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Introduction to Storage

Infrastructure

Outline

Basic storage setup


Typical San Setup
Storage Networking Components
Interconnects
Cables and Connectors
Switches
Analyzer
Storage Lab Visit
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Basic Storage Setups

Typical SAN Setup


Windows server with
Qlogic / Emulex HBAs

LINUX Servers with Qlogic


/ Emulex HBAs

SunFire V240
with Qlogic HBAs

McData / CNT switch

Brocade SAN Switch (3200) FC-SAN

Tape Library
StorageTek /
Quantum

Brocade SAN Switch (3800)

IBM FastT200

LSI ProFibre JBOD


Serial ATA
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Storage Networking Components

Cables and connectors


Fiber Connector (LC-LC, LC-SC, SC-SC)
SCSI, SATA, SAS cables
GBICs, GLMs, and SFPs
Media Interface Adapters (MIA)
HBA
Bridges and Gateways
Switches
Analyzers

Interconnects
Windows server with
Qlogic / Emulex HBAs

LINUX Servers with Qlogic


/ Emulex HBAs

SunFire V240
with Qlogic HBAs

McData / CNT switch

Brocade SAN Switch (3200) FC-SAN

Tape Library
StorageTek /
Quantum

Brocade SAN Switch (3800)

IBM FastT200

LSI ProFibre JBOD


Serial ATA
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Storage Networking Components cables & connectors


FC Cable: Similar to parallel SCSI in traditional networking, there are
different types of cables of various lengths for use in a Fiber Channel
Configuration.
Types of FC Cable
Two types of cables are supported: copper and optical (fiber). Copper
cables are used for short distance (up to 30m)and can be identified by
their DB9 (9-pin) connector.

Storage Networking Components HBA


Fiber Channel Copper cable: Uses electronic
pulses to transmit Information down copper lines.

Fiber Optic Cable :Uses light pulses to transmit


Information down fiber lines.

Storage Networking Components cables & connectors


Single-mode fiber: Single-mode (SM) fiber
allows for only one pathway, or mode, of
light to travel within the fiber. The core size
is typically 8.3 m. (Designed for longer
transmission distances up to 10km)
Multimode fiber: Multi-mode (MM) fiber
allows more than one mode of light.
Common core sizes are 50 and 62.5 m.
(Designed
for short
transmission distances
Storage Networking
Components
HBA
up to 2km)
Note: Impossible to distinguish between
single-mode and multi-mode fiber with the
naked eye unless color coding schemes is
followed
orange - multi-mode
yellow - single-mode.
Reference: http://www.arcelect.com/fibercable.htm
http://www.fiber-optics.info/articles/fiber-types.htm
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Storage Networking Components cables & connectors


Fiber Connector: An optical Storage
fiber connector
terminates
the end of an
Networking
Components
optical
HBA fiber,
and enables quicker connection and disconnection. A variety of optical fiber connectors
are available. The main difference between connectors is in the dimensions and the
mechanical coupling.

SC: The duplex SC connector is a low


loss, push/pull fitting connector. Offers
excellent packing density, and its pushpull design resists fiber end face contact
damage during connection.
Use: Most GBICs and GLMs use industry
standard Subscriber Connector (SC)
connectors

LC The type of connectors which plug


into SFF or SFP devices are called LC
connectors. (Advantage over SC small
size).
Use: Most of the 2 Gb/s devices will be
using the SFF or SFP technology, and
therefore, use Lucent Connector
(LC)connectors.

Reference: http://www.fiber-optics.info/articles/connector-care.htm
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Storage Networking Components cables & connectors


SCSI cables

SATA cables
(Straight & Right Angle)

SAS Cable ( SAS and Mini-SAS)

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Storage Networking Components cables & connectors


GBICs, GLMs, and SFPs
These different components carry out the same task.
The task is that of converting electrical signals on HBAs, switches, and other
building blocks to and from optical or electrical signals for transmission over the
Fibre Channel media. The format of the devices is, however, different.
GBIC (Gigabit Interface converter) is a fibre
Channel optical or copper transceiver that is
easily swapped to offer a flexible choice of
copper or fiber optic media. An optical GBIC
Supports both shortwave and longwave
Optical transmission, an important criteria
when trying to go the distance.
Suitable for a wide range of networking
applications requiring high data rates.
Designed for ease of configuration and
replacement, they are well-suited for
Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel.
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Storage Networking Components cables & connectors


Storage Networking Components HBA
GLM: Gigabit Link Modules were used in early
Fibre Channel applications. GLMs are a low
cost alternative to GBICs, but they sacrifice
the ease-of-use and hot pluggable installation
And replacement characteristics that GBICs
offer. This means that you need to Power
down the device for maintenance,
replacement, or repair.
SFP(Small form-factor pluggable) is a compact
optical transceiver used in optical
communications for both telecommunication
and data communications applications. It
interfaces a network device mother board (for
a switch, router or similar device) to a fiber
optic or unshielded twisted pair networking
cable.

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Storage Networking Components cables & connectors


Storage Networking Components HBA

Media Interface Adapters: (MIA) can be


used to facilitate conversion between two
forms of media, usually optical and
copper interface connections. Typically,
MIAs are attached to host bus adapters,
but they can also be used with switches
And hubs.
Example:
If a hub or switch only supports copper or
optical connections, MIAs can be used to
convert the signal to the appropriate
media type, copper or optical.
A fiber optic cable with an SC connector
attached to an MIA can be connected to
a copper DB9 connector
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Storage Networking Components - HBA


Storage Networking Components HBA
A host bus adapter (HBA), or host controller or host adapter, connects a
host system (the computer) to other network and storage devices. The
HBA connects to the bus of the host or storage system. The function of
the HBA is to convert the parallel electrical signals from the bus into a
serial signal to pass to the SAN
A software device driver for each model of HBA is required by the
operating system.
Types: FC and GigE [Recently, the advent of iSCSI has brought about
Ethernet HBAs, which are different from Ethernet NICs in that they
include hardware iSCSI-dedicated TCP Offload Engines]
HBA manufacturers: QLogic, Emulex, McData

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Storage Networking Components - HBA


Storage Networking Components HBA
Note:
For Fibre Channel each HBA has
a unique World Wide Name
(WWN) (8 bytes long), which is
similar to an Ethernet MAC
address. There are two types of
WWNs on a HBA; a node
WWN, which is shared by all
ports on a host bus adapter, and
a port WWN, which is unique to
each port.

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Storage Networking Components Bridge and Gateway

Storage
Networking
Components
Switches
A bridge or gateway
is a device
which converts
signals and
data form to another. In the
specific case of a SAN a bridge is a unit converting between Fibre Channel and legacy
storage protocols such as: SCSI, SSA

This allows the architect of the SAN to protect the investment made in legacy equipment.
Another benefit is that some of the limitations of SCSI can be overcome [ e.g. cable length
(25m), number of devices (16)]
Advantages of SAN Data Gateway versus a
Switch
Defers or completely avoids the high entry
cost of a switch.
Smaller configurations with fewer devices
lower administration cost for customer and
lower service/support cost for manufacture.
Interoperability issues with switches: fabric
support is limited, resource sharing
requires middleware

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Storage Networking Components Switches


Storage
Networking
Switches
In storage world, a Fibre
Channel
switch is Components
a network switch
compatible
with Fibre Channel (FC) protocol. It allows the creation of a Fibre Channel
fabric, that is currently the core component of most storage area networks.
Switches allow Fibre Channel devices to be connected together through the
fabric (network of Fibre Channel devices).

Typical fabric services provided


by a switch
Name services
Fabric control
Time services
Automatic discovery and
registration of host and storage
devices
Rerouting of frames, if
possible, in the event of a port
problem
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Storage Networking Components Switches


Each device is connected to a port on the switch, enabling an on-demand
connection to every connected device.
Various FC switch offerings
support both fabric and/or loop
connections. As the number of
devices increases, multiple
switches can be cascaded for
expanded access.
Manufacturer: Cisco, Brocade,
McData, Qlogic

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Storage Networking Components Analyzer


FC Analyzer is generally used to capture the I/O traces, detailed protocol
level data and captures FC frame (helps) between initiator and target. Used
for finding error and capturing corruption in the FC frames.
Manufacturers: Finisar, Lecroy.

Reference:
www.snia.org/education/tutorials/2007/spring/storage/Storage_Protocol_Analyzers.pdf
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Analyzer Sample Output

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Analyzer - Sample Output

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THANK YOU

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