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Soursop

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For the herbaceous plant, see Oxalis pes-caprae.

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Annona muricata var. subonica

Soursop fruit, whole and in longitudinal section

Soursop, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy

276 kJ (66 kcal)

Carbohydrates

16.84 g

Sugars

13.54 g

Dietary fiber

3.3 g

Fat

0.3 g

Protein

1g

Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)

(6%)
0.07 mg

Riboflavin (B2)

(4%)
0.05 mg

Niacin (B3)

(6%)
0.9 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5)

(5%)
0.253 mg

Vitamin B6

(5%)
0.059 mg

Folate (B9)

(4%)
14 g

Choline

(2%)
7.6 mg

Vitamin C

(25%)

20.6 mg

Minerals
Calcium

(1%)
14 mg

Iron

(5%)
0.6 mg

Magnesium

(6%)
21 mg

Phosphorus

(4%)
27 mg

Potassium

(6%)
278 mg

Sodium

(1%)
14 mg

Zinc

(1%)
0.1 mg

Link to USDA Database entry

Units

g = micrograms mg = milligrams

IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated usingUS recommendations for


adults.

Source: USDA Nutrient Database

A. muricata flower

Soursop fruit on a tree

Soursop is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree native
to Mexico, Cuba, Central America, theCaribbean islands of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, and
northern South America, primarily Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador,Venezuela. Soursop is also
produced in all tropical parts of Africa, especially in Eastern Nigeria, The Plateau and The
Democratic Republic of Congo, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. It is in the same genus, Annona,
as cherimoya and is in the Annonaceae family.
The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below
5 C (41 F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 C (37 F)
can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate.
The flavour has been described as a combination of strawberry and pineapple, with
sour citrus flavour notes contrasting with an underlying creamy flavour reminiscent
of coconut or banana.

Soursop is widely promoted (sometimes as "graviola") as an alternative cancer treatment. There is,
however, no medical evidencethat it is effective.[1]
Contents
[hide]

1Other names

2Cultivation

3Uses

4Properties

5Health
o

5.1Neurotoxicity

5.2Alternative cancer treatment

6See also

7References

8External links

Other names[edit]
Other common names include: Shawshopu in (Igbo, Eastern Nigeria) Mng cu
Xim (Vietnamese), Corao de Boi (Mozambique),Evo (Ewe, Volta
Region, Ghana), Ekitafeeli (Uganda), Stafeli (Swahili), Aluguntugui (Ga, Greater Accra Region,
Ghana), guanbana(Spanish), graviola (Brazilian Portuguese, pronounced: [vi
l]), anona (European Portuguese), graviolo (Esperanto), corossol(French), cur de
boeuf (Democratic Republic of Congo), kowosl (Haitian Creole), (Katu Anoda)
(Sinhalese), sorsaka(Papiamento), adunu (Acholi), Brazilian pawpaw,
(Filipino) guyabano, guanavana, toge-banreisi, durian benggala, durian belanda,nangka blanda,
[turi:jen te:d] (Thai), [tip bara]

(Khmer), sirsak (Indonesia), zuurzak (Dutch), Stafeli(Kiswahili), and nangka londa.


[2]
In Tamil, Malayalam, it is called Mullatha, literally thorny custard apple. The other lesser-known
Indian names are shul-Ram-fal and Lakshman Phala, and in Harar (Ethiopia) in Harari language
known for centuries as Amba Shoukh (Thorny Mango or Thorny Fruit) and Annuni in Somali.

Cultivation[edit]
The plant is grown for its 2030 cm (7.911.8 in) long, prickly, green fruit, which can have a mass of
up to 6.8 kg (15 lb),[3] making it probably the second biggest annona after the junglesop.

Fruit and leaves of Annona muricata

Away from its native area, some limited production occurs as far north as
southern Floridawithin USDA Zone 10; however, these are mostly garden plantings for local
consumption. It is also grown in parts of Southeast Asia and abundant on the Island of Mauritius.
The soursop will reportedly fruit as a container specimen, even in temperate climates, if protected
from cool temperatures.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]
The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible, black
seeds. The species is the only member of its genus suitable for processing and preservation. [citation needed]
The pulp is also used to make fruit nectar, smoothies, fruit juice drinks, as well as candies,sorbets,
and ice cream flavorings.
Due to the fruit's widespread cultivation and popularity in parts of Latin America, the Caribbean,
Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, soursop and its derivative products are consumed across the
world, also via branded food and beverage products available in many countries, including Brazil,
Mexico, Canada, the United States, the UK, Ireland and Continental Europe, Indonesia, Japan,
Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam.
In Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Harar (Ethiopia), it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as
the only ingredient, or as anagua fresca beverage; in Colombia and Venezuela, it is a fruit for juices,
mixed with milk. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are also very popular. The seeds are
normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming, unless a blender is used for
processing.
In Indonesia, dodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar
until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are
sold by street food vendors. In the Philippines, it is calledguyabano, derived from the
Spanish guanabana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes,
they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. In Vietnam, this fruit is called mng cu
Xim (Siamese Soursop) in the south, or mng cu(Soursop) in the north, and is used to
make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called tearb barung, literally "western
custard-apple fruit." In Malaysia, it is known in Malay as durian belanda and in East Malaysia,
specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten

raw when it ripens, or used as one of the ingredients in Ais Kacang orAis Batu Campur. Usually the
fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereby they will
be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the
morning. While for people in Brunei Darussalam this fruit is popularly known as "Durian Salat",
widely available and easily planted. It was most likely brought from Mexico to the Philippines by way
of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade.[citation needed]
In Australia a variant (Annona reticulata) called "custard apple" is consumed as dessert.

Properties[edit]

Annonacin is a neurotoxin found in soursop seeds

The fruit contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2.[4]

Health[edit]
Neurotoxicity[edit]
The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cautions, "alkaloids extracted from graviola may cause
neuronal dysfunction".[5] The compound annonacin, which is contained in the seeds of soursop, is
a neurotoxin associated with neurodegenerative disease,[6] and research has suggested a
connection between consumption of soursop and atypical forms of Parkinson's disease due to high
concentrations of annonacin.[7] LD50=0.018 uM to dopaminergic neurons by annonacin (one of the
acetogenins in Soursop), which is 100 fold more toxic than 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), 700
fold more than coreximine, twice rotenone.[8] Average fruit contains 15 mg of annonacin.[9]
In 2010 the French food safety agency, Agence franaise de scurit sanitaire des produits de
sant, concluded that, based on the available research findings, "it is not possible to confirm that the
observed cases of atypical Parkinson syndrome ... are linked to the consumption of Annona
muricata," calling for further study on potential risks to human health.[10]

Alternative cancer treatment[edit]


The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center lists cancer treatment as one of the "purported uses"
of soursop.[5] According to Cancer Research UK, "Many sites on the internet advertise and promote
graviola capsules as a cancer cure, but none of them are supported by any reputable scientific
cancer organisations" and "there is no evidence to show that graviola works as a cure for cancer"
and consequently they do not support its use as a treatment for cancer.[1]
The Federal Trade Commission in the United States determined that there was "no credible scientific
evidence" that the extract of soursop sold by Bioque Technologies "can prevent, cure, or treat cancer
of any kind."[11]
Cancer Research UK[12] also released a statement about the alleged cancer "cure" that included
these sentences: "Overall, there is no evidence to show that graviola works as a cure for cancer. In
laboratory studies, graviola extracts can kill some types of liver and breast cancer cells that are

resistant to particular chemotherapy drugs. But there havent been any large scale studies in
humans. So we don't know yet whether it can work as a cancer treatment or not. Many sites on the
internet advertise and promote graviola capsules as a cancer cure, but none of them are supported
by any reputable scientific cancer organisations. We do not support the use of graviola to treat
cancer."
In 2008, a court case relating to the sale in the UK of Triamazon, a soursop product, resulted in the
criminal conviction of a man under the terms of the UK Cancer Act for offering to treat people for
cancer. A spokesman for the council that instigated the action stated, "it is as important now as it
ever was that people are protected from those peddling unproven products with spurious claims as
to their effects."[13]

See also[edit]

Annona crassiflora

Annona reticulata

Atemoya

Cherimoya

List of ineffective cancer treatments

Sugar-apple

Paw Paw