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‘ Holding Half the Sky ’: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of Chinese

Holding Half the Sky’: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of Chinese Women in Chinese and British Press (2005-2015)

I G A L A

9 -

P a r a l l e l

S e s s i o n s

Yeqing Kong Lancaster University, UK
Yeqing Kong
Lancaster University, UK
‘ Holding Half the Sky ’: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of Chinese
‘ Holding Half the Sky ’: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of Chinese
   
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 11 DATA & METHODS RESEARCH QUESTION 22 DATA ANALYSIS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33 CONCLUSION
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 11 DATA & METHODS RESEARCH QUESTION 22 DATA ANALYSIS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33 CONCLUSION
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 11 DATA & METHODS RESEARCH QUESTION 22 DATA ANALYSIS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33 CONCLUSION
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 11 DATA & METHODS RESEARCH QUESTION 22 DATA ANALYSIS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33 CONCLUSION
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 11 DATA & METHODS RESEARCH QUESTION 22 DATA ANALYSIS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33 CONCLUSION
 
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 11 DATA & METHODS RESEARCH QUESTION 22 DATA ANALYSIS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33 CONCLUSION
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 11 DATA & METHODS RESEARCH QUESTION 22 DATA ANALYSIS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33 CONCLUSION

RESEARCH BACKGROUND

11
11
   
 
  • DATA & METHODS

RESEARCH QUESTION

22
22
  • DATA ANALYSIS

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

33
33
  • CONCLUSION

 
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 11 DATA & METHODS RESEARCH QUESTION 22 DATA ANALYSIS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 33 CONCLUSION
01 PART I
01
PART I

RESEARCH BACKGROUND

FEUDAL SOCIETY

FEUDAL SOCIETY

STILL remains a long-standing goal in the long run . When could women truly “ Holding

STILL remains a long-standing goal in the long run.

When could women truly “Holding Half the Sky”?

MODERN

CIVIL

FEUDAL SOCIETY

REPUBLICAN

ERA

REVOLUTION

SOCIETY

GENDER EQUALITY STILL remains a long-standing goal in the long run . When could women truly

GENDER EQUALITY

STILL remains a long-standing goal in the long run. When could women truly “Holding Half the Sky”?

UK CHINA
UK
CHINA
UK No country in the world can yet CHINA say that they have achieved gender equality.
UK
No country in the world can yet
CHINA
say that they have achieved
gender equality.
02 PART II
02
PART II

RESEARCH QUESTION

P A R T

  • 2 2 R E S E A R C H

T W O

R E S E A R C H

Q U E S T I O N

Q U E S T I O N

P A R T 2 2 R E S E A R C H T W
P A R T 2 2 R E S E A R C H T W
   

QUESTION

QUESTION

QUESTION QUESTION Are How are Chinese women discursively there any similarities and/or represented in mainstream Chinese
 

2 Are

1 How are Chinese women discursively

there

any

similarities

and/or

represented in mainstream Chinese

differences in

the

construction

of

gendered

and

British

identities

of

Chinese

in

newspapers

recent

women

from the

years (2005-2015)?

point of

view of

Chinese and

western (UK) news media?

03 PART III
03
PART III

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

P A R T

  • 3 3 T H R E E

T H E O R E T I C A L

T H E O R E T I C A L

F R A M E W O R K

F R A M E W O R K

P A R T 3 3 T H R E E T H E O R
 

Critical Discourse

Critical Discourse
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) Approach Corpus Linguistic (CL) Approach
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) Approach Corpus Linguistic (CL) Approach
 
 

Analysis (CDA) Approach Corpus Linguistic

Analysis (CDA) Approach Corpus Linguistic
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) Approach Corpus Linguistic (CL) Approach
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) Approach Corpus Linguistic (CL) Approach
 

(CL) Approach

Combined

P A R T 3 3 T H R E E T H E O R
P A R T 3 3 T H R E E T H E O R

Approach

04 PART IV
04
PART IV

DATA & METHODS

DATA

LexisNexis, 2014

DATA

P A R T

  • 4 4 F O U R

D A T A

D A T A

& &
&
&

M E T H O D S

M E T H O D S

Chinese wom*n OR Chinese female* OR

Chinese girl Chinese lady

OR Chinese girls OR

OR Chinese ladies

OR

wom*n from China

OR female* from

China OR girl from China OR girls from

China

OR lady

from China

OR ladies

from China

Search Terms
Search
Terms

P A R T

  • 4 4 F O U R

D A T A

D

A T A

& &
&
&

M E T H O D S

M E T H O D S

P A R T 4 4 F O U R D A T A D A
Categories Articles Tokens Types Categories Articles Tokens Types China China Daily Daily Broadsheet 848 547,166 22,691
Categories
Articles
Tokens
Types
Categories
Articles
Tokens
Types
China
China Daily
Daily
Broadsheet
848
547,166
22,691
Global
Global Times
Times
Tabloid
151
Broadsheet
The
The Guardian
Guardian
407
(left-leaning)
456,250
28,560
Daily Mail
a
y
a
Tabloid
Mail on
Mail on
194
(right-leaning)
Sunday

CHINA

CHINA

CORPUS

CORPUS

UK

UK

CORPUS

CORPUS

METHODS

AntConc & Wmatrix

METHODS

  • Rayson, 2008

AntConc
AntConc
Methods
Methods
  • POS tagging & Semantic tagging

  • Anthony, 2015

  • USAS (UCREL Semantic

Annotation System)

  • Collocations

Wmatri
Wmatri

x

  • MI + Log-Likelihood (p > 0.05)

A

general and

abstract terms

B

the body and

the individual

C

arts and crafts

E

emotion

   

H

I

F

food and farming

G

government

and public

architecture,

housing and the

home

money and

commerce in

industry

K

 

M

 

entertainment,

sports and

games

L

life and living

things

movement,

location, travel

and transport

N

N numbers and measurement

numbers and

measurement

O

     

substances,

materials,

objects and

equipment

P

education

Q

language and

communication

S

social actions,

states and

processes

   

X

 

T

time

W

world and

environment

psychological

actions, states

and processes

Y

science and

technology

USAS (UCREL Semantic Annotation System)

Z

names and

grammar

  • Rayson, 2008

AntConc
AntConc
Methods
Methods
  • POS tagging & Semantic tagging

  • Anthony, 2015

  • USAS (UCREL Semantic

Annotation System)

  • Collocations

Wmatri
Wmatri

x

  • MI + Log-Likelihood (p > 0.05)

AntConc
AntConc

Semantic tagging

AntConc Semantic tagging Collocations Wmatri x Database 224 collocates (China corpus) VS 209 collocates (UK corpus)
AntConc Semantic tagging Collocations Wmatri x Database 224 collocates (China corpus) VS 209 collocates (UK corpus)

Collocations

Wmatri
Wmatri

x

Database

Database

224 collocates (China corpus)

VS 209 collocates (UK corpus)

05 PART V
05
PART V

DATA ANALYSIS

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Verbal

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Collocates

V N A
V
N
A

Nominal

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Collocates

Adjectival

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Collocates

V erbal

PART 5

DATA

Collocates

ANALYSIS

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Discourse prosodies of Chinese women in China newspapers identified through verbal collocates

Discourse prosody

Semantic tagging

Example of collocates

 

G2.1- Crime

rape(d), abducted

Chinese women are associated

E3- Violent/Angry

abused, mistreated

with crime, violence and

   

constraint

A1.7+ Constraint

bound, detained, debasing

S8- Hindering

arrested

Chinese women are related to

B5 Clothes and personal

dressing, wearing

clothes and physical appearance

belongings

Chinese women’s marital

S4 Kin

marrying, married, marry

condition is concerned

T3 Time: Old, new and

 

young; age (mis-tagging)

dating, date

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Discourse prosodies of Chinese women in UK newspapers identified through verbal collocates

Discourse prosody

Semantic tagging

Example of collocates

Chinese women tend to have

M1 Moving, coming and

enter, returned, came,

some physical actions

going

going, go

Chinese women are related to

I3.1 Work and

 

some type of work

employment: Generally

working, work

 

A9+ Getting and

adopt, adopted, taking,

Chinese women are connected

possession

having, had, have, has

with the condition of existing or

   

possession

A3+ Existing

being, are, were

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

The number and percentage of collocates in USAS broad semantic

category (E, Q, S and X) in China and UK newspapers

USAS Broad

China Corpus

UK Corpus

Semantic Category

Collocates

Percentage of

Collocates

Percentage of

in Category

overall Collocates

in Category

overall Collocates

E Emotional Actions, States

     

and Processes

  • 6 8.7%

1

1.6%

Q Linguistic Actions, States

     

and Processes

  • 5 7.2%

7

11.3%

S Social Actions, States and

     

Processes

  • 10 14.5%

3

4.8%

X Psychological Actions,

     

States and Processes

  • 6 8.7%

6

9.7%

Total

     

(All Categories in corpus)

  • 69 100%

62

100%

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
Emotional

Emotional

Emotional
Emotional
 
Social

Social

Social
Social
Q E X S
Q
E
X
S
  • Linguistic

Linguistic
Linguistic
  • Psychological

Psychological
Psychological

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

Emotional

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

In China corpus, Chinese women’s preference is about consumption, men and marriage. Chinese women serve as the object of “laughed”.

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
Emotional

Emotional

Emotional
Emotional
 
Social

Social

Social
Social
Q E X S
Q
E
X
S
  • Linguistic

Linguistic
Linguistic
  • Psychological

Psychological
Psychological

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

In China corpus, Chinese women’s marital status is paid close attention.

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Social

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Chinese women are the objects of “allowed”, “arrested” and “forced”.

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
Emotional

Emotional

Emotional
Emotional
 
Social

Social

Social
Social
Q E X S
Q
E
X
S
  • Linguistic

Linguistic
Linguistic
  • Psychological

Psychological
Psychological

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Linguistic

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

In

UK report,

Chinese women

objects of the speech acts.

are always

the

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
Emotional

Emotional

Emotional
Emotional
 
Social

Social

Social
Social
Q E X S
Q
E
X
S
  • Linguistic

Linguistic
Linguistic
  • Psychological

Psychological
Psychological

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

In China corpus, Chinese women’s consideration is always around dressing, man and family issues.

In

UK

corpus,

Chinese

women

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

are

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Psychological

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

the

not

subjects but the objects of psychological action

think’ and ‘suspected’.

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

 
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A
 
1
1

are the top 10 brands that rich Chinese women

prefer

when it comes to

2

 

Some Chinese women

prefer

men from Guangdong because

 

3

‘Chinese women

prefer

to buy bags," says

4

 

Chinese women's

preference

for public servants (Chinese women's ideal jobs of their Mr Right)

 

Concordance of collocates

5

Chinese women have

preferred

men in better

6

Chinese women who responded

preferred

to marry

 

prefer’ & ‘laughed

 

7

While Chinese women

prefer

to look like their peers

tagged as E2 (liking) and

   

their performances and their

     

E4 (happy) in China corpus

8

passion," said a Chinese girl who

preferred

to be called Coco.

9

Utzmann

laughed.

"It is interesting that Chinese ladies are trying to keep the whitest skin,

10

 

"As a musician without a permanent job or income, do you think I would be able to

laughed.

‘Since 2002, every relationship

 

marry a Chinese girl?’’ he

N ominal

PART 5

DATA

Collocates

ANALYSIS

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Nominal collocates based on the Social Actor Approach (van Leeuwen,

1996)

 

China Corpus

UK Corpus

   

yoga, career, curling,

 

volleyball, skywalk,

Functionalization

basketball, football, tourist,

artist, police

player, writer, customers,

audiences

   

country, world, couple,

Categorization

team, group, club, baby,

Identification

beauties, celebs, victims,

feet, hair, sex, India,

teenage, feet, hair, team

Japanese, England,

 

English, American,

Korean

Appraisement

bar, luxury, vogue, alcohol

Nomination

Yajuan, jiarui, mingqiao,

 

yuanyuan, Xiaohong, wen

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Functionalization

Features Functionalization
Features
Functionalization

Chinese

females

in

the

sports

field

are

represented widely in the Chinese news report.

UK newspapers are not poised to functionalize Chinese females.

Social Actor Approach

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Identification

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Features

Physical identification (hair, feet) is a common feature in both China and UK corpus.

Identification

Relational identification represents the major category for the collocates in the UK corpus (country, world, team, group).

Classification occurs in UK news to classify Chinese women by their comparison or association with other nations.

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Classification

in UK

Corpus

victims of Japanese

sex slaves with Korean

objects of adoption by

American family

consumers with

Indian

1
1

2

opens an agency placing baby

American mah-jong club where four elderly

girls from China

Chinese women

with American couples

meet
meet

3

4

5

6

labels Huntsman as un- American for adopting

girls from China

and India

when a 16-year-old

Chinese girl

outperforms a 27-year-old American in the Olympic pool,

The as many as

200,000 mainly Korean and

Chinese women

as sex slaves before and during

as many as 200,000 mainly Korean and

Chinese girls and women

forced to have sex

7

tens of thousands of mainly Korean and

Chinese women

to work in frontline brothels

8

propensity for Indian and

Chinese women

to colour their hair has also increased

9
9

the language barrier between a young

Chinese girl

and her English lover

P A R T

  • 5 5 D

F I V E

D A T A

A

T

A

A N A L Y S I S

A N A L Y S I S

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Nomination

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

Features

Chinese women tend to be viewed as individualized people in Chinese news articles while as innominate identity or collective

Identification

group in UK newspapers.

Social Actor Approach

P A R T 5 5 D F I V E D A T A A

A djectival

Collocates

PART 5

DATA

ANALYSIS

with most collocates in each

broad categories

corpus

A

A

general and

general and

abstract terms

abstract terms

B B

the body and

the body and

the individual

the individual

C

C

arts and crafts

arts and crafts

E E

emotion

emotion

   

H

 

food and farming

G

government

and public

architecture,

housing and the

home

money and

commerce in

industry

K

K

entertainment,

entertainment,

sports and

sports and

games

games

L L

life and living

life and living

things

things

M

M

movement,

movement,

location, travel

location, travel

and transport

and transport

N

N

numbers and

numbers and

measurement

measurement

O

     

substances,

Q

materials,

objects and

equipment

education

language and

communication

social actions,

states and

processes

T

T

time

time

W

W

world and

world and

environment

environment

X

X

psychological

psychological

actions, states

actions, states

and processes

and processes

Y

Y

science and

science and

technology

technology

Z

     

names and

grammar

broad categories with most collocates in each corpus

A A 22.9% 16.3% 7 8 Others Others 19 22 9 4 N 54.3% 51.2% 4
A
A
22.9%
16.3%
7
8
Others
Others
19
22
9
4
N
54.3%
51.2%
4
20.9%
5
N
11.4%
T
T
11.4%
11.6%
CHINA
UK

Category A

——general and abstract terms

China
China
good evaluaions
good evaluaions
UK
UK
good
good

evaluations

comparing terms

negative actions

China Corpus

Category A

——general and abstract terms

What is “typical” woman in China corpus?

They were fatalistic, forbearing but

grateful, and had a strong survival

typical

qualities of traditional Chinese women.

strength, which are

   

of Chinese women that she feels ashamed

Chen said his wife's attitude is

typical

to be open and aggressive in sexual

matters.

The image was of a quintessential Chinese

women, but Chinese with money at the

typical

Chinese women with little glamour.

time did not want be identified with a

   

Chinese lady, - middle-aged and middle-

the

typical

class – has of late been making waves in

world financial market.

Category A

——general and abstract terms

What is “unusual” woman in China corpus?

Chinese women have a quite

Liu is

usual

unusual
unusual

body type.

among Chinese women in that she is

proud of her tanned skin.

Category N

——numbers and measurements China Corpus half half slim slim many many most most tall tall first
——numbers and measurements
China Corpus
half
half
slim
slim
many
many
most
most
tall
tall
first
first
little
little
full
full
UK Corpus

Category N

——numbers and measurements

most most
most
most
many many
many
many

Category N

——numbers and measurements

Quantifying human beings has the effect of Quantifying human beings has the effect of representing representing
Quantifying human beings has the effect of
Quantifying human beings has the effect of
representing
representing
them
them
as
as
a
a
heterogeneous
heterogeneous
group, group, objectifying objectifying them them and and backgrounding backgrounding
their individual activities.
their individual activities.
- Baker et al. (2008)
- Baker et al. (2008)

Category N

——numbers and measurements

Category N

——numbers and measurements

Category T

——time

elderl y
elderl
y
Category T ——time elderl y young middle-aged
Category T ——time elderl y young middle-aged
Category T ——time elderl y young middle-aged
Category T ——time elderl y young middle-aged
Category T ——time elderl y young middle-aged
Category T ——time elderl y young middle-aged

young

middle-aged

Category T ——time elderl y young middle-aged
06 PART VI
06
PART VI

CONCLUSION

6 6

P A R T

S I X

  • C C O N C L U S I O N

O N C L U S I O N

Similarities

6 6 P A R T S I X C C O N C L U
1 2
1
2

Chinese women often play passivized roles in emotional,

social and psychological processes.

Chinese women are portrayed as a heterogeneous group

associated with marriage, male, sexuality, and

appearance.

3
3

Chinese women in the sports field are highly focused

as functionalized

categorization.

actor

or

membership

6 6

P A R T

S I X

  • C C O N C L U S I O N

O N C L U S I O N

Differences

6 6 P A R T S I X C C O N C L U
1 2
1
2

Chinese women’s work and employment as well as education

are paid more attention in UK news than in Chinese news.

Chinese newspapers tend to functionalize Chinese women

while UK newspapers tend to identify them according to

their relations with the group or people from other specific

nations.

3
3

Chinese news articles tend to nominate Chinese women as

the individualized whereas UK news view them as

collective identities.

6 6

P A R T

S I X

  • C C O N C L U S I O N

O N C L U S I O N

6 6 P A R T S I X C C O N C L U
  • 11 The corpus is not representative enough due to limited data.

The consideration of visual information are lacked in analysis, due to
22

the current corpus can only present language out of its visual

context.

The identification of discourse prosodies is a rather subjective
33

process that the research bias is hard to avoid.

Due to the diachronic nature of the corpus, there are unavoidably

  • 44 some ‘seasonal collocates’ rather than ‘consistent collocates’.

e

Q&A