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You are on page 1of 65

OF LEARNING

Teaching to the Test

“Superficial forms of

assessment tend to lead to

superficial forms of

teaching and learning.”

for Learning in the Digital Age

Why Assess?

• Provide diagnosis

• Set standards

• Evaluate progress

• Communicate results

• Motivate performance

Standardized Tests

• Are not prescriptive

student’s learning

performance-based assessment

Authentic Assessment

• Observation

exams

• Written compositions

Authentic Assessment

• Oral presentations

tasks

• Portfolios

• TEST – the instrument or systematic

procedure

• It answer the question: “How does

individual student performs?”

• TESTING – method used to measure

the level of achievement or

performance of the students

• MEASUREMENT – process of

obtaining a NUMERICAL

DESCRIPTION. It answer the

question: “How much?” The score.

• EVALUATION – judging the

performance through a descriptive

rating (satisfactory, VS, O or

excellent).

TYPES OF MEASUREMENT

• NORM-REFERENCED TEST –

comparison with other student using a

score in PERCENTILE, GRADE or

EQUIVALENT SCORE or STANINE

• Purpose: to rank student with respect to

the achievement of others and to

discriminate high and low achievers.

• CRITERION-REFERENCED TEST

– To measure performance with respect to a

particular criterion or standard

– Student score is expressed as

PERCENTAGE and student achievement is

reported for individual skills

– Purpose: to know whether the student

achieved a specific skills or concepts, and to

find out how much students know before

instruction begins and after it has finished

– Objective referenced, domain referenced, and

universe referenced

TYPE OF EVALUATION

• PLACEMENT –prerequisite skills, degree of mastery and

the best mode of learning

• DIAGNOSTIC – to determine level of competence,

identify students with previous knowledge of the lesson

and to know the causes of learning problems and to

formulate plans for remedial action

• FORMATIVE – to provide feedback, identify learning

errors needing corrections and for teacher to modify

instruction and for improving learning and instruction

• SUMMATIVE – to determine if objectives have been

met, for assigning grades and effectiveness of

instructions.

MODES OF ASSESSMENT

• TRADITIONAL – multiple choice, fill-in the

blanks, true or false, matching type

• PERFORMANCE – responses,

performances and products

• PORTFOLIO – collaboration of student’s

work, contains a purposeful selected

subset of student work

KEY TO EFFECTIVE TEACHING

• OBJECTIVES – aims of instruction

• INSTRUCTION – elements of the

curriculum designed to teach the subject

includes lesson plans, study guides and

assignments

• ASSESSMENT – testing components of

the subject

• EVALUATION – extent of understanding

of the lesson

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

• Guides for teaching and learning

• Intent of the instruction

• Guidelines for assessing learning

• Behavioral objectives clearly describe an

anticipated learning outcomes

• Specific, measurable, attainable, realistic

and time bound

Bloom’s Taxonomy

A Focus on Higher-Level

Thinking Skills

Background

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom, a professor at the

University of Chicago, shared his famous "Taxonomy

of Educational Objectives."

have been used over the past four decades to make

sure that instruction stimulates and develops students'

higher-order thinking skills.

Higher-Level Thinking Skill

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

Knowledge

Recall or recognition of information.

define list

classify name

describe identify

locate show

outline define

give examples recognize

distinguish opinion from fact recall

match

Comprehension

The ability to understand, translate, paraphrase, interpret or extrapolate material. (Predict outcome and effects).

summarize paraphrase

explain differentiate

interpret demonstrate

describe visualize

compare restate

convert rewrite

distinguish give examples

estimate

Application

The capacity to use information and transfer knowledge from one setting to another. (Use learned material in a new situation).

solve apply

illustrate classify

calculate modify

interpret put into practice

manipulate demonstrate

predict compute

show operate

Analysis

Identifying detail and having the ability to discover and differentiate the component parts of a situation or information.

analyze contrast

organize compare

deduce distinguish

choose categorize

diagram outline

discriminate relate

Synthesis

The ability to combine parts to create the big picture.

design discuss

hypothesize plan

support compare

write create

report construct

combine rearrange

comply compose

develop organize

Evaluation

The ability to judge the value or use of information using appropriate criteria. (Support judgment with reason).

evaluate criticize

choose justify

estimate debate

judge support your reason

conclude

defend

assess

appraise

rate

KRATWOHL’S AFFECTIVE

TAXONOMY

• Refers to a person’s awareness and

internalization of objects and simulation

• ANDERSON and KRATWOHL – revised

the Bloom’s original taxonomy by

combining the cognitive process and

knowledge dimensions from lowest level

to highest level

• Receiving – listens to ideas, identify, select, give

• Responding – answers questions about ideas:

read, select, tell, write, assist, present

• Valuing – think about how to take advantage of

ideas, able to explain them well; explain, follow

initiate, justify, propose

• Organizing – commits to using ideas, incorporate

them to activity: prepare, follow, explain, relate,

synthesize, integrate, join , generalize

• Characterization – putting and using them into

practice: solve, verify, propose, modify, practice,

qualify

Illustrative Behavioral Terms for

stating Specific Learning Outcomes

• RECEIVING • RESPONDING

– Asks – Answers

– Chooses – Assists

– Describes – Complies

– Follows – Conforms

– Gives – Discuss

– Holds – Greets

– Identifies – Helps

– Locates – Label

– Names – Perform

– Point to – Practice

– Selects – Present

– Replies – Read

– Uses – Recites

– Reports

– Select

• VALUING • ORGANIZATION

– Completes

– Alters

– Describes – Arranges

– Differentiates – Combines

– Explains – Compares

– Follows – Completes

– Form – Defends

– – Explains

Initiates

– Generalizes

– Invites – Integrates

– Justifies – Modifies

– Propose – Orders

– Read – Organizes

– Reports – Prepares

– Relates

– Select

– Synthesizes

– Shares

– Studies

– work

PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

• OBSERVING – active mental attending to

physical event

• IMITATING – attempted copying of a

physical behavior

• PRACTICING – trying a specific activity

over and over

• ADAPTING- fine tuning, making minor

adjustment in the physical activity in order

to perfect it.

CRITERIA WHEN

CONSTRUCTING A GOOD TEST

• VALIDITY – what is intended to measure

• RELIABILITY – consistency of the score obtained when

the test is repeated

• ADMINISTRABILITY – easy, clarity and uniformity: time

limit and instructions

• SCORABILITY – easy to score and the directions for

scoring is clear and simple, provision of answer sheets

are made.

• ECONOMY – test should be given in the cheapest way

and can be given from time to time

• ADEQUACY – wide sampling of items to represent of the

areas measured

• AUTHENTICITY – stimulating and real life situations.

Table Of Specifications

• Determine the total item desired

• Determine the number of days taught for each

lesson and its total

• Divide the # of days taught for each topic by the

total # of days taught for all topics multiplied by

the total item

• Distribute the # of questions to all levels of

cognitive domain

• Identify the test item number placement in the

test

ITEM ANALYSIS

• Analysis of students response to each

item in the test being desirable and

undesirable.

• Desirable item can be retained for

subsequent use.

• Undesirable item can be revised or

rejected

Criteria of an Item

• Difficulty of an item

• Discriminating power of an item

• Effectiveness of an item

Steps of Item Analysis

• Arrange the scores from highest to lowest

• Select the 27% of the papers within the upper

group and 27% from the lower group

• Set aside the 46% of the papers, they will not be

used

• Tabulate the number of students in the UG and

the LG who selected each choices

• Compute for the difficulty of each item

• Evaluate the effectiveness of the distracters

Difficulty Index (DF)

• Proportion of the number of students in

the upper and lower groups who

answered an item correctly

UG + UL

DF = --------------

N

Interpretation

Index of difficulty Item Evaluation

0.86 – 1.00 Very easy

0.61 – 0.85 Moderately easy

0.36 – 0.60 Moderately difficult

0.00 – 0.35 Very difficult

Index of Discrimination DI

• The difference between • Positive Discrimination –

the proportion of high more students in the

performing students who upper group got the item

got the item right and the right

proportion of low • Negative Discrimination –

performing students who more students in the

got an item right. lower group got the item

RU - RL right

DI = ------------ • Zero Discrimination –

equal number of students

N in both groups got the

item right

Interpretation

DI Item Evaluation

0.40 – up Good item

0.30 – 0.39 Reasonably good but subject

to improvement

0.20 – 0.29 Marginal item, needs

improvement

below 0.19 Poor item need to be

rejected or revised

• Maximum Discrimination (DM) – the sum of the

proportion of the upper and lower groups who

answered the item correctly.

DM = UG +LG

• Discrimination Efficiency (DE) – the index of

discrimination divided by the maximum

discrimination DI

DE = --------

DM

Distracter’s Effectiveness

• A good distracter attracts students in the

lower group than in the upper group.

• Poor distracter attracts more students in

the upper group

• This provides information for improving the

item.

• No. of examinees = 84

• 1/3 or 27% from the highest = 28

• 1/3 or 27% from the lowest = 28

• Item #4

• Options *a b c d

UG – 28 26 2 0 0

UL – 28 10 17 1 0

*correct choice

Index of Difficulty = UG + UL/N

= 36/56

= 0.64 moderately easy

Index of Discrimination = RU – RL/N

= 26 – 10/56

= 0.29 marginal item needs improving

Option b function effectively as a distracter because it attracts

more from the lower group. Options c and d are poor

distracters because none from each group is attracted.

VALIDITY – what is supposed to be

measured

• CONTENT VALIDITY – content and

objectives

• CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY – test

scores relating other test instruments

• CONSTRUCT VALIDITY – test can

measure on observable variable

• PREDICTIVE VARIABLE – test result can

be used what will be the score of a person

at a later time

FACTOR AFFECTING VALIDITY

• Poorly constructed test items

• Unclear directions

• Ambiguous items

• Reading vocabulary too difficult

• Complicated syntax

• Inadequate time limit

• Inappropriate level of difficulty

• Unintendend clues

• Improper arrangement of items

RELIABILITY –consistency of

measurement

• FACTORS AFFECTING RELIABILITY:

– Length of test

– Moderate item difficulty

– Objective scoring

– Heterogeneity of the student group

– Limited time

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

• MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY –

AVERAGES

• MEASURES OF VARIABILITY – SPREAD

OF SCORES

• MEASURES OF RELATIONSHIP -

CORRELATION

MEASURE OF CENTRAL

TENDENCY - MEAN

• Easy to compute

• Each data contributes to the mean value

• Affects by the extreme values easily

• Applied to interval data

∑x

• Mean = -------

n

MEDIAN

• The point that divides the scores in a

distribution into 2 equal parts when the

scores are arranged from highest to lowest

• If the # of the score is ODD, the value of the

median is the MIDDLE SCORE

• When the # of scores is an EVEN #, the

median value is the average of the 2 middle

most scores

MODE

• Refers to the score/s that occurred most in

the distribution

• Unimodal if the distribution consist of only

1mode

• Bimodal if the distribution contains 2

modes

• Multimodal if a score distribution consist of

more than 2 modes

MEASURES OF VARIABILITY

• A single value that is used to describe the

spread out of the scores in a distribution,

that is above or below the measures of

central tendency

• Range

• Quartile deviation

• Standard Deviation

RANGE

• Simplest and crudest measure

• A rough measure of variation

• The smaller the value, the closes to each

other

• The larger the value, the more scattered

the scores are

• The value easily fluctuate

• R = HV - LV

QUARTILE DEVIATION

• Is the half of the difference between the third

quartile (Q3) and the first quartile (Q1)

• The value of the QD indicates the distance we

need to go above or below the median to include

approximately the middle 50%of the scores

Q3 – Q 1

• QD = -------------

2

• The standard deviation for Math is 10.20

and for science is 10.10, which means that

MATH scores has a greater variability than

SCIENCE scores, which means the

scores in MATH are more scattered than

in SCIENCE

• SD value LARGE = scores will be FAR

from the mean

• SD value SMALL = scores will be CLOSE

from the MEAN

PERCENTILE RANK

• The %age of scores in the frequency

distribution which are lower, meaning the

%age of examinees in the norm group

scored below the score of interest.

• Used to clarify the interpretation of scores

on standardized tests

• score = 66 = 90th percentile, meaning 90%

of the examinees got score lower than 66.

Z SCORE – STANDARD SCORE

• Measures HOW MANY SD’s an

observations is ABOVE or BELOW the

MEAN.

• +Z score measures the no. of sd a score

is ABOVE the MEAN

• -Z score measures the no. of sd score is

BELOW the MEAN

• To locate the student’s score at the base

of the curve

Z score Formula

T-score

• T-score = 10z + 50

• The higher the value indicates good

performance in a test

CV

coefficient of variation, the

MORE the overall data

approximate to the MEAN or

the MORE

HOMOGENEOUS THE

PERFORMANCE OF THE

GROUP.

SKEWNESS

• Describes the degree of departures of the

data from symmetry.

• The degree of skewness is measured by

the coefficient of skewness, denoted as

SK

• SK = 3(Mean – Median)

SD

NORMAL CURVE

Abnormal

Imbecile, Above Abnormal

Below AVERAGE

Moron, Border Ave. VS Genius

Idiot

-line Average (S)

0.63

O 0.63

POSITIVELY SKEWED

• The curve is skewed

to the RIGHT, it has a

LONG tail extending

off to the right with a

short tail to the left.

• When the computed

value of SK is + most

of the scores of

students are VERY

LOW, they performed

poor in the exam.

NEAGTIVELY SKEWED

• When the distribution is

skewed to the left, it has

a long tail extending to

the left but a short tail to

the right.

• When computed value of

SK is negative most of

the students got a very

high score, they

performed WELL in the

exam.

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