Sie sind auf Seite 1von 58


cccccccccccccccccccccccccc cc
   c cc c
’ ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc  

c  c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc  cc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc   cc
cccc c!"c#$c c’

c 1

)!*+’ ,c
6c cc  cc
cc cc
c  c c  c c c c c   c  c  c
c c
"c c  c c 
c ’c ’c c  c c
 #c  c     c c c c c
cc$cc  c cc
 c c  c  #c $c  #c
c  c c c c c  c c c c  c c
"c  cc$cc c cc cc
-c c c  c cc
 c cc ccc c   c cc
 c #c ccccc cc cc


Ú Úc

a competency is an underlying characteristic of a person, which enables

him to deliver superior performance in a given job, role or a situation. This
characteristic may be called an µattribute bundle¶, consisting of knowledge,
skills, traits, social role, self-image and motive. The µunderlying
characteristic¶, manifests itself in the form of behaviour, which helps
identification and measurement of the competency.

This is a competency era. It is beyond doubt that it is beneficial and cost

effective, to have competent people to occupy higher-level positions.
alternatively, Competency also refers to the intellectual, managerial, social
and emotional competency.

There are two basic levels of competencies: technical and behavioural. The
first level, Technical Competencies are predominately about acquired
knowledge and technical abilities and skills. These competencies are often
easier to see, train for and develop. Examples of technical competencies
include knowledge of applicable legislation and case law, knowledge of
valuation methodology.

The second level of competencies is Behavioural Competencies, such as

communication skills or team member skills. These competencies can be
harder to see and develop but are key indicators of how an individual
approaches his/her work.
 c   c Ú c   c c 
 ccc  c c

  c   c

1. Legal & Legislation

2. appraisal

3. Systems

 ! c! c

4. analytical Thinking and Judgment

5. Planning & Organizing

  "  c


6. Communications Skills

7. Innovation & Change Management

8. Customer Focus

9. Professional Conduct

c! c

10. Team Member Skills

11. Team Leadership Skills

#c  $c c c Ú Úc Ú#%Ú%  Úc
%cc& 'c

: The things a person consistently thinks about or wants that
cause action. Motives ³drive, direct, and select´ behavior toward certain
actions or goals and away from others.cE.g. achievement-motivated people
consistently set challenging goals for themselves and use feedback to do

*)c + Physical characteristics and consistent response to situation or

information. E.g. reaction time and good eyesight are physical trait
competencies of combat pilots.c

,)c  - c  c

 + a person¶s attitude, values, or self-image.
E.g. Self-confidence, a person¶s belief that he can be effective in any
situation is a part of that person¶s concept of self.c

.)c   + Information a person has in specific content areasc

/)c! + The ability to perform a certain physical or mental task.

Many organizations in India and abroad are channeling their efforts to

mapping competencies and implementing assessment and development

#c %cÚ0 % c cÚ Ú cc

0 cÚ cc
Competencies which are considered essential for all employees, regardless
of their function or level. - Communication, teamwork, result oriented,

   cÚ c

Competencies which are considered essential for employees with

managerial or supervisory responsibility in any functional area including
directors and senior posts ± Management skills, team player, people skills.

  c"c   c

Specific Competencies which are considered essential to perform any job

in the organization within a defined technical or functional area of work. ±
Business awareness/domain knowledge, presentation, analytical thinking,
strategic thinker, problem solving, listening skills, business writing,
leadership & credibility, planning & organizing, initiative & creativity

  c ccc

Competencies that mostly differentiate superior performers from mediocre

performers - Results orientation, influence, and initiative.

 c c

Competencies in which a minimum level of proficiency is required for job

success, but a higher level of proficiency is not highly correlated with
superior performance. Threshold competencies however do not
differentiate superior from average performers. c

  c c

Competencies at which managers and employees are generally weak,

which if improved will most likely to result in improved performance.

Ú Úc 0c
Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and
determines one¶s strengths as an individual worker and in some cases, as
part of an organization. It generally examines two areas: emotional
intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of the individual in
areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-making. Large
organizations frequently employ some form of competency mapping to
understand how to most effectively employ the competencies of strengths
of workers. They may also use competency mapping to analyze the
combination of strengths in different workers to produce the most effective
teams and the highest quality work.

It is also defined as a process of identifying key competencies for a

particular position in an organization, and then using it for job-evaluation,
recruitment, training and development, performance management,
succession planning, etc. "The competency framework serves as the
bedrock for all HR applications. as a result of competency mapping, all the
HR processes like talent induction, management development, appraisals
and training yield much better results," states well-known HR consultant
Ullhas Pagey.
Ú# 12c2c cÚ Úc 0c

#  % Ú&c% Ú#c cÚ Úc 0c

Competencies are derived from specific job families within the organization
and are often grouped around categories, such as strategy, relationships,
innovation, leadership, risk-taking, decision-making, emotional intelligence,

  6c 5 c  7c  include the following

U Conduct a job analysis by asking incumbents to complete a Role

Profile Questionnaire ± The primary goal, is to gather from
incumbents what they feel are the key behaviours necessary, to
perform their respective goals.
U Using the results of the job analysis, we develop a competency based
job description.
U With a competency based job description, we begin mapping the
competencies throughout the human resource processes. The
competencies of the respective job description becomes the factors
for assessment on performance evaluation
U By taking the competency mapping one step further, we use the
results of the evaluation, to identify in what competency individuals
need additional development or training. This will help in focusing the
training needs on the goals of the position and company and help
employees develop, toward the ultimate success of the organization
³% c   "45c   7c  ´ ± It helps companies to extract
knowledge of core competency requirements from internal experts, and
allows the company to have any number of job expert raters to contribute
ratings on a standard competency scale for any job title or position.

³8c  ´ ± In this method, a panel of experts (superior performers,

immediate supervisors, consultants, HR managers) is constituted and are
asked to brainstorm about the knowledge, skill, attitude, self-concept, and
motivation required of people for superior performance of a particular job.
This panel after detailed deliberation for a few hours and in some cases for
a couple of days will list out the competency requirements.

³,9:c ;c  -c  5!´ ± Such surveys allow employees to rate

themselves on global competencies and specific behaviours. Predefined
groups of supervisors, peers, direct reports, or customers who perform
ratings of persons on the same items, with the resulting report provide a
detailed analysis of self- other gaps in perceived competency behaviours.

´ ± Behavioural Event Interview (BEI)
basically intends to find out what people really do instead of hearing the
stories about what they wanted to do or what they propose to do. In other
words BEI finds out the knowledge, skill, motives, traits, and self-concept
from their behavioural actions, which are verifiable, rather than through
abstract explanations. The BEI method includes Thematic apperception
Test (TaT) probes, which yield data about the interviewees¶ personality and
cognitive style like what they think about, feel and want to accomplish in
dealing with the situation. This enables interviewers to measure
competencies such as achievement motivation or logical ways of thinking
and solving problems.

³Ú c   c <´ ± The Critical Incident Technique (CIT) was

developed by John Flanagan, to identify behaviour that contributes to the
success or failure of individuals or organizations in specific situations. To
analyze a situation using CIT, a researcher first asks people familiar with
the situation for a recent example of effective or ineffective behaviour that
is, a critical incident. Then it is determined from answers to some
questions, which identifies themes represented by the incidents, and asks
other involved parties to sort the incidents into proposed content
dimensions. The CIT is a method for evaluating systems in functioning
work environments. It relies on the idea that critical incidents will be
memorable, making their capture possible either through interview,
observation, or self-reporting.

7c  ´ ± In the survey method, the HR department or the
consultants based on their understanding of the job roles will prepare a
questionnaire containing various competencies. The questionnaires will be
then distributed to the role holders, their supervisors and any other persons
(like HR professionals and consultants) who are thoroughly knowledgeable
about the concerned job roles. The information collected through the
questionnaire is then analyzed using descriptive statistical tools to
determine the core competencies required for successful performance of
the said job.

³%7c 0 ´ ± George alexander Kelly was born in (1905-1967)

Kansas, U.S.a.
In 1955, the two-volume work,      
(PCT) was published and gained immediate recognition as a unique and
major development in the study of personality. In 1965 he moved to
Brandies University where he was appointed to the Riklis Chair of
Behavioural Science. Even today no reading in personality theory is
complete without the theory of personal constructs developed by Kelly.

The key points of PCT to remember are:

U Perceptions influence expectations, and expectations influence

U The medium through which this happens is known as the construct
U Construct systems are unique to the individual and develop
throughout life.
Repertory Grid will help to draw out and make explicit the expertise that
every manager has, and help lay out their problems in such a way that
solutions may become more obvious. It allows the interviewer to get a
mental map of how the interviewee views the world, and to write this map
with the minimum of observer bias. Kelly¶s practice is then not to have this
map µinterpreted¶ by an expert, who judges where the problems and
stresses are; rather Kelly¶s approach is to discuss the map with the
interviewee, to talk about things that perhaps the interviewee had not faced
about himself before, to discuss with the interviewee the survival value of
that particular map as a means of navigating around his or her life-space.
In the repertory grid process the respondents will identify a set of superior
performers and another group of ineffective performers. They to justify their
identification of people will identify a set of variables:

U Knowledge
U Skill
U attitude
U Ethic
U Self Concept
U appearance, etc
Which are associated with superior and average performers.

It is difficult to suggest which method is more useful or more accurate.

Some methods are easy to use but quality of data may be inadequate.
Some others may yield superior quality data but expensive and time
consuming. Certain methods and tools are such that they cannot be used
in all the cases. Some jobs may require the use of more than one method
or tool for their mapping.
# 'c cÚ Ú c%&c c  $ 2&cÚ%%c
$& =
First and foremost, competencies must be demonstrated by individuals.
Perhaps the most common place where they are demonstrated is within the
scope of a particular job or project involvement.

One of the first encounters with competencies for most individuals is in

securing employment with a new organization. Organizations that are
purposefully using cutting-edge methods to choose talent for positions or
project roles are engaging in what is called ³competency-based
interviewing and selection´. These interviewing and selection methods are
being used not only for hiring external applicants, but also for staffing
internal roles, as described later in this article.

Many organizations that use competency-based interviewing and selection

are also later using the same competencies to assess performance, to
encourage future development plans from individuals, and to plan for
succession in the organization. Therefore, the individual employees in such
an organization will have an ongoing need to use and map their
'#c# 2&c  $ 2&c& cc# %c
Ú Ú =
a list of compelling reasons includes, at a minimum, the following. an

U Gains a clearer sense of true marketability in today¶s job market;

once the individual knows how his/her competencies compare to
those that are asked for by the job market in key positions of interest.
U Demonstrates self-confidence that comes from knowing one¶s
competitive advantages more convincingly, and from being able to
articulate those advantages in specific language.
U Secures essential input to resume development - a set of important
terms to use in describing expertise derived from prior career
U Gains advanced preparation for interviews, many of which may be
delivered using a competency-based approach called ³structured
behavioral interviewing´ or ³behavioral event interviewing.
U Develops the capability to compare one¶s actual competencies to an
organization or position¶s required/preferred competencies, in order to
create an Individual Development Plan.
U Support specific and objective assessment of their strengths, and
specify targeted areas for professional development.
U Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills.
U Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager or
team about performance, development, and career-related issues.
  ccÚ 7c  c
The steps to building a Competency Model include:

Step 1: Understand the Competency Library.

Step 2: Develop position description/s for your targeted classification/s.
Step 3: Identify the competencies that the superior performers in the
classification possess.
Step 4: Validate the competencies identified in Step 3.
Step 5: Reconcile the validation results with those obtained in Step 3.
Step 6: Review and finalize the results of Step 5 with the executive
leadership team.

c(+c2  ccÚ 7c&57cc

In this step, your agency¶s Human Resources Manager and other key HR
staff will become familiar with the Competency Model and the  

The    includes 34 competencies that might be

appropriate for a Competency Model for a specific classification or family of
classifications. Most of them describe characteristics that are desirable in
any job. However, the purpose of constructing your Competency Model is
to identify the set of ¬ ¬¬ 
¬ that distinguish superior
performance in your target classification/s.
Ú 7c&57cc

 c   c

Consistently maintains high levels of activity or productivity; sustains long

working hours when necessary, works with vigor, effectiveness and
determination over a sustained period.

 5 7c>c ccc  cÚ )?c

adapts well to changes in assignments and priorities; adapts behavior or

work methods in response to new information, changing conditions, or
unexpected obstacles; approaches change positively and adjusts behaviors

  c&  c>c cccÚ  c&  c c


able to learn and properly apply new job-related information in a timely

manner. Has the ability to absorb and comprehend job-related information
from formal training and other formal and informal learning experiences)


Interact with others in a way that gives them confidence in one¶s motives and
representations and those of the organization. Is seen as direct and truthful;
keeps confidences, promises, and commitments.

Ú c

Providing timely guidance and feedback to help others strengthen

knowledge/skills areas needed to accomplish a task or solve a problem.

Ú 5 c
Builds constructive working relationships with clients/customers, other work
units, community organizations and others to meet mutual goals and
objectives. Behaves professionally and supportively when working with
individuals from a variety of ethnic, social and educational backgrounds.

Ú  c

Clearly conveys and receives information and ideas through a variety of

media to individuals or groups in a manner that engages the listener, helps
them understand and retain the message, and invites response and
feedback. Keeps others informed as appropriate. Demonstrates good
written, oral, and listening skills

Ú  c   c

Uses appropriate interpersonal styles and techniques to reduce tension

and/or conflict between two or more people; able to size up situations
quickly; able to identify common interests; facilitates resolution.

Ú  c&  c c  c

  c>c ccc
  c&  ?c

Is committed to developing professionally, attends professional conferences,

focuses on best practices, values cutting-edge practices and approaches;
takes advantage of a variety of learning activities, introduces newly gained
knowledge and skills on the job.

Ú  cÚ c

Cultivates opportunities through diverse people; respects and relates well to

people from varied backgrounds, understands diverse worldviews, and is
sensitive to group differences; sees diversity as an opportunity, challenges
bias and intolerance.

Ú"Ú  cc
Makes customers/clients and their needs a primary focus of one¶s actions;
shows interest in and understanding of the needs and expectations of
internal and external customers (including direct reports); gains customer
trust and respect; meets or exceeds customer expectations

 c! "5 c


Breaks down problems into components and recognizes interrelationships;

makes sound, well-informed, and objective decisions. Compares data,
information, and input from a variety of sources to draw conclusions; takes
action that is consistent with available facts, constraints, and probable

   c% 5 7c

Comfortably delegates responsibilities, tasks, and decisions; appropriately

trusts others to perform; provides support without removing responsibility.

  c c

>  -
7c  @c
cc0  c c


Helps plan and supports the development of individuals¶ skills and abilities
so that they can fulfill current of future job/role responsibilities more

  cÚ c>c ccc 5 7)?c

Facilitates the implementation and acceptance of change within the

workplace; encourages others to seek opportunities for different and
innovative approaches to addressing problems and opportunities.

Monitors the work of direct reports to insure quality standards and
thoroughness; considers the knowledge, experience, and skill of staff
members when determining extent of review.

 c  c! c

Effectively presents ideas, information and materials to individuals and

groups. Effectively prepares and provides structured delivery; facilitates
workshops or meetings in a structured manner, can facilitate and manage
group process.

0  c c
7c 7+c  -

  c ?c

Focuses and guiding others in accomplishing work objectives; rewards and

recognizes others, both formally and informally, in ways that motivate them.
Sets high performance expectations for team members; sets clear
performance expectations and objectives; holds others accountable for
achieving results. Successfully finds resources, training, tools, etc. to
support staff needs. Works with staff to create developmental opportunities
to expand knowledge and skill level; provides effective feedback and
guidance for career development.c


Uses appropriate interpersonal skills and techniques to gain acceptance for

ideas or solutions. Uses influencing strategies to gain genuine agreements;
Seeks to persuade rather than force solutions or impose decisions or


Takes action without being asked or required to; achieves goals beyond job
requirements; being proactive; taking prompt action to accomplish


Uses creativity and imagination to develop new insights into situations and
applies new solutions to problems. Comes up with new and unique ideas.

7c 7+c  -
   c c   A ?c

Shows ability to plan, schedule, direct work of self and others; balances task
requirements and individual abilities; organizes materials to accomplish
tasks; sets challenging yet achievable goals for self and others.c


Effectively exploring alternatives and positions to reach agreements and

solutions that gain the support and acceptance of all parties.

   c c   A c>  -

7c 7+c
c   c'!?c

Organizes work, sets priorities, and determines resources requirements;

determines necessary sequence of activities needed to achieve goals.

1 7c   c

Monitors and checks work to meet quality standards; demonstrates a high

level of care and thoroughness; checks work to ensure completeness and

%!c! c

Seeks opportunities and calculates risks to accomplish results that can lead
to substantial benefit knowing the real possibility of significant negative
7c c

Being aware of conditions and circumstances that affect one¶s own safety or
the safety of direct reports.


Understands how an organization must change in light of internal and

external trends and influences; keeps the big, long range picture in mind;
builds a shared long-range organizational vision with others. Committed to
course of action to achieve long-range goals and influences others to
translate vision into action.

c  c

Maintains effective performance under pressure; handling stress in a manner

that is acceptable to others and to the organization.

c& c>
7c 7+c  -

Communicates a vision and inspires motivation; engages with others (direct-

reports and peers) in team process to solve problems; works to find a
win/win resolution of differences; is aware of how management style impacts
staff productivity and development; modifies leadership style to meet
situational requirements; helps team stay focused on major goals while
managing within a context of multiple directives.

!c>  -
7c 7+c
& ?c

Participates as an active and contributing member of a team to achieve team

goals. Works cooperatively with other team members, involves others,
shares information as appropriate, and shares credit for team
  "  c   c c! c

Possesses, acquires, and maintains the technical/professional expertise

required to do the job effectively and to create client/customer solutions.
Technical/professional expertise is demonstrated through problem solving,
applying professional judgment, and competent performance.

$ 7c& c

Keeps the organization¶s mission, vision, and values at the forefront of

employee decision making and actions; ensures alignment of organization¶s
strategic plan and agency practices with vision, mission and values.

'!c  c

Sets high standards and well-defined, realistic goals for one¶s self; displays a
high level of effort and commitment towards completing assignments in a
timely manner; works with minimal supervisor; is motivated to achieve.


c*+c  7Ac c

 c c "c
In this step, development and/or updation of the position description/s for
the targeted classification/s are done Having complete, accurate and up-
to-date descriptions for the targeted job/s provides a solid foundation for
building Competency Model.

c,+c  7cÚ c

In this step, use of focus groups to identify and rank the competencies that
the superior performers in your targeted classification possess.
U Have separate focus groups for the employees and the
supervisors/managers to foster an environment of open discussion.
U Make the focus groups as diverse as possible.
U In large organizations, have three or four focus groups for each
classification (or classification family).
U Have two facilitators for each focus group ± one to lead the discussion
and one to observe and take notes.
U Limit the size of each focus group to eight to twelve participants.

cc.+c$  cÚ c

In this step, you¶ll validate the list of competencies and rankings obtained
in your focus group meetings.

c/+c%  cÚ 7c% c

In this step, the results obtained from two sets of focus group meetings are
reconciled .

c c  A c
In this step, the competencies for the targeted job/s with the leadership
team get reviewed and get final approval.
 c c 7c

In India, the software boom started somewhere in the late 1990s.

The profile of the Indian IT Services has been undergoing a change in
the last few years, partly as it moves up the value chain and partly as a
response to the market dynamics.
The market competition is forcing organizations to cut down on costs of
products. The professional IT services on the other hand are becoming
increasingly expensive. Despite the global economic slowdown, the
Indian IT software and services industry is maintaining a steady pace of
growth. India¶s most prized resource is its readily available technical work
force. India has the second largest English-speaking scientific
professionals in the world, second only to the U.S. It is estimated that
India has over 4 million technical workers, over 1,832 educational
institutions and polytechnics, which train more than 67,785 computer
software professionals every year. The enormous base of skilled
manpower is a major draw for global customers.

IT Sector - Top Players


1. TCS

2. Infosys

3. Wipro

4. HP
5. IBM

6. Satyam

7. HCL

8. Patni

9. Polaris

10. Cisco

advances in Information Technology and Information Systems delivery

over the past decades have restructured industries and created enormous
value. Interestingly however, research shows companies traditionally have
a very difficult time capturing the value from their investment. any surplus
created by these improvements is often competed away and given back to
customers. Decision makers are focused on demonstrating that
information Technology expenditures result in positive net returns to the
company. IT managers are faced with a fundamental question: How does
the organization use Information Technology to create sustainable
competitive advantage and capture value in its industry? This thesis
proposes a framework, the Core Competency Model, to help companies
think about Information Services strategy and Information Technology
deployment. Instead of seeking to create competitive advantage through
IT investment alone, it introduces the concept of core competencies. IT
resources can be quickly duplicated by competitors, as has been shown in
the research.

Core competencies, the complex blending of unique resources and

capabilities, are much more difficult to duplicate and form the basis for true
sustainable competitive advantage. at its heart, the Core Competency
Model suggests that the role of the IS group is to support the formation
and enhancement of the organization's core competencies. It further
identifies several capabilities and resources that the IS group must
possess to fully support the core competencies of the enterprise. This
model, if truly utilized, would change the nature of a company's internal
dialog on IT spending. Debate over which business units should get which
IT resources would be replaced with discussion of the strategic direction
and core competencies of the company. Decisions concerning IS resource
allocation and IT spending would follow very naturally from this discussion.
The Core Competency Model provides a framework for this dialog,
beginning with the strategic identification of core competencies, and
ending with the tactical analysis of the Information Systems group's
capabilities and resources

ITaa Releases IT Competency Model

The Information Technology association of america (ITaa) is the premier
IT and electronics industry association working to maintain america¶s role
as the world¶s innovation headquarters. ITaa offers the industry¶s only
grassroots-to-global network, carrying the voice of IT to companies,
markets and governments at the local, state, national and international
levels to facilitate growth and advocacy.

arlington, Va ± The Information Technology association of america

(ITaa) and the U.S. Department of Labor¶s Employment and Training
administration (DOL/ETa) have launched a new information technology
(IT) competency model to help individuals prepare for job opportunities
in the technology industry. ³We now have a common language for the
dialogue between the educators and executives who are working
together to rebuild the talent pipeline,´ said ITaa President and CEO
Phil Bond. The model provides a clear description of the knowledge,
skills, and abilities necessary to perform well in IT professions. In India
however competency development and mapping still remains an
unexplored process in most IT organisations despite the growing level
of awareness. after all, Level 3 of PCMM is focused on the competency
framework in an organisation. Is the underlying principle of competency
mapping just about finding the right people for the right job? The issue is
much more complex than it appears, and most HR departments have
been struggling to formulate the right framework for their organisation.

The competency movement has caught on much better in the non-IT

sector than the IT sector. Only a few IT organisations which are at the
higher end of the HR value chain are known to be doing some work in
this area; most are more busy handling recruitment and compensation-
related matters. "Unless managements and HR heads have holistic
expectations from their HR departments, the competency movement is
unlikely to succeed as it requires lot of time, dedication and money,adds
an hr personnel, pointing out that before an organisation embarks on
this journey it has to be very clear about the business goals, capability-
building imperatives and core competencies of the organisation. The
competency mapping process needs to be strongly integrated with
these aspects.

cB c c&Cc c

Lynette D'Silva, manager, learning & development, HR, Zensar
Technologies, points out that competency mapping helps identify the
success criteria (i.e. behavioural standards of performance excellence)
required for individuals to be successful in their roles. It helps to:

ñ Support specific and objective assessment of their strengths, and

specify targeted areas for professional development.
ñ Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills.
ñ Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager
or team about performance, development, and career-related

"If an individual is able to discuss the above with his manager, it will
help him to chalk out his growth perspectives in the company," states
Zensar has a behavioural competency
model which is based on various job roles
in the organisation. D'Silva describes the
process of implementation:

ñ Having defined the various job roles,

a focused study was initiated where job role
as a result holders were interviewed on the critical
Competency incident method and the data of success-
mapping critical factors was collated.
helps identify ñ The job roles and deliverables were
mapping, all
the success finalised on the basis of the competencies
the HR derived from the data. This data was further
processes analysed, and on the basis of this
required for
like talent competencies that had an impact on the job
individuals to
induction, roles and deliverables were finalised.
be successful ñ after identifying the competencies, a
in their roles job analysis exercise was carried out where
and training
the importance level of every competency
yield much Lynette was ascertained before freezing the
better D¶Silva competency model.
results Manager
For team leaders and project managers,
Learning &
Ullhas the company also runs development
Pagey centres in-house; here, individuals are
HR Zensar
HR profiled on behavioural competencies
Consultant required for their position. "This process
creates awareness in the individual about
his behavioural traits in detail, and helps him chalk out an individual
development plan. Development centres help map an individual's
potential, which is useful to both the individual and the organisation. all
management development programmes are also fine-tuned to address
the specific competency needs at different levels," explains D'Silva,
adding that the 360-degree feedback has also been designed on the
competency model, enabling managers to get feedback from their
teams. This feedback is based on the rating of the competencies which
are an integral part of their managerial skill-set.
L&T Infotech, a PCMM Level 5 company, has a successful competency-
based HR system. Recruitment, training, job rotation, succession
planning and promotions-all are defined by competency mapping. Says
Dr Devendra Nath, executive vice-president of the company, who had
initiated the PCMM process in the parent company (L&T) in 1997,
"Nearly all our HR interventions are linked to competency.
Competencies are enhanced through training and job rotation." He adds
that all people who have gone through job rotation undergo a
transformation and get a broader perspective of the company. For
instance, a person lacking in negotiation skills might be put in the sales
or purchase department for a year to hone his skills in the area.

Dhananjay Savarkar, head of the training department, L&T Infotech,

asserts that in no two organisations can competency frameworks be the
same; it will vary over time even in one organisation. It is not timeless, it
is contextual. "We call it the DNa of success«it is what makes star
performers work in a particular way. Isolate the DNa and make it
available to ten others," says Savarkar. When the company started
competency mapping the whole process took eight months for six roles
and two variations. Eventually, 16-18 profiles were worked out. The
company uses PeopleSoft for competency mapping. "Behavioural
competencies do not change every month. Two appraisals are done
subsequently« every project-end for skills, and annual for behavioural
competencies." He acknowledges that there was resistance from the
line people, but when the numbers started flowing they sat up. Every
quarter, an SBU-based skills portfolio is published. Nath says that it has
been a very rewarding experience. as far as training and development
is concerned, instead of asking people to attend classes, they
themselves get pulled to the classes. Introduction of competency
mapping has also involved introducing skill appraisals in performance
appraisals. This has also led to training people on how to assess
subordinates on competencies. Notes Nath, "The best human resources
development is when people in the line department do HR. Where the
HR department is the enabler, the line people see the advantage and
drive us." Competency-based HR makes this almost-utopian dream

Competency Profile of a Project

Manager in an SBU at L&T Infotech
HCL telecom services in the unified communications (UC) area include
product engineering services, deployment services, management
services, and process mapping services. The Unified Communications
service line addresses both the enterprise customers, to whom we can be
integration partners, and OEMs, with whom we can partner to augment
their development work.

HCL telecom UC product engineering services include:

ñ Development
ñ Testing
ñ Customization
ñ Documentation
ñ Interoperability
ñ Localization
ñ Geo customization
ñ Support
ñ Proof of concept

The UC deployment services comprise:

ñ System and application integration

ñ SOa enablement
ñ Implementation
ñ 3rd party on boarding
as part of its management services, HCL telecom UC practice offers:

ñ Support for hosted services

ñ Unified customer care
ñ Unified service management

The process mapping services include:

ñ Process management
ñ Process consultancy

HCL telecom UC competencies include:

ñ Product design and sustaining

ñ Mediation components
ñ Mobility and voice enablement
ñ Dashboards
ñ User interface
ñ Web, SOa, and security
ñ ROI analysis and assessment
ñ aPO

The benefits for our customers from our UC practice would be:

ñ Increased productivity
ñ Reduced costs
ñ Increased control
ñ Optimized enterprise TCO leading to increase in sales
Tools available
The tools and products available with the UC practice are:

ñ Voice-based mailing system application

ñ CTI application for emergency services
ñ appointment notification service
ñ Visual voice mail and MMS application
ñ Smart call convergence client
ñ SIP-based IVR application server
' % cÚ c
Wipro Technologies is a global services provider delivering technology-
driven business solutions that meet the strategic objectives of our clients.
Wipro delivers unmatched business value to customers through a
combination of process excellence, quality frameworks and service
delivery innovation. Wipro is the World's first CMMi Level 5 certified
software services company and the first outside USa to receive the IEEE
Software Process award.

Wipro Infotech is the leading strategic IT partner for companies across

India, the Middle East and asia-Pacific - offering integrated IT solutions.
They plan, deploy, sustain and maintain clients¶ IT lifecycle through their
total outsourcing, consulting services, business solutions and professional
services. Wipro Infotech helps clients¶ drive momentum in their
organization - no matter what domain they are in.


Wipro Infotech offers consulting services that support your strategic

business objectives in today's competitive business environment. as
organizations move up the value chain, they help drive clients¶ business
momentum in the light of challenges arising from globalization,
competition and the dynamics of customer loyalty. The various consulting
practices enable the client to achieve execution excellence, cost
leadership and business agility through IT, resulting in sustainable
business leadership in your industry.

Leveraging people, process and technology experience, Wipro Infotech

aligns the right set of practices to complement your business. Every
successful project execution highlights the practitioner experience of our
consultants. They drive home clients¶ business advantage by providing
advisory and implementation frameworks, delivered through a strong
focus on core business issues, strong process orientation and industry
domain knowledge. From ideation to completion, they are there with the
client at every step of the project to resolve any issues. Their partnership
with each client is built on trust and excellence in performance leading to
successful results.

Wipro Infotech Consulting practice gives you the full benefit of:

U Strategic cost reduction: Strategic sourcing, supply chain process

consulting, procurement technology enablement, low cost country
U Business transformation: Business process improvement through
Six Sigma, Lean, Triz, TOC and Integrated Quality Management
System through ISO, CMMi, PCMM advisory and implementation
U Security governance: advisory and assurance, identity
management, technical risk assessment, compliance to standards
U Strategy: Enterprise architecture and IT strategy, technology
selection and optimization, IT governance through ITIL, COBIT, ISO
20000, shared services advisory and roll out
U E-governance: Capacity planning, e-governance strategy and
roadmap, electronic government procurement system. Elaborating
the range of service for E-Governance:
U e-Governance Strategy and Road Map
U Capacity Planning
U Process re-engineering services
U Program management
U E-Tendering solution

What is E-government?

It is the transformation of government to provide efficient, convenient &

transparent services to the citizens & businesses through Information &
Communication technologies.

What is not e-government?

U E-Government in not about µe¶, but about Government!

U It¶s not about computers and websites, but about citizens &
U It¶s not about translating processes, but about transforming

WIPRO consulting in E-governance

Responsiveness, efficiency and transparency are the keywords of

governance. E-enabling various public departments have resulted in faster
response time and greater coordination to deliver on promises to the
citizens. Wipro Infotech assists in streamlining processes and policies to
facilitate better public participation through the implementation of e-
governance initiatives.

Their approach to e-governance involves the 6C Model - cyber law, citize

interface, capital, connectivity, capacity and content. Using these parameters
they assess the maturity level in e-governance. While framing clients¶ e-
governance strategy, Wipro Infotech takes into account risk assessment and
securing e-transactions for complete quality and safety assurance.
Organizational and qualified human resource developments are some of the
key capacity-building issues that they address.

Indicative career paths in consulting

Like all organizations, Wipro Infotech also has a career path framework
which tells the transition of an employee from one level to another, after
serving the organization for particular time period and project tenure. The
five levels also known as µBands¶ at Wipro Infotech is identified as a1 ±
a3, B1, B2, C1, C2 and the highest level which succeeds C2. This
framework is a applicable to all the consulting divisions under Wipro
Infotech including E-Governance Consulting Practice.
The diagrammatic representation of the career path is shown as below:

The five Bands also give us the designation basket for its employees
which are as under:

Band a1: Indicating Designation ± Support

Band a2: Indicating Designation ± analyst

Band a3: Indicating Designation ± Senior analyst

Band B1: Indicating Designation ± associate Consultant

Band B2: Indicating Designation ± Consultant/ Project Leader

Band C1: Indicating Designation ± Practice Manager/Senior Consultant

Band C2: Indicating Designation ± Principal Consultant

Whereby the first 3 Bands i.e. a1 ± a3 constitute largely of

Programmers/Developers, who are fresh graduates from different

³a Study on Competency Mapping for the Practice E-Governance

Consulting at Wipro Infotech´ keeping in view the different bands and the
years of experience of the employees.

When Wipro Infotech inducts new employees the primary basis for doing
the same is the years of experience a prospective employee holds in the
field of consulting and the total number of years of experience. apart from
experience, the qualifications of a prospective employee are also taken
into consideration i.e. the university he/she has obtained the degree from.
accordingly the new employee is put in band levels and only after staying
in that particular band for a pre-decided tenure in the role, he/she is
promoted further up the hierarchy.

In order to do an efficient implementation of Competency Mapping, a pre-

requisite for several things was felt, which are listed as under:

1. Identifying various roles people play in this Practice - which means

varied roles in the band level.
2. Identifying the basic understanding of the structure of Practice w.r.t.
roles - which means understanding the framework pertaining to a
particular band and the kind and nature of work done under it.
3. Identifying how do people and at what level do they interact with
clients ± which means identifying whether employees of the bands
interact with clients, or it is a feature of higher bands.
4. Identifying the years of experience for all employee in the Practice ±
which means from the secondary database, obtaining the years of
experience of all 58 employees of the E-Governance Consulting
5. Surveying via the mailed questionnaire method, which probes about
kind of competencies they possess
6. Identifying various competencies/skill set associated with each band
± mapping the competencies of each band

The span of the study instead of being limited to one particular band of the
E-Governance Consulting Practice, [leaving the
Programmers/Developers]; is spread over all the other 4 bands i.e. B1,
B2, C1, C2. Since E-Governance Consulting Practice is a relatively new
Practice, and is picking up on its demands; the study on finding
competencies relevant to it will bring about dynamism in tuning the
Practice to such levels, that always it will yield to high performance and
the Practice will be able to gain more in being the most sought after.

This stage deals with the start up to a competency development process

involving data gathering and preparation for an intervention. It deals
essentially with the following:

U Identify an exhaustive set of job families in the organization. E.g.

Developers, Consultants, associate Consultants, Senior
Consultants, Principal, Practice Heads
U Obtain Role data in regard to such identified job families
U Identify job roles within each job families E.g. In the Consultants
family the employees are distinguished by their years of experience.
Similarly with the other job families
U Review the job roles for its clarity in regard to Job Purpose,
Objectives, Key Responsibilities, and critical success factors
U Review for inadequacies, if any, and improve upon the Role Profile
form, to prepare it to be reviewed for competency mapping
Stage 1: Identify major categories of skills

U Each job has its minimum skill requirements, to establish proficiency

levels of the incumbents, to perform their roles effectively
U Determine skills required to perform a job effectively
U Enable each job family and jobs within those job families to gain
consistency in skills that have been stated as required to perform a
U These skill requirements are determined on a functional and
managerial basis and demonstrate capabilities that would enable a
role incumbent to perform his or her role
U Consequently, every job has its set of critical or major skills and a
set of supplementary skills. alternatively, supplementary skills could
be a sub-set of the major skill and would be essential to make out
the role incumbent performing the major skill. For example,
µPresentation skills¶ could be a critical skill and µPatience and
Perseverance¶ could be supplementary skills. Similarly µProject
Management¶ could be a critical skill and µability to Handle
Situations¶ could be supplementary skills.
U Identification of such skill sets, would establish a boundary, within
which competencies should be defined. Effectively, competencies
tend to be articulated from within the defined or pre determined skill
Stage 1: Identify probable competencies
U List the skills and evaluate which of them needs to be emphasized
U add or eliminate skills that appear to over lap and may cause
conceptual confusion for a role incumbent when it has to be
manifested behaviourally
U Clarify additional skills and the reason for placing those skills in
relation to a particular job
U Having identified the skills required for a particular role, possible
competencies that are critical for that role profile to be listed. This
provides a framework within which competencies definitions,
assessment sets and other band matrix issues are resolved
U Probable competency analysis would enable the evaluator to
determine, whether all the required skills have been listed and
defined. This acts as a checkpoint/benchmark
Stage 2: Data analysis

Stage 2: Review and finalize list of competencies

U Probable competencies that are identified from the last stage, is now
reviewed to check for any internal consistency, validity versus other
jobs, exhaustiveness of competencies to fulfill the job objectives and
U The competencies are now finalized for each job role
U It is agreed with the management teams
Stage 2: Construct competency definitions

Each competency is placed in an individual and multiple boxes with both

job family and competencies listed. an appropriate matching process is
conducted to identify where similar competencies tend to be necessary. It
is important to define the skill requirements for each of the said
competency in each of the levels. It is likely that the skill emphasis may
differ from one job to another, although it is for the same competency

U Each of the competencies are now defined in the context of the role
Thus the benchmark competencies have been determined. Now the next
task is to identify the competencies and mapping them, such that it is
compared against the benchmarks. This is done by following the
Repertory Grid Technique.

Stage 3: Validation

The second mailed questionnaire used is the Repertory Grid

questionnaire, which is utilized to understand and map the various
competencies existing in the bands. This is the questionnaire which forms
the basis for the study and is also targeted at the 58 identified employees.
Here from the obtained competencies are compared with the benchmarks
and a Gap analysis is performed to understand what makes the band lack
in which aspect, and what can be done to improve upon it.

Based on above format the questionnaire is so designed that it specifies

each requirement, and the intricate nature of the kind of job profile an
individual holds.
Diagrammatically the Competency Mapping procedure can be shown as under:

Identify and finalize Practice for Competency mapping

Identify the Practice structure or hierarchy

Find out the inputs of competencies

List down the competencies for each band differentiating by years of experience





Competency mapping of each band



Get approval from Practice Head and HR.


Identifies issues; obtains relevant information,

analytical relates and compares data from different sources,
Thinking and identifies alternative solutions.

Plans and supports the development of others

using a competency based system. Identifies skills
Career and/or Skill and abilities to fulfill current or future job/role
Development responsibilities more effectively.

Develops and maintains strong relationships with

clients (those who buy goods and services and for
whom formal professional services are rendered) or
customers (those who consume goods and
Client/Customer services) by listening to the client/customer and
Service understanding and responding to identified needs.

Provides guidance and feedback to help an

employee or groups of employees strengthen their
knowledge and skills to accomplish a task or solve
a problem, which in turn should improve job
Mentoring performance.

Communicates information to individuals or groups;

delivers presentations suited to the characteristics
and needs of the audience. Clearly and concisely
conveys written information orally or in writing to
individuals or groups to ensure that they
understand the information and the message.
Communication Listens and responds appropriately to others.

Develops presentations using a variety of media

and presents ideas effectively to individuals or
Communication ± groups; delivers presentations suited to the
Presentations characteristics and needs of the audience.
Uses effective approaches for choosing a course of
action or developing appropriate solutions and/or
reaching conclusions; takes action consistent with
available facts, constraints, and anticipated
Decision Making consequences.

Develops and maintains effective relationships with

others in order to encourage and support
communication and teamwork. Builds and
maintains ongoing, collaborative, working
Interpersonal relationships with coworkers to achieve the goals of
Skills the work unit.

Demonstrates a designated level of technical skill

or knowledge in a specific technical area(s) and
keeps up with current developments and trends in
Domain areas of expertise. May be acquired through
Knowledge ± academic, apprenticeship or on-the-job training or a
Technical combination of these.

Demonstrated skills and abilities needed to

coordinate, facilitate, and participate in a
collaborative approach to the completion of tasks or
Leadership assignments.

Develops plans to accomplish work operations and

objectives; arranges and assigns work to use
resources efficiently. advanced planning is more of
a strategic nature to develop plans, organizational
Planning and structures, and systems to fulfill legislative or
Organizing Work mission driven organizational goals.

Coordinates and administers program, activities

and protocols; manages resources, monitors
activities and assesses environmental risks and
quality control, if any, quality control, associated
with the program.

1) Provides oversight for project(s) and all related

activities in that setting to include quality assurance
and safety; coordinates and manages facilities,
equipment, supplies and related resources as
necessary for the project; monitors environmental
risks, if any and quality control; 2) establishes a set
of tasks and activities associated with an intended
outcome and timeline; 3) ensures actions are
Project performed and/or implemented to achieve the
Management results of the project.

analyzing competitive position by considering the

market and industry trends, existing and potential
customers, and strengths and weaknesses as
compared to competitors, provides analysis of policy
issues develops program proposals and develops
Strategic plans that address long-term customer and
Thinker stakeholder needs and concerns

Demonstrates this behaviour in routine situations,

Developing but needs help doing so

Demonstrates this behaviour in routine situations

without help, but in unusual or routine situations
Proficient help is needed

Consistently demonstrates this behaviour even in

Highly Skilled unusual or non-routine situations


The second mailed questionnaire used is the Repertory Grid

questionnaire, which is utilized to understand and map the various
competencies existing in the bands. This is the questionnaire which forms
the basis for the study and is also targeted at the 58 identified employees.
Here from the obtained competencies are compared with the benchmarks
and a Gap analysis is performed to understand what makes the band lack
in which aspect, and what can be done to improve upon it.

The Repertory Grid questionnaire is so designed such that identification of

high performers and poor performers need to be visualized, thereafter the
behaviour being exhibited by those individuals to be a high performer/low
performer is mentioned. These behaviors listed are then mapped for each
band w.r.t. their years of experience.
Like every study has its set of constraints and limitations, this µStudy on
Competency Mapping for the Practice E-Governance Consulting at Wipro
Infotech¶ also has its set of constraints and limitations. They have been
listed as follows:

U The primary limitation of the study being, that all the employees
existing in various bands are scattered all over India, where their
client bases lie; largely at Gurgaon/Noida. This indirectly means that
many of the Consulting Practice employees don¶t have an access to
their Wipro Infotech Company ID and may take longer to respond.
Neither can they be administered with better methods of
Competency Mapping like BEI, Critical Incident Technique, Focus
Group Discussion, since even a phone interview is remotely
impossible or may take considerable amount of time to actualize.
U The lowest band a1-a3 are not to be administered with the
questionnaire since they act as Programmers/Developers for all the
Consulting Practices of Wipro Infotech , and do not pertain to one
particular Practice like the E-Governance Consulting.
U By in large the awareness of what is Competency Mapping and why
it needs to be done in an organization, as well as what benefits will it
bring to an individual or group of people and in turn the organization;
is low
U The above stated reason also is validated by the reluctance of
employees to identify high performers and low performers as asked
in the Repertory Grid Technique.
U The employees were asked to identify 3 High Performers and 3 Low
Performers from their job role, correspondingly the underlying
behaviour. However to be on the safe side the employees have
identified either their immediate
bosses/superiors/subordinates/people who've left the Practice and
who are not in their job roles.
U No Gap analysis can be done, as Repertory Grid Technique has
been followed. Gap analysis is more proficiently done when an
individual is interviewed and his/her competencies are compared to
the benchmarks
U Thus individual development followed after Gap analysis cannot be

Companies like Zensar Technologies and L&T InfoTech follow

competency mapping. Other big companies like TCS, HCL Technologies,
SBI, Idea Cellular, Exide Industries, Birla Cellulosic, etc. have got their
employees trained in competency mapping course but it remains unclear if
they strictly follow the line.

according to Lynette D'Silva, manager-HR, learning & development,

Zensar Technologies, "Competency mapping helps identify the success
criteria required for individuals to be successful in their roles."

But, organisations strictly following the process of competency mapping

do face some hurdles in achieving overall efficiency.

Firstly, the organisations do the ultimate mistake of realising the map as

the desired end result. The map is nothing but a colossal waste of time
and money without proper analysis. Secondly, the mission must be to
sustain a knowledge flow that is more profitable to the organisation. If the
organisation is already rich beyond wildest dreams then the mission
should be to measure against the current "ideal" knowledge flow.
Competency Mapping related Observations
U awareness of competency mapping and why its done is low in the
U Growth Enablers are being utilized in the best manner as quoted in
the general WIPRO framework
U For the Practice E-Governance Consulting, the two major
competency areas of focus are:
ñ Domain Knowledge
ñ Client Orientation
U Type of Competency found in Practice E-Governance Consulting -
Technical/Functional/Role Specific

U a brief introduction should be given to employees about competency

mapping and its positives
U When it comes to rewards and recognition, merely rewarding
someone will not be that beneficiary as much as citing the reason
before others i.e. for which competency that the individual
possesses he/she is being rewarded
U Competency Model can be used for:
ñ Recruitment
ñ Training and development
ñ Career and succession planning
ñ Rewards and recognition
ñ Performance management [as in Performance appraisals i.e.
360Û feedback]
U Development plans for the employees¶ can be conducted via:
ñ Formal training
ñ On-the-job training
ñ Job Rotation
ñ Special assignments
ñ Self-study/learning
ñ Coaching/ mentoring
U Better methods of Competency Mapping can be used like the most
standardized BEI Technique, Critical Incident Technique, Focus
Group Discussions & Direct Observation to obtain the Gap analysis
Ú Ú&2 c
From the initial stages of interaction with clients till the final stages of
finishing the project, Wipro Infotech has always believed in satisfying the
clients to utmost level, be it timely deliverables, to handling of clients, to
taking calls, to procurement and so forth. apart from the technicality
involved at all stages of project handling, an important ingredient of
success at Wipro Infotech is the different Competencies each employee
holds within himself/herself. and Wipro Infotech ensures that none of it
goes unused, hence they have formulated ways and means like Growth
Enablers that give a brilliant pathway to the career framework of their
employees. This in turn is tapped to fullest extent when people work in
teams. Right from associate Consultants, Consultants, Senior Consultants,
Principals to Practice Heads; each one of them are proficient enough from
their ends as an individual, and when they form teams they have a
collective force of Competencies which make them stand unique from other
Consulting Practices within Wipro Infotech and competing firms.

Their main Competency lies in the kind of expertise they hold for  c
    as well as Ú  c  "   , and the diverse
projects undertaken by them exhibit the same. Throughout the study it has
been found that each level at different Bands, there is a demand of a high
level of Domain Knowledge and from Band B2 onwards a great echelon of
Client Interaction/Orientation. apart from these some other Competencies
that echoed throughout were analytical skills, Presentation Skills, and
Communication Skills. There is a continual need felt for improving upon
their expertise and developing, as well as fine tuning themselves as per the
market requirements of the clients. This never-ending process results to the
various activities Wipro Infotech engages in for team building purpose,
which indeed plays a vital role for the individual competencies to emerge
into an amalgamation of a strong team. To name a few of the activities they
have: birthday bashes for each employee of the various Bands [either as a
celebration or sending e-mails to them at client bases]; quarterly
celebrations; an employees¶ 5 year completion at Wipro; yearly consulting
celebrations; internal discussions whereby good work is appreciated;
monthly reports by the Head, Consulting division whereby the High
Performers¶ names¶ are mentioned.

However since Wipro Infotech ± Consulting is a relatively new entrant in the

Indian Industry scenario [nearly 5 years old] they still have a long way to
go, and conquer many pinnacles leading to projects success and client
satisfaction. To do this in a most effective way, there is a need to
understand further what all Competencies their High Performing employees
possess, and how can they be tapped and extended onto others who
relatively perform lower than them. For the same purpose various
techniques of Competency Mapping are implemented, though the very first
step towards a quintessence rise is creating an awareness among their
employees of µWhat is Competency Mapping all about, and how will it help
them and in turn the company?¶ Thereafter the results obtained can be
more effectively implemented by doing a Gap analysis and hence a
Personal Development of the employee.