ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
(Centrifugal and Axial)
Nonmet allic
Containment
Gas
K.M. Srinivasan
K.M. Srinivasan
B.E.(Hons), PhD.(USSR)
Dean (R&D) Mechanical Sciences
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Kumaraguru College of Technology
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Comp1/Newage/Pumpco.pm6.5—29.12.07 3.1.08
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PREFACE
It was my very long felt ambition to provide a detailed and full information about the theory,
design, testing, analysis and operation of different types of rotodynamic pumps namely Centrifugal,
Radial, Diagonal and Axial flow types. I have learned a lot during the period 1959–62 about pumps at
PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, while working as Senior Research Assistant for CSIR Scheme
on Pumps, Turbo chargers and flow meters. At the same time, I was undergoing training in foundry,
pattern making, moulding, production, testing and design for different pumps at PSG Industrial Institute,
Coimbatore and also during the period 1967 and 1975.
I cannot forget my study at Leningrad Polytechnic, Leningrad K21, USSR (now St. Petersburg
Polytechnic, St. Petersburg, Russia), for my doctorate degree in pumps. Dr. A.A Lomakin, Dr. A.N.
Papir, Dr. Gurioff, Dr. N.N. Kovaloff, Dr. A.N. Smirnoff, Dr. Staritski, Dr. Gorgidjanyan, Dr. Gutovski
are the key professors who made me to know more about pumps from fundamentals to updated technology.
I am very much grateful to Dr. A.A Lomakin and Dr. A.N. Papir, who were my professors and guides
for my doctorate degree in pumps. As a consultant, for different pump industries in India and abroad, I
could understand the field problems. My experience, since 1959 till date, has been put up in this book to
enable the readers in industries, and in academic area, to design, to analyze and to regulate the pumps.
Complete design process for pumps, losses and efficiency calculation, based on boundary layer theory
for axial flow pumps are also given. Computer programmes for the design of pump and for profile loss
estimation for axial flow pumps are also given. All the design examples in the last chapter are real
working models. The results are also given with pump drawings.
I do hope that the reader will be in a position to understand, design, test and analyze pumps, after
going through this book. I shall be very much honoured if my book is useful in attaining this. I am
grateful to my wife Smt. S. Nalini, my sons Sri S. Muthuraman and Sri S. Jaganmohan and my daughter
Smt. S. Nithyakala, who were very helpful in preparing the manuscript and drawings.
Last but not the least I am grateful to the editorial department of M/s New Age International (P)
Ltd. Publishers for their untiring effort to publish the book in a neat and elegant form, in spite of so
many problems they come across while formulating this book from the manuscript level to this level.
Constructive criticisms and suggestions are highly appreciated for further improvement of the
book.
K.M. SRINIVASAN
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CONTENTS
PREFACE (vii)
1 INTRODUCTION 1–5
1.1 Principle and Classification of Pumps 1
1.1.1 Principle 1
1.1.2 Classification of Pumps 1
1.1.1 Principle
Newton’s First law states that “Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but can be
transformed from one form of energy to another form.”
Different forms of energy exists namely, electrical, mechanical, fluid, hydraulic and pneumatic,
pressure, potential, dynamic, wave, wind, geothermal, solar, chemical, etc.
A machine is a contrivance, that converts one form of energy to another form. An electric motor
converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. An internal combustion engine converts chemical
energy to mechanical energy, etc.
A pump is a machine which converts mechanical energy to fluid energy, the fluid being
incompressible. This action is opposite to that in hydraulic turbines.
Most predominant part of fluid energy in fluid machines are pressure, potential and kinetic energy.
In order to do work, the pressure energy and potential energy must be converted to kinetic energy. In
steam and gas turbines, the pressure energy of steam or gas is converted to kinetic energy in nozzle. In
hydraulic turbine, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in nozzle. High velocity stream of
fluid from turbine nozzle strikes a set of blades and makes the blades to move, thereby fluid energy is
converted into mechanical energy.
In pumps, however, this process is reversed, the movement of blade system moves the fluid,
which is always in contact with blade thereby converting mechanical energy of blade system to kinetic
energy. For perfect conversion, the moving blade should be in contact with the fluid at all places. In
other words, the moving blade system should be completely immersed in fluid.
PUMPS
PU M PS
Positive
PositiveDisplacement
D isplacem ent PPumps
um ps Other
O ther Pumps
P um ps Rotodynamic
R otodynam ic PPumps
um ps
A third category of pump, called jet pump, wherein, the fluid energy input i.e., high head low
discharge of fluid is converted into another form of fluid energy i.e., low head and high discharge.
These pumps are used either independently or along with centrifugal pumps.
The reverse of Jet pump is ‘Hydraulic Ram’ wherein low head and high discharge of water is
converted into high head and low discharge. Hydraulic Rams are installed at hills near a stream or river.
The natural hill slope is the low head input energy. Large quantity of water at low head is taken from the
river. A portion of water is pumped at high pressure and is supplied to a nearby village as drinking water.
Remaining water is sent back to the river. This system does not need any prime mover like diesel or
petrol engine or electric motor. Repair and maintenance is easy, in hydraulic ram since moving part is
only the ram.
10000
H.m
PISTON
1000
CENTRIFUGAL
100
10
AXIAL
n Q
Specific speed, ns = 3.65 ...(1.1)
H 3/ 4
where ns–specific speed, n–speed in rpm, Q–discharge in m3/sec, H–head in m. If pressure rise is
known instead of total head then p = γH, where p–pressure rise of pumping fluid in N/m2 and
γ–specific weight of the fluid at the given temperature in N/m3. It is essential that all parameters must be
4 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
converted to equivalent water parameters before substituting them in equation 1.1. Fig.1.3, illustrates
the pump selection according to the specific speed of the pump.
D2
D2
D2
D0
D0
D0
D0
D0
D2
D2 D2 D2 D2 D2
= 2,5 to 1,8 = 2 to 1,8 = 1,8 to 1,4 = 1,4 to 1,2 = 0,8
D0 D0 D0 D0 D0
H–Q
H–Q H–Q H–Q H–Q
Q Q Q
N– N– N– Q N–Q
N–
h –Q
h–
Q
h–
Q
h –Q h–
Q
D2
a1 II III
a1 IV 3
Ds
D1
D ′3′
Ds
D3
D 2′
6 5 4 90°
Shaft axis
2–1 Centrifugal — Radial flow — very high head and very low flow.
3–1 Centrifugal — Radial flow — high head and low flow.
4–2 Mixed flow — Medium head and medium flow — low range.
4–3 Diagonal flow — Medium head and medium flow — higher range.
6–5 Axial flow, propeller — low head and high flow.
Radial type centrifugal pumps have higher impeller diameter ratio (outlet to inlet diameter) and the
blade is longer. Mixed flow pumps have medium diameter ratio and axial flow pumps have equal inlet
and outlet diameters.
This indicates that radial flow pumps work mostly by centrifugal force and partly by dynamic
force, whereas, in axial flow pumps, the pressure rise is purely by hydrodynamic action. In mixed and
diagonal flow pumps, however, the pressure rise is partly by centrifugal force and partly by hydrodynamic
force.
2
PUMP PARAMETERS
Z2 p2 = pd
Z2 Z1
H =Z2 – Z1
+ Hs
G V
Hd
H
X2 X1
– Hs
Z1 p1 = ps
p1 C12
Einlet = E1 = + Z +
γ
1
2g
...(2.1)
p2 C22
+ +
Eoutlet = E2 =
γ
Z 2
2g
where p — the pressure in N/m2 (Pascal–Pa)
Z — the level or position above or below reference level in ‘m’
C — the flow velocity of the fluid in m/sec
γ — specific weight of the fluid in kg/m3 (or) N/m3
g — acceleration due to gravity in m/sec2
Suffix 1 — indicates inlet condition of the pump
2 — indicates outlet condition of the pump
Total head H will be
( p2 − p1 ) (C22 − C12 )
H = (E2 – E1) = + (Z2 – Z1) + ...(2.2)
γ 2g
kgf.m N.m
and is expressed as or = m.
kgf N
p2 C p C2 hd
i.e., + Z 2 + 2 = d + Z d + d + h f (2 − d ) hfd
γ 2g γ 2g
...(2.3)
For (s–1) suction line Es = E1 + hf (s–1)
p1 C12
C2 2
p C2
i.e., s + Z s + s = + Z + + h f ( s −1) H G
γ
1
γ 2g 2g Reference
X line
The values hf (2 – d) and hf (s – 1) include major frictional C1
1
losses and all minor losses. The total head of the pump as V
p2 C2 p C2 hs h fs
Hp = E2 – E1 = + Z 2 + 2 – 1 + Z1 + 1
γ 2g γ 2g
ps=p 1 S
= Ed +hf (2 –d) – Es + hf (s – 1)
pd Cd2 p C2
Hp = + Z + + h f (2 − d ) – s + Z s + s − h f ( s −1)
γ Fig. 2.2. Pump in a closed system
γ
d
2g 2g
pd − ps C 2 − Cs2
= + (Zd – Zs) + d + hf (2 – d) + hf (s – 1)
γ 2g
pd − ps Cd2 − Cs2
= + hs + hd + hf (d) + hf (s) + = H ...(2.4)
γ 2g
sy
H
H syst = f(Q)
Operating point
H
O (H sy = H p)
H p = f(Q)
pd – p s
+ h s + hd
γ
Equation 2.4 shows that, if a pump is connected to a system, the pump and the system will
operate only at a point where Hp = Hsy. Fig. 2.3 shows graphically this condition.
C2
For both major and minor losses combined together hf = constant × = KQ2,where K is the
2g
pd − ps
sum of all constants (major and minor). The system head Hsy= + hs + hd + (Kd + Ks) Q2. If a
γ
curve Hsyst= f (Q) is drawn, it will be a parabola moving upwards, i.e., increase of head when the flow
Q increases. (Fig. 2.3).
If this curve is superimposed with H–Q curve of the pump, the meeting point will be (Hp = Hsyst)
the operating point of the pump for that system.
Different Hsy curves can be drawn by changing hs or hd or pd or ps as well as by changing pipe size
Dp, pipe length lp, in suction and delivery, or by adding or removing or changing bends. Tee, cross
joints or by changing the valves in the system. Change of every individual parts mentioned above
changes the Hsyst–Q curve. If these curves are superimposed on pump H–Q curve, the operating point
for each system can be determined (Fig. 2.4).
H
P1, P2, P3,P4
Operating points
Hsyst 4 – Q
Head m.
H syst 3 – Q
P4
P3
H syst 2 – Q
pd – p s
P2
γ
P1
H syst 1 – Q
H st = hs + h d +
(H p – Q)
Q4 Q3 Q2 Q1
Q
Referring to equation 2.4, if suction and delivery chamber pressures are very high, when compared
to the potential and kinetic energies, then the pump is called process pump.
If the suction and delivery chambers are open type, then pd = ps = patm and if hd, hs are very high,
then these pumps are called domestic or agricultural or circulating pumps.
If velocity C2 is very large, when compared to other parameters and pd = ps = patm and hs and hd
may be positive or zero, then these pumps are called fire fighting pumps, sprayer pumps.
Rearranging equation 2.2
p2 pd Cd2 − C22
γ = γ + (Z d – Z 2 ) + + hf (2 – d)
2g
10 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
pd Cd2 − C22
= + hd + hfd + ...(2.5)
γ 2g
If a pressure gauge is connected very close to the delivery side of the pump at point 2, it will read
p
the delivery chamber pressure d , static delivery height (hd) delivery line frictional losses (hf) (both
γ
major and minor losses) and the difference between the velocity head or kinetic energy at delivery
C2
chamber d and immediately after the delivery of liquid from pump i.e., at the outlet of the volute
2g
C2 p
casing 2 . If the delivery chamber is a closed one, then d will be real and normally above
2g γ
Cd2
atmosphere will be equal to zero. The pressure gauge P2 will read
2g
p2 pd C2
= + hd + hfd – 2 ...(2.6)
γ γ 2g
C22
where C2 is the velocity at the delivery pipe, and will be the kinetic energy at the delivery pipe.
2g
pd patm Cd2
In case the delivery chamber is open to atmosphere then γ = γ and will be real. The
2g
Cd2 − C22
velocity Cd = C2 and the velocity head at the delivery pipe is = 0. The pressure gauge (P2)
2g
will read
p2
= hd + hfd (gauge pressure)
γ
p
= atm + hd + hfd (absolute pressure) ...(2.7)
γ
If a pressure gauge is connected at the end of suction pipe and very near to the pump inlet at point
1, it will read
p1 ps Cs2 − C12
γ
=
γ
+ (Zs – Z1) + 2 g – hf (s – 1)
ps Cs2 − C12
= – h – h + ...(2.8)
γ s fs
2g
ps Cs2
If the suction chamber is closed, γ will be read and Cs = 0, = 0. Then
2g
p1 ps C12
= – s
h + h + ...(2.9)
γ 2 g
fs
γ
where C1 is the fluid velocity at suction pipe.
PUMP PARAMETERS 11
ps patm p
If the suction chamber is open to atmosphere then = . The pressure 1 will be
γ γ γ
negative i.e., under vacuum. A vacuum gauge (V) instead of pressure gauge P1 must be connected at
point 1. The velocity Cs = 0 and so
p1 pat C12
s
h + h +
γ = γ – 2 g absolute
fs
C12
= h + h +
or 2 g vacuum ...(2.10)
s fs
ps
Vacuum gauge will read only vacuum. The same condition will exist if , the suction chamber
γ
pressure is not sufficiently higher than the vacuum in the suction side of the pump. In this case also
only vacuum gauge must be connected at point 1. That’s why if the suction chamber is closed, a
pressure cum vacuum gauge and if suction chamber is open to atmosphere a vacuum gauge is connected
at point 1 i.e., at the end of suction pipe or immediately before the inlet of the pump.
Since total head of the pump (Hp) = Total head of the system (Hsyst)
Cd2 Cs2
Hp = Hsyst = P2 + V + X + −
2g 2 g for open system
= P2 – P1 + X for closed system
...(2.11)
where X is the difference in height between delivery pressure gauge (P2) and suction gauge
(P1 or V). If P2 is at a higher level than P1, X is positive. If P2 is at a lower level than P1 then X1 is
negative. If P2 and P1 are at the same level X = 0.
η)
2.1.5 Efficiency (η
The power supplied to the pump will be higher than the energy spent in converting mechanical
energy to fluid energy due to various losses, namely, hydraulic, volumetric and mechanical losses. The
ratio of actual power utilized to the power supplied is called efficiency (η).
12 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
γQH
power spent N 0 =
const (C ) γ QH
η = = C .N
power supplied( Nth ) th
N0 γ QH
or Nth = = ...(2.12)
η C.η
10 14 9 12 7 16 6 11
4
15
15
3
5
8 1
13
1. Suction flange 5. Bearing bed 9. Flexible coupling (pump side) 13. Impeller nut
2. Delivery flange 6. Shaft 10. Flexible coupling (motor tside) 14. Coupling nut
3. Impeller 7. Deep groove ball bearing 11. Gland 15. Air cock
4. Volute casings 8. Bush 12. Bearing cap 16. Grease cup
Fig. 2.5. Single bearing supported pump with split type volute casing
2 18 15 14
2 3
1
24
10
6 21
22 36
20
40 27
29 8
33
7 28
32
26
11
5 44
42 19
17
12
43
31
26 39
38 13 30 9 4
18
34 41 37
16 35 40 25
1. Spiral casing 9. Bearing bracket 17. Flat seal 26. Wearing ring 35. Stud bolt
2. Intermediate casing 10. Bearing bracket 18. Seal ring 27. Shaft sleeve 36. Stud bolt
3. Cooling room cover intermediate 19. Radial seal ring 28. Disk 37. Locking screw
4. Supporting foot 11. Bearing cover 20. Gland 29. Pin 38. Threaded pin
5. Pump shaft 12. Flat seal 21. Stuffing box ring 30. Oil level regular 39. Inner hexagon screw
6. Lefthand impeller 13. Flat seal 22. Bottom ring 31. Hexagon screw 40. Nut
7. Radial ball bearing 14. Flat seal 23. Block ring 32. Hexagon screw 41. Nut
8. Radial roller bearing 15. Flat seal 24. Stuffing box 33. Stud bolt 42. Impeller nut
(only for bearing bracket) 16. Flat seal 25. Splash ring 34. Stud bolt 43. Fitting key
44. Fitting key
Fig. 2.6. Back pulloutdouble bearing type pump with combine volute casing
14 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
1
6 7
2
10
8 3 5
4
Basically pump construction consists of three subassemblies namely (1) shaft assembly (2) casing
assembly and (3) base assembly or bracket assembly.
Shaft assembly, consists of impeller, impeller key, impeller nut, shaft, bushes at stuffing box,
bearing inner races, pump coupling, key, and coupling nut, all mounted on a common shaft. The shaft
is connected to the prime mover either through belt drive, or direct. This assembly is the only rotating
assembly and hence this assembly must be perfectly balanced. But, all components in this assembly are
machined components except impeller, viz., inside surface of shrouds and the blade surfaces. These
surfaces are normally rough cast surfaces and could not be machined. Hence impeller only is balanced
and assembled on the shaft.
Casing assembly consists of suction side or front side bracket, rear side or coupling side bracket
of the volute casing. However, volute casing construction changes depending upon the pumping fluids.
For pumping high consistency liquid, two phase fluids, suction side bracket, coupling side bracket and
volute casing are made up of three separate pieces (Fig. 2.7). For ordinary pumping liquids like water,
milk, etc. suction side bracket and volute casing are single unit (Fig. 2.6). In agricultural pumps, casing
is made into two halves (Fig.2.5). Suction side bracket and one half of the casing become one part.
Coupling side bracket and other half the casing become another part. Coupling side bracket will also
have stuffing box or mechanical seal chamber.
For higher capacity pumps, the base assembly or bracket assembly consists of a bracket with
provisions for assembling front and rear bearings, and bearing caps. In agricultural pumps (Fig. 2.5),
however, the stuffing box and gland at the front side of the bracket and bearing chamber and bearing
cap on the other side of the bracket will be the normal construction. In low capacity pumps, the bracket
is fitted on a base plate along with the prime mover. The casing will be connected to the bracket. In such
pumps, the entire weight of delivery pipe with fluid, the suction pipe with fluid and all minor fitting like
valve, bend etc. will be connected to the casing delivery side and suction side respectively as a overhung
unit. In higher and medium capacity pumps, pumps with heavy liquids, two phase fluids will have the
base at the casing which is connected to the common base plate.
Such assemblies are called ‘back pull out’ assembly (Fig 2.6). This assembly is a convenient
assembly, where in all parts, except casing can be removed by pulling the entire assembly backwards
for any repair and maintenance. The pipe system need not be disturbed. However, the prime mover has
to be removed from base plate, in order to remove the pump assembly parts.
PUMP PARAMETERS 15
η h)
2.3.1 Hydraulic Loss and Hydraulic Efficiency (η
Due to surface roughness at the inner side of the impeller, through which the fluid passes, losses
due to friction and losses due to secondary flow, take place, as a result of which energy loss take place.
Actual head developed (Ha) will be less than the theoretical head (Hth) by the amount ∆H = Hth – Ha.
∆H is called the hydraulic loss. Hydraulic efficiency (ηh) is the ratio between, actual head to the theoretical
head.
Hydraulic loss, ∆H = Hth – Ha
Ha Hth − ∆H Ha ∆H
Hydraulic efficiency, ηh = = = = 1– ...(2.13)
Hth Hth Ha + Hth Hth
∆H = (1–ηh) Hth
η v)
2.3.2 Volumetric Loss and Volumetric Efficiency (η
In order that the impeller can rotate inside the stationary casing, proper clearance is provided at the
front and rear side of the impeller at wearing rings. Due to pressure difference between impeller outlet
and impeller inlet at the front side of the impeller as well as the pressure difference between impeller
outlet and slightly higher than atmospheric pressure at the stuffing box, part of fluid coming out of the
impeller leaks through the clearances on both sides of the impeller. As a result the quantity coming out
of the pump, the actual quantity (Qa) will be less than the quantity passing through the impeller, i.e.,
theoretical quantity (Qth) by the amount of leakage quantity passing through the clearances (∆Q), i.e.,
∆Q = Qth – Qa. Volumetric efficiency (ηv) is the ratio between actual quantity and theoretical quantity
∆Q = Qth – Qa
Qa Qth − ∆Q Q ∆Q
ηv =
a
Qth
=
Qth
=
Qa + ∆Q
=1– ...(2.14)
Qth
∆Q = (1–ηv) Qth
16 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
η m)
2.3.3 Mechanical Loss and Mechanical Efficiency (η
Energy loss in ball, roller or thrust bearings (∆NB), in bush bearings at stuffing box or in mechanical
seal portion (∆Ns), and the disc friction losses (∆ND ) due to the impeller rotation inside the volute casing,
which is filled with fluid are classified as mechanical losses (∆N ). The energy received at the impeller
side of the shaft, i.e., actual power (Ni) for energy conversion into fluid energy will be less than the
energy supplied at the coupling side by the prime mover, i.e., theoretical power (Nth), i.e., ∆N = Nth – Ni.
The ratio between actual power (Ni) and the theoretical power (Nth) is the mechanical efficiency (ηm)
i.e., ∆N = ∆ND + ∆NB + ∆Ns
∆N = Nth – Ni
N th – ∆N
Ni Ni ∆N
ηm = = = =1– ...(2.15)
N th N th N i + ∆N N th
∆N = (1 – ηm) . Nth
N0
Overall efficiency, η = = ηm . ηv . ηh ...(2.16)
N th
2 ∆h
Cs 2
= C 0 2g
2g
Xs Radial
D1 D0 C0 flow
B
2 2
Axial
flow
Hs
p1 ps Cs2 pvp
= – hs + h fs + >
γ γ 2g γ
p1 pvp ps pvp Cs2
or γ − γ = γ − γ – hs + h fs + 2 g > 0 ...(2.17)
ps patm
If = i.e., if the suction chamber is open to atmosphere, then
γ γ
p1 pvp patm pvp Cs2
γ − − – s
h + h + > 0
γ
=
γ 2 g
fs
γ
must be greater than zero or in other words, always it should be positive i.e.,
patm pvp Cs2
γ − γ > hs + h fs + 2 g
p1 − p vp patm pvp
− is called
γ
is termed as H and is called Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH).
γ γ
sv
NPSH available. The two terms patm and pvp cannot be altered, since these values patm, the atmospheric
pressure at the place where pump is running and pvp is the vapour pressure, which depends upon the
C2
temperature of the pumping liquid, are fixed values. The term hs + h fs + s is called NPSH required
2g
which is depending upon, the pump, viz., flow rate, pipe length and size, and the level of suction
chamber with respect to the reference line of the pump. All these can be altered during pump erection at
site.
18 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
11
Vapour Pressure ion Metres of Water Column
10
9 8
8
Additional Suction Head in Metres
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2 2
1 1
0 0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 100 125 150 175 200 225
Water Temperature °C Water Temperature °C
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.9. Vapour pressure of water at different temperatures
PUMP PARAMETERS 19
As per the laws of dimensional analysis, there are 8 parameters with 3 dimensions. Hence,
(8 – 3) = 5 nondimensional parameters can be evolved. After solving, we get the following non
dimensional parameters.
µ ρVL
(1) which is Reynold’s number Re =
ρ n D2 µ
Q V
(2) which is Struhaul’s number Sh = called unit discharge KQ in fluid machines
nD 3 nL
20 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
N
(3) called unit power (KN)
ρn3 D 5
g V2
(4) which is Froude number
F =
gl
r
n2 D
H
(5)
D
Multiplying nondimensional parameters (4) and (5), we get another nondimensional number
gH H
2 2
. However, since g is a constant, 2 2 is used, in practice which is called unit head (KH) in fluid
n D n D
machines. Based on the above nondimensional parameters, a functional relationship between unit power
(KN) and the unit discharge (KQ) i.e., KN = f (KQ) as well as unit head (KH) and unit discharge (KQ). viz.,
KH = f (KQ) can be established.
Ni µ Q Q
= f , 3 = f
R ,
n D3
3 5 e ...(2.23)
ρn D ρnD nD
2
Q
Ni = ρn3D5 f Re ,
n D3
...(2.24)
where, Ni (internal power) or the power input at the impeller unit i.e., the power input at the coupling
side minus mechanical losses in bearings, stuffing box, and disc friction.
F µ I FG R , Q IJ
Also
gH
n2 D2
= f GH ρ n D 2
,
Q
nD 3
JK =f H nD K
e 3 ...(2.25)
n2 D2 Q
or H = f Re , ...(2.26)
g nD3
Equations (2.24) and (2.26) give the relation between the internal power (Ni) and head (H) with
Reynold’s number and unit discharge (KQ). The effect of Reynold’s number is not considered, since the
tests are conducted in auto model region i.e., at high Reynold’s number (Re > 105), where the coefficient
of friction ‘f ’ remains constant and is independent Reynold’s number (Re). This value H will be
approximate, since effect due to frictional losses is not considered.
Considering two identical pumps viz., prototype (suffix p) and model (suffix m) i.e., pumps of the
same series which are geometrically similar, i.e., linear dimensions are proportional and kinematically
similar, i.e., flow directions are same within the impeller and in casing, i.e., blade angles are same,
velocity triangles are identical.
gH p gH m
For Head =
n 2p D p2 nm2 Dm2
Hp Hm
or = ...(2.27)
n 2p D p2 nm2 Dm2
Hp gn 2p D p2 FG n IJp
2
Dp
Hm
=
gnm2 Dm2
= K2
Hn K m
where K=
Dm
...(2.28)
PUMP PARAMETERS 21
Qp Qm
For Quantity =
n p D 3p nm Dm3
Qp n p D3p FG n IJ
p
or
Qm
=
nm Dm3
= K3
Hn K m
...(2.29)
Np Nm
For Power =
ρ p n3p D5p ρm nm3 Dm5
Np ρ p n3p D5p
or =
Nm ρm nm3 Dm5
FG n p IJ FG ρ IJ
3
p
= K5
Hn m K Hρ Km
...(2.30)
If the pumping liquid is same for both prototype and for model ρp = ρm, then
Np FG n IJp
3
Nm
= K5
m Hn K ...(2.31)
Equations (2.28), (2.29) and (2.30) are called similarity equations for pumps, and include the scale
µ
effect, i.e., include change in the effect of Reynold’s number Re = and relative Roughness effect
ρnD 2
ε
.
D
However, exact values, which include the change in the corresponding efficiencies between prototype
and model, are given below :
Qp FG n IJ FG η IJ
p vp
U
Qm
= K3
Hn K Hη K
m vm 
Hp F n I η 2

Hm
=K G J
Hn K η
2
p hp
hm
V ...(2.32)

m
N ip Fn I Fρ I η
=K G J G J
3

p p mp
N im Hn K Hρ K η
5
m m mm
W
FG η IJ
vp
The value
Hη K
vm
takes into account the change in volumetric efficiency connected with the
change in the relative values of wearing clearances, balancing holes and usually connected with the
ηhp
change in scale K. The value
ηhm
is the change in hydraulic efficiency which is a function of
FG ηmp IJ
Reynold’s number and scale K. The value
H ηmm K
is the change in the relative values of mechanical
losses in bearings, stuffing box and for disc friction. The equations developed under similarity laws for
pumps are most important for test result analysis and widely used in pump industries, to analyse the
22 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
performance of model tested in the laboratory, with the test results obtained from the prototype, tested
in industries such as test at different speeds, test at different diameters, tests on liquids other than water
etc., and also to develop new pumps.
ρn3 D 5 FG n IJ 3
N =
ρns3 Ds5
= K5
Hn K s
...(2.33)
gH g .1
2 2 =
n D ns2 Ds2
F nI F DI
H = G J .G J
2 2
FG n IJ 2
or
Hn K HD Ks s
= K2
Hn K s
...(2.34)
2 FG n IJ and H = K FG n IJ
6 10
K10
Hn K Hn K
N = 5 10
s s
H5 F n I or n = n N
= G J
4 4 2
N2 Hn K
s H
4
s 5
n N
ns = ...(2.35)
H5 4
γ QH
Since N =
75
λ 1000 n Q
ns = = ⋅ 3.65 3 / 4
75 75 H
Since γ = 1000 kgf/m3
PUMP PARAMETERS 23
n N n Q
Hence ns = 5/ 4
= 3.65 ...(2.36)
H H 3/ 4
Equation (2.35) is used for turbines and equation (2.36) is adopted for pumps.
gH g5H 5
gH ∝ n2 D2 or D2 ∝ or D10 ∝
n2 n10
N N2
N∝ ρn3D5 or D5 ∝ or D10 ∝ 2 6
ρn3 ρ n
g5 H 5 N2 n10 N 2
So ∝ or = Constant
n10 ρ2 n 6 g 5 H 5ρ 2 n 6
n10 N 2
or = Constant
ρ2 g 5 H 5
24 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
n N
or = Constant = nsn ...(2.38)
ρ g 5/ 4 H 5/ 4
where nsn is the nondimensional specific speed.
Since N = γ QH = ρg QH, substituting this value in the above equation
n ρ g Q H
= Constant
ρg 5/ 4
H 5/ 4
n Q
or = Constant = nsn
( gH )3/4
which is the same nsn as defined earlier.
While calculating the specific speed, all efficiencies i.e., volumetric, hydraulic, mechanical and
overall efficiencies are assumed to remain same for one value of ns i.e., for one series, independent of
size, capacity, head of the pump, of same ns. This is not correct since larger size and capacity pumps
will have higher efficiency than smaller capacity units of same ns. This is the only drawback in the
calculation of specific speed.
Referring to the specific speed equation, it can be said that each value of specific speed, ns refers
to one particular series of geometrically similar pumps i.e., a number of pumps with different H, Q, n
can be developed, all having same (ns) specific speed.
From the above it can be concluded that each value of ns refers one particular series of geometrically
and kinematically similar pump, each pump in this series will be identical to the other. It can also be said
that for the same value of head and discharge (H – Q) different types of pumps in different series can
be obtained with different specific speed, by changing the speed n.
Each pump will be different in type and construction. But due to limited suction conditions and
due to cavitation and subsequent vibration, noise and damage of pump parts at higher speeds, high
speeds are not recommended unless otherwise needed. Moreover, maximum efficiency can be obtained
only at a particular speed for the given head (H) and discharge (Q) i.e., for given ns only at one
particular speed. In fact, the specific speed, ns is calculated at the maximum efficiency point only.
Normally pumps are driven by electric motor (speed will be 720, 960, 1450, 2990 rpm) or by I.C.
Engines (750 or 1000 rpm) or by Turbines (25000 to 50000 rpm). Hence, pumps are always selected or
developed to give maximum efficiency at these speeds. The value of specific speed, the type of pump
will be always selected for the given H – Q of pumps and from the speed, n of the prime mover coupled
to the pump.
Outer diameter (D2) of the impeller is the characteristic linear dimension or the reference diameter D. So
increase in speed n decreases the diameter D2 and correspondingly the size and weight of the pump is
reduced which is naturally most advantageous, provided suction conditions do not have any limitations.
The eye diameter (D0) or the inlet diameter (D1) is determined from the quantity of flow (Q). D0 or D1
D D
and slightly reduces when speed is increased. So the ratio 2 or 2 reduces with the increase of ns.
D0 D1
b
Also for the given quantity, the diameter D2 reduces, the breadth b2 increases. So 2 increases with the
D2
increase of ns. When ns the specific speed increases, the flow rate (Q) increases and total head (H)
decreases. High headlow discharge pumps have low specific speed. The pumps have higher value of
(D2/D1) and low value of (b2/D2). Impeller blades are in radial direction and of single curvature design.
These pumps are called radial flow centrifugal pumps.
Medium headmedium discharge pumps have medium specific speed. These pumps have medium
D b
value of 2 and 2 . At lower range of medium specific speed, the impeller blades have double
D1 D2
curvature at inlet and single curvature at outlet. The outlet edge of the blade is parallel to the axis. The
inlet edge of the blade extends towards the eye of the impeller in order to reduce blade loading since
outer diameter D2 is reduced. When the specific speed increases further the inlet and outlet edges are
inclained i.e., neither radial nor axial. The blades have double curvature design. Flow through the impeller
is neither radial nor axial, but is in mixed or diagonal direction. These pumps are called mixed flow
pumps or diagonal flow pumps.
Low headhigh discharge pumps have high specific speed. Inlet and outlet edges of impeller blade
are almost perpendicular to the flow direction. The blades are of double curvature design. These pumps
are called axial flow pumps.
Very low head and very high discharge condition gives very high specific speed. The fluid flow
direction in impeller is axial. Ship propellers belong to this category.
In general, pumps are classified as radial, mixed, diagonal or axial, depending upon the fluid flow
through the impeller passage.
All positive displacement pumps have very low discharge and very high head and hence very low
specific speed.
Theoretically, specific speed changes from 0 to ∞ i.e., from zero discharge to zero head as well as
change in speed. Practically very low speed and very high speeds could not be attained, so also very low
head and very high discharge are limited and hence the specific speed.
D
D1 D
C
D2
B
A
80 350 450 800 ns
D2
Fig. 2.10. Form and shape of impeller for
D1
26 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Figs. (1.3) and (2.10) give different forms or shapes of impellers and their range of specific
speeds as well as the range of diameter ratio (D2/D1).
TABLE 2.2: Specific speed of pumps
Positive Centrifugal Mixed Axial
Type of displacement Radial Mixed
impeller pumps Low Normal Higher Ship
discharge discharge discharge Diagonal Propeller Propeller propellers
3.65 n Q
ns= 8–35 40–80 80–150 150–300 300–400 400–600 600–1200 1200–1800
H 3/ 4 and above
D2
– ≈ 2.5 ≈2 1.8–1.4 1.3–1.15 1.15–1.1 0.8–0.6 0.6–0.55
D1
n Q
nsq = 3/ 4 2–10 10–22 22–41 41–82 82–110 110–165 165–330 330–495
H
n Q
nsq = 0.36–1.8 1.8–4.0 4.0–7.4 7.4–14.8 14.8–19.8 19.8–29.8 29.8–59.5 59.5–89.3
( gH ) 3/ 4
2.7.1 Total Head, Flow Rate, Efficiency and Power Determination for Pumps
when Pumping, Liquids other than Water
Unlike turbines; pumps are used not only for pumping clear cold water at normal temperatures,
but also for pumping liquids with different properties such as different densities, different viscosities
and different consistencies, pumping not only at normal temperatures, but also at cold or hot temperatures.
Liquids may be corrosive or noncorrosive, two phase fluids such as gasliquid or solidliquid mixtures,
milk, distilled water, acids, alkaline solutions, cryogenic liquids like liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid
nitrogen, liquid ammonia, molasses, tar, petrol, diesel, crudeoil etc.
It is not possible to design each pump for each liquid and test them in the laboratory with the
pumping liquid at the actual field working conditions.
Pump design is always carried out for clear water at normal temperature. Water is considered as
reference liquid for all the liquids mentioned above.
For pumping liquids with viscosity and consistency, correction coefficients KH , KQ and Kη
(or Ke) are used for converting the liquid parameters to equivalent water parameters. These coefficients
are taken from standard recommended graphs and tables. These values are the consolidated results
from a number of experiments by many authors and recommended by International Hydraulic Institute
and Bureau of Indian Standards  46 .
Suitable pump is then selected from the commercially available water pumps for which performance
characteristics are known.
PUMP PARAMETERS 27
ρ or γ )
2.7.3 Density Correction (ρ
Pumping pressure ‘p’ and the total head (H) are related by the hydrostatic equation p = γH = ρ g H
where ‘γ’ is the specific weight and ‘ρ’ is the density of the pumping liquid and ‘g’ is the gravitational
acceleration. For the same pumping pressure, total head of the pump changes according to the specific
weight (γv) or the density (ρv) or the specific gravity (Sv) of the pumping liquid i.e.,
p = γw Hw = γv Hv = Sv γw Hv
Since rv = Sv γw. Suffix ‘w’ is for water and suffix ‘v’ is for the viscous liquid.
γv H v
∴ Hw = = Sv Hv
γw
Although theoretically density has no influence on flow rate i.e., Qw = Qv, practically Qv changes
by 2 to 3% Qw and even up to 5% at higher density of pumping liquid due to the influence of surface
tension.
For high temperature liquid pumping at t°C, the density of pumping liquid (ρt°C) is calculated as
(equation 2.39).
ρ15 C
ρt°C = ...(2.39)
1 + β t °C (t C − 15C )
where (βt°C) is the coefficient and (ρ15°C) is the density at t = 15°C.
Table 2.3 gives the values of (βt°C) for different values of (ρ15°C).
( Sv × γ w × Qv × H v )
Niv = (kW)
1000 ηv
2.7.4.1 Determination of Water Parameters for the Given Head, Quantity and Viscosity of
the Pumping Liquid
For the given total head (Hv), quantity (Qv), efficiency (ηv) and specific gravity (Sv) at the pumping
temperature (t°C) of the viscous liquid to be pumped, equivalent water parameters (Hw, Qw, ηw, Niw) can
be determined referring the graph (Figures 2.11 and 2.12). The procedure is as follows:
From the point of given viscous quantity (Qv) (Point A) in Xaxis, a vertical line is drawn to meet
the given viscous head (Hv) line (Point B). From this meeting point of Hv and Qv (Point B) a horizontal
line, either left or right, is drawn to intersect the given viscosity (νv) line (Point C). From the point C, a
PUMP PARAMETERS 29
80
Head
70
90
60 80
70
100 20 30 40 50 60
90
80
Capacity
70
Water pump peak
60 efficiency %
50
100 90
20 30 40 50 60 70 80
90
80
70
Efficiency
60
50
40
Water pump peak
efficiency %
30
20 90
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
300
200
15,0 0
Head per stage in m at peak efficiency for
1 0 00
150
10 0
30 0
40
20
30
80
15
90
100
20 0
10
90
15
40
80
,00
50 0
00
00
00
0
40
80
75
0
0
0
0
0
0
00
0
50
40
30
20
15
water at actual operating r.p.m.
10
5m
V is
co
s ity
300
200
150
100
75
50
40
30
20
15 3
m /hr
1000
1400
1800
2200
30 40 50 60 70 80 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 8000 imp gpm
Fig. 2.11. A viscosity correction nomogram based on that quoted by (from Davidson (3), 1993,
Process Pump Selection—A System Approach, Second Edition IMechE, London)
30 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
1.0
0.9
KH
0.8
0.60
Correction Factors
0.7 0.80
1.00
0.6 1.20
1.0
0.9
0.8
KQ
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
Kη
0.3
0.2
1217
1670
2280
3190
6.25
11.8
16.5
21.2
33.4
45.2
60.5
114
132
190
223
304
350
436
610
760
915
Centistokes
75
Hm
200
150
100
80
60
300 430
40
30
25
20
Engler
15
10
8
1.5
2.5
3
4.5
6
8
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
80
100
120
160
220
6
4
100
1000
50
130
300
400
60
20
30
10
200
500
600
800
1500
2000
Q imp gpm
maximum efficiency condition and Hw, ηw, Nw are the corresponding values at Qw, the values of Hw, ηw,
Nw for 0.6 Qw, 0.8 Qw, 1.0 Qw and 1.2 Qw are determined. As first approximation, all the above determined
water parameters are assumed as viscous liquid parameters, so that graph (Figs. 2.11 and 2.12) can be
referred to find KH, KQ, and Kη for all four capacities, following the same procedure as mentioned.
Using the equation (2.41), equivalent values of HV, ηV, and QV can be calculated for all four Qw capacities.
Two graphs Hw, ηV, NW = f (QW) and Hv, ηV, NV = f (QV) are drawn taking shut off head is same for
water and for viscous liquid pumping. From this curve QV, can be found out for the given value of Qw,
and other values. One such graph is given in Figure 2.13.
H Q
0, 6
N H 0, 8 Q
1, 0 Q
η
1, 2 Q
N
Water parameters
% QW values
Parameters 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Flow rate m3/hr Qw 90 120 150 180
QV = KQ.QW QV 88.2 117.5 147 176.5
Total head m HW 44 42 40 36
HV = KH . HW HV 43.2 40.8 38 33.5
Efficiency % ηW 70 78 80 77
ηV = KηηW ηV 49 54.5 56 54
Input power kW NW 15.7 17.9 20.9 23.1
NV 21.6 24.6 27.6 29.8
32 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Based on the results tabulated in above table (2.4), HV, ηV, NV = f (QV) are drawn in the same scale
and in the same available performance characteristics of water pump, taking shut off head same for
both liquids. From this graph (Fig. 2.13), for any value of QW, HW, ηW, corresponding values of QV, HV,
ηV and NV can be determined.
Such conversion factors are available for different liquid mixtures from the manufactures such as
KSB pumps, pump manual or International Hydraulic Institute Standards. Rotodynamic pumps can be
used only up to 7% consistency. For consistencies above 7%, positive displacement pumps must be
used.
Correct design, construction and material of pump parts must be followed especially for impeller
blade shape, casing shape and location, sealing arrangement, and cooling arrangements such as external
cooling or mother liquid circulation for cooling and sealing to suit the pumping fluid and operating
conditions.
In this book, water handling pumps and their constructions are only dealt with and discussed in
chapter 13. For special pumps, however, handling hydrocarbons and other high consistency liquids,
specific manufacturer’s recommendation must be referred.
α0
r3=r2
C u0 0
l3 l0 α0 r
1 r2
r0=r1
II I
34
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 35
rQ
= (Cu 2 r2 − Cu1 r1 ) + M f ...(3.2)
g
For ideal fluid flow, Mf = 0. Energy transfer per unit weight of fluid flow through the impeller of
a pump i.e., the theoretical head developed under infinite number of blades, with infinitesimally smaller
vane thickness, will be
M ω Cu 2 − Cu1
Hth ∞ = = ...(3.3)
γQ g
where Mω = N, γQ = W and u = ω r.
Equation 3.3 is the Eular’s equation for the head developed by a pump.
For compressible flow, density ‘ρ’ is a function of the pressure p i.e., ρ = f ( p). Integrating the
equation (3.8) with respect to ds
dp C 2
gZ + ∫ + = Constant ...(3.9)
ρ 2
For incompressible fluid, the density ‘ρ’ is constant. The specific weight γ = ρg. Hence, the equation
(3.9) can be written for unit weight of fluid as,
p C2
+Z + = Constant ...(3.10)
γ 2g
Equations (3.8), (3.9) and (3.10) are called Bernoulli’s equation derived from fundamental Eular’s
equation of motion under steady absolute flow condition along a streamline.
It is evident that, this equation cannot be applied for the change of energy of ideal fluid under
unsteady absolute motion of fluid in impellers. Perhaps this equation can be applied for other elements
like approach pipe with or without inlet blades, volute casing, diffuser, return passage of multistage
pumps, which are nonmoving or stationary elements, where steady flow prevails under optimum
conditions.
For impellers, however, steady flow condition can be applied for relative velocity of flow of fluid
since this velocity is actual velocity flowing past the blades. Referring the equation (3.7) the force Fs in
impeller blades consists of the gravitational force Fg and inertia force (since blade is moving) namely
centrifugal force FCF and Coriolis force Fc .
Fs = Fg + FCF + Fc ...(3.11)
dZ
For unit mass flow along the streamline ‘S’, the gravitational force Fg = – g and is directed
ds
towards downward direction. The centrifugal force FCF = ω2 r, where ‘ω’ is the angular velocity and
‘r ’ is the radius, and is directed towards radial direction. Coriolis force, Fc = ω w sin (ω w) , is directed
normal to the direction of relative velocity, vector ‘w’ and angular velocity ‘ω’. Since ds = w dt along
the streamline, the resolved component of the total mass force Fs will be
Fc
Wu
F cu
W. sin (ω,w) Fcr
acu
u
Wr a cr
W Wz
Taking axis of rotation vertically upwards as +ve direction the resolved component of the mass
force in relative motion along a streamline will be
dz dr
Fs = – g + ω2 ...(3.12)
ds ds
substituting the value of Fc in equation (3.6) and since, Fcs = Fc cos (Fc.ds) = 0, because of the direction
of Fc normal to the direction of w on the elemental strip ‘ds’ where the relative velocity ‘w’ is tangential
to the streamline
dZ dr 1 ∂p ∂ w2
–g ds + ω 2 r ds – ds – ds = 0 ...(3.13)
ds ds ρ ∂s ∂s 2
2 r w2
2
dp
Simplifying gdZ – ω d + +d =0 ...(3.14)
2 ρ 2
Integrating the above equation (3.14) and since u = ωr
dp w2 – u 2
gZ + ∫ + = Constant ...(3.15)
ρ 2
For an incompressible fluid flow, the density ‘ρ’ is constant and independent of pressure ‘p’. Hence,
the above equation can be written as
p w2 − u 2
for unit mass flow gZ + + = Constant ...(3.16)
ρ 2
ρ w2 − u 2
for unit weight flow +Z + = Constant ...(3.17)
γ 2g
The equation (3.16) and (3.17) represent Bernoulli’s equation for a relative flow past impeller
blades and is used for an indepth study of flow analysis i.e., interaction between blades and flow past
the impeller blade. This equation is similar to the Bernoulli’s equation derived for an absolute flow used
for analysis of all nonmoving flow passages of the pump. Applying equation (3.17) between point 0
and point 1 (which lies on the inlet edge of the blade), where steady flow exists in absolute and in
relative flows.
p1 w2 − u12 p0 w2 − u02
+ Z1 + 1 = + Z0 + 0 ...(3.18)
γ 2g γ 2g
Relative velocity ‘w’ can be expressed in terms of absolute velocity ‘C’ and blade velocity ‘u’.
Referring to the velocity triangle (Fig. 4.1)
w2 = C 2 + u 2 − 2u Cu ...(3.19)
w2 − u 2 C 2 Cu1 u
So, = −
2g 2g g
Equation 3.27 can be written as
p1 C C u 2
+ Z1 + 1 − u1 1 = p0 + Z 0 + C0 − Cu 0 u0 ...(3.20)
γ 2g g g 2g g
38 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
p C2
Since total energy E = +Z+ , the above equation (3.20) can be written as
γ 2g
Cu1 u1 C u
E1 – = E0 – u 0 0
g g
C u − Cu 0 u0
or E1 − E0 = u1 1 ...(3.21)
g
Correspondingly the energy difference between point 3 and 0 which is the total head Hm developed
by the pump, is
C u − Cu 0 u0
Hm = E3 – E0 = u 3 3
g
C u − Cu1u1
and Hth ∞ = u 2 2 ...(3.22)
g
Also u3 = u2 , Cu 3 = Cu 2, Cu 0 = Cu1 and u0 = u1
This equation (3.22) is the fundamental Eular’s equation for rotodynamic pumps. Hm is the
monometric head applied for finite number of blades with finite thickness and Hth∞ is the theoretical
head applied for infinite number of blades with infinitesimally smaller thickness.
1 ∂C C2 → →
F– grad p = + grad + rot C × C ...(3.23)
ρ ∂t 2
→
where C is the velocity vector.
→
Taking Zaxis in vertically upward direction as +ve direction , mass force F under absolute flow
through the passages of pump parts, is
→
Mass force F = – grad ∏ = – gz ...(3.24)
which is the Bernoulli’s theorem for the entire stream tube which is called as Lagranze’s equation, 67.
p C2
For incompressible fluid flow +Z+ = Constant ...(3.32)
γ 2
Equations (3.31) and (3.32) can be and widely used for compressible and for incompressible flow
in fluid machines.
For unsteady absolute flow, which is normally existing in impeller blades and in places where
flow is changing from stationary to moving. Integrating the equation (3.29) under axisymmetric
conditions.
→ → − → ∂C ∂φ
Ω = rot C = 0 and for potential function φ of velocity C , grad φ = C and hence = grad .
∂t ∂t
40 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
→ → → → →
The vectorial form of the relative velocity w will be rot w . Since C = w + u
→ → → → → → → → →
w × rot w = w × rot ( C – u ) = w × rot C – w × rot u ... (3.39)
→ → →
rot u = rot ( ω × r ) = 2ω
Same thing can be obtained by selecting or elementary contour of radius ‘r’ in the plane, normal to
the Zaxis of rotation. The resolved component of these vortex along the direction Z is
→
2π r u 2π r 2 ω
rotz u = lim = lim = 2ω
r →0 π r2 r →0 π r2
→ → → → → →
So w × rot w = w × rot C + ( ω × w ) ...(3.40)
Substituting all the values in equation (3.23) of GromekoLamb
u2 → → 1 w2 →
– grad Π + grad ω w
– 2 ( × ) – ρ grad p – grad + w × rot C
2 2
→ → dw
+ 2 (ω × w ) – =0 ...(3.41)
dt
Simplifying
w2 – u 2 dw → →
grad ∏ + P + + = w rot C ...(3.42)
2 dt
→ dw
Under steady flow conditions of relative velocity w , =0
dt
Integrating equation under two conditions:
→
(1) When axisymmetric potential flow of absolute velocity exists i.e., rot C = 0.
(2) When the vector of absolute flow vortices are parallel to the relative velocity under vortex
→ →
flow of absolute flow, i.e., w × rot C = 0
w2 – u 2
grad ∏ + P + = 0
2
So, ...(3.43)
p
dp
Integrating the above equation (3.43) and since Π = g Z and P = ∫ ρ
p0
dp w2 – u 2
∫ρ
+ gZ +
2
= Constant ...(3.44)
Equation 3.44 is the equation for the relative flow under steady potential flow conditions. For
compressible fluids the density ‘ρ’ is a function of pressure ‘p’ and depending upon the process. For
incompressible flow ρ = Constant. Changing the equation from unit mass to unit weight. γ = ρg
p w2 – u 2 = Constant
+Z + ...(3.45)
γ 2g
42 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Equation (3.45) holds good for the entire flow in the channel for a steady and potential
(axisymmetric) flow. Applying Bernoulli’s equation between points x and y (Refer Fig. 3.3 and 3.13)
located on both sides of the impeller blade at the same radius ‘r’.
x r
r
f 1 1
r
2 2 2
px
py
r
y x
p2
p1
(a ) (b)
ω
ω
x
r
px w 2 − ux2 py wy2 − u y2
+ Zx + x = + Zy +
γ 2g γ 2g
ux = uy and Zx = Zy since point x and y are located on the same radius and the difference in level is
negligibly small, the above equation can be written as
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 43
px wx p y wy
+ = +
γ 2g γ 2g
Useful work done by the impeller blades under finite number of blades with finite thickness is due
to the interaction between the blade and the flow of fluid and due to the local pressure difference between
leading and trailing side of the impeller blade. The pressure at the point x, located on the leading side of
the blade on the radius, is higher than the pressure at point y, which is located at the trailing side of the
blade at the same radius. In the same manner the pressure at point x′ is same as at x since both are at
leading surfaces but at adjacent blade. This means the pressure across the channel between two successive
blades (x′ – y) located at the same radius are not equal. px = ( px′) > py. Across the channel, pressure
changes uniformly. Correspondingly, wx= wx′ < wy the relative velocity across the channel gradually
decreases for x′ to y. (Figs. 3.3 and 3.4).
A B
Pure plain flow or pure circulatory flow acting individually on the blade does not produce any
force on blade. The pressures on both sides of the blade are equal in both type of flows. When these two
flows are combined together, a pressure difference is developed due to the difference in flow velocities
between two sides of the blade, by which energy transfer between fluid and the blade takes place. In
rotodynamic machines (pumps, fans, blowers, compressors and turbines) instead of one blade, a number
of blades, i.e., a cascade system is adopted for energy transfer between blades and fluid. This pressure
difference in axial flow pump is due to the flow over the cascade system with angle of attack. The flow
velocity is determined from the flow rate. But in radial flow pump this pressure difference is produced
44 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
not only from the main flow (plain flow combined with circulatory flow), but also due to the rotation of
the impeller i.e., Coriolis component. The Coriolis component does not give any flow, but increases the
velocity difference further as a result of which circulation is increased.
The relative velocity at the trailing side of the impeller blades is higher, whereas the relative
velocity at the leading side of the blade is lower (Fig. 3.7 and 3.8). Due to this, relative velocity across
the channel from trailing side of the blade to the leading side of the sucessive blade is not constant,
instead changing. Absolute velocity of flow C is axial and potential, without any rotation or vortex, but
the relative velocity is not axisymmetric i.e., with vortex, induced due to peripheral velocity u. This can
be shown by the following. Since the relative velocity
→ → → → → → → →
w = C – u ; rot w = rot ( C – u ) = rot C – rot u
→
Since absolute velocity of flow is axisymmetric and potential rot C = 0.
→ → → → →
So, rot w = rot u = rot (ω − r ) = 2 ω
This means the relative velocity is with vorticity or circulation. Consider the flow of ideal fluid, in
a completely closed cylindrical container and the container moves in a circular path (Fig. 3.6) with the
centre of rotation ‘O’. The fluid body AB in the closed channel keeps its position same without any
rotation at all positions when the channel is moved in a circular path. i.e., the pointer is always pointing
the same upward direction. In other words, the absolute velocity direction is without any circulation or
vortex, even when the channel moves in a circular
I B
path with centre ‘O’. But the same line AB rotates,
if it is considered with respect to the circle. When A
the circle is rotated in anticlockwise direction, at
II IV
the section I the arrow AB is perpendicular to the
circle. At section II, it is parallel to the circle. This B B
is repeated to section III and IV but rotated by A O A
180° with respect to section I and II. The fluid in
the container rotates in opposite direction i.e., III
clockwise direction, with respect to the circle with B
an angular velocity ‘ω’. This indicates that the
relative velocity is with circulation or vortex. The A
Fig. 3.7. Circulatory motion of fluid in impeller blade passage (channel vortex)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 45
Adding the plain flow i.e., the potential absolute flow moving with constant velocity over both
sides of the blade to this relative circulating flow i.e., when the channel is no longer a closed one, the
resultant flow gives velocity difference between trailing side and leading side of the impeller, and hence
the energy transfer from blade to fluid. The velocity triangles at inlet and at outlet are shown in Fig. 3.8.
C2
u2
α2 ω
α′2
E
C2′
w2 w1 ω1
β2 R S w1
ω1
B2 c1
w2′ β′2
B1 c1′
K B
A α′1
P
M
r1 D u1
r2
N
L
0
Fig. 3.8. Relative velocity of flow in impeller passage at normal conditions
As mentioned earlier, different velocities at the outlet of the impeller w2 equalises after some
distance. Constant and uniform velocity ‘w3’ exist after the impeller, which again shows that axisymmetric
absolute flow prevails after the impeller.
dθ
dy
dx
(a) (b)
So also a deformation of a fluid element, represented by a square in Fig. 3.10, can be either linear
or angular.
(a) (b)
dy
vy of vy + dx
fluid element ABCD are shown in Fig. 3.12(a). The fluid ∂x
integration
element is rotating in anticlockwise direction with an
A D
angular velocity ‘ω’. vx
Circulation Γ = C ⋅ ds z → →
∂v ∂u
Γ ABCD = udx + v + ∂x dx dy – u + dy dx – vdy = 0
∂y
∂v ∂u
= dxdy – dxdy
∂x ∂x
∂v ∂u
= – dxdy = 2ωdA ...(3.48)
∂x ∂y
It is evident from the equation (3.48) that the circulation around a contour of an element is equal to
the sum of vortices within the area of the contour.
v
θ
dA
C
z → →
z
ΓC = C ⋅ ds = C cos θ ds = 2ωdA = 2ωAz
s
...(3.49)
Γ →
Vorticity Ω= = rot C = 2ω
Area
48 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
is twice the angular velocity of fluid rotating as a solid body. Taking anticlockwise direction as +ve
direction, the component of vorticity in polar (r, θ, z) coordinates will be
∂C ∂C
Ωu = 2ωθ = 2ωu r – z
∂z ∂r
1 ∂C ∂ (Cu r )
Ω π = 2ωr = z –
r ∂θ ∂z
1 ∂(Cu r ) ∂Cr
Ω z = 2ωz = –
r ∂r ∂θ
For an irrotational flow ωu = 0. For a potential and incompressible flow Cr= 0. Circulation along
a closed contour is constant and is equal to the intensity of vorticity. i.e.,
∂Cz
= 0 or Cz = Constant.
∂r
In axial flow pump, the existence of potential flow gives equal flow velocity at all radii. Under
axisymmetric, potential flow condition.
∂C z ∂Cr
= = 0.
∂θ ∂θ
∂ (Cu r ) ∂ (Cu r )
Also = = 0 or Cu r = Constant
∂z ∂r
at all radii of the impeller inlet and outlet. However, under potential flow in meridional sections only
ωu = 0. Whereas ωr and ω z ≠ 0 and henc Cu r ≠ constant in these direction.
Γ= z
c
→→
q dl
→ →
→ →
where q is the velocity vector dl is the differential of arc length of the closed curve q . dl is the scalar
product of these two vectors. Kelvin’s theorem is the time rate change of circulation for a closed fluid
curve. i.e.,
DΓ
= 0.
Dt
Kelvin’s theorem states that for a barotropic ideal fluid acted on by gravitational force with
potential, the circulation along a closed fluid contour, remains constant with respect to time. When
applied to radial flow fluid machines, the Kelvin‘s equation is written as
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 49
d → →
dt ∫ C dr = 0
→ →
where C = q and dr is dl.
This equation confirms the application of Eular’s equation for fluid machine design. Kelvin’s
theorem can be used only for absolute flow for both nonstationary and stationary elements, where the
gravitational force is under potential.
2π
= (Cu2 r2 – Cu1 r1) ...(3.50)
z
50 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where Cu 2 and Cu1 are the average values of the tangential component of absolute velocities at radii r2
and r1 respectively and –ve sign for Cu1 is due to the direction of Cu1 opposite to Cu 2 in the closed contour.
In order to find the circulation ‘ Γ cb’ along the blade, the contour 47654, enclosing the blade is
connected to the previous contour 11′2′21 through the line 34.
Consider the circulation along the contour 1345674322′1′1. Since this contour does not include
the impeller blade, the flow can be considered as axisymmetric or potential. As per Kelvin’s theorem
circulation along the contour must be equal to zero.
Integrating (Fig. 3.13)
Γ = Γ + Γ + Γ + Γ =0
(1345674322′1′1) (122′1′1) (34) (45674) (43)
Since Γ = – Γ = – Γ cb and Γ + Γ = 0
(45674) (47654) (34) (43)
and Γ
2π
(122′1′1) = (Cu2 r2 – Cu1 r1 ) as per equation (3.50)
z
2π
Γ cb = (Cu2 r2 – Cu1 r1 ) ...(3.51)
z
i.e., under axisymmetric or potential absolute flow, circulation along any contour enclosing the blade,
including the blade contour also will be constant. Since same value of Γcb exist on all other impeller
blades also, circulation for the impeller, possessing Z number of blades will be
Γimp = Σ Γ cb = z Γ cb = 2π ( Cu 2 r2– Cu1 r1 ) ...(3.52)
w 2u β2 w3
a b
w2
A
w2m
w 3u d
β3 C t
w3m
w3
Fig. 3.14. Real fluid flow after impeller blade outlet edge
The geometric and kinematic parameters of the blade system are: outlet blade angle β2 , blade
thickness ‘δ2’, pitch ‘t2’ outlet flow velocity on the blade ‘w2’ and after the blade ‘w3’. The tangential
and normal components, of these velocities, when resolving with respect to the blade movement are
wu2 = w2 cos β2 , wm 2 = w2 sin β2 , wu 3 = w3 cos β3 and wm3 = w3 sin β3.
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 51
Fluid uniformly flows over the blades at outlet tangentially without shock. The flow area of the
passage between two successive blades before leaving the outlet edge will be (t2 – S2), where
δ2
S2 = since the flow area is reduced due to the vane thickness.
sin β2
After some distance, fluid stream coming out from both sides of a blade converges into one stream.
A no flow area prevails (marked as A in Fig. 3.14) after the blade thickness area at outlet. The flow area
is increased from (t – S) to t. Correspondingly, the flow velocity is reduced to
t − S2
w3m = w2 m 2 .
t2
In order to find the relation between w2u and w3u, a controlled surface abcd enclosing the no flow
area A as well as covering the outlet edge of the blade is taken for analysis. The lines ‘ad’ and ‘bc’ are
two identical streamlines kept at a distance of pitch ‘t’ between them. Other two lines ‘ab’ and ‘cd’ are
parallel to the direction of movement of the cascade system.
Considering the force on the surface ‘ad’ and ‘bc’, the forces are equal and opposite at each and
every point considered along the streamline ‘ad’ and ‘bc’ respectively and hence they cancel each other
(a couple produced by these two forces are neglected).
γ
Considering the surfaces ‘ab’ and ‘cd ’, the forces on surface ab will be FD 2 = g ∆Qw2 inclined at
γ
an angle of β2 to the blade movement and on the surface ‘cd ’ will be FD3 = g ∆Qw3 inclined at an angle
of β3 to the blade movement. Resolved components of these two forces are equal and opposite, hence
γ γ
they cancel each other, i.e., ∆Qw2 cos β2 = ∆Qw3 cos β3.
g g
Since w2 cos β 2 = wu2 and w3 cos β2= wu3, wu2 = wu3, i.e., the tangential components of the
velocities before and after the outlet blade edges are equal. So the change in the relative velocities w2
and w3 is due to the flow area change from (t – S) to ‘t ’ before and after the outlet blade edge and is only
due the change in meridional flow velocities wm2 and wm3 and correspondingly the blade angle from β2
to β3. The corresponding velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 3.14. This is effective due to the application
of finite number of blades in cascade system. The same rule is applicable to the inlet edge also.
If inlet entry is normal Cu = 0 and Cr = 0. Circulation and hence the total head remains constant at
all radius. In practice, however, it is found that circulation slightly increases near hub and considerably
at periphery due to finite number of blades and subsequent secondary flow. However, it is very small
and hence neglected. Pumps designed with Cu r = constant give very high efficiency (93 to 98%) in spite
of complicated three dimensional flow pattern actually existing at all radii of the impeller inlet and
outlet.
Γwb = z → →
w ⋅ ds
→ → →
Since circulation Γ is the line integral of velocity around the element. Since w = C – u
Γwb = z
s
→ →
C ⋅ ds = z FGH C − uIJK .ds
s
→ → →
= z
s
→ →
z → →
C ⋅ ds − u ⋅ ds = Γcb − u ⋅ ds
s
z
s
→ →
...(3.53)
Since, Γ cb = z
s
→ →
C ⋅ ds
Applying Stokes theorem, which states that circulation around a contour is equal to the sum of
the vortices within the area of the contour, to the above equation
z
s
→ →
u ⋅ ds = z
s
z →
u cos θ . ds = (rot u) n dA = 2ωdA = 2ωA
s
z
s
If the impeller blade or airfoil is very thin, area A will be small and hence 2ωA being very small,
when compared to ‘ Γcb’ it is neglected. Hence
2π
Γwb = Γcb = . (Cu2 r2 – Cu1r1) ...(3.55)
z
In axial flow pumps, impeller blades are airfoils. For analysis, a cylindrical section of cascade of
impeller blades is considered as equal to blades with finite thickness, displaced at a distance of pitch ‘t’
between two successive blades, and spread over from (∞) to (∞). The Zaxis of the coordinates coincides
with the axis of rotation of the cylindrical section. Projection of this cylindrical section perpendicular to
Zaxis will be zero. Hence the equation (3.54) can be considered for the cylindrical section or cascade.
The boundary layer thickness ‘δ’ in real fluid flow over blades, is very small, about 1% of blade
chord length ‘l’. The relative velocity on the blade is zero. Hence, circulation will be zero. The flow
velocity beyond the boundary layer thickness can be considered as ideal fluid flow. Hence, neglecting
the circulation in the boundary layer thickness, since it is very small, the equation (3.55) can be applied
to the relative velocity of flow over impeller blades of axial flow pump also.
Head developed by the impeller blade as per Eular’s equation is
Cu 2 u2 – Cu1 u1 ω
H∞ = = (Cu2 r2 – Cu1 r1)
g g
ωΓimp
=
2πg
2πgH m
or Γimp = z Γ = ...(3.56)
ω
t
p 2 , z2
2 2′
p 1, z 1
1 1′
Jowkovski’s theorem
t
y y
C
φ=
0 C
=
0
φ
φ=0 A 0 B φ=0 x –a a x
A α0
φ B
0
=
=
0 D
φ
D
(a) (b)
v0
(c)
Fig. 3.17. (a) Plane flow with doublet (b) Plane flow with doublet and circulation (c) Actual flow
Plain straight flow with infinite velocity (C∞) combined with a source and sink of same intensity
(q) kept at origin i.e., a doublet located at point ‘O’ [Fig. 3.17 (a)] leads to a flow over a cylinder. The
velocity  C  at any point on the cylinder surface, located at an angle ‘θ’ from Xaxis will be  C = 2C∞
sin θ. The direction of velocity  C  will be tangent to the cylinder surface at the point considered. At
point A and B, instantaneous velocity  C  = 0. Since θ = 0 and 180°. At points C and D velocity  C  =
 Cmax  = 2C∞ since θ = 90° and 270°. Applying Bernoulli’s equation, pressure at any point in the
cylinder surface can be determined from the known velocity. It is evident that velocities and pressures
are equal at symmetrical points. The vectorial sum of all pressure is zero. There is no flow separation
under theoretical flow. In practice, however, due to real viscous fluid flow, flow separation takes place
at the outer half of the cylinder, which is called Dalambir’s paradox [Fig 3.17(c)].
Due to addition of circulation (vorticity Γ ) to the above mentioned flow, i.e., plain flow with
doublet and with vorticity located at the centre of the cylinder i.e., at the origin of the axis, the resultant
velocity at any point on the cylinder changes although symmetrical with respect to Yaxis. Due to the
introduction of vorticity, points A and B are shifted with downward direction towards point D
[Fig. 3.17(b)]. The velocity at point C is greater than the velocity at point D. Correspondingly, pressures
at point D is higher than pressure at point C, as per Bernoulli’s equation. This results in net upward force
called lift force on the cylinder. The cylinder is made to raise upward. This effect is called Magnus
effect. The higher the lift force will be, if the intensity of vorticity is higher. This lift force will be
Y = ρC∞Γ ...(3.57)
where ρ is the density of the fluid, C∞ is the infinite velocity of approach to the profile and Γ is the
vorticity induced. This is called the theorem of KuttaJowkovski about lift force on a profile of any
form. The angle of shift of point A from Xaxis ‘α0’ is given by
Γ
sin α0 = ...(3.58)
4πaC ∞
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 55
where ‘a’ is the radius of the cylinder. Same condition prevails but reversed, if the rotation of vorticity
in the direction of circulation is reversed. The lift force will be towards the downward direction and the
points A and B shift towards the point C. In that case CD > CC and PC > PD. In general, the lift force Y is
determined as
Γ = 4πaC∞ sin α 0 and
...(3.59)
Y = 4πaρC 2
∞ sin α 0
Actually, in fluid machines flow of fluid over a profile takes place at an angle θ∞ to Xaxis, i.e.,
with an angle of attack α∞. The infinite velocity C∞, is directed at an angle of α∞ from Xaxis, when
passing over the profile [Fig. 3.18(a)].
y
y η
B
x z plane C* ζ plane
C ζ
A x
C∞ C ∞∗
θ∞ θ∞
(a) (b)
Fig. 3.18. (a) Flow with angle of attack, (b) Conformal transformation of airfoil from cylinder
a2 a2
ζ = Z+ = Z + Z′ , where Z′ = ...(3.61)
Z Z
56 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
l = 4a
Z and Z′ are real and imaginary planes
containing circles K and K′ respectively (Fig. 3.19)
and ‘a’ is the radius of the cylinder. The relation
between the plane Z and the radius ‘a’ is given by
– 2a –a O +a + 2a
Z = a eiθ = a (cos θ − i sin θ) = (x + iy) α v∞
...(3.62)
Combining equation (3.61) and (3.62)
ζ = a (cos θ + i sin θ) + a (cos θ − i sin θ)
Fig. 3.19. Transformation of circle to plate
= 2a cos θ ...(3.63)
It is evident from the equation (3.63) that K
cylinder of radius ‘a’ is equivalent to a plate having
Q
a distance of –2a and +2a from the origin. Plate A1
length is l = 4a. A2
The vector ζ is equal to the geometrical sum z 0′ z0
v
v
a2 O
of two vectors Z and as per equation (3.63) A1′
Z
Referring to Fig. 3.20. Point ‘A′ ’ of the Z′ plane, K′
located at the circle K′, is the inverse of point A1 of
the Z plane, located at the circle K, with respect to
the circle Q by the relation. Fig. 3.20. Construction of inverse of circle
a2 a 2 − iθ
Z′ = r1′ eiθ1 = = e 1 ...(3.64)
r1eiθ1 r1
a2
Module  r1′  = argument θ1′ = – θ1 for the complex point Z′. Points A1 and A2 are inversely
r1
located with respect to the circle of radius ‘a’ in such a way that r1 r2 = a2. Module r1′, inverse of point
A1 is determined as module of point A2, i.e., r1′ = r2. The mirror image of A2 is A′1 with an argument
θ1′ = θ1 and modules r1′ . The relation between Z1 and its inverse Z′1 is given as
a2 a 2 ( x − iy )
x′+ iy′ = = 2 ...(3.65)
x + iy x + y2
Τhe real and imaginary parts are
a2 x a2 y
x′ = and y′ = –
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
a 2 x′ a2 y′
In the same manner x = 2 and y = 2 ...(3.66)
x ′ + y ′2 x ′ + y ′2
The radius R of the real circle K with centre at z0 = x0 + iy0 relative to the circle Q can be written
as
(x – x0)2 + (y – y0)2 = R2 ...(3.67)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 57
From the above equations (3.66) and (3.67), the parameters for inverse circle K′ i.e., R′ x′0 and y0′
can be determined.
a 4 ( x ′2 + y ′2 ) a 2 x′ a 2 y′
– 2x0 + 2y0 – (R2 – x02 – y20 ) = 0
(x 2
+y 2 2
) ( x′2 + y ′2 ) ( x ′2 + y ′2 )
2a 2 x0 x ′ 2a 2 y0 y ′ a4
or x′2 + y′2 + – – =0
( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) ( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) ( R 2 x 20 − y 02 )
This equation can be modified and rewritten in the following form:
2 2
a 2 x0 a 2 y0
x′ + 2 + y ′ + 2
R − x 02 − y 20 R − x 20 − y 20
a4 x02 + y02
1 + 2 2
=
(R 2 − x02 − y02 ) R − x0 − y0
2
a4 R2
= ...(3.68)
( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) 2
From the above equation (3.68), equation for inverse circle K′ relative to circle Q is
a2 a2
R′ = R ; x′0 = – x0
( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) ( R 2 − x02 − y02 )
a2
and y0′ = y0 ...(3.69)
( R − x02 − y02 )
2
by
B
Rb
A z
a ξ
yb
a
x
– 2a –a + 2a
z′
a a
b = 4a
Fig. 3.21. Transformation of circle into thin curved plate of an arc of a circle
58 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
K
R
R′
ζ z0
v0 z 0′
II v0′
b
a
II
a
z′
4a
a2
y0
R 2 − x 20 − y 20
y0′ y0
tan θ′0 = = = − = − tan θ ...(3.70)
x0′ a2 x0
− x0
R 2 − x 2 − y 20
0
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 59
y0 y0′
or θ′0 = θ0 . Inclination of the line az0 = arc tg and inclination of the line az′0 = arc tg .
a + x0 a – x0′
From equation (3.70), we can write
y0′ y0 a 2
= ...(3.71)
a − x0′ a( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) + a 2 x0
Referring Fig. 3.22, R2 = y20 + (x0 + a)2
y0′ y0 a 2 y0
So, = = ...(3.72)
(a − x0 ) (a + x0 a )
3 2 ( a + x0 )
i.e., points z0 and z′0 lie on the same straight line ‘ab’. z0 lies at an angle of θ0 in the negative direction,
whereas z′0 lies at an angle θ′0 (= θ0) in the positive direction of Xaxis. The inverse circle K′ passes
through the point +a′ with radius (az′0 ). The geometrical summation of lines drawn from origin ‘O’ at
the same angle with respect to Xaxis meet the circle K and K′ in Z plane, gives a point on the thick
profile in ζplane.
The drawback in this process is that the thickness of the profile at outlet is zero, which is not
practically possible. Profile shape developed by Prof. Jowkovski for the given arc is determined by the
single parameter, namely the distance of z0 from the imaginary axis. The magnitude of this determines
profile thickness. Profile thickness at the middle section is given by 2 (R – R′ ) = 2 (z0 – z′0).
The distance x1 – x1′ = δ can be taken as the parameter for thickness of outlet edge. Referring the
Fig. 3.23 and the equation relating the radius and coordinates of centre of the circle K and its inverse K′
a relation can be obtained. i.e.,
R x y
= 0 = 0 ...(3.73)
R ′ x0′ y0′
θ
from which ∠θ0′ = ∠ θ0 and ∠ 0x1 z0 = ∠ 0x1′ z′0 =
2
i.e., x1 z0  x1′ z′0
60 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
VI
R
V R1 VII
5 7
6 R ′1
6′ 7′
5′ VIII
IV
4 8
8′
IX
III 9
3 4′
9′
II 2 3′ δ X
2′
z0 z ′0
10′
1 1′ 1 1′ x1
I XI
0 11′
2 10
II 2′ 10′ X
3
4 l 9
3′
III 9′
8 IX
4′ 8′
5 7
6
IV 7′
5′ 6′ VIII
V VII
VI
Fig. 3.23. Profile formation with finite outlet edge thickness—Chapligin’s method
where θ is the angle of curvature of the centre line of the profile. For the given value of length ‘l’
thickness at the centre ‘∆’ and angle of curvature of the centre line θ, referring Fig. 3.23 and the equation
(3.73) the radius Rb of the main circle K and the coordinates of its centre x 0 and y 0 will be
R b=
1 θ ∆
sec +
2 2 l
Rb θ θ
x0 = cos ∆ cos − δ
2
...(3.74)
l 2
θ
2
y0 = Rb sin
The outlet edge thickness δ is selected as = 0.5 to 0.6 ∆. As per equation (3.68) the main circle K
is shifted from point x1 toward the beginning of the coordinate of the parameter δ to get point x′1. Since
θ′0 = θ0 , a line parallel of x1 z0 is drawn from x′1 to meet the line O z′0. This line is the mirror image with
respect to Yaxis of the line O z0. This process gives the centre of inverse circle z′0. The radius Rb of the
inverse circle K′ is determined by the line z′0 x1′ and is equal to R′b = Rb – ∆. Here also the point on ζplane
is determined from the Zplane as the vector summation ζ = Z + Z ′ .
−
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 61
For ease in construction of this profile, an additional circle R is drawn from the origin, with a
suitable radius which encloses the main circle K and inverse circle K′. The circle R is divided into a
number of divisions, about 20 to 26, so that, from each point of the upper half, corresponding symmetrical
point at the lower half of the circle with respect to Xaxis is determined. Symmetrical points are identified
with the same designation such as I, II etc. Very near to the inlet and outlet edges more number of points
are selected. Above Xaxis, the meeting of radius of supplement circle I–0, II–0 etc., with main circle K
are designated as 1, 2, 3 etc., and with inverse circle K′ with 1′, 2′, 3′ etc. Below Xaxis the meeting of
radius of supplementary circle with main circle is designated as 1′, 2′, 3′ etc. and with inverse circle as
1, 2, 3 etc. Middle point of the lines joining identical points 1–1, 1′–1′, 2–2, 2′–2′ etc. gives the profile
of Chapligin. If profiles are to be drawn for actual flow condition, then the axis of the coordinates
should be rotated to an angle corresponding to, angle of attack of the profile in cascade. The coordinates
of the circle, x0 must be shifted along Xaxis towards inlet edge of the profile and coordinate y0 must be
shifted towards the outlet edge.
p2 p2
l
∆r
Q sz 2 2
u 2 u–′ 2
γ p
2g
b
Q s3
p1 Q′ r
ra
rb
Di
pi
l p1
p′ i
pi
(a) (b)
Fig. 3.24. (a) Flow through the space between casing and impeller shroud (b) Pressure distribution
62 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Under turbulent flow conditions, the flow velocity in the space will be constant but increases from
zero to this velocity near the casing boundary layer and from this velocity to the impeller shroud very
near to impeller shroud, which is rotating with a velocity ‘u’. Velocity u = ωr (Fig. 3.15). Taking
average value of the resolved component of absolute velocity Cu, equation (3.76) can be written as
(u − Cu )2 C 2
M = MI – Mv = µ.ρ.2πr dr = c . r – µ. ρ .2πr dr u .r ...(3.83)
2 2
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 63
1 ∂p
– = 0
ρ dz
dCr dCu dC z
Since the total differential of velocity , , are is equal to zero. The mass force is the
dt rdθ dz
centrifugal force ‘FCF’ and is directed in the radially outward direction. Hence
dp
= FCF = ρω2f r ...(3.86)
dr
where ωf — is the angular velocity of the moving fluid
ρ — density of the fluid
FCF — centrifugal force of the unit mass considered
r — radius of the elementary mass.
64 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Taking p2 and p1 as the pressures at outlet and at inlet of the impeller passage respectively, at
radius r2 and r1 respectively the pressure p at any radius ‘r’ can be written as
r2
r22 − r12
∫ ρ ωf2r dr = ρω f
2
p2 – p = ...(3.87)
r
2
Under normal flow conditions through such flow passage referring equation (3.85), the angular
ω 2πn
velocity of flowing fluid, ‘ωf’ is ωf = , where ω is the angular velocity of the impeller shroud ω =
2 60
u
= , where u peripheral velocity of the impeller at radius ‘r’. Equation (3.87) can now be written as
r
p2 − p ω2 r22 − r 2 u22 − u12
= . =
γ 4 2g 8g
2
u22 − u 2 u22 1 r
or p = p2 – γ = p2 – γ − ...(3.88)
8g 8 g r2
Equation (3.88) shows a parabolic pressure distribution along the radial direction [Fig. 3.24 (b)].
Equation (3.88) is used to determine axial thrust at front and rear side of the impeller.
In case the clearance between the stationary and rotary members is damaged, the above formula
(equation 3.88) cannot be applied. The flow follows the Bernoulli’s law. Neglecting the effect at the
surface roughness, applying Bernoulli’s equation.
p2 C22 p C2
+ = +
γ 2g γ 2g
But C2 = C m2 + C2u and assuming Cm remains constant throughout the passage
Cu′2
2
p2 p Cu2
+ = +
γ 2g γ 2g
Cu2 − Cu′ 2
or p = p2 – γ
2g
Since energy is constant throughout the passage Cu′ 2 r2 = Cu r
C′ 2 r 2
and p = p2 – γ u 2 2 − 1
2g r1
u2
Taking Cu′ 2 = , which is prevailing mostly at this space and rearranging
2
2 2
u22 r2 1 − r
p = p2 – γ ...(3.89)
8 g r r2
Hence, in case of damaged wearing rings, the pressure drop across the passage increases at a faster
2
r2
rate by times than for normal wearing ring.
r
4
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE
SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The impeller is the main element in a centrifugal pump. Entire construction of a pump depends
upon the impeller. Impeller design forms the most important part in pump design. The fundamental
equation of impeller, determines the head developed by the impeller with respect to the increase in the
moment of momentum of the fluid flowing through the impeller i.e., to get a relation between dynamic
and kinematic parameters of impeller. But this fundamental equation does not give any relation between
the form and shape (dimensions) of the blade system with the change in the moment of momentum of
the fluid in impeller.
A kinematic study of the ideal fluid flow through the impeller based on hydrodynamic action in
general is yet to be determined and found to be an unsolved problem till today. The real fluid flow
conditions are still determined from the ideal fluid flow confition only. The study of fluid flow in
impeller is done by the use of theoretical equations along with the correction factors which are determined
from experiment. For the calculation of blade system in impeller, wherein, the length of the flow passage
between two blades is much longer than the width of the passage, elementary one dimensional theory
can be used successfully. In case, the blades are kept at a distance apart i.e., the width is longer, the
interaction between two successive blades can be neglected, and the blade can be considered as an
isolated blade. Hence, two elemertary theories are existing for the impeller calculation. Application of
the correct procedure is based on the correction factors, which are determined by experiments and also
based on its boundary conditions. If the theoretical means of approach for the impeller design, coincides
with real fluid flow, the design is considered as most satisfactory design.
As per the existing one dimesional theory, impeller blades are considered to contain infinite number
of blades kept at equal distant apart with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness. Practically finite number
of blades with finite thickness are adopted in impellers, diffuser etc. In order to have a complete agreement
between theoretical design and practical results, corrections are introduced in the actual design of finite
number of blades with finite thickness. Under theoretical flow, a study through impeller passage, i.e.,
for conditions of infinite number of blades, with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness, the flow is
axisymmetric. At any radius, the average flow velocity is constant in the impeller passage and is calculated
from continuity equation. The direction of fluid flow on the blade is the tangent to the blade drawn at the
point, at the given radius ‘r’, where the velocity is determined.
In real fluid flow i.e., for finite number of blades with finite thickness, Eular’s one dimensional
theory is applied for impeller design with corrections, agrees perfectly with practical results. In actual
flow with finite number of blades with finite blade thickness, the velocity at any radius across the flow
passage width between two successive blades of impeller passage is not constant (Fig. 3.4). The flow is
not axisymmetric due to the interaction between the blade and fluid. The fluid is pushed by the blade.
This is the main reason, that all the flow passages must be completely immersed within the flowing
fluid or must be filled with flowing fluid completely in all rotodynamic machines.
The theoretical head (H∞), determined, as per the Eular’s one dimensional theory for infinite
number of blades will not be equal to the actual head (Hm) determined as per finite number of blades
condition. (H∞) and Hm are related as
H∞ = (1 + p) Hm ...(4.1)
where, p is the correction coefficient for finite number of blades application.
Different authors developed different values of correction coefficient ‘p’ in different form. Application
of this coefficient in the equation 4.1 to determine the total head developed gives a very good result.
C u1
C1 w1
C m1
0 u1 α1 β1
D1
E
K
C 1u
u1
(a) (c)
Fig. 4.1. Velocity triangles with symbols
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 67
The following symbols are used in drawing velocity triangles : (Fig. 4.2)
πDn
u — Vane or blade velocity = (m/sec).
60
C —Absolute velocity of flow of fluid i.e., velocity of the fluid with reference to the earth or any
nonmoving object.
w —Relative velocity of the fluid in the blade passage, i.e., the velocity of the fluid with reference
to the blade or impeller, in other words, the velocity of the fluid inside the blade passage,
when the blade velocity is brought to zero.
→ → → → → →
w = C – u or C = w + u
α —Absolute angle, the angle between the absolute velocity ‘C ’ and blade velocity ‘u’
β — Vane angle or blade angle—the angle between the relative velocity ‘w’ and vane or blade
velocity ‘u’.
C m2
C m3
δ2
β2
2
B2 t2
C m1
C m0
β1
δ t1
r2
B1
C0 δ1
r0 r1 S2
S1
r1
r2
(a) (b)
radius ‘r’. These two velocities i.e., relative velocity ‘w’ is inclined at an angle ‘β’ with respect to the
blade velocity ‘u’. A parallelogram is drawn, with the relative velocity vector ‘w’ and blade velocity
vector ‘u’ at the radius ‘r’ at the point on the blade in the impeller passage. The diagonal of parallelogram
will be the absolute velocity, C, both in magnitude and in direction. If all these three velocity vectors are
drawn in position, we get a triangle called ‘velocity triangle’ (Fig. 4.1). The subtended angle between
absolute velocity ‘C’ and blade velocity ‘u’ is called absolute angle (α) and the angle subtended between
relative velocity ‘w’ and blade velocity ‘u’ is called the blade or vane angle (β).
→ → →
The velocities C , u , w at any radius ‘r’ between inlet and outlet of impeller blade passage can be
obtained by constructing velocity triangle at the point on the blade at radius ‘r’ (Fig. 4.1). By constructing
such triangles at different radii ‘r’ between inlet radius ‘r1’ and outlet radius ‘r2’, we can find the
velocity distribution in impeller blade system. One such velocity distribution in impeller blade passage
is given in Fig. 4.3.
80 20 8
Cm
φ190
7
φ 164
φ150
60 15 6
θ
φ136
φ122
5
40 10 4
δ = 2 mm
11
3
5 mm
φ 105
20 5 2
δ
φ110
1
φ 50
r 1= 55 61 68 75 82 89 r2= 95
If width of the passage is very small, as per one dimensional theory of flow, fluid enters the inlet
edge tangentially and hence there is no shock loss at entry. Fluid leaves the outlet edge tangentially and
hence there is no loss, at exit. From inlet to outlet. Fluid moves tangentially over the blade. The direction
of the fluid at any point in the impeller passage will be the direction of the blade at that point i.e., will be
the blade angle ‘β’ at that point, which is the angle between relative velocity ‘w’ and blade velocity, ‘u’.
The velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 4.4. Flow velocities wm and Cm in the impeller passage are equal
and determined as
wm0 = w0 sin β0 and Cm0 = C0 sin α0
Referring to (Fig. 4.4), the relative velocity of the fluid will be tangential to the blade at all points,
on the line AB. Actually, the fluid moves along the direction of absolute velocity (C1 to C2) from α1 to
α2 line AB′ . The fluid at point x on the blade will be actually at x′ i.e., on the absolute velocity line. If the
time taken for the fluid to travel from point A to x on the blade is ‘t’ and if the angular velocity of the
blade is constant and is equal to ‘ω’ then the included angle θ will be θ = ωt.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 69
The real fluid flow differs from the above mentioned theoretical one dimensional flow.
u2
α2
C2
α
C′ u
w
w2
β w 1 C′
B 1 x′
β1 α1
β2 A
D2 ϕ
B′
D1
number of blades with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness, the streamlines in the impeller passage
are congruent and the flow is considered as one dimensional. The flow velocity Cm0 is determined from
the velocity (C0). The velocity C0 is determined from the equation (4.2). Usually the meridional flow
velocity Cm0 is assumed to be equal to C0. Sometimes, it is increased, Cm0 = 1.03 to 1.05 C0, in order to
get smooth, uniform flow at the bend portion of the impeller passage.
In real fluid flow, however, finite number of blades, with finite thickness are used. Referring to
Fig 4.3, the blade thickness ‘δ’ will be occupying a circumferential distance of ‘s’ due to the blade angle
δ
‘β’ and is determined as s= ...(4.3)
sin β
If there are ‘Z’ number of impeller blades, the actual circumferential length available for the flow
of fluid is (πD − Zs ) instead of πD.
δ1
Due to finite vane thickness the inlet area, blocked by one vane will be s1 = . Total length
sin β1
Z δ1
blocked by Z number of blades is Zs = . Total available area due to this will be (πD1 – Zs1)B. Due
sin β1
to this the flow velocity before the inlet edge, Cm0 is increased to Cm1 on the blade, i.e., the moment fluid
touches the inlet edge.
The meridional flow velocity Cm, the resolved component of absolute velocity C, in radial direction
at points 0 and 1 are equal to corresponding value of wm the resolved component of relative velocity w
in the same direction.
Cm0 = C0 sin α0 = wm0 = w0 sin β0 ...(4.4)
and Cm1 = C1 sin α1 = wm1 = w1sin β1
Since quantity of flow Q is same, at inlet Qth = πD.B.Cm0 before the inlet edge and Qth is equal to
= (πD1 – zs1) B1 Cm1 on the blade
πD1
Cm1 = Cm0 = Cm0 .K1 ...(4.5)
πD1 − zs1
πD1 1 1
where, K1 = = = Ζδ1 ...(4.6)
πD1 − zs1 zs
1– 1 1−
πD1 π D1 sin β1
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 71
φ6.10
φ
94.9
φ
76
φ
40
14R
150R
14 5.5
12°
38
62 35 20R 3R 28
14 22
35
14.8
21.1
16.4
18.4
25
13 24
φ
25 Hy
φ
45
200
φ ++ 0.020
0.000
φ
18
φ
φ 8.5
17.5 φ
φ 9 φ
17 9.5
φ
φ 10 φ
16.5
10.5
φ φ
15 11
φ
11.5
φ φ
14 12
φ
13
φ
12
φ
11.5
Since the inlet blade velocity ‘u1’ remains same at points 0 and 1 inlet velocity triangle A0, B1, C1
at point O, before the inlet edge changes to A1B1C1 at point 1 on the inlet edge of the blade (Fig. 4.6) due
to the increase in ‘Cm’ from ‘Cm0’ to ‘Cm1’.
A1
A0
w1
δ1
C m1
1
C
C m0
C0 w0
C m0
α1
α0 C m1 β0
β1
t1 β1
s1
B1 u0 = u1
C u0 = C u1
(a) (b)
β 2 B 2c 1,0= c m1
w1
w 1,0
c ′1= c ′m1
B 1 β1 w1′
C1 β1 β10
R2 β1 β′1
C u1 u1
R1 s1
(c)
Fig. 4.6. (a), (b), (c) Inlet velocity triangle—effect of blade thickness and normal entry
Practically the inlet edge is rounded off in order to make the fluid to enter the blade tangentially
without any shock. Because of this, entry losses are reduced and the hydraulic efficiency is increased.
However, in practice, the inlet blade angle B10 is increased by an angle ‘δ’ in order to reduce shock
losses at entry and also to improve cavitational characteristics. The inlet angle B10 is increased by
δ = 3° to 10° and in special cases up to 15°. Actual blade angle at inlet β1 will be Fig. 4.6 (c).
β1= β1, 0 + δ = β1, 0+ (3° to 10°) ...(4.7)
At optimum conditions δ = 0 because, fluid flows tangentially to the blade. For the optimum
cavitational conditions, it is recommended to have β1, 0= 16° to 20° and after correction for vane thickness
and adding angle of attack δ, final value of β1= 18° to 25°.
flow direction will be radial in centrifugal pump, diagonal in mixed flow pump and axial in axial flow
pump. The flow rate is calculated as
Q = πD0 B0 . Cm0 = πD1B1 Cm1 ...(4.8)
This condition of flow is called normal entry (i.e., Axial entry in axial flow pump and radial entry
in centrifugal pump). Inlet velocity triangle, under such condition, is as shown in Fig. 4.6 (c). From the
figure it is evident that C0 = Cm0, Cu0 = 0, α0 = 90°. Correspondingly C1 = Cm1, Cu1 = 0, α1= 90°.
Cu 2 u2 − Cu1 u1 Cu 2u2
So, the Head developed Hm = = ...(4.9)
g g
For normal entry Cu0 u0 = Cu1 u1 = 0. This condition is adopted in all pump designs by which blade
loading and pressure intensity on the blade will be at a reduced level.
In order to get durability and dependability in operation of pump and for stable operation of pump
sometimes α1 is taken between 85° and 90°. This reduces slightly the inlet pressure before the impeller
entry, due to the reduced work load on impeller blades as per the equation (4.9).
In practice, however, due to the rotation of impeller, the fluid also gets rotated before the blade
inlet slightly. As a result a forced vortex is developed. Initial conditions of flow at inlet is determined,
mostly by the prewhirl developed, due to impeller rotation near impeller eye. That is why, this action is
considered as the change in the moment given by the inlet guide blade or by the influence of suction
pipe, which does not lie in the same plane. The effect of this action is the reduction in input energy due
to pressure reduction. This pressure reduction is not due to frictional losses occurring due to friction,
taking place in the rotating impeller passages. Impeller friction losses, are separately given as hf (1 –2) in
the moment of momentum equation for pumps as
Cu 2 u2 − Cu1 u1
Hm = + hf (1 – 2) ...(4.10)
g
In order to accommodate for shock losses reduction, the inlet blade angle β1 is slightly increased
over and above the angle necessary to meet the reversed direction of flow at inlet. The flow rate is also
slightly increased over and above the loss of flow in clearance, and reduction in the area of crosssection
at inlet as well as for induced prewhirl. That’s why normal entry is assumed even in the absence of the
inlet guide blades. If inlet guide blades are used, the inlet pressure is reduced before the entry into the
impeller and the cavitational characteristics is also reduced. It is found, that higher efficiency is attained
when α1is slightly lower than 90° i.e., 85° < α < 90°.
πD2
Cm2 = Cm3
Zδ 2
(πD2 − )
sin β2∞
1
= Cm3 = Cm3 . K2 ...(4.12)
Zδ 2
1 −
πD2 sin β2∞
1
where, K2 = ...(4.13)
Zδ 2
1 −
πD2 sin β2∞
and Cm2 = C2∞ sin α 2∞ = Wm2= Wm2∞ sin β2∞
β2
B2 α2 C3 C m3 β3 β2
α3 δ2
C u2 = C u3 C2
u2
(a) (b)
Fig. 4.7. Outlet velocity triangle—effect of blade thickness
In order to get higher head and efficiency, the outlet edge of the blade is made as sharp edged as
shown in continuous lines (Fig. 4.7). This reduces the area blocked by blade at outlet and the flow
resembles like flow with infinite number of blades with infinitesimally smaller thickness. However,
angle of sharpness must be properly selected, so that there should not be any flow separation.
The outlet velocity triangle A2 B2C2 due to area increase and subsequent reduction in flow velocity
Cm2 to Cm3, will change into A3 B2 C2. Correspondingly, the direction and magnitude of absolute and
relative velocities change (Fig. 4.7).
pumping will not exist. In order to have pumping or to change mechanical energy to fluid energy, the
pressure at the leading side of the blade must be higher than the pressure at the trailing side of the blade.
Correspondingly, the velocity (w and Cm) at the trailing side will be higher than the velocity at the
leading side of the blade. When impeller rotates, the leading side of the blade exerts a force on the fluid
in contact and makes the fluid to move.
This unequal velocity distribution within the impellers passage can be considered as consisting of
two types of flow: (1) Constant velocity of flow across the entire impeller passage combined with, and
(2) A circulating velocity moving from trailing edge to the leading edge and then back to the trailing
edge (Fig. 3.6). Due to this circulatory motion, a tangential velocity is created at the outlet edge of the
blade, which is opposite to the direction of motion of blade and is in the same direction of blade motion
at the inlet edge of the blade.
Considering the outlet, the tangential velocity (∆Cu) created in the opposite direction reduces the
original tangential velocity Cu2∞ to Cu2 correspondingly the total head is reduced from H∞ to Hm. Both
these total heads are connected by the equation H∞ = (1 + p)Hm, where ‘p’ is the correction coefficient.
Various authors derived different methods to determine the value of the coefficient ‘p’.
ω
ω
90°
r2 r2
0°
β2 < 9
ra
ra < r2 ra > r2
π – β2
∆ W max
2
C
Relative
t2
circulatory flow
A 90°
B
β2
2
ω
Main flow
Stodola and Meizel suggested that ∆w2 is proportional to u2. The blade velocity at outlet ∆w2 =
xu2. In order to determine the value of x, Meizel considered the flow in impeller passages consists of (1)
flow with constant velocity in impeller passage along with (2) a circulatory flow with an angular velocity
ω, rotating opposite to the blade rotation. He assumed that maximum value of relative circulation
velocity ∆w2max occurs at the middle of the passage. The plain flow with equal velocity is along the
streamline, whereas the velocity vector of the circulatory flow is perpendicular to this plain flow direction,
with the result, combined velocity w2 is changed from one end to another end in impeller passages.
Applying Stokes theorem, and referring to Fig. 4.8 (b) the circulation along the contour ABC
will be
2 2πr
∴ Γ = ΓAC = ∆w2 Z = 2ωA.
1 β β t2
The Area ABC = t cos .t sin = sin β2 .
2 2 2 4
π sin β2
= . u2
Z
π sin β2
Since ∆w2= xu2, x =
Z
Cm 2 π sin β2
Cu2 = Cu2∞ – ∆w2 = u2 – – u2.
tgβ2∞ Z
π sin β2 C
= u2 1 − – m2 ...(4.15)
Z tgβ2∞
The following assumptions were made by Meizel in deriving the above equation :
1. The circulatory velocity vector is perpendicular to the main flow streamline, which is not
always correct.
2. The circulatory vortex moves in a closed contour which is not correct since inlet and outlet
passages are open for flow. Only two sides of the blades act as closed contour.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 77
3. The relative velocity w2∞ is tangential to the blade at outlet i.e., β2 of flow = β2 of the blade
and flow is parallel to each other at all points of impeller outlet passage. This is correct only
for more number of blades ( z ≥ 10) . For smaller number of blades, the correction factor
called slip factor does not agree. Also it is assumed that inlet flow conditions, will not affect
outlet flow confitions, which is also not true.
In general, the slip factor equation given by Stodola and Meizel agrees with the experimental
results for higher number of impeller blades.
H∞ = (1 + p) Hm
ψ r 22
where, p =
Z S
Z — No. of impeller blades.
ψ — Coefficient depending upon the blade configuration.
r2
S — Static moment of the central streamline = ∫ r ds.
r1
ψ 1
and p = 2 ...(4.16)
Z r
1− 1
r2
78 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
yH
Z z
16
12 12
10 0,8 10
8 8
6 6 5
5
4 4
3 0,6 3
2
2
0,4
0 30 60 βepad 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 r1/r2
K
1,0
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
β
0,4
0,35 r1
0,3 r2
0,25 z
0,2
0,16 r1
0,14 (a) y H = f(β) when =0
0,12 r2
0,10
r1
0,08 (b) y H = f when β = 90°
r2
0,07
90° 45 45 25 20 15 10 5 0
0,06 r1
(c) k = f , z, β
0,05 r2
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,8(r1/r2)
Fig. 4.9. (b) Correction coefficient for finite number of vanes as per S.S. Rudinoff 104
This equation is applicable for diffuser type pumps, where the inlet edge of the diffuser is kept
very near to the impeller outlet edge. ψ increases if this distance increases. For volute pumps and for
vaneless diffuser pumps, ψ values becomes higher. The approximate values are given below:
ψ = 0.65 to 0.85 for volute
ψ = 0.68 for vaned diffuser
ψ = 0.85 to 1.0 for vaneless diffuser
Also when α 1 ≤ 10°, ψ increases approximately by 30%. A normal value of α1 ≈ 20° is
recommended for pumps for which ψ is minimum. When ψ is minimum,the power consumption is also
reduced.
Pfliderer’s slip factor gives a good result for pumps n ≤ 150 with back ward curved vanes. Slip
factor ‘p’ increases with the increase of nS and it depends upon the surface roughness of the flow
passage also. Extending the inlet edge towards the eye side as well as change in the static moment of the
middle streamline ‘S ’ does not change the slip factor and hence Hm does not increase. In general Hm
calculated as per StodotaMeizel formula is found to be nearer to the experimentally determined value
of Hm than Hm calculated as per Pfliderer.
2
π sin β + r1 sin β
where, ψ= 2 1
2 r2
2
r1
≈ 1.6 sin β2 + r sin β1 ...(4.20)
2
which is similar to the equation (4.13) determined
by Pfliderer.
w2 w 2∞
Equation (4.15) is determined only for ideal
C m2
fluid flow with finite number of blades and not for
C 2∞
real fluid having friction losses due to viscosity. C2
Before leaving the outlet edge, due to the slip factor, α 2∞
the relative velocity at outlet w2∞ deviates from the β2 β
α2 2∞
original direction (Fig. 4.10). Since flow rate is C u2 u2
same Cm2∞ = Cm2 and the outlet blade angle reduces C u2∞ = (1 + p) C u2
from β2∞ to β2. With the result w2 > w2 ∞ , C2<C2∞, Fig. 4.10. Outlet velocity triangle–effect of finite
number of blades
α2 > α2∞ β2< β2∞, wu2> wu2∞,Cu2< Cu2∞
Hm Hm 1 Cu 2 u2 Cu 2
= = = =
H∞ H m (1 + p) (1 + p ) Cu 2∞ u2 Cu 2∞
When the fluid comes out of the outlet edge, the flow velocity Cm2 reduces to Cm3 owing to the
Z δ2
sudden increase in area from πD2 − B to πD2B2, due to the absence of vane thickness. Cu2
sin β2 2
remains same, as defined earlier, i.e.,Cu2 = Cu3 with the result, the outlet velocity triangle changes. Since
u2= u3, Cu2 = Cu3, wu2 = wu3, Cm3< Cm2, α 3 < α 2, β3 < β2.
H H∞ C u − Cu 0u0
Hm = = = u3 3 ...(4.21)
ηh (1 + p ) g
Cu 2u2 − Cu1u1
whereas, H∞ =
g
Figure 4.11 gives a comparison of H–Q curve with correction for the effect due to finite number of
blades by different authors.
It is suggested that the correction coefficient for the finite number of blades can be carried out as
per StodolaMeizel, if active radius ‘ra’ is considered or otherwise method suggested by Karl Pfliderer
can be applied.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 81
H1
H 1∞
H m as per Pfliderer
π sin β2
H m as per StodolaMeizel
1+p
u 22
1
g
Z
u 22
1–
g
u 22
g
Qp
Fig. 4.11. (a) Comparison of H–Q curve with different correction coefficients
1.0
d
c
0.9
b
a
0.8
a. G.F. Proskura
b. Pfliderer
c. StodolaMeizel
0.7
d. Rudinoff
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C22 − C12
and Hdy =
2g
Cu 3u2 − Cu 0u1
Also, Hm =
g
Referring to velocity triangle
w22 = C22 + u22 – 2u2 Cu 2
82 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Pressure head Hp∞ indicates the difference in pressure and potential energy between inlet and
outlet of the pump, which is the sum of the pressure energy due to centrifugal force (Coriolis component)
u 2 − u12
and due to the flow over the blade system (due to relative velocity). 2 is the increase in pressure
2g
energy of the fluid within the impeller due to the rotation of the impeller, under no flow conditions i.e.,
w12 − w22
purely by the centrifugal force, whereas is the increase in the pressure energy of the flowing
2g
fluid over the impeller blade system due to velocity reduction from inlet to outlet, when the impeller is
stationary.
If both these flows are combined, a circulatory flow is developed, which gives a tangential
momentum at outlet and at inlet to develop total energy.
For real fluid flow with friction
where ‘hfim’ is the hydraulic loss in impeller and ‘hfv’ is the hydraulic loss in volute or in diffuser.
The coefficient of reaction ‘ ρ ’ is the ratio of pressure head developed to the total head
H p∞ H ∞ − H dy H dy
ρ = = =1– ...(4.24)
H∞ H∞ H∞
C 2u 2 gH m2
Hdy = = ...(4.25)
2g 2u 22
H dy Cu22 gH m
Hence, ρ = 1– = 1– =1– ...(4.26)
Hm 2 gH m 2u22
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 83
C 2u 2
H p = Hm – Hdy = Hm –
2g
gH m2 gH m
= Hm – = Hm 1 – ...(4.27)
2u22 2u22
Cu 2∞
where, Cu 2∞ =
u2
From outlet velocity triangle
Cm 2 ∞
Cu2∞ = u2 – wu2∞ = u2 – = u2 – Cm2 cot β2∞ ...(4.28)
tan β2∞
Q
= u2 – ...[4.28 (a)]
Zδ2
πD2 − B2 .tan β2∞
sin β2∞
1 u2 Q
u2 −
Hm =
1+ p g Zδ2 ...(4.29)
πD −
2 sin β 2 B .tan β 2∞
2∞
For the given dimensions of impeller, Hm is a function of C u 2∞ and C u 2∞ is function of β2. Blade
shape changes, when β2 change from < 90° to > 90° for the same direction of rotation of impeller. At
outlet blades are curved backwards when β2< 90°, radial when β2 = 90° and curved forward when
β2 > 90°.
Correspondingly the flow passage between blades of the impeller also changes. Fig. 4.12 illustrates
the blade shape, and the shape of the passage when β2 changes from < 90° to > 90°. For β2 < 90°, blade
passage is longer, the angle of divergence is smaller. Flow can be smooth, without any flow separation.
For β2 = 90° and β2 > 90°, the passage length is reduced and angle of divergence is increased, which
induces flow separation and subsequent hydraulic losses due to secondary flow. β2 < 90° is commonly
adopted for pumps, to get higher efficiency since the flow passage is divergent. β2 = 90° is used in
turbines, and in return guide values where flow is through a convergent passage. The longer length of
the flow passage induces more hydraulic losses. Thus outlet blade angle β2 influences considerably on
the performance of the pump. Converting all the values of head, H∞, Hp∞, Hdy∞, ρ∞, into a nondimensional
unit, as percentage of total value of (u22/2g).
84 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
β 2>90°
ω ω ω
β2
=9
0°
β 2<90°
Fig. 4.12. Blade shapes for different β 2 (a) β 2 < 90°° (b) β 2 = 90°° (c) β 2 > 90°°
H dy∞ 2 gH dy
H dy∞ = =
(u22 / 2g ) u22
2
Cu 2∞
= (Cu 2 ∞ )
2 gCu 2∞ 2
= = ...(4.30)
2 gu22 u2
H∞ Cu 2∞ . u2 Cu 2∞ u22
H∞ = = = = 2 Cu 2∞ ...(4.31)
(u22 / 2 g ) g (u22 / 2 g ) g (u22 / 2 g )
Hp∞ = H∞ – Hdy∞ = 2 Cu 2∞ – (Cu 2∞ ) = Cu 2∞ ( 2 − Cu 2∞ )
2
...(4.32)
H p∞ (2 − Cu 2∞ )Cu 2∞ Cu 2∞
ρ∞ = = = 1 − ...(4.33)
H∞ 2Cu 2∞ 2
The following table (4.1) gives the variation of H∞ , Hdy∞ , Hp∞ , ρ∞ for different values of Cu 2∞,
calculated as per the equations 4.30, 4.31, 4.32 and 4.33, when Cu 2∞= 0, β2∞= 0, when Cu 2∞ = 2,
β2∞= 180° when Cu 2∞ = 1β2∞= 90°. β2∞ can also be calculated from the equation 4.34.
∞ , ρ ∞ ,β
∞ , Hp∞
TABLE 4.1: Variation of H∞ , Hdy∞ β 2∞ as a function of Cu 2∞
Cu2∞ H∞ Hp∞
∞ Hdy∞
∞ ρ∞
0 0 0 0 1.0
0.5 1.0 0.75 0.25 0.75
0.75 1.5 0.9375 0.5625 0.625
1.0 2.00 1.00 1.000 0.50
1.5 3.00 0.75 2.25 0.25
2.0 4.00 0 4.00 0
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 85
Cu 2∞ u2 − Cm 2∞ cot β 2∞ Cm 2∞
C u 2∞ = = = 1 – Cm 2∞ cot β2 or tan β2 = ...(4.34)
u2 u2 1 − Cu 2∞
A graph is also drawn referring the Table 4.1.
ρ
H T∞
ρ
3,0 0,75
H d∞
H T∞, H d∞, H p∞
2,0 0,5
1,0 0,25
H p∞
0
0.5 1,0 1,5 C 2u∞
— — — —
Fig. 4.13. Graph H∞ , Hdy ∞ , Hp ∞ , ρ∞ = f (c2u ∞ )
The velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 4.14 for three condition namely β2 < 90°, β2 = 90° and
β2 > 90°.
C 2c
2a
C 2b
C 2m
β2b β2c
β2a
C 2ua
C 2ub
C 2uc
Fig. 4.14. Velocity triangles for β 2 < 90°° , β 2 = 90°° and β 2 > 90°°
(a) β 2a < 90°° (b) β 2b = 90°° (c) β 2c > 90°°
Corresponding impeller blade shapes are also indicated in the Fig. 4.12.
Total head (H∞ ) and coefficient of reaction ‘ρ’ are directely proportional to Cu 2∞. Dynamic head,
When β2∞ < 90°, the blades are backward curved, the angle of divergence of flow passage in
impeller is narrow and, hence secondary flow losses are less. Hydraulic efficiency is higher. Also
Hp > Hdy i.e., a greater part of the outlet energy is in the form of pressure energy. Only a smaller
portion of total head i.e., Hdy is converted to pressure energy, which is the basic requirement for
pumps. That why pumps and blowers are designed with impeller blades as backward curved blades.
Normally β2, the outlet blade angle lies between 20° to 35° for nS ranging from 50 to 400. Recommended
values are:
β2 ≤ 30° for nS < 100
β2 ≤ 25° for 100 nS < 200
β2 ≤ 20° for 250 nS < 400
Total Head increases with the increase of β2. The performance of pump H–Q curve gradually rises
and becomes more and more a straight line when β2 increases. Smaller values of β2 is selected for more
steep H–Q curves and larger values of β2 are for more flat H–Q curves. β2 is always selected for maximum
efficiency condition of operation. As per stepanoff  112  average static condition of optimum blade
angle of outlet β2 lies, between 22°–23°. For increase in head, angle β2 may be increased to 28° to 30°
without any sacrifice in efficiency. Minimum blade angle β2 can be 15° to 17° and never less than this
value for pumps of any specific speed (nS) or any size.
Selection of number of blades (Z) in impellers and in diffusers (Zd) is very important. It influences
on the H–Q characteristics of the pump, pump efficiency as well as suction characteristics of the
pumps. Selection of less number of blades as well as shorter length of blades, give higher angle of
divergence in impeller passages, which increases secondary losses in impeller namely circulatory
losses between two blades due to large pressure differences between leading and trailing sides of the
blade as well as losses at exit due to flow separation. Cavitational characteristics of the pump also
reduces. H–Q curve will be lower than the normal curve. Blade loading will be higher. This increases
the blade thickness which again reduces the blade passage and corresponding increase in w and Cm
which increases frictional losses. Too long the impeller blades and more number of blades increase
the frictional losses, although blade loading and secondary losses are reduced due to less angle of
divergence. Hence correct selection of number of blades is absolutely necessary. In Fig. 4.15, the
effect of number of vanes on pump performance is given. It is evident from the graph that, number of
vanes influences in pump performance.
Based on the channel width in plan of the impeller and the blade length which ensures proper
angle of divergence, Karl Pfliderer  97  has established an expression for the determination of number
of blades (Z).
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 87
20
15
H Vs Q
Total head, (H) m
Z=6
Z=5
Z = 10
10
Z=8 Z=4
Z=5 Z=5
Z=8
Z=4 Z=4
100%
8 Z=6
=
Z
10
Z=
Z = 10
50%
Efficiency ( η)
Specification:
Head : 12.8 m
Flow rate: 6 lps
Speed : 1440 rpm
25%
n s = 60
Size = 50 mm × 40 mm
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(Q) Quantity of Flow, lps
Fig. 4.15. (a) Effect of no. of vanes on pump performance
88 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
β2
90°
71°
44°
30°
21°
16°
14°
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Z
β 2) as per Pfliderer
Fig. 4.15. (b) Selection of number of vanes, z = f(β
r2 + r1 β1 + β2
Z = 6.5 . sin ...(4.35)
r2 – r1 2
where, 6.5 in the constant derived from experimental results.
This expression gives nearly correct value for normal backward curved blades. If the blades are
too long and too much bent in backward direction, i.e.,for smaller values of β1 and β2, this expression
gives more number of blades than normally used in practice. Karl Pfliderer, based on the results from
Hanson has given a graph for selection of number of blades as a function of outlet blade angle β2 for
diffuser pumps. [Fig. 4.15 (b)]. In Fig. 4.15 (a) the effect of number of blades on pump performance is
given. From the graph it is seen that for best performance number of vanes are found to be between
5 and 6 for radial flow pump.
Most of the pumps of different specific speeds have number of blades between 5–8 in impeller
and 1 or 2 blades, more than impeller blades, in diffusers. For nS ≤ 150, Z will be 6 to 8, for nS ≥ 150
and D2 ≤ 1000 mm, Z = 6 to 7, for D2< 120 mm, Z = 6 to 5.
Most of the high efficiency pumps have an included angle θ between inlet and outlet edges of
blades in plan (Fig. 4.16) between 80° to 150°, optimum being 110° to 120° and θ/tang between 1.2 to 2.2
360
where tang = for pumps of specific speed nS ranging from 130 to 400 and D2 ranging from 100 mm
Z
to 300 mm.
n% For ns = 300 to 400
90 (1) D 2 = 300 mm
(2) D 2 = 116 mm
For ns = 180 – 250
Efficienc y
3
1 (3) D 2 = 116 mm
80
2 4 For ns = 130 – 180
5 (4) D 2 = 116 mm
(5) for ns = 60 to 100
70 D2 = 300 mm
θav / tang
4 Qth 4 KQ2 / 3 Qn 2 / 3
d 2 Q 2 / 3
C0 = =
π 3 2
Qth d h2
π
− 1 −
h
1
K n D 2 D
Q 0
4 KQ2 / 3
where, K1 =
d2
π 1 − h2
D
90 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
For better cavitational characteristics and hydraulic efficiency, C0= 2 to 4 mps and the meridional
velocity (Cm1) before the blade inlet edge Cm1= C0 or 1.05 to 1.10 C0, since increase in velocity Cm
reduces the efficiency and cavitation effect.
From inlet to outlet in the impeller passage, the relative velocity w, meridional velocity Cm and
hence the absolute velocity C gradually reduces. This means the blade passage is a divergent passage.
w1
For better results, angle of divergence should be within 10°. This is achieved when = 1.05 to 1.15
w2
and Cm2 = 0.85 to 0.9 Cm1. From inlet velocity triangle for normal entry
4Q
2
FG πD n IJ 2
H 60 K
1
w21 2 + u2 =
= Cm1 2 +
1
πD0
π π
Taking, Cm1= C0, D2 =
4 0 4
(D12 – dh2 )
or D12 = D02 + dh2
2
4Q π n
2
∴ 2
w1 =
2 + (D20 + dh2 ) ...(4.38)
πD0 60
2
w1
2
M 2
w1
sec
π 2 2 2
2
n D1 = u1
60
2
Q 2
4 2
2 = C m1
π D 21 – dh
2 2 2
D 0 opt D0(m )
For good cavitational characteristics w1 must be minimum. Differentiating equation (4.38) with
dw1
respect to D0 i.e., = 0 and simplifying
dD0
2 22
π n 4 Q 3
Q
− 2 π =0 or D0 = K ...(4.39)
60 D06 n
which is same as equation (4.36).
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 91
From experimental results, the constant K is ranging from 3.6 to 5.0. For single stage end suction
pumps of D1 > 70 mm, K = 4.0 to 4.5 and for same pumps if D1< 70 mm, K = 4.5 to 5.00. For all
multistage pumps except for Ist stage K = 3.6 – 3.9  76 .
As per Karl Pfliderer  97 , Lomakin  69 , Stepanoff  112 , and Karrasik  54 , the best inlet blade
angle without including the angle of attack for better cavitational characteristics and for better hydraulic
efficiency is
β10 = 15° to 20°.
Taking this into consideration and from the inlet velocity triangle (Fig. 4.1), under normal entry
condition,
4Q
Cm1 C0 πD02 60 × 4 × Q
tan β10 = = = =
u1 u1 πD0 n π2 D03 n
60
240 Q
= ⋅
π 2
D03 n = tan 15° to tan 20°
240 1 Q
D03 = × ⋅
tan (15 to 20) n
or
π 2
1/ 3 3
240 1 Q 3
Q
D0 = 2 . = 4.5 to 4.0 ...(4.40)
π tan (15° to 20°) n n
Correspondingly finding the value of C0 from the above equation,
π 2 dh
2
4Qth
Qth = D0 1 − C0 or D0 =
4 D0 d 2
π 1 − h C0
D0
d 2
π 1 − h C0
D0
Cm1 60 C0 60 C0
tan β10 = = =
u1 π D0 n πn 4 Qth
2
30 d C 3/ 2
tan (15° to 20°) = 1− h ⋅ 0
π D0 n Qth
Substituting the values for tan β10 = tan (15° to 20°) = 0.268 to 0.364
Cu 2u2 u22 gH m
Hence, Hm = = (0.8 to 0.5) g or u2 =
g (0.8 to 0.5)
60 u2
Having known the speed n, D2 =
πn
This diameter D2 is used to determine β2, Z, p. From the value p
H∞ = (1 + p) Hm is determined.
From outlet velocity triangle, for normal entry condition
Cu 2∞ u2 C
H∞ = = u2 u2 − m 2
g tan β2
2
Cm 2 Cm 2
from which u2 = + + g H∞ ...(4.42)
2 tan β2 2 tan β2
The diameter D2 determined under second approximation by equation (4.42) is corrected again
after finalizing the correct value of area reduction coefficient ‘Κ2’ and outlet blade angle ‘β2’.
H Cu 2u2
where Hm = = for normal entry at inlet
ηh g
(1 + p ) ⋅ Cu 2u2
=
ηh g
Referring to the outlet velocity triangles, the total head (H) is given as
Cu 2u2 u u2 Cm 2
Hm = = 2 (u2 – wu2) = = u2 −
g g g tan β2
u2 K 2Qth u2 K 2 Qth
= u2 – = u 2 – ...(4.43)
g πD2 B2 tan β2 g πD2 B2 tan β2
2
B2
where B2 =
D2
Q
Introducing nondimensional coefficients unit discharge KQ = and Unit Head
nD3
H
K H = 2 2 into the equation (4.40), we get
n D
K H n2 D 2 πD2 n K 2 KQ nD23
= πD2 n −
ηh g ηv .π.D2 B2 tan β2
2
4/3
3.65n Q 219 KQ 219 K Q
Introducing specific speed ns = = or K = into the above
H(
3 / 4)
( K H )(3 / 4) H ns
K 2 KQ
B2 = ...(4.44)
( )(219)4 / 3
2/3
g KQ
ηv tan β2 π –
2
η1 ( ns )
4/3
For radial type centrifugal pumps ns ranges from 40 to 300, KQ ranges from 0.02 to 0.22, K2
ranges from 1.05 to 1.25, β2 ranges from 20° to 30°.
94 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
80
70
B = 12
B=9
60
B=6
B = 16
50
Efficiency (η)
40
30
20
10
0.7
0.6
B = 16
0.5
B = 12
(K H) Unit Head
0.4
B=9
0.3
B=6
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.25
0.2
KQ 0.15
0.1
0.05
0
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ηs
Fig. 4.18. (c) Allowable range of KQ for different specific speeds (Data collected from
different pumps working η ranges from 65% to 81%)
40
45
60 70
50
0.8000
55
80 90 100 115
KH 130
150
175
200
0.3000
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22
KQ
Fig. 4.18. (d) Allowable range of KQ and KH for different specific speeds of Radial type centrifugal
pumps (Data collected from pumps working η ranges from 65% to 81%)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 97
0.1600
0.1400
0.1200
0.1000
B 0.0800
0.0600
0.0400
0.0200
0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns
—
Fig. 4.18. (e) B vs ns for K2 = 1.05, η h = η v = 0.84, β 2 = 22°°
0.1200
0.1000
0.0800
B 0.0600
0.0400
0.0200
0.0000
40 50 60 80 100 130 175 250
ns
—
Fig. 4.18. (f ) B vs ns for K2 = 1.05, η h = η v = 0.84, β 2 = 30°°
FG IJ
98
B
TABLE 4.2: Selection of impeller blade breadth at outlets B 2 = D
2
2 H K
K2 = 1.05
η h = η v = 0.84 η h = η v = 0.90
β 2 = 22 β 2 = 30 β 2 = 22 β 2 = 30
ηs KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B
40 0.02 0.0395 0.013 0.0111 0.02 0.0276 0.013 0.0077 0.02 0.0272 0.013 0.0093 0.02 0.0191 0.013 0.0065
45 0.025 0.0473 0.015 0.0116 0.025 0.0331 0.015 0.0081 0.025 0.0331 0.015 0.0098 0.025 0.0231 0.015 0.0069
50 0.031 0.0596 0.02 0.0167 0.031 0.0417 0.02 0.0117 0.031 0.0414 0.02 0.0140 0.031 0.0290 0.02 0.0098
55 0.037 0.0679 0.023 0.0182 0.037 0.0475 0.023 0.0127 0.037 0.0479 0.023 0.0154 0.037 0.0335 0.023 0.0108
60 0.042 0.0670 0.027 0.0211 0.042 0.0469 0.027 0.0148 0.042 0.0491 0.027 0.0179 0.042 0.0344 0.027 0.0125
2 H K
K2 = 1.25
η h = η v = 0.84 η h = η v = 0.90
β 2 = 22 β 2 = 30 β 2 = 22 β 2 = 30
ηs KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B
40 0.02 0.0470 0.013 0.0132 0.02 0.0329 0.013 0.0092 0.02 0.0324 0.013 0.0110 0.02 0.0227 0.013 0.0077
45 0.025 0.0563 0.015 0.0138 0.025 0.0394 0.015 0.0096 0.025 0.0394 0.015 0.0117 0.025 0.0275 0.015 0.0082
50 0.031 0.0709 0.02 0.0199 0.031 0.0496 0.02 0.0139 0.031 0.0493 0.02 0.0167 0.031 0.0345 0.02 0.0117
55 0.037 0.0808 0.023 0.0217 0.037 0.0566 0.023 0.0152 0.037 0.0570 0.023 0.0184 0.037 0.0399 0.023 0.0128
60 0.042 0.0798 0.027 0.0251 0.042 0.0558 0.027 0.0176 0.042 0.0585 0.027 0.0213 0.042 0.0409 0.027 0.0149
70 0.053 0.0838 0.034 0.0294 0.053 0.0586 0.034 0.0206 0.053 0.0643 0.034 0.0252 0.053 0.0450 0.034 0.0176
80 0.067 0.0990 0.043 0.0362 0.067 0.0693 0.043 0.0253 0.067 0.0772 0.043 0.0311 0.067 0.0540 0.043 0.0218
90 0.081 0.1099 0.053 0.0436 0.081 0.0769 0.053 0.0305 0.081 0.0873 0.053 0.0377 0.081 0.0611 0.053 0.0264
100 0.097 0.1250 0.062 0.0489 0.097 0.0875 0.062 0.0342 0.097 0.1003 0.062 0.0425 0.097 0.0702 0.062 0.0297
115 0.118 0.1342 0.077 0.0581 0.118 0.0939 0.077 0.0407 0.118 0.1102 0.077 0.0508 0.118 0.0771 0.077 0.0355
130 0.134 0.1320 0.092 0.0665 0.134 0.0924 0.092 0.0465 0.134 0.1110 0.092 0.0584 0.134 0.0777 0.092 0.0409
150 0.164 0.1483 0.112 0.0767 0.164 0.1038 0.112 0.0537 0.164 0.1264 0.112 0.0678 0.164 0.0884 0.112 0.0475
175 0.193 0.1542 0.14 0.0917 0.193 0.1079 0.14 0.0642 0.193 0.1337 0.14 0.0815 0.193 0.0936 0.14 0.0570
200 0.222 0.1623 0.158 0.0967 0.222 0.1136 0.158 0.0677 0.222 0.1424 0.158 0.0866 0.222 0.0997 0.158 0.0606
250 0.257 0.1601 0.193 0.1077 0.257 0.1120 0.193 0.0754 0.257 0.1430 0.193 0.0973 0.257 0.1001 0.193 0.0681
300 0.284 0.1596 0.225 0.1179 0.284 0.1117 0.225 0.0825 0.284 0.1441 0.225 0.1071 0.284 0.1009 0.225 0.0750
99
100 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
0.1400
0.1200
0.1000
B 0.0800
0.0600
0.0400
0.0200
0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns
—
Fig. 4.18. (g) B vs ns for K2 = 1.05, η h = η v = 0.90, β 2 = 22°°
0.0900
0.0800
0.0700
0.0600
0.0500
B
0.0400
0.0300
0.0200
0.0100
0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns
—
Fig. 4.18. (h) B vs ns for K2 = 1.05, η h = η v = 0.90, β 2 = 30°°
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 101
0.1800
0.1600
0.1400
0.1200
0.1000
B
0.0800
0.0600
0.0400
0.0200
0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns
—
Fig. 4.18. (i) B vs ns for K2 = 1.25, η h = η v = 0.84, β 2 = 22°°
0.1200
0.1000
0.0800
B 0.0600
0.0400
0.0200
0.0000
40 50 60 80 100 130 175 250
ns
—
Fig. 4.18. (j) B vs ns for K2 = 1.25, η h = η v = 0.84, β 2 = 30°°
102 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
0.1600
0.1400
0.1200
0.1000
B 0.0800
0.0600
0.0400
0.0200
0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns
—
Fig. 4.18. (k) B vs ns for K2 = 1.25, η h = η v = 0.90, β 2 = 22°°
0.1200
0.1000
0.0800
0.0600
B
0.0400
0.0200
0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns
—
Fig. 4.18. (l) B vs ns for K2 = 1.25, η h = η v = 0.90, β 2 = 30°°
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 103
Overall efficiency of pumps ranges form η = 65% to 81%, ηv is assumed as equal to ηh and is
taken as = η . Using excel programme, the values of B2 for the above mentioned variations were
calculated and graph B2 = f (ns) were drawn (Figs. 4.18 c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l), for different values of
KQ, K2, ηh, ηv and β2. These graphs can be referred for the selection of outlet blade breadth for radial
flow impellers.
An experiment on a radial type centrifugal pump was also conducted. The blade breadths (B2 and
B1) at inlet and at outlet were changed keeping the inclination of the shrouds with vertical same at all
time. The results are given in Figs. 4.18 (a), (b) in KH – KQ and η – KQ graphs.
Experimental results agree with the theoretically determined values.
Normally B2will be smaller for diffuser pumps, when compared to volute casing pumps.
50
0 85 200 250 400 420 600 800 875 n s
Suction head ‘Hs’ is reduced, when speed is increased. Cavitational specific speed ‘C’ can be
taken as C = 800 to 1000 from which suction head ‘Hs’ can be determined under first approximation
using the formula.
4/3
p pvp n Qp
Hs = atm – – ...(4.45)
γ γ C
104 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where,
patm— atmospheric pressure
pvp — vapour pressure and
γ — specific weight of liquid
Detailed analysis on cavitation is dealt with in chapter 9. Correct suction head ‘Hs’ or speed ‘n’
can be established by applying cavitation conditions.
In pump industries, pump is selected mostly from among the available models manufactured in
the industry. For the available data of H, Q, pump model, so selected, must be capable of meeting the
hydraulic and constructional requirements of the field conditions. For example, impellers of multistage
pump having hub extended into the impeller eye should not be selected for a single stage end suction
pump, since the entry in multistage pump impeller is different from entry of liquid in single stage end
suction impellers. In single stage end suction pumps entry is radial, whereas in multistage pump entry at
suction need not be radial. By applying model analysis, the available models are selected to suit the new
requirements. If pumps are not available from the existing models, new designs are made using systematic
design procedure. Total head of single stage pumps with standard speed of rotation 1440 rpm (ns ≈ 40)
will be H ≤ 30 m, in order to keep the impeller size and weight of the pump within the limit. If head for
the single stage pump is more than 30 m, then the impeller size and corresponding the total weight of the
pump considerably increases. Hence, head and quantity for a single stage pump should be selected up to
HT
miximum of 30 m for n = 1440 rpm. If pumps are in series, then head per stage will be H = where
i
H — Head of single stage pump, HT — Total head of the multistage pump, i is the number of stages. If
QT
the pumps are in parallel then quantity of flow per pump will be Qp= , where Qp—quantity of flow
i
for one pump, QT—Total quantity required and i—Number of pumps to be kept in parallel. If a double
QT
suction pump is used then Q = . In case of single stage pump, excess quantity is required to take care
2
of axial thrust, leakage through wearing rings, stuffing box cooling, etc. Actual quantity must be
increased by an extra of 3 to 10% i.e., Qp = Qact = (1.03 to 1.1) Q when selecting pumps for usage in
field. Multistage pumps are used for boiler feed, mines etc.
When high suction characteristics are essential such as condensate or for gasliquid pumping,
speed of rotation must be selected a little lower than normal. A double suction pump is preferred. If a
multistage pump is used for such conditions, the first stage impeller must be specially designed.The
suction head Hs is determined as per the equation 4.45.
For the calculated specific speed, approximate overall efficiency (η) can be obtained by referring
γQH
the graph (Fig. 4.19). The power of the prime mover will be Ni = .
η
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 105
N% 1 h
100
N
2 %
95 5
3
5a
5
90 4 10
6
5b
85 15
80 20
75 25
30
0
70 140 210 240 350 420 490 ns
Fig. 4.20. Energy balance for pumps of different ns (1) Mechanical loss
(2) Impeller loss (3) Discfriction loss (4) Volumetric loss (5) Hydraulic
loss 5a. Volute loss 5b. approach pipe (6) useful output
100 0
1
95 5
2 3
90 10
4
85 15
5
80 20
75 25
70 30
65
60
55
50
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Q
Fig. 4.21. % Energy balance for a pump (1) Mechanical loss (2) Volumetric loss
Qnor
(3) Hydraulic loss (4) Useful power (5) Recirculation loss.
Fig. 4.20 gives an energy balance for different specific speeds of pump and Fig. 4.21 for one
pump. Referring to these figures the mechanical losses, volumetric losses and hydraulic losses, and
106 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
corresponding efficiency can be determined. Overall efficiency η = ηv× ηm× ηh, where ηv, ηm, ηh are
the volumetric, mechanical and hydraulic efficiencies respectively. It is necessary to reduce the volumetric
eifficiency by 1 to 2% depending upon the conditions, in case excess volume is used for axial thrust
balancing and stuffing box cooling. Prof. A.A. Lomakin (69) has suggested that volumetric and hydraulic
efficiencies can be determined as per the equation given below. Mechanical efficiency can be assumed
as 1% for larger pumps and 1.5% for smaller pumps. Volumetric efficiency ‘ηv’ is given by
1
= 1 + 0.68 (nS)–2/3 ...(4.46)
ηv
Qact
and Qth = where Qact is the quantity of flow for one pump. ηv the volumetric efficiency lies between
ηv
85% and 95% for pumps. Hydraulic efficiency (ηh) is given by
0.42
ηh = 1 – ...(4.47)
(log D0( Nom ) – 0.172)2
3
Q
where, D0(nom) = (4.5 to 4.0) (metres)
n
H act
and Hth = where Hact – total head for one pump. ηh the Hydraulic efficiency lies between 75% to
ηh
95% and depends upon the shape of the vane passages, surface roughness of the passages and size of the
impeller.
Mechanical efficiency ηm lies 1% for larger pumps and 1.5% for smaller pumps.
γQH
Based on the head, quantity of flow, the power required to drive the pump, Ni = , where γ is
η
the specific weight of the pumping liquid. The above equation can be written in different forms such as
WH PQ
Ni = since γQ = W, weight of the pumping liquid flowing per unit time. Also, Ni = , since
η η
γH = p, the total pressure required for the pumping liquid. Ni is the power input to the pump at coupling
and is equal to the power output from the prime mover (Nop). If the efficiency of the prime mover (ηpr)
N op – Ni
is known, the power input to the prime mover Nipr = .
η pr
Power ‘N’ required is (1.1 to 1.15) Ni = Tω where T is the torque transmitted in N.m and ω is the
2π n
angular velocity of the shaft, ω = , where n is the speed rpm. If ‘fu’ is the ultimate strength of the
60
shaft material selected, the yield strength ‘fs’ for bending, fatique and shear operating condition,
fu
fs = , where FS is the factor of safety (2 to 6). Shaft diameter ds is determined from the formula
FS
π d s3
f = T.
16 s
Hub diameter ‘dh’ will be dh = 1.2 to 1.3 ds ...(4.48)
depending upon the pump capacity. It is necessary to select the hub diameter to accommodate impeller
key with sufficient space especially for smaller pumps.
C0 = 0.06 to 0.08 3
Qn 2 ...(4.41)
Eye diameter ‘D0’ is determined as
πD 1Cm 0 1.Cm0 t
and Cm1 = K1Cm0 = = = ...(4.51)
Zδ Zδ δ
πD − 1− t−
sin β10 πD sin β10 sin β10
π D1
where, t= .
Z
Selection of number of blades may be carried out referring Figs. 4.15 and 4.16. Normally number
of vanes is selected as Zi = 6 to 8 depending upon the specific speed. The pitch or blade spacing (t) can
πD1
be calculated as t1 = . Vane thickness can be selected for strength and at the same time as minimum
Z
thickness as possible to get more flow passage area between any two blades and also to get proper vane
shape while casting in foundary.
As first approximation β10 is determined from equation (4.50). This value is substituted in equation
(4.51) and the coefficient K1 is calculated.
This value is now substituted in equation (4.48) to get new value of β10 .This value is substituted
in equation (4.49) to get new value of K1. This value of K1 is now substituted in equation (4.48) to get
the second value of β10. This process is repeated until two successive values of β10 and K1 are same.
The blade angle β1 is determined by adding the angle of attack ‘δ ’ i.e., β1= β10 + δ as mentioned earlier.
Final value of Cm1 is determined from Cm1= K1Cm0. Thus, all parameters for impeller blade inlet D1, B1,
Cm1, K1, u1, β1 and β10, Z are available for further the calculation to determine the parameters at impeller
blade outlet.
H uC Cu 2 u22
Manometric Head Hm = = 2 u2 = for normal entry at inlet
ηh g g
gH m 60 u2
or u2 = and D2 =
Cu 2 πn
D2 determined from first approximation, is used to determine outlet blade angle β2, number of
blades Z and the head correction coefficient ψ and p. From velocity triangles at inlet and at outlet,
Cm1 C
w1 = and w2 = m 2 from which
sin β1 sin β 2
Cm 2 w2 K 2Cm 3 w2
or sin β2 = ⋅ sin β1 = ⋅ sin β1 ...(4.53)
Cm1 w1 K1Cm 0 w1
Cm 2 w2
Since β1 is known, , , value β2 can be determined. Values ψ, p Z are determined from
Cm1 w1
equations 4.18 and 4.19. The value H∞ = ((1 + p) Hm is determined. The outlet vane velocity u2 is
60 u2
determined from equation (4.39) and then D2 = . Outlet breadth, B2 is determined as
πn
t2 Cm 2
K2 =
δ2
and Cm3 =
K 2 Qth = π D2 B2 Cm3
t2 −
sin β 2
Cm 2
Relative velocity at outlet w2 = .
sin β 2
If D2 value determined by I and II and approximation vary too much, then D2 determined from
IInd approximation should be substituted in all equations to determine the outlet dimensions and the
process should be repeated until successive values of D2 are same.
change in area from eye to outlet of impeller and at the same time providing velocity C0 at eye, Cm0 at
inlet Cm3 at outlet.
From the established dimensions at inlet and at outlet for the impeller, a graph indicating the
variation of Cm, w, β, δ, B, from inlet to outlet as a function of diameter D should be prepared. The
uniform change in Cm and w is suitably assumed between inlet and outlet and the graph is drawn.
(Fig. 4.3). Referring this graph Cm and w for any diameter can be found out. The blade angle β will be
β = sin–1 Cm . Similarly, the blade thickness ‘δ’ can be assumed. Blade thickness is always determined
w
based in the blade loading and the facility available at foundry to cast as minimum thickness as possible,
which provides more flow passage area. Normally blade thickness is gradually increased from inlet to
some distance approximately up to 1/3 to 2/5 of the blade length and then decreases up to outlet. Usually
4 mm to 6 mm for smaller pumps and 10 mm to 12 mm for larger pumps are selected. A graph δ = f (D)
is drawn. The breadth of the blade at any diameter can be determined from the equation.
Zδ
Qth = πD − B.Cm.
sin β
The value β, δ, Cm are taken from the graph for the selected diameter ‘D’ A graph B = f (D) is
drawn in the same graph.
From impeller eye to blade inlet edge, the graph can be extended to get complete the flow passage.
π D02
The continuity equation at impeller eye portion will be Qth = .C0 for end suction pumps.
4
π D02 D0
This can be changed as Qth = C0 = πDm B C0, where Dm is mean diameter = and B is
4 2
D0
the equivalent breadth B = .
2
π 2 2
Similarly, Qth = (D – d ).C for double suction and multistage pumps. This can be modified as
4 0 h 0
π
Qth = (D20 – dh2 ).C0 = πDm BC0
4
D0 + d h D0 – d h
where, Dm = and B =
2 2
Depending upon the specific speed, the shape of the middle stream line (Dm from eye to inlet and
D from inlet to outlet) is drawn. It should be remembered, that the radius of cruvature at the bend, where
the flow direction changes from axial to radial must be as large as possible at inner and at outer shrould
for better performance. On this streamline, a number of circles are drawn, at frequent intervals, selecting
different diameters of impeller passage. The diameter of these circle drawn on the streamlines is equal
to the breadth ‘B’. For the selected diameter (D) this value of B can be obtained from the graph. Lines
are drawn at both ends of the circle such that the line drawn must be tangent to all cirlces (Fig. 4.22).
These two lines form inner and outer shrouds of the impeller.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 111
ds
dr
should be 90° i.e., normal (Fig. 4.22). A graph can be drawn between
area ‘A’, A = f (S). Which must have the shape as shown in the Figs.
4.5 (b) and 4.22.
r2
For better cavitational characteristics the rate of area increase
r
at the bend portion, where the flow changes from axial to radial
r1
direction must be at a larger rate than the area increase at the radial
portion. By providing considerable increase in area at the inlet section,
D0
the rate of increase in area at the radial direction will be at a lower
rate. Moreover, significant increase in area at inlet compensates the
area reduction due to vane thickness at inlet.
Radius of curvature at the bend portion of the meridional passage
at the outer side must be as large as possible since smaller radius of
curvature at this point yields high velocity of flow as well as flow
separation after the bend, which drastically reduces cavitational
property and hydraulic efficiency. Flow separation at this point will
create very poor flow in the following radial portion as well as at inlet Fig. 4.22. Vane development in
of the impeller, all will reduce the hydraulic efficiency. meridional section
In general, meridional flow passage development must possess,
1. Smooth, streamlined and uniform area change from eye to the outlet must be ensured.
2. The radius of curvature at the outer side of the bend portion must be as large as possible.
3. Contour of flow passage must be in the same pattern as that recommended for that specific
speed.
D2 D2
The diameter reduces, when specific speed nS increases. When < 1.6, the surface area of
D1 D1
the vane significantly reduces if the inlet edge of the blade lies in the radial portion of the passage. The
blade loading will be higher, which inturn, reduces the cavitational characteristics. Hydraulic losses are
increased. To overcome this, the blade inlet is extended into the bend portion. The inlet edge of the
blade, instead of being parallel to axis, will be inclined. The blade passage changes from diagonal at
inlet to radial at outlet.
This inturn reduces the blade velocity and relative velocity at inlet. This reduces hydraulic losses
and improves cavitational characteristics and reduces blade loading. Due to the inclined location of inlet
edge, the radius from hub to outer changes. Since meridional velocity Cm is constant throughout the
inlet crosssection, blade angle β1 reduces from hub to periphery. Blade curvature changes, from single
curvature to double curvature. The inlet edge will be diagonal and outlet edge will be parallel to axis for
specific ns = 200 to 300. When specific speed increases still further i.e., for ns = 350 to 500 the outlet
edge also becomes inclined and the pumps will be mixed or diagnal type in stead of radial.
Vane development, either by single or by double arc method or by step by step method called as
point by point method, must provide uniform variation in relative velocity ‘w’, meridional velocity Cm
and angle of divergence from inlet to outlet along the flow passage i.e., from S1 to S2 (Fig. 4.23).
G
S2 β
β2 dr
E S2
D B r dθ
θ θk
β1
rk
A dθ ri δ
r0
ri
β
S1 θ
Fig. 4.23. (a) Single curvature plane Fig. 4.23. (b) Vane development by
vane development point by point method
Blade thickness ‘δ’ is selected either constant or changing from inlet to outlet, smaller thickness at
inlet and at outlet end and higher thickness at the middle. However, blade thickness is determined based
in the blade loading and the type of casting adopted in foundry for casting the impeller. The vane
thickness will be a little higher at inlet than that at outlet and will be rounded off at inlet for shockness
entry. For smaller pumps the blade thickness will be 3 mm at inlet, 5 mm to 6 mm at the middle and 1
mm to 2 mm at the outlet. For larger pumps blade thickness is increased up to 10 to12 mm. Selection of
minimum thickness provides a larger flow passage between blades. The velocities Cm and w in the flow
passage is reduced, which yields to higher hydraulic efficiency. Flow is also without separation for a
wide range of flow rate. Nowadays airfoils are used, for maximum economy and for better anticavitating
property. These profiles are positioned on the stream line ‘S1 to S2’ determined by point by point method.
Referring to Fig. 4.23 the differiential equation at any point between ‘S1 to S2’ for the central
steam line in plan can be written as
dr dr
tan β = or dθ =
rdθ r tan β
Taking θ = 0 when r = r1 and ‘β’ from the graph (Fig. 4.3) β = f (D) and integrating.
θ r2
dr
θ= ∫ dθ = r∫ r tan β ...(4.54)
0 1
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 113
Bi + Bi + 1
∆θ = ∆ri
2
where ∆θ and ∆r are the increment in central angle and radius Bi and Bi+1 are the integrals at the
beginning and at the end of selected radius. Total value of θ will be
i =i
Bi + Bi + 1
θi = ∑ 2
∆ri ...(4.55)
i =1
Bi + Bi +1
∆θ = B × ∆s
θi =Σ∆θ rad
w
r tan β
2
sin β =
∆S or ∆r
1
2πr
Z
S.No.
θ deg
tan β
Bi =
B=
t=
Cm
β
w
δ
r
S
The values of S or r can be arbitrarily selected for which Cm, W, β can be taken from the velocity
distribution graph (Figs. 4.23 and 4.3). The middle streamline is constructed from the table where θ and
the corresponding r are known. Blade thickness is added on the streamline, to get the blade in complete
shape.
If the increase in specific speed is still further, 300 ≥ ns ≥ 600 the outlet edge of the vane also
becomes diagonal. Each streamline of the vane will have its own configuration, i.e., the vane angles β1
and β2 are different from hub to periphery. The vane will be in the twisted form i.e., double curvature.
Due to the change in direction of flow for axial, to diagonal, uniform steady flow no longer exists.
The velocity field considerably changes at the inlet and at outlet. This complicates the pattern of flow.
Existing elemental theory of pumps with average velocity assumption along the circumferential and
along the radial directions cannot be assumed. A simple but considerably accurate scheme has to be
developed. Axisymmetric flow, i.e., flow with infinite number of vanes is commonly adopted for this
type of flow.
Theoretical investigation under axisymmetric flow with infinite number of vanes in meridional
section of flow will be equal velocity construction. This has been suggested by so many authors.
One of the methods of construction for diagonal type of impellers is the assumption of constant
head along all surfaces of revolution where the flow line lies. By applying Kelvin’s theorem, a vortex
free flow i.e., potential flow ωu = 0, suggested by Bowersfield is attained in the vane system as a result
of which the circulation along any contour is constant.
4.19.2 A General Solution for the Flow Through the Vane System
Considering general flow conditions, due to the perpendicularity of the normal nf to the surface f
→
and the relative velocity vector w , the flow on vane surface ‘f ’ in a relative form can be written in the
form,
cos (n f , w) = 0
By applying cosine law between two crossing lines in the cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z).
_
cos (n f , w) = cos (n f , r ) cos ( w, r ) + cos ( n f , u ) . cos ( w, u ) + cos (n f , z ) . cos ( w, z )
...(4.56)
Equation (4.56) can be written as
∂f ∂f ∂f
wr + wu + wz = 0 ...(4.57)
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
Cosine angle of the normal nf to the coordinates is proportional to the partial differential of the
function (r, θ, z) along the corresponding coordinates and cosine angle of the vector w with the coordinate
is proportional to the corresponding components of the velocity.
Taking into account the relation between absolute and relative velocities.
∂f ∂f ∂f
Cr + (u – Cu) + C = 0 ...(4.58)
∂r r ∂θ ∂z z
The vector Ω of the vorticity is also perpendicular to n f , since the surface f is a vortex surface.
From the relativity theory equations 4.56, 4.57, 4.58 can be written in the form
dr rd θ dz
Cr u − Cu C z = 0 ...(4.61)
Ωr Ωu Ω z
This differential equation expresses the condition for the flow of vanes under vortex free absolute
flow of fluid without any boundary limitations. However, the components of velocities can be determined
only under axisymmetrical relative flow.
∂ (ρCr )
qefgh = ρCr + dr dθ, dz, dt
∂r
Correspondingly:
qadhe = ρCu drdzdt
∂ (ρCu )
qbegf = ρCu + d θ dru , dz, dt
∂θ
and qaefb = ρCZ rdθ dz dt
∂ (ρCZ )
qehgc = ρCZ + rd θ dr dt
∂Z
The total flow through all sides of the elementary volume will be
∂ (ρ Cr r ∂ (ρ Cu ) ∂ (ρC z )
+ +r
dt ∫ ρCn df =
∂r ∂θ ∂z
dr dθ dz dt
f
where Cr, Cu, Cz — the component velocities on the cylindrical coordinates.
Cn — Projection of velocity along the direction of the normal to the elemental surface df.
116 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
∂ρ
Increase in the mass flow inside the given volume is dr, rdθ dz, dt. This equation of balance
∂t
is divided on both sides by dr, rdθ dz, dt. Continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates is obtained.
∂ρ 1 ∂ (ρr Cr ) 1 ∂ (ρCu ) ∂ (ρ C z )
+ r +r + =0 ...(4.62)
∂t ∂r ∂θ ∂Z
For incompressible flow where ρ = constant
∂ ( r Cr ) ∂ ( r Cu ) ∂ (r C z )
+ + = 0 ...(4.63)
∂r r ∂θ ∂Z
∂ (r Cu )
For axisymmetric flow = 0
r ∂θ
∂ ( r Cr ) ∂ ( rC z )
Hence, + = 0 ...(4.64)
∂r ∂Z
II
II
II
II
1 2 3 4 5
dσ
1 σk c dr
2 dθ d g
3 Si h
b
4 r dz f j
rd θ θ
)d
rm
5
r0
a dr
+
k (r
rh
Fig. 4.24. (a) Flow pattern in mixed Fig. 4.24. (b) Elementary section for the determination
flow pumps of continuity equation and vorticity components
in cylindrical coordinates system
s2
hf t
dr
ds
s1
dθ θ
dr
r
R r
R
dR
dl
∂ψ ∂ψ
from which rCr dZ – r CZ dr = + dr = dψ = 0
∂zdz ∂r
This means that ψ function is constant along flow line. The streamline in meridional section
corresponds to the flow surface in space.
The components of vorticity Ω of absolute velocity in cylindrical coordinate can be determined
from the circulation along the contour of the elemental volume considered above.
∂C z ∂Cu
Ωr = rotr C = −
r ∂θ ∂z
∂Cr ∂C z
Ω u = rotu C = −
∂z ∂r
∂ (rCu ) ∂Cr
Ωz = rotz C = − ...(4.67)
r ∂r r ∂θ
For axisymmetric flow
∂ Cu ∂ (Cu r )
Ωr = – =−
∂z r ∂z
∂ Cr ∂ Cz
Ωu = =−
∂z ∂r
∂ Cu r
Ωz = ...(4.68)
r ∂r
The meridional component of the vector
Ωm = Ωr + Ω z ...(4.69)
The equation of vortex line Ωm is
dr dz
= or Ω z dr – Ωr dz = 0 ...(4.70)
Ωr Ωz
From equations 4.68 and 4.70, we get
∂ (r Cu ) ∂ (r Cu ) 1
Ωzdr – Ωr dz = dr = dz = d ( rCu) = 0
r ∂r r ∂z r
From which we get that vortex line coincides with the line r Cu = constant
118 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
4.19.5 Differential Equation for the Crosssection of Vane with the Flow Surface
The vane surface f is determined by crossing points of line 1 with the surface S. The relative
velocity is tangential to both vane surface f and flow surface S. Hence, it is directed along the line of
crossing of those two lines which represents flow line. [Fig. 4.24 (c)].
Let us construct a conical surface tangential to the flow surface S, such that it contains an element
ds. The differential equation of flow line 1 on the surface S [Fig. 4.24 (c)] can be represented in the form
of
ds Rd θ
= w ...(4.71)
wm u
where R and θ are the corresponding radius and angle along the spreaded cone surface.
Transferring from relative velocity to absolute velocity, we get
ds wm Cm
= w = ...(4.72)
Rdθ u u − Cu
ds ds Cn
tan β = = = ...(4.73)
Rdθ rdθ u − Cu
which is the differential equation of line crossing the vane on the flow surface S. The above function can
be rewritten as
r 2 Cn
ds = = dθ ...(4.74)
ωr 2 − Cu r
C ′m w 2 m/sec w(s)
a
12,0 e
d c b
10,0
a 5.0 .0 8,0
4
b 4. 5 v 1m a
2 . .0
5
6,0
3.
c
3
5
1 . .0
c
5
2
d 4,0 b d e
e 2,0
0
40 80 120 160 160 200 240 280 320360 400
s mm
(a) (b)
Fig. 4.25. Potential flow pattern in vane passage and the velocity distribution along the streamline
9
8
7
45 6 3 2 1 0
a01 2 3 4
b 5
c 6
d
7
e
8
9
F
7
l 6
II 5
4
3
II 12
a
δ(σ) b
II c 5
n d 6
II
b c d e e
a
∆a σ* ∆b σ* ∆c σ* ∆d σ*
(a) (b)
σ ) (b) Construction of ‘s’ lines and s lines for equal velocity flow
Fig. 4.27. (a) Graph f (σ
120 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Ωu = 0 construction is theoretically based. Practical results coincide, if the meridional flow pattern
is uniform. If flow separation prevails, this condition cannot be obtained.
Uniform flow can be obtained if radius of curvature is large in meridional section, which at the
same time increases the size of impeller in axial direction.
TABLE 4.5: For the calculation of flow line under equal velocity flow
– ∆σ*
ri + ∆σ
δ (∆σ) = ∆σ
100
∆F = rav ∆σ
F = Σ ∆F 1
σ = Σ ∆σ
2
∆σ*
σ*
i k r ∆σ
δ(∆σ)
∆σ
1 2 3 4 rav =
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
a 3
Q1
Cmx = n ...(4.79)
2π r02 ∫ rd σ
1
R dσ
where, r = and dσ =
r0 r0
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 121
— Cmx 1 − rhub
2 1 − r h2
Cmx = = n = ...(4.80)
C0 2 ∫ rd σ 2F
1
As per the table, F (σ) is constructed [Fig.4.27 (a)] and then this value F is divided into (n – 1)
equal parts, which is equal to n flow lines. The value ∆σ* is determined by second approximation and
on it the new position of flow line in section σ is established along which the first approximation flow
line S for the entire surface is constructed [Fig. 4.27 (a)].
The second approximation of flow line S is determined by constructing all σ lines. For that the
flow line k = 1 is divided into m – 1 equal parts corresponding to the assumed m σ lines [Fig. 4.27 (b)].
Then σ lines are constructed and the table is developed. The positions of flow lines ‘S’ and fr lines to S
are now corrected. The same is continued for third time. The lines fr to σ are equal velocity lines
[Fig. 4.27 (b)].
4.19.8 Construction of Vane Surface Under Equal Velocity Flow for the
Given w(s)
From the calculation of vane surface under equal velocity constructions, the change in w = f (S) is
determined. Each vane section (flow lines) is calculated separately. These are common for all these
lines and is the head H∞. The vane surface at the entrance is formed as twisted in order to provide
shockless entry for some discharge Qδ = 0 = m Q′ at all entrance edges. The coefficient m is determined
from the angle δ; selected along one flow line, usually the leading edge.
The shockless entry for the leading edge (marked K =1) is determined as
K11Cm11
tan β110 = ...(4.81)
u11
K1 — correction coefficient for vane thickness
u1 — peripheral velocity
Taking angle of attack δ1, for the first line, we get
β11 = β110 + δ1
K11 (Cm′ 1 )δ = 0
and tan β11 = ...(4.82)
u11
where (C′m1)δ = 0 is the meridional velocity corresponding to shockless entry at the inlet edge.
The ratio
which is constant for twisted surface at entrance. The entrance angle β1K for all entrance edges lying in
a flow sk is determined by
tan β1K = m tan β1K, 0. ...(4.83)
Cm′ ,k u1k ωr1k
Cm , K = , u1k = = = r1k
u0 u0 ωr0
Cm1k
tan β1h = m K1k ...(4.84)
r1k
Cm1k is determined from the equal velocity construction. If entrance edge lies on the orthogonal
line then it is constant along the entrance edge.
P1 = 2 πr1k tan β1k ...(4.85)
The entrance edge location is based on specific speed and experience and then subsequently
corrected.
The calculation β1K + w1n along flow lines are carried is a tabular form (Table 4.6). The value K1
is assumed, corrected and then w1K is determined. The exit edge is usually parallel to axis. If inclined,
the same procedure is followed for outlet edge also.
TABLE 4.6: Method of calculation for vane entrance
w1k = K1 k v m1 K
sin β 1k
cos γk
tan β 1,0,k =
∆s / sin β1k
m tan β 10k
sin/pk
K1,k v*m,k
2prk
tan β1,k =
∆k
∆ sk
tan β10,k
K1 ,k
cos γk
tk = z
K*1k
v*m1
sin β1k
∆1
r1
K
γ1
β1k
S
∆ξk =
tk–
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
— ωin Cm1n
W 1n = = K1k ...(4.86)
u0 sin β1k
w1n Cm1n
w1n = = sin β
u0 1k
Cm 2 K
w2k = K2k
sin β2 K
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 123
ω2 K ∞
is usually selected as 1 to 0.75
ω1k
w1k K C mγ
sin β2k = , 2k , sin β1k ...(4.87)
w2 k ∞ K1k C m1
2gH ∞
H∞ = ...(4.88)
u02
2
u2 Cm 2 1 Cm 2 1 gH ∞
from which = ⋅ + u 2 tan β + u 2
u0 u 0 2 tan β2 0 2 0
2
K 2 Cm 2 K 2Cmγ H
from which r2 = + + ∞ ...(4.89)
2 tan β2 2 tan β2 2
Similarly, for other sections; for constant values of H∞ and for the assumed value of r2 the
K 2 Cm 2
values from equations 4.89 is found out from which β2K is calculated.
tan β2
K 2 k Cm 2 k
tan β2K = tan β2 ...(4.90)
K 2 Cm 2
Calculation is done in a tabular form (Table 4.7). The coefficient K2k is assumed suitably.
The construction of vane is carried out as per the pattern of change of w(S) along the flow line S.
The procedure of w(S) is obtained as per the relative velocity at entrance (Table 4.6) and at exit
(Table 4.7) such that change of w along (S) is uniform. The presence of maximum and minimum velocity
at intermediate points indicate the losses due to conversion of kinetic energy to pressure.
sin β2
sin β2k
2 π rk
∆S
tan K2
cos β
cos γ
tan β2
sin β2
∆S
z
K*2k
S2
∆S
γ2
m*2
r2
∆2
K
tk =
tk –
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
124
TABLE 4.8: Method of vane surface for the given value of w(s)
sin β 6 + 12
r 1 + r θ1
∆θ = 18 17
∆lu = rav ∆θ
r tan β
vm* w ∞
lu = Σ∆ lu
∆ = Σ∆θ
tan β
2
1
cos γ
∆s / t
∆s
B av
w∞
γ
vm *
β
D
t
∆s
S
l
B=
rav =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
m1
l S1 r1 v m1 w ∞1
The calculation of vane as per w(s) is carried out in the tabular form normally adopted for radial
vanes, corresponding to the methods explained above, or in the form Table 4.8 (in nondimensional
form).
The calculation is carried out from arbitrarily selected exist edge, to the inlet edge, which is
obtained from the calculation. The pattern of change of w(s) and the thickness ∆(s) is obtained such that
the position of entrance edge of the vane lies at the desired level and also not so much deviated in the
value of central angle θlk (which is shown in the plan). The change of θlk from the leading edge to the
trailing edge must also be uniform, to ensure the uniform surface. The change of vane thickness ∆ (s) for
all streamlines must be agreed upon correspondingly so as to get uniform change at the meridional
section.
2π
z
14 12 11 1
0
∆θ = 2π
7 9
6
45 87 kz
3
s 12 ∆s
6
s
rdθ
∆
5 4
p1
r
3 2 1
∆θ
r1
γ h
16 12 3 4
56 7 123 4 5 6 7
15
14
13 ∆s . r d θ
12 a2
11
10
9
8
7
1 2 3 45
6 a1 δ
Which is carried out in a tabular form (Table 4.8), column 21, 22, 23. As per the values S , ∆u
the conformal transformation in plan is constructed.
126 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
The interdisplacement of streamlines is carried out based on the experience. The most advantageous
are: (1) The entrance edge at plan must be radial or slightly inclined (point of entrance edge of leading
edge) by an angle of 10–15° toward the opposite side of rotation of impeller. (2) The exit edge is parallel
to axis or the lag. The edge point of the impeller may be inclined towards the direction of rotation.
Two methods are adopted for mixed flow pump design. The first rather old method is one in
which the vane inlet and outlet edges are developed on a cone as a plane cylindrical vane and then
transferred to the plan view from which patterns are made.
In the second developed by Kaplan and called as ‘error triangles method’ the vane is developed
with true angularity, length and thickness. The flow lines are then replotted in plan view. The second
method will be discussed in detail here. In order to layout the vane in plan and in meridional section it is
necessary to have the following quantities:
(a) Meridional velocities at inlet and at outlet i.e., Cm1 and Cm2 respectively.
(b) The impeller outer diameter D2 or peripheral velocity u2.
(c) Vane angles at inlet and at outlet i.e., β1 and β2 respectively.
The following points are most useful:
1. The vane can be extended with the impeller eye which will (a), improve the overall efficiency
of the pump since overlap is more (b), reduces the outer diameter and (c), less shock and disc
friction losses.
2. The profile in meridional section will be drawn for uniform change over from Cm1 to Cm2.
3. The flow lines a1, a2 represent the true radial sections of the flow lines, which should be
gradual to avoid sharp corners.
4. Number of flow lines selection depend purely on experience. These are selected based on
equal area construction. Further, it is assumed that the meridional velocity is constant along the
normal and is equal to the average velocity. Naturally the velocities at inlet and at outlet edges
are same provided they lie along the normal. Usually normals are draw first by eye and then
these are divided into parts based on the law. 2πr1b1 = 2πr2b2.
3. The vane development on the plane [Fig. 4.30 (b)] is drawn which corresponds to the exact
vane angle at inlet and at outlet and vane length. Vane thickness is also added. The selection of
vane thickness depends upon the moulding facility available. For normal conditions it is assumed
as 5 to 6 mm.
In order to draw vane development, flow line (a1, a2 or b1, b2 or c1, c2) is divided into a
preferably a number of equal parts such as 1a , 2a, 3a. The parallel lines g1, g2 ..... are drawn the
distances between them corresponds to the distance between 1a , 2a , .... 1b , 2b ...,1c 2c ....
It is always better to draw vane sections of several flow lines in this relative positions. This will
enable us to determine the inlet edge of the vane.
4. The vane sections are now transferred from the vane development to the plan view.
[Fig. 4.30 (c)]. In the plan view an arbitrary point is selected. The arcs of the parallel circles are
drawn with the radii taken from the elevation 1a , 2a ...
The displacement of one point with respect to the other is taken from the vane development
(h1, h2 ...). By joining the points with a smooth curved line the plan projection of the flow line
is obtained. Usually leading edge is taken for the vane development. In order to get the trailing
edge, vane thickness is measured in the plane vane development along the parallel circles at
the required point and laid out at the corresponding points along the circumference. The line
joining all these points will give us the trailing edge. Same procedure is to be followed for
other streamlines also.
5. The next procedure is to draw pattern section for the construction of which the flow lines on
the elevation and plan view are taken as preliminary guidelines. Since these lines are not sufficient
enough to prepare vane pattern sections a second set of construction lines are constructed.
A number of equispaced lines are drawn in the elevation view as indicated in Fig. 4.30 (d) i.e.,
A, B, C, D... The intersection of these lines with meridional streamlines are transferred to the
plan view.
Line joining these transferred point must be smooth, on the plan view. If these lines do not
form smooth, and uniformly spaced, it is an indication that the change in the angularity on the
vane development was too abrupt in any of the flow lines.
The second set of construction lines can also be drawn starting from the plan view. This is done
by drawing different radial lines I, II ... [Fig. 4.30 (e)] and then transferring them to elevation.
Here also the line joining the intersecting points must be smooth. However, the first method is
more advantageous since the second set of construction lines can be taken for pattern making.
6. The next procedure is to get vane pattern sections for which the contour lines on the plan view
are taken. Wooden boards of thickness A, B, C, D .... are cut to the shape along the corresponding
contour lines and then stacked one over the other in the proper order. We get the resulting vane
pattern section in steps [Fig. 4.30 ( f )]. These steps are now filled with wax to get a smooth
surface leading edges. Similarly, the same procedure is adopted for trailing edge also.
7. The best form of impeller channel will be one where in the vane makes 90° with the channel.
This channel form can be improved by moving the flow lines on the plan view [Fig. 4.30 (e)]
through a certain angle.
128 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
g6
c2
f6 g5
h g4 s2
f 5 g6 g3
6
f4 g 5 h g2
r7
r6
5
(b)
r5
f3 g h 4 g1
r4
4
C1
r3
f2 g3
r1
r2
f1
c1 g2 h2
g1 h1 (a)
c2 h6
f6
g1 g2 g 3 g 4 g5 g6
f5 h5
f4 h4
f3 r7
f2 r6 h3
f1 h2
c1 r4 h1
h1 h2 h3 h4 h 5 h 6
r1
(c) (d)
a2 b2 c2
g1
1a 1 b 1c g
2a 2 2 a2b2c2 su
r1a 2 c
3a r2a b g3 h1
4a 3 b 3c h2 g1 1
5 r3a 4c g2
7 6a a r4a 54b 5 c g3
h3 su1 2
8a a r 5a b
6c h4 s u2 3
6b h5
a1 7b 7c 4
9b h6
8b 8c 5
b1 10 h7 6
b 9c h8 7
10c
a1 8
11c
c1 9
b1 10
c1 11
(a) (b)
H G F E D C BA
b c
I a2 2 2
I
g 1 h g h3 II
h1 2 2 g3 III γ ′3a γ
su 3a II
IV γ′4a γ
VIII V 4a
III
s u2 VII VI IV
a1
D2 r1a V
r2a VI
b1 VII
a1
C1
b1
c1
(c) (d)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 129
F–E
G–H
B–C
E– D F–G
III VI
II V IV VII
IV V VIII
DI
III BC
A E VI V VI
IV
VII
II VII
III VIII
F
G C.D.
I II
a1 c1 VIII
B
G
F
a2 CD
E I
(e) (f)
Fig. 4.30. (a) to (f) Mixed flow impeller profile and plane vane development
5
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS)
Volute or
spiral casing
Concentric passage
with diffuser
Diffuser Return blades
with guide
blades vanes
Discharge
cone
130
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 131
Casing
Diffuser
Impeller
ρ ρ
ρ
b3
b3 b3
α α
R3
α
α = 180° α = 35° to 45°
(a) Circular (b) Circular (c) Trapezoidal
Experimental investigation shows that trapezoidal crosssection gives higher hydraulic efficiency than
circular crosssection at higher specific speeds and vice versa at lower specific speeds. Experiments
indicate that spiral casing gives higher efficiency than diffusers at all partial flow conditions either
lower or higher than optimum conditions. But, at optimum condition, diffuser gives higher efficiency
than spiral casing. Spiral casing design is adopted for variable flow operations, whereas diffuser design
is adopted for fixed optimum flow conditions of operation. Spiral casings are used for single impeller
design whereas diffusers are used for multistage pumps to reduce pump weight.
Mass flow through the section between volute angle θ1 and θ2 will be
W1 W2
–
g
= ∫ ρ Cn dA and g
= ∫ ρ Cn dA
A1 A2
Under axisymmetric flow the velocity Cn = Cr3 at the surface ‘A3’ the flow will be
W2π
and Wθ2 – Wθ1 = ρg Cr3 b3 R3 (θ2 – θ1) = (θ2 – θ1)
2π
where W2π= ρg Cr3 b3 2πR3 which is the total flow of the pump at entrance to the spiral channel. Taking
θ = 0 at the tongue of the volute section.
9
8
dr
b
∆R
∆R
b3 0
4
R
R3
1 2
α
dθ
R3
R2
dr θ2
6 0 θ1 2′
p cu C u2
R3
p2
R
2
A1
b3 A2 fk
4′
θ1 = 0 and Wθ1 = 0
θ θ°
Wθ = W2π or Qθ = Q2π × ...(5.3)
2π 360°
Flow, thus, increases along the spiral passage in proportion to the angle of the volute ‘θ’, referred
with respect to the initial tongue.
Flow across the elementary area ‘dA = bdR’ will be
ΓB
dθ = bdR Cu = bdR ...(5.4)
2πR
Integrating within the limits R3– r
ΓB
r
b
Q =
2π ∫R dr ...(5.5)
R3
Integration is carried out by step by step method in tabulation form (Table 5.1). The function
bi
Bi = . Elementary flow rate through the area dA = b∆r is determined as
ri
134 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Γ B Bi + B(i +1)
∆ Qi = ∆Ri
2π 2
and total quantity of flow Q is determined as
ΓB i=n Bi + B(i +1)
Q =
2π
∑ 2
∆Ri ...(5.6)
i =1
bθ
∆r
bi
b3 = b4 h ′θ
∆R
3 Qi
ri
4
Q 360° (old)
R3
α α
R4 R3
Q 360°(new)
Tongue R 4 = R 3 + ∆ R
Fig. 5.5. Volute construction for trapezoidal crosssection and free vortex
design, Cur constant and also for Cv = constant
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 135
1 0
Referring the table 5.1, A graph r = f (Q) (Fig. 5.5) is drawn. Xaxis i.e. the value Q is now
divided into definite number of equal parts normally 8 equal sections such as Q45°, Q90°, Q135°, Q180°,
Q225°, Q270°, Q315°, Q360°. Projecting these points upwards to meet the R = f (Q) curve and then drawing
horizontal lines from these meeting point to yaxis i.e., ‘R’ axis, the radius at which corresponding
quantity of flow through the trapezoidal crosssection can be determined. By projecting these horizontal
lines futher to meet the trapezoidal crosssection gives the corresponding areas for the corresponding
quantity Qθ.
Final section for Q 360°. Starts at R4 = R3 + ∆t, where ∆t is the volute tongue thickness. Normally
∆t= 2 to 3 mm. Due to this, the quantity of flow at the last section Q360 will be higher than the normal
Q360 taken as per the graph r = f (Q). This is represented in the Fig. 5.5 Q360 (new) = Q360 (old) + ∆Q at
tongue.
In some of the volute designs the tongue starts after some angle θ from initial position of θ = 0.
This is due to the fact that huge noise and subsequent vibration takes place due to the fluid passing
through the gap between the impeller outlet diameter and volute starting point at θ = 0 at high velocity
since this gap acts as nozzle. To avoid this, volute tongue starts a little away from the point θ = 0.
Normally this value will be θt = 17° to 21°. The contour of the trapezoidal crosssection obtained will
have sharp corners which increases the hydraulic losses. Also, flow does not exists at the corner point.
In order to reduce hydraulic losses and ensure flow through entire area of trapezoidal crosssection, the
sharp edged corners are rounded off in such a way that the area added at the middle ‘Ab’ will be equal to
the area reduced due to rounding off at the corners ‘Aa’
Γb Γ
Aa Cua = Ab C ub, Aa = Ab b
2πra 2πrb
Aa r
hence, = a where Ra and Rb are the radius of centre of gravity of areas Aa and Ab .
Ab rb
By selecting hθ from minimum to maximum up to the value Q360, a graph hθ = f (Qθ ) can be drawn
similar to Fig. 5.5. From this graph Qθ for Q = 45°, ....... 360° can be determined for different values of
hθ. As a check the values aq = f (Qθ ) can also be drawn and checked with the constructed values. The
construction of trapezoidal crosssection for CV = Constant is same as for Cur = constant. (Same as Fig.
5.5). Entire calculations can be brought out in a tabular form (Table 5.2)
TABLE 5.2: Calculation for area and flow rate under CV = constant and trapezoidal crosssection
FG h tan α + b IJ α
S.No. hθ mm A θ = hθ
H 2 Kθ 3 Qθ = Aθ × CV aθ = 2hθ tan
2
+ b3
5
10
15
up to a value until For check up
Qθ > Q360 = Q total
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 137
S.No. θ Qθ
0 0
1 45° to 360° at constant Q = Q360
2 interval
3
The value of Kp given are for double suction pumps. For single suction pumps the value Kp will
be less by 10 to 15%.
will be 7
0
R
v 1
1 b( r )
∫
R
r
Γ
a
Qθ = dr fv
r3
2π B r3 r
6
2
− ( r − ai )
a1 +ρi
1 ρ21 r3
=
π
ΓB ∫ r
dr
ai − ρi
5 3
= ΓB ai – a 2i − ρ 2i
4
Since, b (r) = 2 ρ2i − (r − ai )2 Fig. 5.6. Volute design with circular cross
section and free vortex (Cur = const.)
θ
Since Qθ = . Q360.
360
Substituting this value in the above equation
θ° =
360Γ B FG a – a 2 − ρ2 IJ = K FGa – a 2 − ρ2 IJ
Q360 H K H K
360Γ B 720πg H m
where K = = .
Q360 ω Q360
Since a = r3 + ρ, substituting this value and after simplification
θ° θ°
ρ = + 2 r3 . ...(5.10)
K K
138 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Calculations are made in Tabular form (Table 5.4). θ° values are normally selected as 45°, 90°,
135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315° and 360°.
TABLE 5.4 : Calculation of circular volute with Cu r = constant
720πg Hm
K= ⋅ r3 =
ω Q360
θ° θ°
S. No. θ° 2 r 4 ρ = (3) + (5)
K K 3
1 2 3 4 5 6
θ° – selected
uniformly at 45°
interval
As mentioned earlier, final area at spiral outlet before entering the diffuser will be the sum of
calculated area and the tongue area.
QT QT
f = πρ 2 = and ρ=
CV CV π
Quantity at any section will be proportional and will be
QT
Qθ = .θ°
360
From the quantity Qθ , ρθ at any section is calculated.
D3 b3
D2 φ v, φ d, φ vi b2
1,3 0,5
φv
1,2 0,4 D 3/D 2 2,0
b 3/b 2
φd 1,5
1,1 0,2
1 0 φvi 1
50 100 150 200 ns
D3
φv D2
5 0,5 1,5
4 0,4 φv 1,4
50
40
D3 – D2 30
× 100 αv
D2
0.50
Volute velocity coefficient k 3
0.40 k3 20
0.30 8
2
k 3 × 100
4
0.20
0.5
42 57 71 106 142 212 263 354 424 495 565 595 706 1060
(ns) specific speed
is determined by assuming equal area of circular crosssection for the inlet of the diffuser and calculations
are made accordingly such that the axis is in a straight line. However, the final length of the diffuser
should be decided taking into account the construction feasibility of pump delivery flange with pipe
flange.
ε° Rp − R f
=
2 L
where RP and Rf are the radial length of the pipe and final spiral section of the volute casing, with
respect to the axis of the diffuser. Velocity at the diffuser outlet can be determined by the equation
Cd = φd 2gH . Value φd can be obtained from Figs. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8.
c d A–B
(a)
ε III III
e
dr b
α3
r θc b3
θt
dθ
A a3
I I
θ
II II
a 0
∆3
ε
II
III
I I
b II b3
III
Passage 1– 2 – 3 – 6 6–3–4–5
(b) 6
3
2 4
Fig. 5.10. Diffuser and return guide vanes for radial type centrifugal pumps (a) Diagonal (b) Radial
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 141
The diffuser passage is formed between two walls of the stage and is connected to the return
passage. The return passage guides the outcoming fluid from the previous stage diffuser to the next
stage impeller suction. The diffuser vanes and return guide vanes are often cast as a single unit.
The diffuser is of two types: diagonal and radial. In radial type diffuser the return passage is
connected by vaneless Ushaped passage, where in the fluid turns through 180°.
In diagonal type of diffuser, the diffuser and return blades are kept one after another with no
space in between them. Referring the Fig. 5.10, the section II–II, the channel, deviates in axial direction
and connects the return passage [Fig. 5.10 (a)]. These type of diffusers possess smaller dimensions in
radial direction and also gives higher hydraulic efficiency when compared to radial type diffusers.
Diffusers with return guide vanes are used in multistage pumps by which overall dimensions and
weight of the pump reduces considerably. At the same time, axial thrust at the impeller is balanced at all
regions of operation of pump.
R3 zd sin 2α 3
π
So, a3 = e − 1 – ∆ ...(5.12)
cos α3 3
Number of Diffuser vanes Zd will be between 3 to 8. It will be always 1 or 2 blades more than
impeller blades. The best efficiency of diffuser can be attained when the entry section of the diverging
cone is in the form of a square i.e., a3 = b3.
The reduction in length due to blade thickness at entry is
a3 + ∆ 3
≈ 1.1 to 1.15.
a3
The angle to divergence ε = 10° to 12° at one plane, if the other plane is straight. If both the planes
diverge, then ε = 6 to 8°. Curved form of divergence cone axis enables to reduce the outer diameter of
the diffuser, which inturn reduces the weight of the pump. Hydraulic efficiency, however, reduces to a
certain extent. E.V. Dondoff [4], assuming that Cu r = constant at inlet divergent cone, suggests that
height of entry section of divergent cone can be determined by the equation.
2k
a3 = (R3 + ∆3) 1 − 1 − A2 ...(5.13)
b3
ωQ 2πQ
where A2 = =
Zd H m g Γb Z d
and K = Correction coefficient determined as a function of the specific speed ‘ns ’ (Fig. 5.12)
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 143
D4 = 315
14
15 16 13
16
17 14
D 5 = 375 15
16
D 2 = 308
17
11 Blades ε
90 °
α8 +ε+
(b)
r ϕ
A B
(a )
s
Blade construction and graph
– – as per circular arc method (b) Blades constructed by
– point by point method circular arc method
α
c
5
12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 141516 17
l
Diffuser Vaneless Return guide vane
passage (c)
Fig. 5.11. Diffuser, vaneless passage, return guide vanes design and construction
(a) Vaneless ring between diffuser and return guide vanes
(b) Another construction of vaneless ring
(c) Velocity, angle of flow in passages.
K
1,4
1,3
1,2
1,1
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
70 75 80 85 90 95 100 ns 105
Fig. 5.12. Correction coefficient for the divergent passage of the diffuser
disc between rear side of the impeller and spiral shaped diffuser passage as well as another similar
circular plate forms as disc between front side of the impeller and return guide vanes. These two
plates form the cover between impeller and diffuser. All other designs are used for single stage pumps.
(Figs 5.10 and 5.11)
(a) (b)
4
a 3
b 2
1
0
1
b
a 2
3 4
(c)
a b 2
4 0
6 9
10
R8
a b 8 Rg
10
(d)
3 2
4 1f 1
1
f 8 1 0
5 4 1
π 2 2
f1 = (D – d b )
4 1
3f 10
db
6
8 1
Dφ
D4
D1
D0
7 b
0 f4
1 1
2 f
2 1
3
4 8
5
6 α
7
8
D5
D0
R8 = (krs – 1)
, R0 = (0.5 to 0.6) R8
2
R4 = 0.75 R8 , R9 = 1.5 R8
Coefficient krs is a function of ‘nS ’, the specific speed. The value krs can be taken from the graph
[Figs. 5.7, 5.8 (b)].
The velocity Cvi is calculated as CVi = ΦVi 2gH , where φVi is taken from the graph (Fig. 5.7).
0,60
u 22
Efficiency % η/ηmax
Head coefficient ψ =
80
0,50
0,45 60
0,40 40
0,35 20
0
0 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 ϕ
C m2
Flow coefficient φ =
u2
Fig. 5.15. Performance variation due to three different volutes with same impeller
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Losses in pumps can be classified as:
1. Hydraulic,
2. Volumetric, and
3. Mechanical.
Determination of hydraulic losses by theoretical means is still not possible. Intensive research is
still going on. Since volumetric losses and mechanical losses can be determined accurately by theoretical
means, hydraulic efficiency is determined from volumetric, mechanical and overall efficiencies. However,
empirical formula for the determination of hydraulic losses is available by which hydraulic efficiency
can be approximately determined.
∆ Nd )
6.2 (B) LOSSES DUE TO DISC FRICTION (∆
Losses created due to the rotation of a solid body, inside a closed and fluid filled chamber, is
called “Disc friction losses”. Pump impeller rotates as a solid body inside spiral casing chamber, which
is filled with fluid, possesses the same phenomena and hence losses created by the rotating impeller
inside a water filled spiral casing is the disc friction losses of the pump, ∆Nd.
Fluid inside the space between impeller shroud and casing wall rotates at half the velocity of the
impeller velocity. The induced moment of friction of fluid on the disc is equalised by the frictional
moment of the fluid on casing wall. Due to centrifugal force, fluid near impeller shroud is thrown
towards pheripery. This fluid returns back near the casing wall. As a result, a circulation i.e., a secondary
vortex flow prevails in this space.
147
148 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
From dimensional analysis, the moment of friction of disc, on one side, can be written as
M = Cf ρ ω2 r25
where, Cf — coefficient of friction.
ρ — density of the fluid.
ω — angular velocity of the disc (impeller).
r2 — outer diameter of the disc (impeller).
ωr2
2
Coefficient of friction, Cf depends upon the type of flow and hence Reynold’s number ‘R0’ =
ν
for the disc.
(a) For laminar flow (Re < 2 × 104)  67 
S 0.0146 + S 0.1256
3
π r2
Cf = . + Re ...(6.1)
Re S r2 r2
where, S — the distance of the casing hall from the wall of the rotating disc.
(b) For transition flow Re = 2.104 to 105  67 
1.334
Cf = ...(6.2)
Re
(c) For turbulant flow
0.0465
Cf =
5 Re
A graph, Cf = f (Re ), is drawn in Fig. 6.1 for all the three regions of operation.
0,3 – 1
0,1 – 1
0,9 – 2
r2
0,7 – 2
0,5 – 2
lg C f 0,3 – 2
0,1 – 2
0,9 – 3
0,7 – 3
0,5 – 3
0,3 – 3
0,1 – 3
3 4 5 6 7
lg R e
∆ NS)
6.2 (C) LOSSES STUFFING BOX (∆
Stuffing box consists of a chamber ‘4’ containing a
flexible asbestos packing ‘1’. Packing is kept in position 2 3 1
4
by the gland ‘2’. By tightening the gland bolts, the gland s
is axially moved towards the chamber and compresses the
packing. This packing has direct contacts with the shaft p0
σx
or shaft sleeve,‘3’. Since shaft or shaft sleeve is a rotating σr
R
r
element a small clearance will be existing between packing
and shaft sleeve or shaft, through which fluid passes from x dx
the impeller outlet through the space between casing and
rear impeller shroud. This leakage flow can be adjusted
by compressing the packings, with the help of gland since
packing is stuffed inside a chamber. This chamber is called
stuffing box. Although theoretically no flow through
pH
stuffing box can be made, practically small quantity of
σx
p0
water as droplets must come out through stuffing box in x
order to avoid (1) air entering into impeller through
stuffings box, (2) to cool the packings. Since this leakage Fig. 6.2. Stuffing box
quantity is very small, it is usually neglected.
Due to flexibile nature of packings the axial force σx created due to tightening the gland is changed
into radial for σr acting on shaft in radial direction.
σx = Kσr ...(6.4)
where K is the coefficient depends upon the packing property and is always > 1. In order to maintain
leak proof σx > p0, the pressure at the inner side of the casing and impeller shroud and very near to the
shaft. Pressure σx must gradually reduce from the gland to the impeller side. Considering an elementary
thickness ‘dx’ (Fig. 6.2) of the packing, equilibrium is maintained.
When, 2π (R +r) µ σrdx = – π (R2 – r2) dσx ...(6.5)
where µ1 is the frictional coefficient of packing. Combining equations 6.4 and 6.5 and rearranging.
dσ x 2µ1
When, = – dx.
σx (R − r )K
Taking σx = P0 and integrating ‘x’ up to length ‘l’.
2µ1 (l − x)
l
P0 2µ1
log
σx
= – ∫ K (R − r) dx = –
K (R − r )
x
150 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
2µ(l − x )
R − r
or σx = ( P0 ) ...(6.6)
µ1
where = µ2
K
It is evident, that the pressure p, gradually increases and is maximum when x = l. It will be
l l
2µ2 2µ 2
(R − r ) 2µ 2 z
pmax = σx = 0 = p0 e = p0 e S
= p0 e ...(6.7)
l
Where, S is the thickness = (R – r) and Z is the number of packing rolls inside stuffing box = .
S
Elementary friction force, dT = 2π r dx µ1 σx
eµ l − x l
p0 e S
µ1 2µ 2 l
− 2µ 2
T = 2π r µ1 p0 ∫ e = π rS
2
s s ...(6.8)
µ2 1− e
0
− 2µ
l
π r 2 s µ1 l
2µ 2 1− e 2 a
s 7 ln
D dn
d
δ
6 g
6
p0 p0
lu4
10
Fig. 6.3. Different types of stuffing box arrangements and with cooling systems
LOSSES IN PUMPS 151
Fig. 6.4. Stuffing box with the classic cooling water jacket
cooling the outer diameter of the gland
Fig. 6.5. Stuffing box with unclear lantern ring for sealing water supply
Fig. 6.6. Stuffing box with externally cooled circuit to reduce the
temperature of the pumped medium in the gland area
152 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Fig. 6.7. Stuffing box with lantern type end ring for cold water injection
Fig. 6.8. Stuffing box of special design with hollow shaft sleeve
to cool the inner diameter of the gland
Fig. 6.9. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and duplicate cooling
feed cooling inner and diameter of gland
LOSSES IN PUMPS 153
Fig. 6.10. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and single cooling
feed cooling inner and outer diameter of gland
Cu 2 , Cu1 , r1
Fig. 6.11. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and single cooling feed
and also introducing cooling liquid upstream of the packing
end ring for cooling inner and outer diamter of gland
Fig. 6.12. Gland area of feed pump with injection type shaft, intensive
cooling and differential type balancing device absorbing pressure
fluctuations of feed pump suction pressure sealing water pressure
154 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
2
120 600
Axial force in % of force under Q norm
H
H, η in % of (H, η) norm
100 500
η
80 400
60 300
40 200
1
20 100
Fig. 6.13. Effect of clearance at shaft between 2 stages H, η and axial thrust
(1) Axial thrust under normal clearance 0.2 mm
(2) Under increased clearance 1.5 mm
LOSSES IN PUMPS 155
0.45 MM
0.575 MM
Without
20
balancing
0.64 MM
holes
18
0.74 MM
16
14
0.74 MM
Total head in metres
With 0.64 MM
balancing
12
holes 0.575 MM
0.45 MM
10
8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Referring of Fig. 6.15 the flow through the clearance QL1 can be determined from one dimensional
theory Q = K. AV = K. A . 2gH .
Y X
Applying this principle to the flow through the clearance ‘QL1’ or called as leakage flow, will be
QL1 = µ Ai pi − pI = µπ D b 2 gH ...(6.10)
2g i pi
r
where, Ai — Area of the clearance
Di — Clearance diameter
b — Clearance width
pi — Pressure before clearance
p1 — Pressure after clearance, at suction side of the impeller
pi − p1
Hpi — head loss in clearance
γ
µ — Flow coefficient.
Normally b = 0.003 r and should never be less than 0.15 mm for any type of wearing ring
construction.
The pressure drop across the wearing ring [Fig. 6.15 (a)] between any point inside wearing ring
and inlet
pi − p1 p − p1 p − pi p − pi
Hpi = = 2 – 2 = Hp – 2 ...(6.11)
γ γ γ γ
p2 − pi
Substituting the value for from the equation (3.89)
γ
2
γu22 r
Hpi = Hp – 1 − for normal wearing ring ...(6.12)
8 g r2
2
2
γu22 r2 1 − r
= Hp – for damaged wearing ring ...(6.13)
8 g r r2
Referring to the figure [6.15 (a)], the losses through the wearing ring consists of loss at entry, loss
in the passage and loss at exit.
LOSSES IN PUMPS 157
VL2
hc = Loss at entry due to sudden entry = 0.5
2g
VL2
he = Loss at exit, due to sudden exit = 1.00
2g
Loss in the passage having length ‘l’ and clearance ‘b’ and diameter ‘D’.
lVL2
hf = λ
8 gR
QL
where, VL is the velocity in the clearance =
πDi bi
Area πDi bi b
R = the Hydraulic Radius = = = i
Perimeter 2πDi 2
λlVL 2
So, hf =
4 gbI
Total loss hL = he + hf + hc = Hpi
λli VL 2
∴ Hpi = 0.5 + 1.00 +
2bi 2 g
2
λli Q 1
= + 1.5 ⋅ L1
2bi πDi bi 2 g
1
QL1 = . πDi . bi . 2 gH pi ...(6.14)
λli
+ 1.5
2bi
where Hpi is calculated as per the equation (6.12) or (6.13). Comparing equations (6.14) and (6.11) µ
will be
1
µ=
λli
+ 1.5
2bi
For high pressure pumps Hpi will be higher due higher delivery pressure. The clearance cannot be
altered since efficiency has to be maintained at high level as well as for ease in manufacture. So the
leakage flow QL1 will be higher. Correspondingly, the volumetric efficiency and overall efficiency
reduce. To maintain efficiency at higher level, QL has to be reduced. This is achieved by increasing the
length of leakage path. Correspondingly, for the fixed value of area, µ value is changed. Different
wearing ring forms are shown in Fig. 6.15. Referring to Fig. 6.15.
158 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
pI − p x QL12 1
=
γ 2 g (µ1. A1 ) 2
px − p y QL12 1
=
γ 2 g (µ2 . A2 ) 2
( p y − p2 ) QL12 1
=
γ 2 g (µ3 . A3 ) 2
pi − p2 QL12 1 1 1
∴ Hpi = = 2 + 2 + 2
γ (µ
2g 1 1 A ) (µ A
2 2 ) (µ A
3 3 )
1 λ1l1 A1
2 2
QL12 λ 2 .l2 A1 λ3 .l3
= + 1.5 + + 1.5 + + 1.5
2g A12 2b1 2b2 A2 2b3 A3
1
µ = ...(6.15)
λ1l1 λ 2l2 A1
2
λ3l3 A1
2 A 2 A 2
+ + + 1.5 1 + 1 + 1
2b1 2b2 A2 2b3 A3 A2 A3
Prof. A.A. Lomakin 69 recommends that volumetric efficiency, ηvol can be calculated as
1
η = 1 + 0.68 nS .
–2/3
V
u22 rh
2
= H1 − H p + 1 −
8 g r2
gH m u22 r 2
= + − 1 − h
2u22 8g r2
Since, H1 – Hp = Hdy
Vu
Fig. 6.16. Vortex formation at bend Fig. 6.17. Vortex formation due to sudden contraction
Fig. 6.18. Flow in divergent passage Fig. 6.19. Flow separation at imepller
outlet due to shroud
160 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Cu
Cr
A B 1 2
Fig. 6.20. Velocity distribution at Fig. 6.21. Flow separation and return flow at the outlet
outlet of impeller edge of impeller due to break effect
q = 0,15 q=0
Q <1
Fig. 6.22. Secondary flow at q =
Q norm
y A
x
r
A
A–A
x y
Fig. 6.23. Secondary flow between shrouds Fig. 6.24. Flow separation at impeller outlet
LOSSES IN PUMPS 161
Diffuser blade
leading edge
Impeller blade
trailing edge
Impe lle r
Impeller blade
leading edge
Fig. 6.25. Secondary flow in pump impeller at Fig. 6.26. Vortex on finite blade length
partical flow conditions
Impeller flow channel losses can be calculated taking relative velocity ‘w’. Average value of relative
velocity should be taken, since relative velocity in impeller across the circumferencial length is not
constant due to circular secondary flow prevailing due to finite vanes (Figs. 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24 and
6.25). Flow separation from the outlet edge of impeller due to insufficient kinetic energy in the boundary,
larger at all regions of operation except at optimum flow rate condition and subsequent increase in
losses in casing due to improper flow from impeller, are the causes for the development of secondary
flow. Spannhake  110  has given a detailed analysis about the secondary flow in impeller passages.
Experimental investigation in spiral casing has clearly indicated, the presence of unequal pressure
and velocity distribution not only due to non symmetrical flow from impeller, but also due to curvature
of the casing. Experiments conducted indicate about 2% velocity variation along the radial direction at
optimum flow region, and about 40% at Q = 0.4 (optimum region). So also under unsteady flow a higher
percentage of deviation in pressure and velocity exists at the return passage due to the presence of bend
kept after the diffuser of multistage pumps, which creates non uniform flow at the suction of the next
impeller.
At partial flow regions of operation, the pressure variation across the radial direction changes to a
larger extent at inlet of the pump impeller. Flow reverse takes place from hub to periphery. Due to the
presence of bend in the impeller, flow could not follow the passage, instead it again deviates from the
main stream, which again creates reverse flow at the outlet of the impeller (Fig. 6.25). Flow velocity
through the channel increases due to the restricted flow area. Apart from that due to larger difference in
pressure and velocity between leading and trailing surfaces of the impeller channel at partial flow regions,
the flow reverse takes place at the outlet of the impeller. It gradually extends in both direction along the
flow passage of the impeller, then to the casing on one side, extending to suction side of the impeller on
the other side. Due to this effect, the steepness of head discharge curve increases at higher specific
speeds. Rate of increase in steepness is higher for higher specific speed pumps.
ηh%
100
ηh as per A.A. Lomakin
ηh
As per A.J. Stepanoff
75
as per StodilaMeizen
50
12
10
1
8
2
NT
N 6
%
3
2
All flow passages in pumps are diffuser type passages, where in flow area gradually increases.
The velocity is changed into pressure. Angle of divergence of the diffuser passage must be between 5°
to 10°. Radius of curvature of bend portion R should be more than 7 to 8 times the width of the passage
R = 7 to 8 (Fig. 6.16). Losses ‘hf ’ due to sudden contraction and due to sudden expansion can be
calculated by using the standard formula,
V2 V2
For sudden contraction hf (contraction) = 0.5 and = 0.15 to 0.35 for gradual contraction.
2g 2g
For best results i.e., for minimum hydraulic losses, angle of convergence can be 17° to 21°.
(Vent − Vexi )2
For sudden expansion hf (exp) = φ ...(6.18)
2g
where φ the coefficient is ‘1’ for sudden expansion and 0.4 to 0.5 for gradual expansion if the angle of
divergence 8 to 10°. Since hydraulic losses are complicated, in nature, it is always calculated from the
experimental results.
7.1 INTRODUCTION
The impeller of the pump, when running inside casing, which is filled with the fluid, is acted on
by a number of forces. Sometimes these forces are significant in pumps either at all regions of operation
of pumps or when operated at other than optimum regions of operation. These forces must be properly
taken care of by proper construction of the pump.
These forces are divided into two types : (1) mass force i.e., weight of pump parts and weight of
the fluid filled inside the pump space and inertia force i.e., the centrifugal force and forces due to
coriolis acceleration and (2) surface force, acting on the pumps due to the fluid pressure and its reaction.
Total weight of the pump and the weight of the fluid inside casing, will be acting at its centre of
gravity in the downward direction, whereas hydrostatic pressure will be acting in upward direction as
buoyant force.
Inertia force is the centrifugal force of the rotating parts.
W 2
Fc = ωr
g
where,
W — weight of moving parts.
ω — angular velocity of the moving parts.
r — the eccentricity between centre of gravity of moving part and the centre of the axis of the
shaft.
If the centre gravity of impeller falls exactly on the shaft axis then r = 0 and the centrifugal force
is zero. This is achieved by dynamically balancing all rotating parts. Since inside surface of the impeller
is the only unmachined part among all rotating parts, only impeller is dynamically balanced, before
assembly.
The surface force ‘F ’ by the flowing fluid on impeller and casing consists of ‘FZ’, the axial force
and ‘Fr’ radial force. Axial force acting on the impeller is considerable whereas axial force on casing
equalises each other and hence zero. Correspondingly radial force acting on impeller, due to uniform
and constant flow at each and every point of impeller circumference, is zero, but radial force acting on
the casing is not zero as this force changes in magnitude and direction from tongue to delivery mouth of
the casing due to gradual increase in flow from impeller to casing.
164
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 165
p2 r p2
Contour pL pR
A1 p R – pL
A2
r2
r
rh
Shaft
r
r0
axis zaxis
p1
Rc
where, p1 is the pressure at impeller inlet and is equal to hS the suction pressure. R1C and R1h are the
radius at periphery and at hub of the impeller eye. For normal entry the fluid velocity CZ1 = C0.
Pressure p1 at the impeller eye is the suction pressure which is negative, hence the direction of FZ1
will be opposite i.e., opposite to the fluid flow direction at impeller eye and is parallel to Zaxis (shaft
axis). Equation (7.1) can be written as
w γQ
p1π (R210– R21h ) – FZ1 = – g . C0 = – C
g 0
γQ
or FZi = C + p1π (R21c – R21h) ...(7.3)
g 0
Axial force ‘ FZ0’ acting on the outer surface will be integral of elementary hydrodynamic force
pdA cos ( p z ) on the surface i.e.,
The value dA cos ( pz ) is the projection of the external surface dA along the direction
Z, dAZ = rdθ dr .Therefore
R2 2π R2 2π
FZ0 = ∫ rdr ∫ pF d π – ∫ rdr ∫ pR d θ ...(7.4)
R0 0 Rh 0
where, pF and pR are the pressure at the frontside and backside of the impeller outer surface.
Since the space is a free surface at any radius r the angular velocity of fluid ‘ωf’ will be half of the
ω
impeller angular velocity ‘ω’ i.e., ‘ωf’ =
2
Referring to the equation (3.69), pressure at the space at any radius will be
u22 r
2
p = p2 – γ 1 − ...(3.69)
8 g r2
Therefore, the pressures at front and rear side space between impeller and casing, from outer
radius R2 to the eye radius R0 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and hence cancel each
other.
But the pressures at the rear end of the impeller from R0 and Rh changes as per equation (3.69),
whereas the pressure at the front and of the impeller is the suction pressure pS = p1. Equation (7.4) can be
written as
R0 u 22 r
2
FZ0
= ∫ p2 − γ 1 − 2πr dr
RH
8 g R
2
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 167
p2 u 2 R02 + Rh2
(
= γπ R0 − Rh −
2 2
)
1 −
γ 8 g
2R22
...(7.5)
L F I OP rQ R02 + Rh2
2
iMMd2
G
H
u2
JK PQ − g ⋅ C
= γπ R0 − Rh H p − 8 g 1 − 2 R 2
N
2
0 ...(7.6)
A B
The value marked ‘A’ is normally very large when compared to the value ‘B’ in the equation (7.6).
Hence, the value B is usually neglected. The direction of this axial force will be opposite to the direction
of flow at suction i.e., the tendency of this force FZ is to remove the impeller from the shaft. This force
is carried over to rear bearing of the pump through the impeller nut and pump shaft.
When the wearing ring clearance is in fully damaged condition. Equation (3.70) should be
considered instead of equation (3.69).
u22 R22 r22
p2 = p2 − γ 1 − ...(3.70)
8 g r2 R22
R2
R2
u2 R
2
r2 u2 r 2
= 2π ∫ p2 − γ 2 2 1 − 2 − 2π p2 − γ 2 1 − rdr
R0
8 g r R2 R22
8g
( ) 8ug R R− R R22 + Rh2
2 2
R22
= γπ R2 − Rh + − 2
2 2 2 2
ln ...(7.7)
2
2
2
h Rh2 2 R22
Net Axial force FZ = FZ02 (as per equation) (7.6) + FZ (as per equation) (7.7) ...(7.8)
Due to continuous operation of pump, erosion at the inlet and at the outlet of wearing ring passage
gradually removes the material of the wearing ring, as a result of this, wearing ring clearance increases.
RC
This wear is more in high pressure units for low specific speed pumps, nS = 50 to 80 and < 0.5.
R2
1 u 22 – u 2S H2 H2
FZR = γ (A2 – As) H 2 − ...(7.9)
8 2g
where A2 and AS are the surface area at radii R2 and
r2
RS .
r1
rh
At the front side i.e., at the suction side of the
impeller since there is no shroud, it is assumed that
the pressure between outlet and inlet edge of the
impeller i.e., from R2 to R1 varies in a straight line
Fig. 7.2. Axial thrust in semiopen impellers
form. Axial thrust will be
γH 2
FZ f = (A2 – A1) ...(7.2)
2
The resultant axial thrust will be
FZi = FZR – FZf = γ (A2 – As)
1 u 22 − uS2 H2
H2 − – γ (A2 – AS ) 2 ...(7.10)
8 2g
where Dwi is the diameter of impeller wearing 50 100 150 200 250 ns
ring, dh hub diameter and H3 is the average static
head H3 = 0.6 H for nS < 60 and 0.8 H for nS 60 Fig. 7.3. Coefficient to calculate axial thrust due to
direction change at inlet of impeller (at bend)
to 200. Experiments were conducted by the
Institute of Hydraulic Machines Moscow 131 based on the above equation. The above equation in final
form is written as
π
P = Kt γH (Dw2 – d2h ) ...(7.14)
4
The experimental coefficient Kt is given in Fig. 7.3.
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 169
FZ FZ
Fig. 7.4. Balancing by individual two Fig. 7.5. Balanced individual opposed impellers
suction facing impellers
Suction
connection
tube
Q Q D C
(a) Double suction (b) Balancing disc (c) Balancing hole (d) Radial blades
Arrangement c, d are provided for single stage pumps whereas arrangements a and b are provided
for multistage pumps. Double suction pump is a single stage opposed impeller pump [Fig. 7.6 (a)].
170 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Balancing by
(c) 1 3 4 6 5 2
(d) 1 2 3 4 5 6
(e) 1 2 3 6 5 4
p2 p2
a
b
∆p C
r0
r8m
Fig. 7.8. Axial thrust balancing by radial blades
2 2 2
u 2 – u 2p u p – u2 u 2 – u2
a = p2 – γ ; b=γ ; c=γ .
8g 2g 8g
Due to the presence of rear radial blades, which is rotating at a blade velocity ‘u’ the fluid also
1
rotates at a velocity of ‘u’ instead of u as in the case of without radial blades condition. This reduces
2
the pressure at the rear space. At any radius ‘rp’ the pressure drop ∆p will be
3 γ 2
∆p = (u p – u2) ...(7.15)
8 g
when radial blades are present the radial thrust reduces to
u 2p − uh2
∆Fzp =
3 γ
8 g
⋅ π rp − rh
2 2
2
( ) ...(7.16)
Tube T
Q q3 ∆p d
p2 ϕ∆p d p5
b2
p5
ld2
b
K2
K1
Ra
ps Q
Re
p5
Rb
Σ Fzi Fd p4
R sh
p3 b
p4
pipe to the impeller eye of the I stage impeller. The size of the drum is selected such that ΣFZ, the total
axial thrust of all the impellers, of the multistage pump is equalised by the axial force (FD) developed by
balancing drum in the opposite direction.
Practically, there may be a very small amount of unbalanced axial thrust, which is developed due
to fluctuation in the leakage flow q3. Also, there will be unequal balancing of axial thrust, when the
clearance between rotary and stationary number of the drum wears out, due to aging. Such unbalanced
forces are taken care of by bearings.
Balancing disc works under the same principle as that of balancing drum (Figs. 7.11 and 7.12).
The leakage flow q3 of the fluid from the last stage of the impeller enters the chamber (K1) located
between balancing disc (1) and stationary ring (2) through the axial clearances b. The chamber ( K2) is
connected to the impeller eye area of the I stage with the help of pipe.
When pump is running, the leakage flow (q3) from the main flow (Qth) through the impeller, under
the pressure p3 flows through the axial clearance (b) to the disc chamber K1 where the pressure is p4 and
then through the clearance (b1), with certain losses. Flow then enters the chamber outlet K2, from which
flow passes through the tube T, enter the eye of the impeller. The pressure drops from p5 to p1 which is
greater than the suction pressure PS (i.e., P5 > p1> pS ).
Suciton
p1 p0 Q
q3
F zI FzD
d y∂
d∂
Fig. 7.11. Balancing drum (another form) Fig. 7.12. Axial thrust balancing by balancing drum
Pressure (p4) in the chamber (K1) induces a force at the bottom of the disc clearance passage. If
this pressure (p4) is larger than total axial thrust Σ FZ, the moving disc moves away from the stationary
ring. The disc clearance (b1) now increases. This in turn increases the leakage flow (q3) and also the
losses in the clearance. As a result of this, the pressure (p4) drops down and the disc moves towards the
stationary ring which in turn reduces the clearance (b1) and losses in the disc. This process repeats and
the clearance (b1) goes on changing, until the pressure (p4) equalises the axial thrust ΣFZ.. At this stage
the clearance b1 remains constant. The leakage quantity (q3) flows through the tube to the impeller eye
of the first stage of the impeller.
The pressure drop (p4 – p5) at the disc clearance, the leakage flow (q3), the dimensions of the
clearance, the connecting pipe dimensions to carry the leakage quantity q3 back to the inlet of the Ist
stage impeller are to be determined as follows:
The pressure drop, ∆ p (p4 – p5) across the disc clearance, to get complete balancing of axial thrust
will be
ΣFZ
∆P = ...(7.18)
ψ π ( Ra2 − R 2h )
174 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where, Ψ is the coefficient depending upon the pressure distribution across the disc Ψ < 1, Ra is outer
diameter of disc and Rh is the outer diameter of the shaft sleeve.
Taking an uniform change of pressure across the clearance ‘b1’, the coefficient Ψ depends upon
the dimensions of the disc only
2 2
r r r
(1 − φ) 1 + e + (1 + 2 φ) e − 3 b
Ra Ra Ra
ψ = 2 ...(7.19)
r
3 1 − b
Ra
where, φ the coefficient depends upon the pressure drop at the entry to and exit from disc clearance and
the losses in the clearance and is taken as φ = 0.18 to 0.25.
The leakage quantity (q3 ) will be
∆p
q3 = µ2 π reb1 2 g ...(7.20)
γ
The flow coefficient µ will be
1
µ = ...(7.21)
( R − r )r r2
λ a e e + e2 + 0.5
2 Ra b1 Ra
The pressure p4 before the disc can be determined from the pressure drop across the axial clearances
b. i.e.,
ω2 2
γ
(p3 – p4 ) = H ( Z − 1) + Hp − ( R2 − rS2 ) – ∆P – (p5 – ps) ...(7.22)
8g
where, H —Head developed per stage.
Z —Number of stages.
ps —Suction pressure at impeller eye of 1st stage.
p5 —The pressure in the balancing chamber outlet (not more than 5 to 8 kg/cm2 so
that the stuffing box can work without any trouble).
The pressure drop (p3 – p4) across the axial clearance (b) will be
p3 − p4
q3 = µs As 2 g ...(7.23)
γ
Knowing q3 from equation (7.20) and the pressure drop from equation (7.19) the area
q3
µs As = ...(7.24)
p − p4
2g 3
γ
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 175
For better operation the clearance b1= (0.0010 to 0.0012) Ra and will be 0.6 to 0.8 mm. Now,
hence the length ‘L’ for the clearance can be determined.
The radius Ra of the disc is selected slightly less than the outer radius of the impeller. The diameter
Rb = (1.2 to 1.5) Rsh where Rsh = the shaft radius. The inner radius Re is fixed, based on the sufficient
length (ld ) of the disc.
The pressure drop ‘Ψ∆p’ is taken as constant. The coefficient ψ is determined from the condition
that the force Fd determined from the actual pressure distribution is equal to the pressure distribution on
the complete surface of the disc i.e.,
Ra
Re Ra
= ∫ ∆pd 2π rdr + ∫ ∆pd 2π rdr ...(7.25)
Rb Re
The pressure distribution on both sides of the disc and the pressure drop ∆p change according to
radius. Pressure on the right side of the disc p5 is constant and approximately 4 to 8 kg/cm2, for trouble
free operation of stuffing box. The pressure ‘p4’ at the left side of the disc is also constant. The pressure
drops from p4 to p5 due to losses in the balancing disc clearance φ∆p where the coefficient φ will be
1.5
φ = 2 ...(7.26)
λld Ra Re
. + + 0.5
2bd Re Ra
where ld = Ra – Re and λ, the coefficient of friction, depends upon the Reynold’s number of the flow ‘Re’
2
u
2b2 C a2 + a
2
Re = ...(7.27)
ν
where Ca is the flow velocity at entrance and ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Normally λ = 0.4 to
0.8 and φ will be 0.15 to 0.25. The pressure drop (∆p) in the disc clearance can be taken as proportional
to radius of the disc. It can be expressed
Ra − r
∆p = ∆pd (1 – φ) ...(7.28)
Ra − Re
Substituting this value of ∆p in equation (7.21)
Re Ra
Ra − r
Fd = ∫ ∆ Pa 2π rdr + ∫ ∆ Pa (1 – φ) Ra − Re
2π rdr
Rb Re
from which
2 2
R R R
(1 − φ) 1 + e + (1 + 2φ) e − 3 b
Ra Ra Ra
ψ = ...(7.29)
R 2
3 1 − b
Ra
∆pd ∆pd
The flow q3 = µd A3 2 g = µ2π Reb2 2g ...(7.30)
γ γ
1
where, µd = .
λ d Re R 2e
. + + 0.5
2b Ra R 2a
The length of the clearance ‘ly’ at the shaft sleeve before the disc will be
p3 − p4 p3 − p4
q3 = µy Ay 2 g = µy 2π Rh by 2g ...(7.31)
γ γ
where, by is the radial width of the clearance and µy the coefficient is
1
µy =
λl y
+ 1.5
2by
The pressure drop (p3 – p4) = (p2 – p5) – (p2 – p3) – ∆ pd
p2 = p1 + γ [H (Z – 1) + Hp] ...(7.32)
H — Total head of the pump
Z — Number of stages
u 22 Rb2
(p2 – p3) = γ 1 − 2 ...(7.33)
8g R2
The length of the tube ‘lt’, connecting the suction side of the Ist stage and outlet chamber of the
disc is approximately the length of the pump assembly. The tube diameter dt is determined from the
equation (7.34)
p5 − p1
q3 = µt A – 2g
γ
πdt 2 p5 − p1
= 2g ...(7.34)
λlt γ
4 + 1.5
dt
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 177
90
F1
270
F2
270
(a) (b)
where, A1 and A2 are the inlet and outlet area of the impeller C and Cn are the absolute velocity and its
components, resolved normal to the surface dA.
ρ is the fluid density.
Since the fluid exerts a force on impeller, the negative sign is given for Fxi and Fyi. For normal
entry at inlet C = C0 and is parallel to axis. Hence, Cn = 0. The integral for the area ‘A’ becomes zero.
The equations are reduced to
θ
p = γHm = γ Hp+ Hdy ...(7.39)
2π
and dA = b2R2d θ and cos (nx) = cos θ in equation (7.31). The radial thrust on the external side will be
(Fxe)
2π
θ
Fxe = ∫ p dA cos (n x) = –
∫ γ H p + 2π H dy b2 r2 dθ cosθ
Ae 0
2π
θ
=– ∫ γ 2π Hdy b2 r2 dθ cos θ
0
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 179
γH dy 2π
γHdy
=–
2π
b2 r2 ∫ θ cos θ dθ – 2π
b2 r2 [ θ sin θ + cos θ]02π = 0
0
...(7.40)
2π
Since, ∫ cos θ dθ =0
0
The external force in y direction Fye will be
2π 2π
θ θ
Fye = – ∫ γ Hp +
2π
H dy b r dθ sinθ = ∫ γ
2 2 H b γ d θ sinθ
2π dy 2 2
0 0
2π
γH dy γH dy
= − b2 r2 ∫ θ sin θ d θ = − b2 r2 [− θ cos θ + sin θ] 2 π
2π 0
2π 0
γH dy
=– b r (–2π ) = r Hdy b2 r2 ...(7.41)
2π 2 2
The forces Fxe and Fye calculated as per the equation (7.35) are directed in radial direction towards
axis, near the tongue i.e., towards the smaller sections of spiral casing. The radial forces at the internal
surface Fxi and Fyi can be determined from the experimental results. From the analysis, it is found that
the tangential component Cu2 at the outlet of the impeller is constant at all point around the circumference
→ → →
Since C2 = Cr 2 + Cu 2
Q
Taking the radial velocity at the outlet of the spiral casing as Cr20 = , radial velocity at any
πD2 b2
angle θ of the spiral casing will be
θ
Cr2 = 1 − Cr20
2π
2π 2π
θ θ
So, Fxi = ∫ ρ Cr20 1 − b r d θ cos θ – ∫ ρ Cr20 × 1 − 2π × Cu2′ b2 r2 d θ sin θ
0 2π 2 2 0
2π 2π
θ θ
= ρ C2r20 r2b2 ∫ 1 − 2π cos θ d θ – ρ Cr20 b2 r2 ∫ 1 − 2π sin θ dθ
0 0
180 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
C 2r 20 Cu′ 2 1 C2 1 1
= 2b2 r2γ − b D γ r 20 −
2 g Cr 20 π 2 2 2 g tanα ′ π ...(7.43)
2
2π 2 2π
2 θ b r d θ sin θ +
– Fyi = ∫ ρ Cr20 1 − 2 2 ∫ ρ Cr20
0 2π 0
2 2π 2
× 1 − θ Cu′ 2 b2 d θ cos θ = ρC2r 2 0 b2 r2 θ
2π
∫ 1 − 2π sin θd θ
0
2π
+ ρ Cr20 C′u2 b2 r2 θ
∫ 1 − 2π cos θd θ
0
2
C r220 C r 20
= – 2b2r2γ = – b2D2γ ...(7.44)
2g 2g
gH m
where, C′u 2 = , Cr20 = radial velocity at impeller outlet at optimum efficiency condition, α′2 is the
u2
Cr 20
absolute angle at outlet of the impeller. tan α′2 = .
Cu′ 2
While calculating the forces acting on outside surfaces of the impeller, only the cylindrical surface
of the impeller outlet is considered. The calculated value will be slightly lower than the actual. The
direction of the resultant will deviate about 20° with respect to vertical towards the volute tongue. The
derived equations can also be applied for other regions of operation either for part loaded or for over
loaded conditions.
A.J. Stepanoff 112 recommends following empirical rule for the radial thrust in pumps
2
Q
Fr = 360 1 −
Hb′ D ...(7.45)
Qopt 2 2
where H — Total head, D2 — outer diameter of the impeller b2′ = b2 + 2t
b2 — Outlet breadth of impeller and
t — thickness of shroud at outlet.
In some of the volute designs for single stage pumps two volutes, each covering 180° of total
flow angle, are provided, with two outlet mouths (Fig. 7.14). In some other designs, two half volutes
are provided each covering 180° of flow area from impeller outlet (Fig. 7.14). The total flow enters a
single outlet mouth of volute. In both cases, the radial thrust created at any point equalises between two
half volute thereby net radial force is zero.
In multistage pumps, the outlet flow from the impeller enters two spiral passage, which are kept
180° apart, which equalises the radial thrust.
diffuser section
(a) (b)
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Actual pump parameters differ from the theoretical values, due to the presence of viscosity in real
fluid and complicated flow passages in pumps. Two identical pumps differ in quality due to the presence
of different dimensions of surface roughness in flow passages. Model analysis and model testing of
pumps give an option to overcome all the above mentioned difficulties and also gives all necessary
information to design new pumps, so that, these pumps can be operated in a wide range of operation,
with quality.
Two pumps, model and prototype units, can be identical, if these pumps are similar geometrically,
kinematically and dynamically. Geometrical similarity indicates linear proportionality of all dimensions
including surface roughness of pump parts between model and prototype units. Kinematic similarity
indicates that fluid flow direction in all elements of model and prototype, at identical points remain
same. Combining these two similarities, we get that the absolute, relative and blade velocities between
model and prototype are proportional but in the same direction. Dynamic similarity indicates the
proportionality of the forces acting at the identical points of model and phototype units. Referring the
NavierStokes equation for a three dimensional incompressible fluid flow, geometrical similarity and
kinematic similarity are included, if dynamic similarity is considered. Most important nondimensional
parameters such as Reynold’s number (Re), Froude number (Fr), Struhaul’s number (Sh) and Eular’s
number (Eu) are considered for dynamic similarity for incompressible viscous flow through pumps.
These numbers must be same for model and for prototype.
CA wA
C A′ w A′
A
A′
βA = β
B′ αA′ = αA βA′ A′
B
uA′ uA
Model CA′ w A′
=
CA wA
Prototype
182
MODEL ANALYSIS 183
Vl Inertia force
Reynold’s number Re = =
ν Viscous force
V2 Inertia force
Froude number Fr = = ...(8.1)
gl Gravitational force
V Inertia force
Struhaul’s number Sh = =
nl Unsteady, periodical forces
where V is the velocity, l is the linear dimension, ν is the kinematic viscosity, and n is the speed. During
model test, all the above three nondimensional numbers cannot be studied simultaneously. Since these
three numbers do not depend on each other, they are studied individually. Reynold’s number is studied
for a pressure flow, closed conduit flow of viscous fluid, such as flow in fully submerged condition,
flow in pipes and flow of fluid through pumps under completely filled condition. Froude number is
studied for a free flow such as open channel flow, flow of ship in water. In pumps, this number is studied
under fully developed cavitation condition, where flow separation exists. Struhauls number is used for
unsteady, periodical flow, in pumps, impeller as a whole, propulsion of ships.
When volumetric forces are not considered, Reynold’s number and Froude number can be studied
together by another number called Eular’s number (Eu).
p Pressure force
Eular’s Number Eu = =
ρV 2 Inertia force
lp Dp Bp
lm = λl Dm = Bm
where ‘l’ is the linear dimension, D is the diameter, B is the breadth and ‘λl’ is the proportionality
coefficient.
Kinematic similarity in pumps indicate that flow directions are same for model and for prototype,
i.e., flow angles namely absolute angle ‘α’ and blade angle ‘β’ remain same in model and in prototype
i.e., αm = αp and βm= βp . Since linear dimensional are already proportional between model and prototype,
velocity triangles are similar i.e.,
Cp wp up Cmp Cup
= = = =
Cm wm um Cmm Cum
up πD p n p np
= = λl ...(8.2)
um πDm nm nm
Qthp πD p B p Cmp np
Theoretical Flow rate, = = λ3l ...(8.3)
Qthm πDm Bm Cmm nm
184 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Dp Bp
For geometrical similarity, =
Dm Bm
Qp D p3 n p
Hence,
Qm = Dm3 nm ...(8.4)
η p γ p 5 n3p
= ⋅ ⋅ λl ⋅ 3 ...(8.8)
ηm γ m nm
If pumping fluid is same in prototype and in model γp = γm.
In order to compare the performance of different pumps, and also to get complete characteristics
of one series of pumps a term specific spread (ns) is used. It is defined as the speed of a pump which is
geometrically similar for one pump series and consumes 1 hp of power under 1 m of total head. The
efficiencies of these pump series remain constant independent of its sizes i.e., n = ns when N = 1 hp and
H = 1 m.
γQH
N (hp) = (where Q in m3/sec H in m and γ = 1000 kg/m3
75
From similarity laws for power
5/ 2
H H H 5/ 2
H ∝ ηh n2D2 or D2 ∝ ; D5 ∝ 2
∝
ηh n 2 ηh n η5h/ 2 n5
N
Ν ∝ η n3D5 or D5 ∝
ηn 3
MODEL ANALYSIS 185
N H 5/ 2 ηH 5 / 2
∝ 5 / 2 5 or n
2 ∝
ηn 3 ηh n η5h/ 2 n5
10,000
90%
000
10,
x= 00
1 ,0
x=
1,000
85%
10 0
x=
80%
100
10
x=
70%
10
1000 n Q 3.65n Q
. ns = = ...(8.11)
75 H 3 / 4
H 3/ 4
Characteristics linear dimension in pump is the diameter D. So replacing l and D
V V
Struhaul’s No. Sh = or n =
nD S h .D
p gH V2
Eular’s No. Eu = . Since p = γH or γ = ρg, Eu = or H = . Eu
ρV 2 V2 g
The flow rate Q = AV
3.65n Q V A .V g3/ 4 K
ns = = 3.65 . 3/ 2 3/ 4 = . ...(8.12)
H 3/ 4 S h .D V ( Eu ) Sh Eu3 / 4
3.65 A g 3 / 4 A
where, K = which is constant for one series of pump, since is constant for one series
D D
of pump. The specific speed, ns is a function of similarity of Struhaul’s and Eular’s numbers and hence
similarity of Struhaul’s, Reynold’s and Froude numbers.
Each value of ns designates one series of pump, which has its own operating region at which
overall efficiency is maximum and hence the form, shape of pump of one series will be same for one ns
value. But forms and shapes will be different for each series. Specific speed ns completely defines the
characteristics of one series. (Fig. 8.3) shows impeller shape for each value of ns.
D2
D2
D 0 = D1
D2
D0
D0
D6T
D 6T
D1
D 6T
D0
D1
D2
D
D
D
D1
n s = 40 ÷ 80 80 ÷ 150 150 ÷ 300 300 ÷ 600 400 ÷ 600 600 ÷ 1200 1200 ÷ 2000
The test results of a model pump i.e., a pump from one series having one value of ns, can be used
for developing other pumps in the same series (same ns value), if it is brought out in a nondimensional
form. In pump industries, unit head (KH), unit discharge (KQ), and unit power (KN), are the non
dimensional parameters used to study the pump characteristics of one series.
Quantity of flow, Q = ηV .πDB.Cm
For geometrically similar pump, B ∝ D and hence, DB ∝ D2.
For kinematic similarity in pump, Cm ∝ u and u= πDn. (nspeed is rps).
So, Q ∝ ηVπD2 Dn or Q ∝ nD3
Q
KQ = is constant for one series of pump and is called unit discharge.
nD3
Cu u
Similarly total head, H = .ηh. Since, Cu α u α nD, H α n2D2
g
H
KH = is constant for one series of pump and is called unit head.
n D2
2
γQH γ
Power N = ∝ nD3 n2 D2 α n3 D5
75 75
N
KN = is constant for the series of pump and is called unit power. Test results of the
n D5
3
model pump conducted at different speeds are reproduced in these three nondimensional parameters
namely σ, η, KH , KN = f (KQ). This is called universal characteristics of pump and remains same for one
series of pump i.e., for pumps having same ns but with different n, Q and H. Substituting values KQ and
KH in specific speed ns equation, Q = KQ n D3, H = KH n2 D2.
Also absolute value of surface roughness purely depends upon the manufacturing techniques
ε
adopted. This value will remain same independent of the pump size. So the relative roughness will
D
be higher for small pumps and lower for larger pumps. As a result, the frictional coefficient ( f ) will be
lower for larger pumps, and higher for smaller pumps even though the pumps operate at same Reynold’s
number. Hydraulic losses will be higher and hydraulic efficiency will be lower in smaller pumps and
vice versa in larger pumps. This scale effect is taken into account by using theoretical equations with
practical experimental coefficients. Figs. 8.4, 8.5, 8.6 and 8.7 show the increase in efficiency of same
pump when relative roughness is reduced.
N H
kW M H
50
N
40
30 2
20 1
0 10 η
η%
80 0
60
40
20
0 3
0 25 50 75 100 125 Q,m /hr
40
20
12 18 6m
0 3 6 9 12
Discharge (Q) LPS
Fig. 8.5. Effect of improving surface finish of the impeller shrouds on pump performance
– – – Machined and polished
—— Rough surface 0.5 mm grain size
MODEL ANALYSIS 189
Pump type
2 × 1½ SB 33
Due to reduction in
% efficiency
N (hp) input
10
1
5
Discharge lps
Pump type
2½ × 2 SB 26
50
5
10
40
4
30
3
20
2
5
10
1
Discharge lps
Convergent flow takes place in turbines whereas divergent flow prevails in pumps. Laws applied
to turbine cannot be applied to pumps. The relative values of volumetric and mechanical losses are
more in pumps.
As per model analysis, the total head of a pump increases with the square of the speed of pump,
theoretically, but practically a little lower. This equation is defined, based on the assumptions that
efficiency of model and prototype are same when operated at identical points. Actually, when speed
increases, cavitation characteristics of pump reduces, which inturn reduces the efficiency to a certain
extent.
This is confirmed by many authors. So also viscosity of the pumping liquid influences on hydraulic
efficiency.
V2 V2
Head loss ∆H ∝ = λ.
2g 2g
∆H V2
Hence, ηh = 1 – = 1 – λ. = 1 – const. λ
Hm 2 gH m
V2
Since is same for model and for prototype.
2 gH m
Prof. Nikuradse 67 stated that under auto model region of operation, the frictional coefficient λ
can be expressed as,
1
λ = 2 ...(8.14)
R
1.74 + 2 log
ε
and hydraulic efficiency (ηh) can be written as,
Const.
ηh = 2 ...(8.15)
R
1.74 + 2 log
ε
Since absolute value of surface roughness (ε) is constant as it depends upon the manufacturing
process, whatever may be the pump size, a general form of hydraulic efficiency can be expressed as,
A
ηh = ...(8.16)
( B + log . D)2
Prof. A. A. Lomakin has suggested that A = 0.42 and B = – 0.172
0.42
ηh = ...(8.17)
(log D1nom − 0.172) 2
192 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
where, D1 nom is the reference inlet diameter calculated as per the equation (8.15) and is expressed in mm
based on the equation (8.17). Hydraulic efficiency for prototype from model efficiency can be written
as,
2
log D1nom.m − 0.172
ηhp = 1– (1– ηhm)
...(8.18)
log D1nomp − 0.172
In Fig. 8.8 the curve is drawn as per equation (8.17) for the diameter 350 mm. Practically, the drop
in efficiency is found more due to non auto model effect. Graph B, ∆ηh = ηhp − ηhm is calculated as per
equation (8.18) for the same diameter 350 mm. This graph gives an idea of change in hydraulic efficiency
between prototype and model. This value can be taken for actual design.
ηh% ∆ηh%
90 4,5
80 A 4,0
70 3,5
B
60 3,0
50 2,5
40 2,0
30 1,5
20 1,0
10 0,5
10 20 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000 2000 4000 6000 10000
Dmm
1 ∆Q
or, = 1+
ηV Qa
where, Qa is the actual quantity of flow and ∆Q is the leakage flow through clearance, which can be
expressed as
∆Q = φAL 2 g ∆H L
where, φ = the flow coefficient, A—area of the clearance and ∆HL is the pressure drop across the
clearance. Flow coefficient φ depends upon the linear dimensions of the clearance and frictional
coefficient. Assuming the frictional coefficient is constant for prototype and for model and since absolute
values of clearance dimension are same for model and prototype.
φ p = φm
Suffix ‘p’ refers prototype and m refers model.
MODEL ANALYSIS 193
For geometrical similarity, linear dimensions of model and prototype are proportional i.e.,
Ap = K2 Am, where K is constant of proportionality for linear dimension. The pressure drop ∆HL is
proportional to the total head of the pump i.e., ∆HL ∝ H ∝ n2 D2.
∆H Lp
2
Hp np
So, 2
∆H Lm = H m = K nm
∆Q p φp . Ap 2 g ∆H Lp
=
∆Qm φm . Am 2 g ∆H L m
2 np
2 p
n
= K2K = K nm
3 ...(8.19)
m
n
np
K3 . ∆Qm
1 ∆Q p nm
Therefore, = 1+ =1+
ηVP Qp np
K3 Qm
nm
∆Qm 1
= 1+ = or ηVP = ηVm
Qm nVm
Thus, volumetric efficiency of model and prototype remain same, when clearance dimensions are
same for model and for prototype and the flow through the clearance is fully turbulent. If the leakage
clearances are different, these values are determined as per equation (8.19). Correspondingly, volumetric
efficiency of prototype will slightly change from that of model. Since, clearance change will be negligibly
small, it is usually neglected.
1 ∆N dp
= 1 +
ηmp γ p Qthp H mp
K 5 γ p n3p
∆N dm
γ m n3m 1
= 1+ 3 = ...(8.24)
γ p np ηmm
γ m Qthm H mm
5
k
γ m nm
Hence, ηmp= ηmm. i.e., Mechanical efficiency of model and prototype remains same. So also disc
friction losses for model and for prototype has the same power ratio. Combining all the three efficiencies,
overall efficiency η will be
1 820
Mechanical efficiency, = 1+ 2 ...(8.26)
ηm ns
3.65 n Q
where, ns = .
H 3/ 4
9
CAVITATION IN PUMPS
z s,0
pump axis are referred as ‘delivery’ and all measurements hfs
measured below pump axis are called ‘suction’. Energy in
suction line i.e., from suction sump (su) to the impeller inlet Z su Pat
edge of the pump (o) remains constant. So also the energy in
delivery line is constant. Mechanical energy is converted into
Zsu
p0 C2 psu C 2su
+ Z0 + 0 + hf (s – 0) = + Zsu +
γ 2g γ 2g
p0 C02 p C 2su
+ = su + (Zsu – Z0 ) + – hf (s – 0)
γ 2g γ 2g
Since, (Zsu – Z0 ) = – hs, and Csu the velocity of fluid in suction sump, is zero
p0 C 20 psu
γ + 2g =
γ
– ( hs + hf s) ...(9.1)
In order to have a perfect cavitation free operation, the suction pressure ( p0) must be greater than
p0 pvp
the vapour pressure (pvp) of the pumping fluid at the pumping temperature i.e., p0 ≥ pvp or – ≥0
γ γ
195
196 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
i.e., must be always positive. Substituting this condition in equation (9.1). The Net Positive Suction
p0 − pvp C 02
head of the pump (NPSH)p = Hsv = +
2g
will be greater than zero or always positive.
γ
Pump
centerline
Pump centerline
and datum elevation Datum elevation
outer diameter of inlet edge
Pump centerline
Datum elevation
Center line of the outlet edge
(c) Double suction vertical
Fig. 9.2. Reference level for suction head measurement
p0 − pvp C 20
i.e., Hsv = + ≥ 0
γ 2g
Combining equation (9.1) and (9.2)
psu − pvp
Hsv = γ
– ( hs + hfs) ≥ 0 ...(9.2)
psu − pvp
or ≥ ( hs + hfs)
γ
psu − pvp
Taking as (NPSH)A i.e., net positive suction head available and (hs + hf s) (NPSH)R
γ
i.e., net positive suction head required, the condition required for cavitation free operation will be
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 197
psu − pvp
(NPSH)A > (NPSH)R. Rearranging equation (9.2) and taking = Hsu – Hvp suction lift (hs)
γ
will be
hs = Hsu – Hvp – Hsv – hfs ...(9.3)
For safe operation of pump, i.e., for net (NPSH)p, a reserve in Hsv is added and is written with a
coefficient φ . Normally φ = 1.15 to 1.4 and safe suction lift will be
hs = Hsu – Hvp – φHsv – hfs ...(9.4)
If the sump is open to atmosphere Hsu = Hatm. Atmospheric pressure at any altitude ‘∆’ can be
written as
∆
Hatm. = Hatm0 – where Hatm0 is the atmospheric pressure at sea level. Hatm0 = 10.336
900
MWC = 760 mm of mercury column. If the pumping liquid is other than water patm0 = γw Hw = γl Hl
γl H l
or Hw = = Sl Hl
γw
γl
where Sl is the specific gravity = . Suffix ‘w’ refers to water and ‘l’ refers to liquid.
γw
∆
∴ hsw = H atm0 − − H vp − φH sv − h fs ...(9.5)
900
hsw
Corresponding liquid column hsl =
sl
The value of Hvp depends upon the temperature of the pumping fluid. It increases when the
temperature is increased. Fig. 2.9 gives the vapour pressure value at different temperatures for water.
Table 9.1 gives the atmospheric pressure at different altitudes.
Net positive suction head ((NPSH)p = Hsv) of a pump is defined as the total pressure at stagnation
condition at inlet of the pump above the vapour pressure of the pumping fluid at the pumping temperature.
p C2 p
Referring to the inlet of the pump and since + = st , stagnation
γ 2g γ
p0 C 20 p
Condition, + Z0 + = ost + Z0
γ 2g γ
198 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)
Absolute flow is axisymmetric in suction pipe i.e., from the fluid level in suction chamber, (point
‘su’) to the impeller inlet edge (point 1), whereas relative flow is axisymmetric on the impeller blade
surface, i.e., from inlet edge, (point 1) to outlet edge (point 2).
At the impeller edge (point 1), both absolute and relative flows are axisymmetric.
Writing down the Bernoulli’s equation between point ‘O’ and point 1, i.e., points immediately
before the impeller inlet edge and on the inlet edge of the impeller blade, and since absolute flow is
axisymmetric,
p0 C02 p1 C12
+ Z0 + = + Z1 + + hf (0 – 1) ...(9.6)
γ 2g γ 2g
In the same manner, writing down the Bernoulli’s equation between point ‘1’ and point ‘x’ [Fig.
9.3 and Fig. 9.6 (b)] on the impeller blade and since relative flow is axisymmetric.
(suffix ‘x’)
Measuring
Inlet edge
point
hs
2 2
C0
loading
C1
Blade
e
2g si d
hfs 2g P r.
2
Suction tank
C
pressure hsc
2g
e
sid
(or)
on
c ti
p Su
γ
h at Cavitation
hvp
w12 − u 21 C2 u C
w21 = C21 + u21 – 2u1 Cu1 (or) = 1 – 1 u1 ...(9.8)
2g 2g g
Combining equations (9.7 and 9.8) and rearranging
p1 C2 C u p ( wx2 − u x2 )
+ z1 + 1 – u1 1 = x + Zx + + hf (1 – x) ...(9.9)
γ 2g g γ 2g
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 199
p0 C 20 px w2 – u x2 u1Cu1
+ Z0 + = + Zx + x + g + hf (0 – x) ...(9.10)
γ 2g γ 2g
For cavitation free operation, minimum pressure px ≥ pvp the vapour pressure. At minimum pressure
wx2 – u x2 wx2 – u x2
px = px (min), velocity = . Adding (– pvp) on both sides of equation (9.10) and
2g 2 g max
rearranging.
( p0 − pvp ) C02 ( px − pvp ) wx2 − u x2 uC
+ = + ( Z x − Z 0 ) + + 1 u1 + h f (0− x ) ...(9.11)
γ 2g γ 2g g
( p0 − pvp )C 02 uC
But + = Hsv and (Zx– Z0) is taken as = 0, since it is very small, 1 u1 = 0 for
γ 2 g g
normal entry in pumps. px min= pvp . Under critical condition for cavitation free operation. Equation
(9.11) will be
wx2 – u x2
(Hsv)cr = + hf (0 – x) ...(9.12)
2 g max
Since point (0) and point (x) are very near to each other at suction.
p0 C 20 p0 st p
+ Z0 + = + Z 0 = xst + Z x ...(9.13)
γ 2g γ γ
Combining equations (9.10) and (9.13)
pxst p w2 − u x2 uC
+ Zx = x + Zx + x + 1 u1 + h f (0− x )
γ γ 2g g
w2 – u x2
(∆h0)max = x + hf (0 – x) ...(9.15)
2 g max
Dynamic depression can also be expressed in some other form. All functions, as far as cavitation
is concerned, take place at suction side and on the inlet edge of the blade (from point 0 to point ‘x’ on the
blade). Referring inlet velocity triangle under normal entry condition Cu0= Cu1= 0, C0 = Cm0,
C1 = C m1, u 20 + C2m0= w02 and u12 + C 2m1= w12. Due to vane thickness flow velocity increases
Cm1 = K1Cm0 where, K1 is the vane thickness coefficient
w 2 w21 2
Cm1 Cm2 0
= w
x
− 1 + C 2 g ...(9.16)
1 2 g m0
2 2
Cm1 wx
Taking, m= and n = – 1 ...(9.17)
Cm 0 w1
Substituting this value in equation (9.16)
w21 C 2m 0
(∆h0)max =n +m ...(9.18)
2g 2g
Experiments conducted on different pumps by different authors, indicate that m = 1.0 to 1.2 and
n = 0.3 to 0.4. Since, m and n are velocity ratios; similarity laws can be applied. Values of m and n
remain constant for pumps of same specific speed.
σ ) THOMA’S CONSTANT
9.2 CAVITATION COEFFICIENT (σ
Prof. Thoma 97 has defined cavitation coefficient (σ) as
H svcr = ( ∆h0 )max
σ= ...(9.19a)
H
Cu 2u2
which is a nondimensional number. Substituting H = g ,
wx2 − u x2
H sv 2g
= C u
H u2 2
g
indicates that σ represents velocity ratios, which is constant for model and prototype of same specific
speed, i.e., σm= σp .
However, this coefficient has certain drawbacks. For example, two pumps having identical inlet
conditions but different outer diameters, Hsv will remain same but H will differ and hence the value σ
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 201
changes. This is overcome by defining another nondimensional expression, called Cavitation Specific
Speed (C).
Moscow Power Institute  58  recommends a relation between σ and ns as
( ns ) 4 / 3
σ= ...(9.19b)
4700
Based on intensive experimental investigation on cavitation on axial flow pumps, Leningrad
Polytechnic Institute 105 recommends the following equation to determine σ :
4 δm 2
2
(1 + β) +
π l ∞ –u
1 w
σ= ...(9.19c)
2 gH
where, β—curvature and δm—maximum thickness.
occupies approximately 1780 cc of water vapour. Since the space available in between impeller blades
is very small, pressure instantaneously raises to a very high value. This pressure rise makes the vapour
to condense to liquid. Now the pressure falls below the vapour pressure and the liquid changes into
vapour. Likewise the pressure changes from high positive to high vacuum instantaneously, many times
in a second. The pressure rise is approximately in the order of 100 to 300 atmospheres. This sudden high
instantaneous fluctuating pressure rise gives a heavy hammer blow on impeller blades, like shock waves.
When pressure exceeds elastic limit of the material of the blade, metal is gradually removed from the
blade. This pressure fluctuation followed by metal erosion and subsequent corrosion is called cavitation.
Due to cavitation, impeller blades, shrouds, especially at inlet leading edge as well as other parts of
pump like suction side of casing get damaged. Flow does not follow streamlined or axisymmetric pattern.
Hydraulic losses increase; hydraulic efficiency and overall efficiencies considerably decrease. Huge
noise and heavy vibrations are produced. Life of the pump reduces. Under severe cavitation condition,
pump fails to work. At high vacuum, oxygen present in the fluid is released from the liquid, gets reacted
with the material of the impeller and other parts of the pump. The metal is converted into metal oxide.
This metal oxide, in the form of powder being weak, is carried away by the flowing fluid. Thus, corrosion
adds to the erosion in reducing the metal thickness increasing the roughness of the surface.
No metal is resistant to cavitation. Low strength metals gets corroded at a faster rate, whereas high
strength materials gets corroded at a slower rate. Phosphor bronze gun metal have more elastic and anti
corrosive property but possess low strength and smooth surface. Cast iron, malleable iron possess high
strength but gets corroded at a faster rate. Stainless steel SS304 and SS316 an anti corrosive and high
strength material is also used for pumps having more cavitating characteristics. Carpenter, Alloy 20 Ni
hard, Ni resist materials possess still higher strength and high anti corrosive quality.
Initial stage of cavitation does influence on parameters of pumps namely head, discharge, power,
efficiency and speed. When cavitation increases the rate of drooping down property of HQ curve is
noticed. Entire system becomes unstable when pump runs under severe cavitation. Pump cannot be run
at this condition. Rate of flow, total head, power, efficiency and speed drops down suddenly and fluctuates.
Fig. 9.4 (a) shows a typical performance characteristics of pump under normal and at cavitation
operating conditions. (HQ) and (ηQ) curves start droping down suddenly at certain flow rate when
50 80
η hs =
h 60
30 s =3
.5
Cavitation Normal m
Critical
20 50
hs
N NPSH
=5
h
.5
s =
7 8
m
10 m NPSH 4
2 4
η 1 2
Q 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Flow Q [L/S]
Fig. 9.4. (a) Pump performance under Fig. 9.4. (b) The effect of cavitation on a centrifugal
normal and cavitating condition pump performance (effect of suction
lift hs and NPSH)
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 203
cavitation occurs. No further increase in flow is possible. When suction lift (hs) increases or NPSH
decreases (HQ) and (ηQ) curves drop down more and more at a lower flow rate (Q) than the previous
value Fig. 9.4 (b). So also power discharge (NQ) curve also drops down. The point, where it starts
droping down suddenly, indicates the inception of cavitation.
TABLE 9.2: NPSH (Hsv) determination for H = ...., Q = ...., N = ...., η = .....
Net positive suction head of the pump, Hsvp is calculated by the formula
psu − pvp
Hsvp = – (Hs + Hfs)
γ
psu p
= − hs − h fs – vp
γ γ
= Vacuum manometer reading – Vapour pressure
Now, the suction head ‘hs’ is increased by operating the vacuum pump and the vacuum in kept
constant at one level. All values, mentioned above, are measured and entered in Table 9.2. In the same
manner, suction head ‘hs’ is increased further in step by step and experiment is conducted until unsteady
condition is attained.
Discharge, total head, power and efficiency remains same, up to critical value of (Hsvp). At Hsvp
critical, all readings suddenly drop down and fluctuates. Pump runs with noise and vibration. This
indicates that the pump is running under severe cavitation. No further increase in vacuum is possible
and no further test on pump could be conducted. The vacuum is reduced and the pump is brought to the
normal operating condition. Now, by adjusting the flow control valve, point ‘2’ is set in the test. The
experiment is repeated as mentioned earlier until (Hsvp) critical point is reached. Likewise the experiment
is repeated for points 3, 4, 5, i.e., for all selected points. A graph H, Q, n, η = f(Hsv) (or) hs (or) ∆h is
drawn taking values from the conducted test results for all points from Table 9.2. One such graph is
given for one operating point in Fig. 9.5 (a).
Since exact point of the beginning of severe cavitation could not be determined, 1 to 2% drop in
the values of normal flow rate, total head, power and efficiency i.e., 98 to 99% of normal flow rate, total
head, power and efficiency is taken as (Hsvp) critical and this is the value of (NPSH)p of the pump at
operating point 1 in load test curve of the pump. In the same manner, from the tests conducted (NPSH)p
at other selected points (points 2, 3, 4, 5) are determined. All (NPSH)p values are now plotted on the load
test graph to get Hsv = f (Q) curve. The minimum most point in this curve is the best point of operation
of the pump for cavitation free operation, which corresponds to maximum value of ‘hs’(Fig. 9.5).
Best cavitation free operating point need not be the best efficiency point of operation. For long life
of the pump, it is always better to run the pump at best cavitation free operating point, than at best
efficiency point.
In open test rigs, the cavitation test is conducted by closing the gate valve at suction line, keeping
the delivery gate valve at one position constant throughout the test. The experiment is repeated for
different positions of delivery gate valve.
Critical values of Hsvcr or (∆hcr or hsmax) depends upon the type of impeller i.e., specific speed (ns)
of the pumps. For low specific speed pumps ns < 100, H, Q, η, N curves remain constant with the
decrease of Hsv (or increase hs) until critical point is reached. At critical point i.e., when cavitation starts,
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 205
all these values suddenly drop, i.e., horizontal lines change to vertical lines in the graph. When ns is
increased, i.e., ns = 100 to 350, these values H, Q, η, N gradually reduce until critical point is reached
and then suddenly drops. In axial flow pumps ns > 450, there will not be a sudden drop after critical
point instead it will be gradual. Correct critical point, infact, cannot be determined.
55
H
50
N, kW
Q 40 45
Q 35 N
30 40
H 25
H 20 35
η
Q
lit/sec 30
η
Q
25
η%
20 80 η
15 75
1 to 2%
10 70
H s(cr)
H svmin ∆h (or) h s (or) H sv
65
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hs m
(a) Schematic diagram (b) Centrifugal pump
Hm
H
60 Q. lit/sec
η% 190
50
η 180
80 40
170
70 30 η,%
60 20 80
N,kW 70
15 10 N 60
10 H,m
5 Q 1,2 7
L/S 1 2 3 4 5 6 8
0 15 H sv(min) 1,1 9
Q 1,0
10 10
5 11
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 H s,m
2 4 6 8 10 12 H sv
(c) Centrifugal pump (d) Axial flow pump
Fig. 9.5. Actual cavitation characteristics of pump
2 1
p1
∆h
pa
ps
1
Manometer
flow
measurement
measurement
Speed
h
Thermometer
D.C. Dynamometer
Pump Power
Vacuum pump for test measurement
19
A
C 21
6 9
7 B
10