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111ColumbiaStreet,NewYork,NY10002 212­677­5190 MR.MARVINCADORNIGARA,PBISTeacher

111ColumbiaStreet,NewYork,NY10002

212­677­5190

MR.MARVINCADORNIGARA,PBISTeacher

MEMBERWylieDituriCLASS6APERIOD3DATE5/29/16

MEMBERJamesThompsonCLASS6APERIOD3DATE5/29/16

LABORATORYREPORT:SCIENCEFAIRPROJECT

InfiniteWater,andItsConservation

INTRODUCTION Thetopicpursuedwaswaterconservationandreuse.Thebiggestmotivatorsforpursuingthislineif studyforthesciencefairprojectwastheawardwonatFutureCity.Wehadwontheawardfromsomething thatwehadn’tactuallyfocusedonandthesciencefairgaveusthatopportunitytofocusonit.Sousingtape, plasticandcardboardaworkingversionofourwatermanagementsystemtoseeifitcouldactuallywork,and itdid.Themostimportantpartofourinventionwasthewatershooter.Ittookwaterfromabucketandsentit intooursystemandthenbackoutintotherespectivebucket.Thematerialweusedtofilterthewaterwere basiccarbonfiltersthatareusedinfishtanks.Wewouldalsoliketonotethatinarealsizemodelthesystem wouldbepoweredbyageneratorthatallthestilldirtywateraftercleaningwouldgothroughbeforereturning

tothedirtywaterchamber.Sadly,thatwouldhavecostusupwardsof$350tomake.

Oursystemissimilartomanyoutthere,exceptforthefactthatitwouldactuallypoweritself.Itwould alsobeaverysanitarysolutionwithverylittlerustablemetalconsideringmostofitcouldbemadewithpvc pipingandliquidgelstokeepitgermfree.Ourpresentsystemismostlyjustpipesthattakewaterfromlakes

onaonewaytriptoourhouseandthentheocean.Thereisalreadyonly1%ofthewateronearththatwecan

actuallydrink,andwearethrowingmillionsofgallonsofitawayeveryday,forittoneverbedrunkagain.Itis

oneofthemostessentialthingstohumansurvival,anaveragehumanonlylivesfor3dayswithouthydration

anyway.Wetestedoursystemthroughpracticaltrials.Wewouldbuildaportion,testifitworked;andinthe

endweputeverythingtogetherandtestedit.Wehad5failedtrialsbeforewefinallygotittowork.Onceitdid

workthoughitworkedgreatandwecleanedawholegallonofwaterinaminuteandahalf.

Ourresearchhypothesisisthataselfpoweringwaterfiltrationsystemisplausibleandcouldgreatly benefithumankind.Itisn'tastandardhypothesisbecausewecreatedaninventiontohelpthewholeof humanity,notjusttoproveordisprovesomethingtohumanity.Oneofthemostinnovativepartsofour inventionisthereactionturbine(Types…HydropowerTurbines).Areactionturbineisasetofbladeplacedin awaterflowwhichpowerthemselvesfromthewater'smotion.Thatformofturbineistheonlyviableoption becauseitcouldpoweritselfandtheplant.Thetubeswerebasicandhavebeenusedbyhumanssincethe

1800s.

Thescientificquestionis:Whenwaterflowsthroughafullreusalsystemthenitwillpoweritselfand

givecleanwatertoeveryoneattached.Thehypothesisis:ifwaterflowsthroughoursystem,thenthewater

willprovideenoughwaterfordrinkingandenoughtopoweritself.

Theconclusionsgatheredwereverypositive.Thesystemworkedwithminimalerror,onlyaboutaliter

ofleakinginalltestscombined.Thatoneliterisoutofatotaltwelveused.Wealsoconcludedthatthesystem

wouldbeviableinacitywideprogram.Thatisbecausethesystemcarriedmostofthewaterinitanditalso

cleanedmostofit.Alsomostofoursystemisbuilt,it'sjustbeingusedfordifferentpurposes,wewouldjust

havetorepurposealreadyexistingthings.

RESULTS

Theresearchproblemisreflectedthroughthetheconductoftheexperiment,becausetheexperiment purposewastotestiftheinfinitewatersystemisplausible,andcanbeusedonalargescale.Throughthe threetrials,itwasdiscoveredthatthesystemhadanumberofflaws.Thereasonafullwaterreusalsystem hadtobetestedisbecausewaterisalimitedresource,onedayhumanswillexpendallofit.Ifasystemthat neverwastedwatercametoexistthetimespentonthisplanetbyhumanscouldincreaseexponentially.Itis alsoimportanttohelptheenvironmentnow,whichthiswillthroughnotdumpingdirtywaterintotheocean, andlesseningleadpoisoning. Theexperimentwasconductedthroughasetoftrials.Fivetestsweredone,withthelastbeingfully successful.Eachtimethemachinestartedwithhalfaliterofwaterinthesystemandwewouldincreasethe amountgraduallyuntilsomethingbroke.Thedatawasthenanalyzedandthemachinemodifiedbasedoffof eachexperiment.Thedatacollectedfromthetrialledtothisconclusion:afullyreusablewatersystemis

viable,butitwouldrequirea24/7repairteam,andthousandsofdollarstomakeoneblockwidesystem.The

repairswereneededineachtrialandaftereachtrialfortheinvention,theonlytrialthatdidnotrequiresome formofrepairwasthelastone,whichwasconcludedtobethesolution.Itwasalsoconcludedthatamaterial tosoakupleakswasneeded,andthatrubbersealedwatergateswereneededtostopallleaking.Inall, repairswouldbeextremelynecessaryandsowouldwaterproofing,noonewantsfecesintheirtapwater.This

isallshowninoursinglegraph=(1).

(caption:thisgraphshowsalloftheseparatedataforourproject.)

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/11aNdjcf5WVstZu87BrgerQNnW5KpK3ERMPE8OwNsCoE/edit?usp

=sharing

DISCUSSION

Theresultsoftheexperimentvariedbecauseofchangesintheinvention.Thefirsttesthadmanyunthought

oferrorsthatwerelaterdealtwith.Asthetestsprogressedlesserrorsappearedandbythefifthandfinaltest

therewereveryfewerrorsintheinvention.Onthefifthtestmostofthewaterthatwentthroughthefilters

endedupclean,whichwasgood,butalsoposedaproblem:therewasn'tenoughdirtywaterlefttokeep

poweringahypotheticalwaterturbine.Fromtheresultsofourfifthtestitcanbeconcludedthatawater

filtrationsystemwouldneedbackupelectricity,incaseofnotenoughwater,tokeepitselfpowered,but

despitethattheysystemcouldbeusedonalargerscale.

Therearesomefactorsthatcouldhaveinfluencedtheresults.Thenumberonefactorwouldhavebeenthe

correctnessatgaugingwaterquality.Thatisbecausewiththematerialsprovidedthewaterhadtobetested

withlitmuspaperandtheninatimelymanner(sothatnothingwouldoverflow)thewatergatesliftedmanually.

Thatcausedsomelossinwaterwhileitwasbeingfiltered,buttherewasstillenoughtorecordresults.Bias

alsoprobablyplayedaroleinhowthedatawasinterpreted.Itisproventhatthehumanmindtriestohelp

promotethestateofanythingtheymade,orarecloseto;weareveryselectiveindatainterpretation

(Caldwell).Thebestthatcouldbedonewiththematerialsprovidedwasdone,andthedatawasrecordedwith

aslittlebiasaspossible.

Advancesinscienceandtechnologyarethemostimportantforhumanity.Theyarewhatprovidesurvivaland

adaptabilitytonewgrounds.Withoutpreviousinnovationstheinventiondiscussedinthispaperwouldn'texist,

andnorwouldmanyoftheotherexperimentsindifferentlabreports.Yet,evenwiththeneedfornewthe

credibilityoftheoldmustalsobechecked.Somanystudiesareunconfirmedandyetstillendupalloverthe

tv.Therewasonespecificstudywhereittalkedaboutsomethingveryhigh­techandthenthenewsstations

thoughtthepaperonitwasreferringtofartsandcancersotheyreleasedthisheadline:“FartscanCure

Cancer”(JohnOliver).Ifastudyisneverredone,orthespecificresultsaren'tverifieditcannotbeconsidered

proven,whichiswhathappensalot.

Theonlyfuturetestsfortheinventiondiscussedinthispaperarelargerscaleones.Itcouldbeseenifthe

systemcouldcleanwaterforahouseforawholeweek,ormaybeavillage.Thefutureofsomethingcan'tbe

determinedbythewordsonapieceofpaper,butitcanbedeterminedbywhatisdonewiththosewordsona

pieceofpaper.

MATERIALSANDMETHODS

Theexperimentstartedwithablackplastic1ftby2fttray.Thencardboardrectanglesatheightsof1ft,8

inchesand4incheswereplacedinorderfromtallesttosmallest.Afterthatatubewasplacedontopofeach

pillarandtappedinplace.ThenaPolandspringwaterbottlewascutinhalfandgluedtothewithwaterproof

glue.Afterthatanotherwaterbottlewascutinhalfandoneofthehalveswasglueddowntocreatethe

locationthegateswouldbelocated.Thentwocircular¼inchholeswerecutintotheformerlymentioned

plasticandtubesweregluedintotheholestocarrythewaterintoitsrespectivearea.Insidethenowmade

capsuleacarbonfishtankwaterfilterwasgluedtotheendofthefirsttubecarryingthewaterintothecentral

area.Thenasetoffourspongeswereplacedinasquarebelowthemainareatostopanyleakingwaterfrom

damagingthepillarsandotherequipment.Thenthetwotubesthatfilteredwaterwereattachedtoabucket

labeled:cleanwater,andabucketlabeled:dirtywater.Thenawaterpipeaccelerator(itsendswaterup

pipeswithpressure)wasputinthedirtywaterbucketandhookeduptotheoriginaltubesendingwaterinto

thesystem.

Totestthewaterqualityofwaterinthemaincapsulelitmuspaperwasused.Ifthewaterwasevenasmidge

dirtyitwouldgothroughthesystemagain.

REFERENCES

"TypesofHydropowerTurbines."DepartmentofEnergy.DOE,n.d.Web.29May2016.

Caldwell,Kay,andAnitaAtwel."Non­participantObservation:UsingVideoTapestoCollectDatainNursing

Research.":NurseResearcher:Vol.13,No.2(RCNi).RCNi,1Oct.2005.Web.29May2016.

Oliver,John."LastWeekTonightwithJohnOliver:ScientificStudies(HBO)."YouTube.HBO,8Mar.2016.

Web.29May2016.

NAME

CLASS

SCORE

LABORATORYREPORT:

AScienceFairProject

RUBRIC

LEVEL1

(Barely)

0.25point

LEVEL2

(Vaguely)

0.5point

LEVEL3

(Clearly)

0.75point

LEVEL4

(Completely)

1point

PARTS

Discussionoftheresearchtopic

Backgroundinformationonresearchtopicandproblem

Statementofthescientificresearchproblem

Statementofthescientificresearchhypothesis

Briefsummaryoftheconclusion

Rationaleoftheexperiment

Briefdescriptionoftheexperiment

Representationofresearchdatathroughtables,graphs,etc.

Interpretationoftheresearchdata

Summaryoftheresearchresults

Conclusionsbasedonresultsdiscussion

Discussionofresearchlimitations,errors,etc.

Importanceoftheresultstoscientificknowledge

Furtherquestions,furtherresearchandexperimentation

Detaileddiscussionoftheexperimentalprocedure

Descriptionofmaterials/unitsofmeasurement

Useofpassivevoiceoftheverbinprocedure

Useofpasttenseinwritingtheprocedure

Referencescitedthroughoutthereport

BibliographicalentriesintheReferencepage