
upon the recommendation of the Commissioner for neglect of duty,
incompetence, malpractice, commission or tolerance of irregularities in the
examination or for unprofessional, unethical or dishonorable misconduct
after having been given the opportunity to defend himself to a proper
administrative investigation.
6. Executive of the Board
The Commissioner of the PRC shall be the executive officer of the board
and shall conduct the examination given by the board.
7. Holding of Examinations
Examinations for the practice of electrical engineering in the Phil. Should be
given twice a year in the City of Manila and other places on dates the Board
may recommend for determination of scheduling. The qualified applicants
for examination, notice of examination shall be issued not later than ten (10)
days prior to the first day of examination.

8. Qualifications of Applicants for Registered Master Electrician


Examination
Any person applying for admission to the registered master electrician
examination as here in provided shall establish the satisfaction of the
Board that on or before the date of the date of examination, he possesses
the following qualifications;
a)He is a citizen of the Philippines
b)He is at least eighteen (18) years of age.
c)He is of good reputation with high moral values.
d)He is not been convicted by the court of an offense involving moral
turpitude.
e)He has any of the following technical backgrounds.
1. He has completed at least three (3) years of a five year Bachelor
of Science in Electrical Engineering (BSEE) program or three-year
course in Electrical Engineering technology from an engineering
school recognized by the Phil. Government and in addition has a
subsequent specific record of one (1) year practice in electrical
wiring & installation, operation & maintenance of utilization devices
& equipment or

2. Has graduated from a two year electrician course of instruction from


a vocational or trade school recognized by the Phil. Govt & in
addition has at least two (2) years of apprenticeship after the
completion of the course of instruction on electrical wiring &
installation , operation & maintenance of utilization devices and
equipment, or
3. Has completed a one (1) year electrician course of instruction from
a vocational or trade school recognized by the Phil. Govt & in
addition has at least three (3) years of apprenticeship record of at
least five (5) years of apprenticeship in electrical wiring &
installation, operation & maintenance of utilization devices and
equipment.

9. Report of ratings:
The board of Electrical Engineering shall within one hundred fifty (150) days
after the date of completion of the examinations, report the ratings obtained
by each candidate to the Commission.
10. Re-examination of Failed Subjects:
An applicant shall be allowed to re-take any number of times only on the
subjects in which he has obtained a grade below fifty percent (50%). When
he obtains an average of 70% percent in the subjects repeated, he shall be
considered to ahve passed his licensure examination.
11. Oath
All successful candidates in the examination shall be required to take
professional oath before the board or any government official authorized to
administer oaths prior to the practice of REEs, PEEs, RMEs.

FILED OF PRACTICE OF A REGISTERED MASTER ELECTRICIAN:


A registered master electricians field of practice includes the
installation, wiring, operation, maintenance and repair of electrical
machinery, equipment and devices in residential, institutional, commercial
and industrial buildings in power plants, substations, water crafts, electrical
locomotives 7 the like provided that the installation of the machinery is rated
not in excess of 500 KVA or in excess of 600V, the work shall be under the
supervision of a professional electrical engineer or a registered electrical
engineer.
INDICATION OF REGISTRATION / PROFESSIONAL LICENSE NUMBER
The PEEs, REEs or RMEs shall be required to indicate his
registration / professional license number, date registered & the date of the
expiry in the documents he signs, uses or issues in correction with the
practice of his profession.

X PREVIOUS RME EXAMINATIONS


MULTIPLE CHOICE TYPE TESTS
A.APRIL 1994 RME
1.A 6 volt lead-acid battery has an internal resistance of 0.01 ohm. How much
current flow if the battery has a short circuit?
A. 60 A
B. 600 A
C. INFINITY
D. ZERO
ANSWER AND SOLUTION
B. 600 A

2. An AC series circuit has a resistance of 6 , an inductive reactance of 10


and a capacitive reactance of 18 . What is the circuit power factor?
A.
B.
C.
D.

0.6 leading
0.8 lagging
0.6 lagging
0.8 leading

ANSWER AND SOLUTION


A.0.6 Leading
Given:
R=6
= 10
= 18
Pf = ?

3. A binary alloy of copper and zinc.


A.
B.
C.
D.

Bronze
Brass
Alnico
Steel

ANSWER AND SOLUTION


B. Brass

B. RME April 1995


1.The resistance of a conductor when its impedance is increased.
A. Increases
B. Remains constant
C. Varies
D. Decreases

ANSWER: A. increases

2. A meter whose needle is initially at the center.


A. Dynamometer
B. Iron Vane Meter
C. Galvanometer
D. Voltmeter

ANSWER: C. Galvanometer

C. October 1996 RME / October 1995 RME


1.Automatic device that operates at present values is known as
A. Relay
B. Mercury switch
C. Contactor
D. Fuse

ANSWER: A. Relay

2. A diagram showing the physical location of the components; coils, contacts,


motors & the like in their actual position that would be found on an installation.
A. Ladder Diagram
B. Schematic Diagram
C. Wiring Diagram
D. Power Flowing Dagram

ANSWER: C. Wiring Diagram

3. At starting the motor current is high due to


A. Counter emf is high
B. Counter emf is zero
C. Supply voltage is high
D. Armature circuit resistance is open

ANSWER: B. Counter emf is zero

D. RME April 1996


1.Two resistors of resistances of 5 and 7 are connected in series
across a 60 volt source. What is the power absorbed by the 5 resistor?
A. 50 watts
B. 25 watts
C. 125 watts
D. 100 watts
ANSWER: C. 125 watts

2. Shunt generators are most suitable for parallel operation due to their
________
A. Constant voltage characteristics
B. Dropping voltage characteristic
C. Increasing voltage characteristics
D. Variable voltage characteristics

ANSWER: B. Drooping voltage characteristics

E. April 1995 RME


1. In concealed knob and tube wiring, the clearance to be maintained between
conductors is:
A. 66 mm
B. 45 mm
C. 76 mm
D. 800 mm
ANSWER: C. 76 mm

2. A run of type 1 GS cable between pull boxes or terminations shall not contain
more than the equivalent of ______________ quarter trends.\
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four

ANSWER: D. four

3. For optional in dwelling units, the first 10 kw shall be computed at 100% while
the remainder is at _______.
A. 65%
B. 60%
C. 50%
D. 40%

ANSWER: D. 40%

F. RME October 1996


1. In resistance color coding, red color is assigned to a value?
A. 3
B. 0
C. 2
D. 1

ANSWER: C. 2

3. During short circuit test on transformer, which side is shorted/


A. High side
B. Low side
C. Either side
D. Both sides

ANSWER: B. Low side

G. RME October 1995


1. An electric iron takes 3 Amps. If the heating element has a resistance of 40
, what is the power consumption?
A. 0.45 KW
B. 0.49 KW
C. 0.35 KW
D. 0.51KW
ANSWER: B. 0.49 KW

2. Another name for secondary cell.


A. Wet cell
B. Storage cell
C. Dry cell
D. Disposable cell

ANSWER: B. Storage cell

3. Two resistance of 8 and 10 ohms respectively are connected in parallel &


make a total current of 9A. What is the current flowing in the 8 resistance?
A. 5A
B. 4A
C. 6A
D. 3A

ANSWER: A. 5A

4. A 50 F capacitor has a reactance of 53.05 at a frequency of


A. 80 Hz
B. 50 Hz
C. 70 Hz
D. 60 Hz

ANSWER: D. 60 Hz

5. What resistance must be connected across a 4 resistor in order to give an


equivalent resistance must be connected across 4 resistor in order to give
an equivalent resistance of 3 ?
A. 10 ohms
B. 9 ohms
C. 12 ohms
D. None of these

ANSWER: A. 12 ohms

6. A high resistance connected in parallel with a potential relay across 120 V


battery will:
A. Increase in the current through the relay
B. Increase the voltage through the relay
C. Have no effect on the relay
D. Make the relay inoperative

ANSWER: C. Have no effect on the relay

7. Three capacitors of 5, 10 and 15 F respectively are connected end to end.


Find the equivalent capacity of the combination.
A. 2.73
B. 30
C. 5.23
D. None of these

ANSWER: A. 2.73 F

H. RME April 1995


1. How is a voltmeter connected in a circuit?
A. Connected in short circuit across the load
B. Connected in shunt across the load
C. Connected in series across the load
D. Connected in open circuit with the load

ANSWER: B. Connected in shunt across the load

2. Component of an atom that doesnt have electrical charge?


A. Electron
B. Proton
C. Neutron
D. None of these

ANSWER: C. neutron

3. A lead-acid cell is connected in multi plate for the purpose of


A. Increasing the emf of the cell
B. Increasing the capacity of the cell
C. Increasing the internal resistance of the cell
D. All of these

ANSWER: B. Increasing the capacity of cell

4. An ohmmeter consists of a meter movement in series with


A. Inductor
B. Spring
C. Capacitor
D. Battery

ANSWER: D. Battery

5. The resistance reading of a shorted capacitor is


A. High
B. Zero
C. Infinity
D. Low

ANSWER: B. Zero

6. In a large alternator, which of the following is negligible?


A. Reactance of winding
B. Resistance of winding
C. Impedance of winding
D. None of these

ANSWER: B. Resistance of winding

7. A phenomenon in a series AC circuit wherein a maximum current will flow


A. Avalanche
B. Resonance
C. Break-even
D. Breakdown

ANSWER: B. Resonance

8. A measuring instrument used to measure the diameter of circular wires in mils.


A. Micrometer
B. Millimeter
C. Wire gauge
D. Milliammeter

ANSWER: D. Micrometer

I.

RME October 1994 & October 1995

1. The rotating part of a DC motor is known as


A. Pole
B. Stator
C. Carbon brush
D. Armature

ANSWER: D. Armature

2. The resistance of a coil of wire is 1 K at 20C. If the coil is immersed into an


oil, the resistance falls to 880 . If the wire has a temperature coefficient of
0.006 at 20C. How much is the temperature of the liquid?
A. 0C
B. -20C
C. 17.6C
D. None of these

ANSWER: A. 0C

3. Power factor is defined as the ratio of:


A. Watts to volt-amps
B. Volt-amps to reactive volt-amps
C. Watts to active volt-amps
D. Volt-amps to watts

ANSWER: A. Watts to volt-amps

4. Electrons in the last orbit of an atom are called


A. Bound electrons
B. Free electrons
C. Valence electrons
D. Charged electrons

ANSWER: C. Valence electrons

3. Power factor is defined as the ratio of:


A. Watts to volt-amps
B. Volt-amps to reactive volt-amps
C. Watts to active volt-amps
D. Volt-amps to watts

ANSWER: A. Watts to volt-amps

5. A 400 MCM cable has 37 strands, what is the diameter of each strand in mils?
A. 10.81
B. 1081
C. 104
D. 108

ANSWER: C. 104

J. RME October 1996


1. If the two leads of a DC series motor are reversed, which of the following
events will happen?
A. Becomes a generator
B. It turns in the same direction as before
C. It will not run
D. It will run in the reversed direction

ANSWER: D. It will run in the reversed direction

2. Copper field coils of a motor was measured at 21C & found to have
resistance of 68 . After the motor has run for a given time, the resistance is
found to be 50 . What is the hot temperature of the winding?
A. 106.36 C
B. 106.30 C
C. 103.66 C
D. None of these

ANSWER:C. 103.66 C

3. The continuity of a coil of winding maybe determined by measuring the


resistance of the coil. If the resistance measured is infinite, the coil winding is
A. Open
B. Perfect condition
C. Partially shorted
D. Totally shorted

ANSWER:A. Open

4. A secondary cell is charged with a constant current of 10A for 10 hours. How
much charge is accumulated?
A. 100 coulombs
B. 360, 000 coulombs
C. 100, 000 coulombs
D. 60, 0000 coulombs

ANSWER: B. 360, 000 coulombs

6. A cell whose emf is 1.45 V has an internal resistance of 4 . What current will
flow, if this cell is connected across 1 resistor?
A. 4A
B. 2A
C. 5A
D. 0.3A

ANSWER: D. 0.3A

7. Another name for full voltage starting?


A. Reduce voltage starting
B. Full load starting
C. Direct on-line
D. Starting without a contractor

ANSWER: C. Direct on-line

8. What is the neutral current of a 4-wire, 3 phase circuit if line A carries 50A, line
B carries 50A, line C carries also 50A?
A. 50 A
B. 86.6 A
C. 0 A
D. 16.57 A

ANSWER: C. 0 A since the three line currents are equal

9. What is the amperage of a 120 V, I phase circuit taht supplies a load of 3.12
kVolt-amperes?
A. 26 A
B. 30 A
C. 22 A
D. 15 A

ANSWER: A. 26 A

K. Philippine Electrical Code


1. The maximum electrical trade size of intermediate conduit is?
A. 150mm
B. 125mm
C. 200mm
D. 100mm

ANSWER: D. 100mm

2. Before starting and installation works, alteration, repair or extension on any


electrical system, what type of permit is required?
A. Building permit
B. Working permit
C. Electrical permit
D. Mayors permit

ANSWER: C. Electrical permit

3. The Phil. Electrical Code (PEC) is intended for ______________ applications


by government bodies exercising jurisdiction over electrical installation.
A. Advisory
B. Optimal
C. Mandatory
D. All of these

ANSWER: C. Mandatory

L. RME October 1995 (PEC)


1. Equipment for installation in hazardous locations must be tested and
approved for use according to the classification of hazardous involved. These
are divided into ____groups.
A. 4
B. 3
C. 7
D. 6
ANSWER: B. 3

2. Individual branch circuits using type FCC (Flat Conductor Cable) that have
ratings not exceeding ____________.
A. 20 A
B. 30 A
C. 15 A
D. 40 A

ANSWER: A. 20 A

3. Which of the following conductors is applicable for underground service


entrance conductors?
A. Type THWN
B. Type UF
C. Type M
D. Type USE

ANSWER: D. Type USE