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ii

ABOUT THE EDITOR IN CHIEF


Merrill Skolnik was Superintendent of the Radar Division at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory for over 30
years. Before that he was involved in advances in radar while at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Institute for
Defense Analyses, and the Research Division of Electronic Communications, Inc. He is the author of the
popular McGraw-Hill textbook Introduction to Radar Systems, now in its third edition, the editor of Radar
Applications, as well as being a former editor of the Proceedings of the IEEE. He earned the Doctor of
Engineering Degree from The Johns Hopkins University, where he also received the B.E and M.S.E degrees in
electrical engineering. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the IEEE,
and the first recipient of the IEEE Dennis J. Picard Medal for Radar Technologies and Applications.

iii

RADAR HANDBOOK
Merrill I. Skolnik
Editor in Chief
Third Edition

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Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul
Singapore Sydney Toronto

iv

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CONTENTS
Contributors
Preface
Chapter 1 An Introduction and Overview of Radar
Merrill Skolnik
1.1 Radar in Brief /

xiii
xv
1.1
1.1

1.2 Types of Radars /

1.5

1.3 Information Available from a Radar /

1.7

1.4 The Radar Equation /

1.10

1.5 Radar Frequency Letter-band Nomenclature /

1.13

1.6 Effect of Operating Frequency on Radar /

1.14

1.7 Radar Nomenclature /

1.18

1.8 Some Past Advances in Radar /

1.19

1.9 Applications of Radar /

1.20

1.10 Conceptual Radar System Design /

1.22

Chapter 2 MTI Radar


William W. Shrader and Vilhelm Gregers-Hansen
2.1 Preface /

2.1
2.1

2.2 Introduction to MTI Radar /

2.2

2.3 Clutter Filter Response to Moving Targets /

2.9

2.4 Clutter Characteristics /

2.10

2.5 Definitions /

2.19

2.6 Improvement Factor Calculations /

2.23

2.7 Optimum Design of Clutter Filters /

2.25

2.8 MTI Clutter Filter Design /

2.33

2.9 MTI Filter Design for Weather Radars /

2.46

2.10 Clutter Filter Bank Design /

2.52

2.11 Performance Degradation Caused by Receiver Limiting /

2.59

2.12 Radar System Stability Requirements /

2.65

2.13 Dynamic Range and A/D Conversion Considerations /

2.78

2.14 Adaptive MTI /

2.80

2.15 Radar Clutter Maps /

2.83

2.16 Sensitivity-velocity Control (SVC) /

2.87

2.17 Considerations Applicable to MTI Radar Systems /

2.91

vi

Chapter 3 Airborne MTI


James K. Day and Fred M. Staudaher
3.1 Systems Using Airborne MTI Techniques /

3.1
3.1

3.2 Coverage Considerations /

3.2

3.3 Airborne MTI Performance Drivers /

3.3

3.4 Platform Motion and Altitude Effects on MTI Performance /

3.3

3.5 Platform-motion Compensation Abeam /

3.10

3.6 Scanning-motion Compensation /

3.14

3.7 Simultaneous Platform Motion and Scan Compensation /

3.18

3.8 Platform-motion Compensation, Forward Direction /

3.21

3.9 Space-time Adaptive Motion Compensation /

3.23

3.10 Effect of Multiple Spectra /

3.31

3.11 Example AMTI Radar System /

3.32

Chapter 4 Pulse Doppler Radar


John P. Stralka and William G. Fedarko
4.1 Characteristics and Applications /

4.1
4.1

4.2 Pulse Doppler Clutter /

4.14

4.3 Dynamic-range and Stability Requirements /

4.24

4.4 Range and Doppler Ambiguity Resoluton /

4.31

4.5 Mode and Waveform Design /

4.35

4.6 Range Performance /

4.39

List of Abbreviations /

4.48

Chapter 5 Multifunctional Radar Systems for Fighter Aircraft


David Lynch, Jr. and Carlo Kopp
5.1 Introduction /

5.1
5.1

5.2 Typical Missions and Modes /

5.10

5.3 A-A Mode Descriptions & Waveforms /

5.16

5.4 A-S Mode Descriptions & Waveforms /

5.28

Chapter 6 Radar Receivers


Michael E. Yeomans
6.1 The Configuration of a Radar Receiver /

6.1
6.1

6.2 Noise and Dynamic-range Considerations /

6.4

6.3 Bandwidth Considerations /

6.9

6.4 Receiver Front End /

6.10

6.5 Local Oscillators /

6.14

6.6 Gain Control /

6.22

6.7 Filtering /

6.24

6.8 Limiters /

6.29

6.9 I/Q Demodulators /

6.31

6.10 Analog-to-Digital Converters /

6.35

6.11 Digital Receivers /

6.40

6.12 Diplex Operation /

6.46

6.13 Waveform Generation and Upconversion /

6.47

vii

Chapter 7 Automatic Detection, Tracking, and Sensor Integration


W. G. Bath and G. V.Trunk
7.1 Introduction /

7.1
7.1

7.2 Automatic Detection /

7.1

7.3 Automatic Tracking /

7.22

7.4 Networked Radars /

7.46

7.5 Unlike-sensor Integration /

7.49

Chapter 8 Pulse Compression Radar


Michael R. Ducoff and Byron W. Tietjen
8.1 Introduction /
8.2 Pulse Compression Waveform Types /

8.1
8.1
8.2

8.3 Factors Affecting Choice of Pulse Compression Systems /

8.26

8.4 Pulse Compression Implementation and Radar System Examples /

8.28

Appendix /
Chapter 9 Tracking Radar
Dean D. Howard
9.1 Introduction /
9.2 Monopulse (Simultaneous Lobing) /

8.36
9.1
9.1
9.3

9.3 Scanning and Lobing /

9.16

9.4 Servosystems for Tracking Radar /

9.17

9.5 Target Acquisition and Range Tracking /

9.20

9.6 Special Monopulse Techniques /

9.24

9.7 Sources of Error /

9.26

9.8 Target-caused Errors (Target Noise) /

9.26

9.9 Other External Causes of Error /

9.37

9.10 Internal Sources of Error /

9.42

9.11 Summary of Sources of Error /

9.43

9.12 Error Reduction Techniques /

9.46

Chapter 10 The Radar Transmitter


Thomas A. Weil and Merrill Skolnik
10.1 Introduction /

10.1

10.2 Linear-beam Amplifiers /

10.1
10.4

10.3 Magnetron /

10.14

10.4 Crossed-field Amplifiers /

10.16

10.5 Gyrotrons /

10.17

10.6 Transmitter Spectrum Control /

10.19

10.7 Grid-controlled Tubes /

10.21

10.8 Modulators /

10.23

10.9 Which RF Power Source to Use? /

10.25

viii

Chapter 11 Solid id-State Transmitters


Michael T. Borkowski
11.1 Introduction /

11.1
11.1

11.2 Advantages of Solid State /

11.1

11.3 Solid-state Devices /

11.5

11.4 Designing for the Solid-state Bottle Transmitter /

11.17

11.5 Designing for the Solid-state Phased Array Transmitter /

11.24

11.6 Solid-state System Examples /

11.37

Chapter 12 Reflector Antennas


Michael E. Cooley and Daniel Davis
12.1 Introduction /

12.1
12.7

12.2 Basic Principles and Parameters /

12.3

12.3 Reflector Antenna Architectures /

12.16

12.4 Reflector Feeds /

12.25

12.5 Reflector Antenna Analysis /

12.37

12.6 Mechanical Design Considerations /

12.35

Acknowledgments /
Chapter 13 Phased Array Radar Antennas
Joe Frank and John D. Richards
13.1 Introduction /
13.2 Array Theory /

12.47
13.1
13.7
13.9

13.3 Planar Arrays and Beam Steering /

13.15

13.4 Aperture Matching and Mutual Coupling /

13.20

13.5 Low-sidelobe Phased Arrays /

13.28

13.6 Quantization Effects /

13.34

13.7 Bandwidth of Phased Arrays /

13.38

13.8 Feed Networks (Beamformers) /

13.46

13.9 Phase Shifters /

13.57

13.10 Solid-state Modules /

13.53

13.11 Multiple Simultaneous Receive Beams /

13.54

13.12 Digital Beamforming /

13.56

13.13 Radiation Pattern Nulling /

13.57

13.14 Calibration of Active Phased Array Antennas /

13.60

13.15 Phased Array Systems /

13.62

Chapter 14 Radar Cross Section


Eugene F. Knott
14.1 Introduction /

14.1
14.1

14.2 The Concept of Echo Power /

14.4

14.3 RCS Prediction Techniques /

14.16

14.4 RCS Measurement Techniques /

14.27

14.5 Radar Echo Suppression /

14.36

ix

Chapter 15 Sea Clutter


Lewis B. Wetzel
15.1 Introduction /

15.1
15.1

15.2 The Sea Surface /

15.3

15.3 Empirical Behavior of Sea Clutter /

15.7

15.4 Theories and Models of Sea Clutter /

15.27

15.5 Summary and Conclusions /

15.37

Chapter 16 Ground Echo


Richard K. Moore
16.1 Introduction /

16.1
16.1

16.2 Parameters Affecting Ground Return /

16.4

16.3 Theoretical Models and Their Limitations /

16.7

16.4 Fading of Ground Echoes /

16.12

16.5 Measurement Techniques for Ground Return /

16.19

16.6 General Models for Scattering Coefficient (Clutter Models) /

16.29

16.7 Scattering Coefficient Data /

16.35

16.8 Polarimetry /

16.46

16.9 Scattering Coefficient Data Near Grazing /

16.52

16.10 Imaging Radar Interpretation /

16.55

Chapter 17 Synthetic Aperture Radar


Roger Sullivan
17.1 Basic Principle of SAR /

17.1
17.1

17.2 Early History of SAR /

17.2

17.3 Types of SAR /

17.2

17.4 SAR Resolution /

17.6

17.5 Key Aspects of SAR /

17.10

17.6 SAR Image Quality /

17.16

17.7 Summary of Key SAR Equations /

17.21

17.8 Special SAR Applications /

17.22

Chapter 18 Space-Based Remote Sensing Radars


R. Keith Raney
18.1 Perspective /
18.2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) /

18.1
18.1
18.5

18.3 Altimeters /

18.29

18.4 Planetary Radars /

18.43

18.5 Scatterometers /

18.53

18.6 Radar Sounders /

18.59

Chapter 19 Meteorological Radar


R. Jeffrey Keeler and Robert J. Serafin
19.1 Introduction /

19.1
19.1

19.2 The Radar Equation for Meteorological Targets /

19.3

19.3 Design Considerations /

19.6

19.4 Signal Processing /

19.19

19.5 Operational Applications /

19.25

19.6 Research Applications /

19.33

Chapter 20 HF Over-the-Horizon Radar


James M. Headrick and Stuart J. Anderson
20.1 Introduction /

20.1

20.2 The Radar Equation /

20.5

20.3 Factors Influencing Skywave Radar Design /

20.7

20.4 The Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation /

20.13

20.5 Waveforms for HF Radar /

20.21

20.6 The Transmitting System /

20.23

20.7 Radar Cross Section /

20.26

20.8 Clutter: Echoes from the Environment /

20.29

20.9 Noise, Interference, and Spectrum Occupancy /

20.40

20.10 The Receiving System /

20.45

20.11 Signal Processing and Tracking /

20.49

20.12 Radar Resource Management /

20.54

20.13 Radar Performance Modeling /

20.55

Appendix: HF Surface Wave Radar /

20.70

Chapter 21 Ground Penetrating Radar


David Daniels
21.1 Introduction /
21.2 Physics of Propagation in Materials /

20.1

21.1
21.1
21.6

21.3 Modeling /

21.13

21.4 Properties of Materials /

21.18

21.5 GPR Systems /

21.20

21.6 Modulation Techniques /

21.21

21.7 Antennas /

21.24

21.8 Signal and Image Processing /

21.30

21.9 Applications /

21.35

21.10 Licensing /

21.39

Chapter 22 Civil Marine Radar


Andy Norris
22.1 Introduction /

22.1
22.1

22.2 The Challenges /

22.3

22.3 International Standards /

22.7

22.4 Technology /

22.10

22.5 Target Tracking /

22.17

xi

22.6 User Interface /

22.19

22.7 Integration with AIS /

22.23

22.8 Radar Beacons /

22.25

22.9 Validation Testing /

22.28

22.10 Vessel Tracking Services /

22.29

Appendix The Early Days of CMR /

22.31

List of Maritime Radar-related Abbreviations /

22.33

Acknowledgments /

22.34

Chapter 23 Bistatic Radar


Nicholas J. Willis
23.1 Concept and Definitions /

23.1
23.1

23.2 Coordinate Systems /

23.3

23.3 Bistatic Radar Equation /

23.4

23.4 Applications /

23.9

23.5 Bistatic Doppler /

23.14

23.6 Target Location /

23.17

23.7 Target Cross Section /

23.19

23.8 Surface Clutter /

23.22

23.9 Unique Problems and Requirements /

23.26

Chapter 24 Electronic Counter-Countermeasures


Alfonso Farina
24.1 Introduction /

24.1
24.1

24.2 Terminology /

24.2

24.3 Electronic Warfare Support Measures /

24.2

24.4 Electronic Countermeasures /

24.5

24.5 Objectives and Taxonomy of ECCM Techniques /

24.8

24.6 Antenna-related ECCM /

24.10

24.7 Transmitter-related ECCM /

24.31

24.8 Receiver-related ECCM /

24.32

24.9 Signal-processing-related ECCM /

24.33

24.10 Operational-deployment Techniques /

24.36

24.11 Application of ECCM Techniques /

24.37

24.12 ECCM and ECM Efficacy /

24.54

Acronym List /

24.56

Acknowledgments /

24.58

Chapter 25 Radar Digital Signal Processing


James J. Alter and Jeffrey O. Coleman
25.1 Introduction /

25.1
25.1

25.2 Receive Channel Processing /

25.2

25.3 Transmit Channel Processing /

25.20

25.4 DSP Tools /

25.22

25.5 Design Considerations /

25.34

25.6 Summary /

25.37

Acknowledgments /

25.38

xii

Chapter 26 The Propagation Factor, Fp, in the Radar Equation


Wayne L. Patterson
26.1 Introduction /

26.1
26.1

26.2 The Earths Atmosphere /

26.2

26.3 Refraction /

26.3

26.4 Standard Propagation /

26.4

26.5 Anomalous Propagation /

26.6

26.6 Propagation Modeling /

26.13

26.7 EM System Assessment Programs /

26.18

26.8 AREPS Radar System Assessment Model /

26.23

26.9 AREPS Radar Displays /

26.25

Index

1.1

xiii

CONTRIBUTORS
James J. Alter Naval Research Laboratory (CHAPTER 25)
Stuart J. Anderson Australian Defense Science and Technology Organisation (CHAPTER 20)
W. G. Bath The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (CHAPTER 7)
Michael T. Borkowski Raytheon Company (CHAPTER 11)
Jeffrey O. Coleman Naval Research Laboratory (CHAPTER 25)
Michael E. Cooley Northrop Grumman, Electronic Systems (CHAPTER 12)
David Daniels ERA Technology (CHAPTER 21)
Daniel Davis Northrop Grumman Corporation (CHAPTER 12)
James K. Day Lockheed Martin Corporation (CHAPTER 3)
Michael R. Ducoff Lockheed Martin Corporation (CHAPTER 8)
Alfonso Farina SELEX Sistemi Integrati (CHAPTER 24)
William G. Fedarko Northrop Grumman Corporation (CHAPTER 4)
Joe Frank The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (CHAPTER 13)
Vilhelm Gregers-Hansen Naval Research Laboratory (CHAPTER 2)
James M. Headrick Naval Research Laboratory, retired (CHAPTER 20)
Dean D. Howard Consultant to ITT Industries, Inc. (CHAPTER 9)
R. Jeffrey Keeler National Center for Atmospheric Research (CHAPTER 19)
Eugene F. Knott Tomorrows Research (CHAPTER 14)
Carlo Kopp Monash University (CHAPTER 5)
David Lynch, Jr. DL Sciences, Inc. (CHAPTER 5)
Richard K. Moore The University of Kansas (CHAPTER 16)
Andy Norris Consultant in Navigation Systems (CHAPTER 22)
Wayne L. Patterson Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (CHAPTER 26)
Keith Raney The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (CHAPTER 18)
John D. Richards The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (CHAPTER 13)
Robert J. Serafin National Center for Atmospheric Research (CHAPTER 19)
William W. Shrader Shrader Associates (CHAPTER 2)
Merrill Skolnik (CHAPTERS 1 and 10)
Fred M. Staudaher Naval Research Laboratory, retired (CHAPTER 3)

xiv

John P. Stralka Northrop Grumman Corporation (CHAPTER 4)


Roger Sullivan Institute for Defense Analyses (CHAPTER 17)
Byron W. Tietjen Lockheed Martin Corporation (CHAPTER 8)
G. V. Trunk The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (CHAPTER 7)
Thomas A. Weil (CHAPTER 10)
Lewis B. Wetzel Naval Research Laboratory, retired (CHAPTER 15)
Nicholas J. Willis Technology Service Corporation, retired (CHAPTER 23)
Michael E. Yeomans Raytheon Company (CHAPTER 6)

xv

PREFACE
Radar is an important example of an electrical engineering system. In university engineering courses, the
emphasis usually is on the basic tools of the electrical engineer such as circuit design, signals, solid state,
digital processing, electronic devices, electromagnetics, automatic control, microwaves, and so forth. But in
the real world of electrical engineering practice, these are only the techniques, piece parts, or subsystems that
make up some type of system employed for a useful purpose. In addition to radar and other sensor systems,
electrical engineering systems include communications, control, energy, information, industrial, military,
navigation, entertainment, medical, and others. These are what the practice of electrical engineering is all
about. Without them there would be little need for electrical engineers. However, the practicing engineer who
is involved in producing a new type of electrical engineering system often has to depend on acquiring
knowledge that was not usually covered in his or her engineering courses. The radar engineer, for example,
has to understand the major components and subsystems that make up a radar, as well as how they fit
together. The Radar Handbook attempts to help in this task. In addition to the radar system designer, it is
hoped that those who are responsible for procuring new radar systems, those who utilize radars, those who
maintain radar systems, and those who manage the engineers who do the above, also will find the Radar
Handbook to be of help in fulfilling such tasks.
The third edition of the Radar Handbook is evidence that the development and application of radar for both
civilian and military purposes continue to grow in both utility and in improved technology. Some of the many
advances in radar since the previous edition include the following:
- The extensive use of digital methods for improved signal processing, data processing, decision making,
flexible radar control, and multifunction radar
- Doppler weather radar
- Ground moving target indication, or GMTI
- An extensive experimental database describing low-angle land clutter, as obtained by MIT Lincoln
Laboratory, that replaced the previously widely used clutter model that dated back to World War II
- The realization that microwave sea echo at low grazing angles is due chiefly to what are called sea spikes
- The active-aperture phased array radar system using solid-state modules, also called active electronically
scanned arrays (AESA), which is attractive for some multifunction radar applications that need to manage
both power and spatial coverage
- Planetary exploration with radar
- Computer-based methods for predicting radar propagation performance in realistic environments

xvi

- Operational use of HF over-the-horizon radar


- Improved methods for detecting moving targets in clutter, including space-time adaptive processing
- Operational use of inverse synthetic aperture radar for target recognition
- Interferometric synthetic aperture radar, or InSAR, to obtain the height of a resolved scatterer or to detect
moving ground targets as well as provide a SAR image of a scene
- High precision space-based altimeters, with accuracy of a few centimeters, to measure the Earths geoid
- Ultrawideband radar for ground penetrating and similar applications
- Improved high power, wide bandwidth klystron power sources based on clustered cavity resonators, as well
as the multiple-beam klystron
- The appearance of wide bandgap semiconductors that allow better performance because of high power and
high operating temperatures
- The availability of high-power millimeter-wave generators based on the gyroklystron
- Nonlinear FM pulse compression with low sidelobe levels
- The replacement, by the computer, of the operator as information extractor and decision maker
The above are not listed in any particular order, nor should they be considered a complete enumeration of
radar developments since the appearance of the previous edition. There were also some radar topics in
previous editions of the Radar Handbook that are of lesser interest and so were not included in this edition.
The chapter authors, who are experts in their particular field, were told to consider the reader of their
chapter as being knowledgeable in the general subject of radar and even an expert in some other particular
area of radar, but not necessarily knowledgeable about the subject of the particular chapter the author was
writing.
It should be expected that with a book in print as long as the Radar Handbook has been, not all chapter
authors from the previous editions would be available to do the third edition. Many of the previous authors
have retired or are no longer with us. Sixteen of the twenty-six chapters in this edition have authors or
coauthors who were not involved in the previous editions.
The hard work of preparing these chapters was done by the individual expert authors of the various
chapters. Thus the value of the Radar Handbook is the result of the diligence and expertise of the authors who
contributed their time, knowledge, and experience to make this handbook a useful addition to the desk of radar
system engineers and all those people vital to the development, production, and employment of radar systems.
I am deeply grateful to all the contributing authors for their fine work and the long hours they had to apply to
their task. It is the chapter authors who make any handbook a success. My sincere thanks to them all.
As stated in the Preface of the previous edition, readers who wish to reference or quote material from the
Radar Handbook are asked to mention the names of the individual chapter authors who produced the material.
MERRILL SKOLNIK
Baltimore, Maryland

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THERANGEANDANGLEACCURACIESNEEDEDTOMEETTHERADARUSERSNEEDS ASWELLASTHE
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DESIGNANDPERFORMANCEASDISCUSSEDIN#HAPTERS  ANDOFTHIS(ANDBOOK
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ANDSOMETIMESTRIED MANYYEARSAGOBUTWEREIMPRACTICALTOIMPLEMENT%XAMPLESOF
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!LTHOUGH THESE IMPROVEMENTS HAVE ENABLED MUCH IMPROVED -4) CAPABILITIES
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SYSTEMISSTILLASMUCHOFANARTASITISASCIENCE%XAMPLESOFCURRENTPROBLEMSINCLUDE
THEFACTTHATWHENRECEIVERSAREBUILTWITHINCREASEDDYNAMICRANGE SYSTEMINSTABILITY
LIMITATIONSWILLCAUSEINCREASEDCLUTTERRESIDUERELATIVETOSYSTEMNOISE THATCANCAUSE
FALSEDETECTIONS#LUTTERMAPS WHICHAREUSEDTOPREVENTFALSEDETECTIONSFROMCLUTTER
RESIDUE WORKQUITEWELLONFIXEDRADARSYSTEMS BUTAREDIFFICULTTOIMPLEMENTON FOR
EXAMPLE SHIPBOARDRADARS BECAUSEASTHESHIPMOVES THEASPECTANDRANGETOEACH
CLUTTERPATCHCHANGES CREATINGINCREASEDRESIDUESAFTERTHECLUTTERMAP!DECREASEIN
THERESOLUTIONOFTHECLUTTERMAPTOCOUNTERTHERAPIDLYCHANGINGCLUTTERRESIDUEWILL
PRECLUDEMUCHOFTHEINTERCLUTTERVISIBILITYSEELATERINTHISCHAPTER WHICHISONEOF
THELEASTAPPRECIATEDSECRETSOFSUCCESSFUL-4)OPERATION
-4)RADARMUSTWORKINTHEENVIRONMENTTHATCONTAINSSTRONGFIXEDCLUTTER BIRDS BATS
ANDINSECTS WEATHER AUTOMOBILES ANDDUCTING4HEDUCTING ALSOREFERREDTOASANOMA
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4HE CLUTTER MODELS CONTAINED IN THIS CHAPTER ARE APPROXIMATIONS OF THE TYPES OF
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ANDAMPLITUDEOFEACHTYPEOFCLUTTER ORTHEEXACTNUMBEROFBIRDSORPOINTREFLECTORS
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FILTERS 4HEFINITETIME ON TARGETDICTATESTHENEEDFORABATCHPROCESSINGAPPROACH
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! NUMBER OF PLAN POSITION INDICATOR 00) PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN YEARS AGO ARE
INCLUDEDINTHISCHAPTERTOPROVIDEABETTERUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEENVIRONMENTTHATIS
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TION BIRDS INSECTS ANDDUCTINGBETTERTHANCANBEDESCRIBEDINWORDS
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CANBERELATEDTOTHEAVERAGETIME4!6'BETWEENFALSEREPORTSBY


4&2y4!6'LN

.&-K&- MAX2MAXC NUMBEROFINDEPENDENTDOPPLERFILTERSINTHEDOPPLER
CORRELATIONWINDOW
K&- MAX  STEEPESTLINEAR &-SLOPEMAGNITUDE

2MAX MAXIMUMINSTRUMENTEDRANGE

05,3%$/00,%22!$!2

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!LERT#ONFIRMINCREASESSENSITIVITYBYALLOWINGMOREFALSEALARMSIN!LERTANDRELY
INGON#ONFIRMTOREJECTTHOSEFALSEALERTS4HE!LERT#ONFIRMCOMBINATIONISDESIGNED
TO PROVIDE THE SAME FALSE REPORT TIME 4&2 AS A CONVENTIONAL WAVEFORM! SPECIFIED
FRACTIONALINCREASE&INFRAMETIMEACCOUNTSFORTHEEXECUTIONOF#ONFIRMDWELLSTO
REJECTFALSE!LERTDETECTIONS&ISONTHEORDEROFn7HENUSINGA63!LERTANDA
 LOOK(273#ONFIRM THEPROBABILITYOFFALSEALARMPERRANGE DOPPLERCELL 0&! AAND
0&! CFOR!LERTAND#ONFIRM RESPECTIVELY IS

0&! A 

4D A LN 
. R A . F A4&2 A


0&! C

& 
 4D C LN 
r


. R C . F CUE . &&
4&2





WHERE 4D A TOTAL!LERTDWELLTIME



.R A NUMBEROFINDEPENDENTRANGESAMPLESPROCESSEDPER)00IN!LERT

.F A NUMBER OF INDEPENDENT DOPPLER FILTERS VISIBLE IN THE !LERT DOPPLER
PASSBAND

4&2 A  4D C&!LERTFALSEREPORTTIME

4D C TOTAL#ONFIRMDWELLTIME

&  FRACTIONALINCREASEINFRAMETIMEALLOCATEDTO#ONFIRMn

.R C NUMBEROFINDEPENDENTRANGESAMPLESPROCESSEDPER)00IN#ONFIRM

.F CUE NUMBEROFINDEPENDENTDOPPLERFILTERSINTHE#ONFIRMWINDOWCENTERED
ABOUTTHEDOPPLEROFTHE!LERTDETECTIONCUE

.&-  NUMBER OF INDEPENDENT DOPPLER FILTERS IN #ONFIRM LINEAR &- RANGING
DOPPLERCORRELATIONWINDOW

4&2 OVERALL!LERT#ONFIRMFALSEREPORTTIME
4HE- OF .RANGINGUSEDIN-273REQUIRESCORRELATIONINRANGEANDCANBEVIEWED
ASABINARYDETECTOR-273ISTYPICALLYAMEDIUM 02&WAVEFORMWITHRANGEANDDOP
PLERAMBIGUITIES$OPPLERISUSEDFORCLUTTERMITIGATIONINEACHLOOK ANDTHEDOPPLER
AMBIGUITYMAYNOTNEEDTOBERESOLVEDSINCETHETRACKERCANDETERMINERANGERATEFROM
SUCCESSIVEDWELLS!TYPICAL-273- OF .CORRELATIONWOULDBETHREEDETECTIONSOUT
OFEIGHTLOOKSIE MANDN &ORRANGE ONLYCORRELATION THE0&!INEACHRANGE
DOPPLERCELLISGIVENBY
M

0&!

 4D LN 

. F M

N . RU4&2



WHERE .RU NUMBEROFINDEPENDENTRANGESAMPLESINTHEOUTPUTUNAMBIGUOUS RANGE


INTERVALDISPLAYRANGERANGEGATESIZE

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&ORBETTERFALSEALARMREJECTION DOPPLERCORRELATIONCANBEUSEDFOR-273)NTHE
CASEWHEREBOTHRANGEANDDOPPLERCORRELATIONAREUSED THEREQUIRED0&!IS
M

0&!

4D LN 


M
M 
N . FU . RU4&27



WHERE .FU NUMBEROFINDEPENDENTDOPPLERFILTERSINTHEUNAMBIGUOUSDOPPLERREGION



7  WIDTHINDOPPLERFILTERS OFTHECORRELATIONWINDOWAPPLIEDTODETECTIONS
FOLLOWINGINITIALDETECTION
0ROBABILITYOF$ETECTION 5SINGTHE0&!PERRANGE DOPPLERCELL THEPROBABILITY
OFDETECTION0D OFAGIVENLOOKCANBEDETERMINEDFORAGIVENTARGET3.2 THENUM
BER OF #0)S NONCOHERENTLY INTEGRATED .PDI AND THE TARGET 2#3 FLUCTUATION MODEL
ASSUMED4HEINVERSEPROBLEMOFDETERMININGTHEREQUIRED3.2FORAGIVEN0DCANBE
SOLVEDVIAAPPROXIMATIONS5NIVERSALDETECTIONEQUATIONSHAVEBEENPUBLISHEDTHAT
PROVIDEREASONABLYACCURATERESULTSANDAREREPRODUCEDHERE!GAIN THEASSUMPTION
THATTARGETSAREINAGAUSSIANNOISE LIMITEDENVIRONMENTISMADE
&ORASINGLELOOKWITH.PDI#0)SNONCOHERENTLYINTEGRATEDANDASPECIFIED0&!PER
RANGE DOPPLERCELL THE0DASAFUNCTIONOF3.2FORA-ARCUMNONFLUCTUATING TARGET
CANBEAPPROXIMATEDAS
0D 3.2 0&! . PDI 



ERFC  LN; 0&!  0&! =


. PDI 
. PDI 
. PDI 3.2









WHEREERFCq ISTHECOMPLEMENTARYERRORFUNCTION4HEREQUIRED3.2ASAFUNCTIONOF
0DFORA-ARCUMTARGETISAPPROXIMATEDAS

3.2 REQD  0D 0&! . PDI 

H
H

. PDI . PDI

. PDI 






WHERE

H   LN; 0&!  0&! = SIGN  0D  LN; 0D  0D =

&OR3WERLINGFLUCTUATINGTARGETMODELS THE0DANDREQUIRED3.2CANBEAPPROXI
MATED RESPECTIVELY AS

+   0  .  . N

E
M
&!
PDI
PDI
0D 3.2 0&! . PDI NE  + M
NE
.
PDI

3.2 

NE



+ M   0D NE  . PDI NE NE

3.2 0D 0&! . PDI NE 

+ M   0D NE

. PDI



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WHERE

.
PDI
NE 


 . PDI

FOR 3WERLING ) TARGGET CHI SQUARED DISTRIBUTION WITH  DEGRESSS OF FREEDOM


FOR 3WERLING )) TARGET CHI SSQUARED DISTRIBUTION WITH . PDI DEGRESS OF FREEDOM
FOR 3WERLING ))) TARGET CHI SQUARRED DISTRIBUTION WITH  DEGRESS OF FREEDOM
FOR 3WERLING )6 TARGET CHI SQUARED DISTRIIBUTION WITH . PDI DEGRESS OF FREEDOM

D X
+ M  X D   0 CHI SQUAREDDISTRIBUTIONSURVIVALFUNCTION
 
+ 
M P D INVERSECHI SQUAREDDISTRIBUTIONSURVIVALFUNCTION
X

G A X
0A X 

' A

 TA E T DT REGULARIZEDLOWERINCOMPLETEGAMMAFUNCTION
c
 TA E T DT

4HEINTEGRALOFTHECHI SQUAREDDISTRIBUTION+MX D ANDITSINVERSE+ 


M P D AREOFTEN
INCLUDEDINMATHEMATICALCOMPUTATIONSOFTWAREPACKAGES
7HEN- OF .DETECTIONIE BINARYDETECTION ISUSEDWITHINADWELL THEPROBABIL
ITYOFDETECTIONFOREACHLOOK0D LOOK ISUSEDTOCOMPUTETHEPROBABILITYOFDETECTION
FORADWELL0D DWELL 7HENADWELLREQUIRESMDETECTIONSOUTOFNLOOKSFORATARGET
DECLARATION THE0D DWELLIS
N

0D DWELL 

N 0DK LOOK  0D LOOK N K



K M

&OR!LERT#ONFIRMDETECTIONPERFORMANCE THE0DFORTHE!LERTDWELLANDTHE0D
FORTHE#ONFIRMDWELLAREINDIVIDUALLYCOMPUTEDASAFUNCTIONOF3.2#AREMUST
BETAKENTONORMALIZETHE3.2TOACCOUNTFORDIFFERENCESINDOPPLERFILTERBANDWIDTH
BETWEENTHE!LERTAND#ONFIRMWAVEFORMS4HEMULTIPLICATIONOFNORMALIZEDPROB
ABILITYOFDETECTIONCURVEFORTHE!LERTDWELLWITHTHATOFTHE#ONFIRMDWELLRESULTS
INANESTIMATEOFTHECOMPOSITE0DVS3.CURVEFOR!LERT#ONFIRM-OREACCURATE
RESULTSMUSTINCLUDETHEEFFECTSOFLATENCYBETWEENTHE!LERTAND#ONFIRMDWELLS
3EARCHDETECTIONPERFORMANCEISOFTENCHARACTERIZEDBYTHECUMULATIVEPROBABIL
ITYOFDETECTION 0D CUM WHICHISDEFINEDASTHEPROBABILITYTHATTHERADARWILLDETECT
ACLOSINGTARGETATLEASTONCEBYTHETIMETHETARGETHASCLOSEDTOASPECIFIEDRANGE
0D CUMISONLYDEFINEDFORCLOSINGTARGETS4HECUMULATIVEPROBABILITYOFDETECTIONFOR
THEKTHSCAN ORFRAME IS
K

0D CUM ;K =   ; 0D SS ;I==
I 

 0D CUM ;K = 0D SS ;K =  0D CUM ;K =




WHERE0D SS;K=ISTHESINGLE SCANPROBABILITYOFDETECTIONONTHEKTHSCAN4HEACCUMULA


TIONOFSINGLE SCANPROBABILITYOFDETECTIONSISSTARTEDATARANGEWHERETHETARGETS0D SS
ISAPPROXIMATELY4HEREISANOPTIMALSEARCHFRAMETIMEFORCUMULATIVEDETECTION
PERFORMANCE!BALANCEMUSTBEACHIEVED!SHORTFRAMETIMELIMITSTHEAMOUNTOF
ENERGYPLACEDONTARGETPERDWELLANDLOWERSTHESINGLE SCAN0D!LONGFRAMETIME
ALLOWSTHETARGETTOCLOSEINRANGEMOREBETWEENREVISITS THUSLOWERINGTHEBENEFIT
OF THE ACCUMULATION &IGURE  ILLUSTRATES THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SINGLE SCAN AND
CUMULATIVEPROBABILITYOFDETECTION

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COMPETEISINCREASED4HEFOREGOINGDISCUSSIONCANBEAPPLIEDTOTHESIDELOBECLUT
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AND#&!2TECHNIQUES

-/" , 6/" !%3!


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CONTINUOUSWAVE
DELTA AZIMUTHANTENNABEAMUSEDFORMONOPULSEANGLEESTIMATION
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ECHOESOFTHERADARTRANSMISSIONINAMANNERTHATWILLPROVIDETHEMAXIMUMDISCRIMI
NATIONBETWEENDESIREDECHOSIGNALSANDUNDESIREDINTERFERENCE4HEINTERFERENCECOM
PRISESNOTONLYTHESELFNOISEGENERATEDINTHERADARRECEIVERBUTALSOTHEENERGYRECEIVED
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JAMMERS4HEPORTIONOFTHERADARSOWNRADIATEDENERGYTHATISSCATTEREDBYUNDESIRED
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ALSOBECLASSIFIEDASINTERFERENCEANDISCOMMONLYCATEGORIZEDASCLUTTER7HEREAIR
BORNERADARSAREUSEDFORALTIMETERSORMAPPING OTHERAIRCRAFTAREUNDESIREDTARGETS AND
THEGROUNDISTHEDESIREDTARGET)NTHECASEOFWEATHERRADARS GROUND BUILDINGS AND
AIRCRAFTARECLUTTER ANDRAINORSNOWISTHEDESIREDTARGET-ORECOMMONLY RADARSARE
INTENDEDFORDETECTIONOFAIRCRAFT MISSILES SHIPS SURFACEVEHICLES ORPERSONNEL ANDTHE
REFLECTIONFROMWEATHER SEA ORGROUNDISCLASSIFIEDASCLUTTERINTERFERENCE
!LTHOUGHTHEBOUNDARIESOFTHERADARRECEIVERARESOMEWHATARBITRARY THISCHAPTER
WILLCONSIDERTHOSEELEMENTSIDENTIFIEDIN&IGUREASTHERECEIVER4HERADAREXCITER
GENERATESTHETRANSMITWAVEFORMSASWELLASLOCALOSCILLATOR,/ CLOCK ANDTIMING
SIGNALS 3INCE THIS FUNCTION IS USUALLY TIGHTLY COUPLED TO A RADAR RECEIVER IT IS ALSO
SHOWNIN&IGUREANDWILLBEDISCUSSEDINTHISCHAPTER4HEPURPOSEOF&IGUREIS
TOILLUSTRATETHEFUNCTIONSTYPICALOFAMODERNRADARRECEIVERANDEXCITER
6IRTUALLY ALL RADAR RECEIVERS OPERATE ON THE SUPERHETERODYNE PRINCIPLE SHOWN
IN &IGURE 4HROUGH THIS ARCHITECTURE THE RECEIVER FILTERS THE SIGNAL TO SEPARATE
DESIRED TARGET SIGNALS FROM UNWANTED INTERFERENCE !FTER MODEST 2& AMPLIFICA
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LEMSINTHEMIXINGPROCESS4HESUPERHETERODYNERECEIVERVARIESTHE,/FREQUENCYTO
FOLLOWANYDESIREDTUNINGVARIATIONOFTHETRANSMITTERWITHOUTDISTURBINGTHEFILTERING
AT)&4HISSIMPLIFIESTHEFILTERINGOPERATIONASTHESIGNALSOCCUPYAWIDERPERCENTAGE

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