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Unsymmetrical Faults

Method of Symmetrical

 This method is based on the fact that a

set of three-phase unbalanced
phasors can be resolved into three
sets of symmetrical components,
which are termed the positive
sequence, negative-sequence, and
zero-sequence components.
 a. positive phase sequence system – a
balanced three-phase system in the normal
 b. negative phase sequence system - a
balanced three-phase system in the
reversed sequence
 c. zero phase sequence system – three
phasors equal in magnitude and direction
revolving in the positive phase
Prepared by: Mr. John Mateo
In particular, we have
V a= V a1 + V a2 + V a3
V b= V b1 + V b2 + V b3
V c = V c1 + V c2 + V c3

We now introduce an operator a

that causes a counterclcokwise
rotation of 120° (just as the j
operator produces a 90°
rotation), such that
1 + a + a2 = 0

Prepared by: Mr. John Mateo

components of a given sequence in terms of any chosen

 V b1 = a 2V a1
 V c1 = aV a1
 V b2 = aVa2
 V c2 = a2V a2
 V a0 = V b0 = V co
in terms of components of phase a,
V a = V a0 + V a1 + Va2
Vb= V a0 + a2 a1 1 + aVa2
Vc = V a0 + aV a1 + a2Va2

Prepared by: Mr. John Mateo

Solving for the sequence components of a
V a0 = 1/3 (V a + V b + Vc)
V a1 = 1/3 (V a + aVb + a2Vc)
V a 2= 1/3 (V a + a2Vb + aVc)

A quantity (current, voltage, impedance,

power) that is given in terms of symmetrical
components is sometimes called the sequence
quantity, as in “sequence current.”

Prepared by: Mr. John Mateo

(1) Since the generator is designed to
supply balanced three phase voltages,
the generator voltages are of positive
sequence only and hence only appear
in the positive sequence network
(2) Since the neutral impedance
connected to the generator neutral
carries three zero sequence current,
the neutral generator impedance is
represented by three times its value in
the zero sequence network
Transformer phase

currents free to
flow in both primary
and secondary
Wye-wye grounded

 No path for zero-

sequence currents
in primary circuit

 Single phase
currents can
circulate in the
delta but not
outside it
Delta - wye

 No flow of zero-
sequence currents

 No flow of zero-
sequence currents
 Tertiary windings
provides path for
Types of Faults

 Single line-to-earth fault

 Io=1/3(Ia +Ib + Ic)
 I1 = 1/3(Ia +a2Ic + aIb)
 I2 = 1/3(Ia +a2Ib + aIc)
 Io=I1=I2 = Ia/3
 Ib = Ic = 0
 Va = E - I1Z1 – I2Z2 -1oZo = 0
 E = I1Z1 – I2Z2 -1oZo
 If = 3E / (Z1 + Z2 + Zo)
Sequence inteconnection
Line –to-line fault
 I1 = 1/3 Ib(a - a2)
 I2 = 1/3 Ib(a2 - a)
 I1= E/ (Z1 + Z2)
Sequence inteconnection
Line –to-line-to-earth fault
 Ia = 0
 I1 = E / (Z1 + Z2Zo/(Z2 +Zo)
 I2 = - I1 (Zo /(Zo+ Z2 ))
 I0 = - I1 (Z2/(Zo+ Z2 ))
 If = 3E / (Z1 + 3Zg +Z2 + Zo)
 The phase currents in a wye-
connected, unbalanced load are Ia =
(44 – j33), Ib = -(32 + j24), and Ic = -
(40 + j25)A. Determine the sequence

Prepared by: Mr. John Mateo

 I a0 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) – (32 + j24) + (-40 +
= -9.33 – j10.67 = 14.17∠-131.2°A
 I a1 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) – (-0.5 + j0.866)(32 +
j24) – (0.5 – j0.866)(-40 + j25)]
= 40.81 – j8.77 = 41.7<-12.1°A
 I a2 = 1/3 [(44 – j33) + (0.5 – j0.866)(32 +
j24) + (-0.5 + j0.866)(-40 + j25)]
= 12.52 – j13.48 = 18.37 ∠ -47°A

Prepared by: Mr. John Mateo

A synchronous machine A generating 1
p.u. voltage is connected through star-
star transformer, reactance 0.12 p.u. to
two lines in parallel. The other ends of
the lines are connected through star-
star transformer of reactance 0.1 p.u.
to a second machine B, also
generating 1 p.u. voltage. For both
transformers, X1 = X2 = Xo.
 The relevant per unit reactances of the
plant, all referred to the sme base are
as follows:
 For each line, X1=X2=0.3; X0=0.7
X1 X2 X0

Machine A 0.3 0.2 0.05

Machine B 0.25 0.15 0.03

 The star points of machine A and B

are solidly earthed.
Positive- sequence
Negative sequence
 A 75 MVA 115/33 kV power transformer at the P.T.T.
Central Substation in Rayong, Thailand, developed a line-
to-ground short-circuit fault at a high voltage winding
 The percentage impedance of the transformer is 12% at 75
MVA, and the transformer connection is delta on the HV
windings and star on the LV windings. If the supply
impedance of 115 kV power supply is 3% based on 75
MVA, draw the sequence impedance networks for the
ground fault, and calculate the ground fault current. The
115 kV network can be considered as a star connection
with centre point solidly earthed.
 For a single line-to-ground fault on the
“A” phase, the positive, negative and
zero sequence networks are to be
connected in series in order to
calculate the sequence short-circuit
 Total sequence impedances = 3 x 3%
= 9%
If = 1/9% = 11.11 p.u.
 Short-circuit current on “A” phase
= 3 x 11.11 p.u.
= 33.33 x 376.5
= 12,549 Ampere