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Institution of Engineers of Kenya holds

annual conference in Mombasa


IEK Conference......................18- 22
Research .................................23-26
Kenya’s Export Potential...... 27-28

Magazine of the Institution of Engi-

neers of Kenya
Registered Office: MOPW &H
Building, P O Box 41346,
Nairobi Members of the IEK council pose for a group photograph with the Minister of Roads
Mr. Franklin Bett.
Correspondence should be addressed It was the first time, since the inception Odinga who was represented by Mr. Alfred
to the Institution. Kenya Engineer is of the institution, that the Engineers were Khang’ati, the assistant minister in the
published every two months. Views retreating to the coastal town, Mombasa, office of the prime minister who read
expressed in this Journal are those to host their annual conference. The theme his speech. The premier emphasized the
of the writers and do not necessarily of the conference was ‘The Role of Public importance of objective public and private
reflect those of the Institution. –Private Partnership (PPP) for Development partnership. He did a comparative analysis
©Copyright: Reproduction of any of Sustainable Infrastructure’. The on how this has aided the development of
article in part or in full is strictly conference committee through consultation infrastructure of other nations in the world
prohibited without written permission with government and private sector settled over with specific reference to Greece. An
from the Institution of Engineers of on this theme because it’s a key pillar in excerpt of his speech: ‘It was just about the
Kenya. realization of vision 2030. The conference time of Olympic games and Greece being an
was held at the Sarova Whitesands Beach ancient nation was chosen to host this very
Editorial Committee: Hotel from 21st to 23rd of April. important games, her ancient infrastructure
A A McCorkindale – Chairman Attendance notwithstanding. So, the only remedy was to
F W Ngokonyo - Vice-Chairman This was a well attended event, with over go triple P by inviting a German developer
J N Kariuki 250 registered engineers participated as on a build, own and operate arrangement.
Prof M Kashorda delegates; the Kenya government was This worked on very well.’
S M Ngare represented by the office of the Prime The prime minister asserted that his office
Allan Muhalia Minister by Mr. Alfred Khang’ati, the roads has already rolled out plans to reach out to
A W Otsieno docket was represented by the minister the private sector and an ongoing one is
S K Kibe Mr. Franklin Bett and his Permanent the quarterly meeting with private sector
R Mwaura Secretary Mr. Michael Kamau who is also under the auspices of Kenya Association of
the chairman of Engineers Registration Manufacturers (KAM) and Kenya Private
J Kimani
Board. Other professional private bodies Sector Alliance (KePSA). He reiterated that
Published by: represented were Association of consulting engineers should continue to find solution
Engineers of Kenya (ACEK) and the to Kenyan problems especially in energy
Intercontinental Publishers Ltd
Association of Architectures of Kenya and transport sector. ‘One of the challenges
P O Box 45754 Nairobi
(AAK). Within East Africa the Institution has been decongesting the roads in Nairobi
Tel: 4443649/50
of Engineers of Uganda were represented. and the solutions are obvious to engineers:
Fax: 4443650
There was a huge presence from the having a proper working railway system,
cooperates, this included Bamburi cement, broader road networks and an organized
Athi River Mining, Tsavo Power, Rhino reliable mass transport,’ he concluded. Also
special products , E A Cables and Sony present during the opening ceremony was
Printed by: Mr. Franklin Bett, Minister of roads. His
Sugar, among others.
Ramco Printing Works Ltd speech was more focused on challenging
Opening address
P O Box 27750- 00100
The chief guest was Prime Minister Raila engineers to take position in the leadership

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 1


of this country. He started by addressing the Eng Ngokonyo

enactment of the engineers act that will give observed that the
the institution powers to get money through Institution of Engineers
grants and donations, the act will provide of Kenya as a society
a clause for conflict resolution within the of professionals has
profession and allow funding from the enormous potential
government through Engineer Registration in the development of
Board (ERB). He said the prime minister entire nation through
has been very instrumental in this and the many ways such
document has passed through the cabinet as participation in
sub-committee and will soon be presented research, innovations,
before cabinet for approval. enhancing capacity of
The minister mentioned that there have small firms through
been enormous reforms in the roads sector joint bidding and the
and every Kenyan can see the results. ‘The members’ welfare.
budget allocation from the exchequer has He requested the
also risen considerably from 13.4 billion government to engage
last year to 72 billion this year,’ said the engineers in search of Outgoing Chairman F W Gokonyo takes Minister of roads
minister. He further added that the ministry solutions to Kenyans Franklin Bett through the registration process
have signed major contracts, this included problems especially
Mau Summit-Kisumu road, Mariakani infrastructure. ‘For
–Kilifi road, Nairobi-Thika road and the a prosperous nation
Northern and Eastern bypass. engineers must be
He recognized the importance of PPP by engaged in decision
saying that ministry expect to go into an making, formulation
arrangement with private sector to have of policy and
Nairobi urban toll road and a toll bridge at implementation’ he
Nyali. The ongoing PPP arrangements are reiterated.
the weighing bridges in major highways. He Finally, he thanked
however appealed to transporters to adhere the Prime Minister’s
to the regulations to prolong the life span o ff i c e a n d e n t i r e
of major roads. cabinet subcommittee
‘Our motto at the ministry is to deliver for their role in passing
quality roads in time, so engineers over to the new engineers act.
you,’ He concluded He was optimistic that
Outgoing Chairman’s speech when the engineers
Speaking earlier at the ceremony the act come in force, the
outgoing chairman of the institution of institution will benefit Mr. Alfred Khang’ati, assistant minister in the office of the prime
Engineers of Kenya, Eng. F W Ngokonyo f r o m g o v e r n m e n t minister and Minister of roads during the conference opening
welcomed the chief guest Prime Minister funding under the
Raila Odinga who was represented by Mr. engineers registration
Alfred Khang’ati and other guests. Board and this will
‘On behalf of the institution its ma esteemed make it possible for
pleasure to welcome the Premier, the minister, the institution to
the invited guests and the participants to the develop a centre for
2010 Engineers conference, I hereby declare engineers’ excellence
the conference officially opened.’ in preparation for the
The outgoing chairman further went to vision 2030.
explain the theme of the conference by C o n f e r e n c e
saying that the triple P is the way to go resolutions
if only the government is keen to deliver The event was
quality services to Kenyans. In as much declared a success
as there is a variant of interest, where the by the Chairman of
private sector focuses on profit making, the conference Eng J
through government leverage and objective Mutai, he went ahead
partnership the two can achieve their roles’, to chair the resolution
he explained. ‘I’m glad with the quarterly session, among many Eng F W Gokonyo, the outgoing chairman (third from right)
meeting that is held between the Prime i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d and the incoming chairman, Eng D M Wanjau , at Rhino special
Minister’s office and the private sector the following were products exhibition station.
under the auspices of Kenya Private Sector resolved: sector ought to come up with an organized,
Alliance and the Kenya Association of Infrastructure; to decongest urban roads the regulated mode of mass transport preferably
Manufacturers, ‘he added. government in partnership with the private busses, secondly the railway services must

2 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010


be upgraded or an overhaul carried out of

the whole system to ease traffic, thirdly an
initiative for toll bridges and urban roads
should be rolled out.
Leadership and Legislation; the government
should prioritize the review of the engineers
act because it shields the local engineers,
has a provision for conflict resolution
among other benefits. Within the ministries
that deal directly with the engineers or
affiliated to the engineers the government
should engage qualified engineers in
policy formulation, decision making and
Energy sector; there is need for more
investment in energy sector particularly
alternative energy such as wind and solar,
the build own operate formula should be
Minister Franklin Bett delivering his opening address
given a chance to give the investors value
for their money. courses, this should be done with a by citing successfully implementation
Engineering practice: view to meet the market demand both in of such projects this included: weighing
professionalism and in numbers. bridges by the Kenya National Highway
To enhance capacity of local firm joint
Closing Ceremony Authority in the major highways, oil
bidding ought to be the answer, in procedures
the government should formulate a policy After three days of deliberation the exploration at Isiolo, Olkaria III geothermal
of Design and Build to enhance quality. The conference was officially closed by the operated by Orpower, Rabai power plant in
Institution of Engineers consultancy firm Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Mombasa, Wind power in Lake Turkana. He
will be the vehicle for competitive bidding Finance. In a statement read on his behalf further went to assure the participants that
for contracts because of its expertise and by Mr. Chiboli I. Shabaka, who is a the government through his ministry were
capacity. director of administration in the Ministry prepared to jointly fund projects with the
Training; there should be a syllabus review of Finance. Mr. Uhuru Kenyatta recognized private sector to enhance service delivery
in the institutions that offer engineering the importance of Public Private Partnership to wananchi.

Masinga Dam to be raised

The Masinga Dam wall is to be raised by 1.5
metres at a cost of Sh1.1 billion. According
to the national power generator.
The Kenya Electricity Generating Company
(KenGen) said the expansion will increase
the capacity of the dam by more than 400
million litres to nearly 2 billion litres. This
will help contain the current overflow
of 125 million litres. “We already have
a consultant on board to sort out the
expressions of interest and work will start
as soon as the rains stop,” said Eddy Njoroge
KenGen managing director. During a tour
of Masinga Dam mid-May. The project will
take 14 months to complete.
Mr Njoroge said the filling of the dam
in predictable three year cycles puts a
strong case for raising Masinga Dam to
enable it capture higher volumes of water
during periods of above average and El
A section view of Masinga Dam
Nino rains. He said increased rainfall had accompanied by KenGen’s chairman Titus
enhanced the performance of hydro power According to the Kenya National Bureau Mbathi said KPLC had already been
stations countrywide from 2.5 gigawatt of Statistics, the share of hydroal domestic instructed to dispatch as much electricity as
hours in October 2009 to 12 gigawatt hours consumption of electricity stood at 414.3 possible in order to take up the increased
a day currently. Enhanced hydropower kilowatt hours in February 2010 which generation capacities.
generation had already displaced most of was a decline from 484.1 kilowatt hours The water contained in the Seven Forks
the expensive thermal emergency power, in January. dams is capable of supplying the country
he said. The man aging director who was with hydropower for the next one year.

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 3


Mombasa GAMA 2010 – by Eng. Sam Mambo (Chairman ACEK)

Introduction v The Engineer in Policy Formulation v Structuring the Future by Malan
GAMA, the short form of Group of African and Implementation Padayachee-Saman (South Africa)
Member Associations, is affiliated to FIDIC v The role of the Engineer in Improving
and brings together consulting companies Governance The third day was devoted to a workshop
from the African Continent. Currently, 10 v Sustainable Infrastructure: The Role that addressed the theme: Financing
countries are active members: South Africa, of the Engineer Africa’s Infrastructure Tomorrow. The
Botswana, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, v The Consulting Engineer in Global workshop was well attended and the
Uganda, Sudan, Egypt, Nigeria and Tunisia. Economic Recession following excellent presentations were
Ghana and Malawi have recently expressed Key Note Address made:
interest to rejoin the club and Mozambique In his key note address to the conference Overview of the African Development Bank
will be a new entrant. Currently, the GAMA delegates before officially opening the Private Sector Operations by Douglas
secretariat is hosted by the Consulting conference, the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Barnett (ADB)
Engineers of South Africa (CESA). Eng. Raila Odinga, recognized the important ADB Organization Structure by Frank
GAMA members meet once every year role played by Engineers in nation building Mvula (ADB)
in different countries and the Association and expressed confidence that Kenya’s Business Opportunities with the African
of Consulting Engineers of Kenya was Vision 2030 will be achieved if Engineers Development Bank Group by Frank Mvula
nominated to host the 2010 Conference and play their rightful roles. He, however, (ADB)
Annual General Meeting. This conference did not mince his words when he told the African Financing Partnership by Douglas
and AGM were held at Sarova Whitesands delegates that there were “rotten potatoes’ Barnett
Hotel in Mombasa from 15 March to 18 among them as was clearly demonstrated AMSCO (African Management Services
March 2010. This was the third time that by some poor quality work being done and Company) Building Sustainable African
Kenya was hosting the GAMA Conference. poor financial control of capital projects. Enterprises and Human Capital
Previously, it was held here in 1991 and He advised Engineers to always uphold IDC (Industrial Development Corporation)
1993. professional ethics and refuse selling their Financing Projects in the Rest of Africa by
The objective of these GAMA Conferences profession cheap. The Prime Minister asked Ashley Petersen (South Africa)
is to bring together engineers principally Engineers to be in the forefront in fighting Social Functions
from the Private Sector in Africa to discuss corruption and avoid escalating projects by Delegates and their accompanying persons
matters of mutual interest and promote a issuing unjustified variation orders. attended the following social functions:
single image for the engineering profession Papers Presented A Cocktail on the day of arrival, 14
in Africa. The Conferences also provide During the first 2 days, some excellent March
excellent opportunities for networking. papers were presented that addressed the A visit to one of the best examples of
Attendance various sub-themes. The papers that were environmental restoration, Haller Park
The Mombasa GAMA Conference was accepted for this conference were: Coast Night Dinner at Ngomongo Village
attended by 147 delegates who came from
South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, The Engineer in Policy Formulation
Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and Implementation by Michael Daka
Sudan, Nigeria, Tunisia and Denmark. (Uganda)
FIDIC was represented by the President, Why Engineering Structures Fail by Sam
Mr Gregs Thomopulos and the Managing Mambo (Kenya)
Director Mr Enrico Vink. In addition, there Issues and Challenges facing Consultants in
were representatives from the African Africa by Mayen Adetiba (Nigeria)
Development Bank and IDC who played The Consulting Engineer in Global
key roles in the workshop conducted on 18 Economic Recession (Energy Efficiency)
March 2010. by N Mehta (Kenya)
The Chief Guest at this Conference was Engineers, Policy and Infrastructure by
Rt. Hon. Eng. Raila Amolo Odinga who Enrico Vink (FIDIC)
officially opened the conference and Reforms in the Engineering Profession
delivered a keynote address on Monday (the Case for Tanzania) by Exaud Mushi
15 March 2010. He was accompanied (Tanzania)
by two Ministers, Hon. Franklin Bett, Sustainable Deign Infrastructure by S K
Minister of Roads, Hon. Najib Balala, Mwea (Kenya)
Minister of Tourism and Wildlife, Assistant Renewable Energy Policy – the Impact
Minister in the Prime Minister’s office, of Incorporating PVC Lighting Systems
Hon. Alfred Khangati and the area MP, in Domestic Residences by C M Muriithi
Hon. Mohammed Joho. (Kenya)
A Structure to Develop Infrastructure
Theme and Sub-Themes P ro j e c t s u s i n g M a s t e r P l a n n i n g ,
The conference theme was: The Engineer Development Institutions, and Private,
as a Strategic Partner and the sub-themes Public Partnernerships by Jonathan Cornish Eng Sam Mambo, ACEK Chairman
were: (South Africa)

4 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010


Visits to Fort Jesus and Kaluworks

Gala Dinner at Whitesands Hotel
Sponsors :To host a conference of
this magnitude ACEK sought external
sponsorship and the following
organisations responded positively:Power
Technics, East African Cables, Grundfos,
Bamburi Cement, Gibb Africa Ltd,
Geothermal Development Company,
Civicon, SIDA, KPLC, Howard
Humphreys, Kaluworks, Rio Vipingo,
Gathaiya Njagi & Partners and KenGen.
Members of IEK pictured at Athi River Mining cement plant


Ryce Engineering is a division of Ryce able them to trouble shoot whenever need products. They are always on stand-by and
East Africa dealing in energy solutions. It arises. ready to respond to any emergency at any
is the sole distributor of SDMO genera- Ryce Engineering offers vital back up ser- site across the country.
tors from France, the world’s third largest vice to ensure that there is minimal down The technicians are based at strategic
manufacturers of diesel generators. Ryce time at any of the installed sites. The ser- towns around the country with a view to
Engineering is capable of designing a vice technicians have been stationed in var- respond at a site within the brief period.
power solution for a broad number of ap- ious locations around Kenya. From these Some of the response bases include; Nai-
plication including Telecommunication, base locations, they are able to respond to robi, Kisii, Kitui, Machakos, Nakuru, El-
Industrial, Residential, institutional or any an emergency at site installations in a very doret, Kisumu, and Mombasa
other requirement. short period of time, and to diagnose the With each generator service undertaken by
At Ryce, our strength lies in the kind of af- cause of the problem. The response techni- Ryce engineering, we ensure that we use
ter sale service that we offer to our clients cians are equipped with service parts for only manufacturer’s original parts to re-
with a total technical service crew of over quick diagnosis and replacement. In most place worn parts. This is the assurance we
80 staff. The service technicians are fully instances the speed of response is very offer to the customers. Ryce keeps stocks
trained to understand each of the products important, thus the technicians must be of the parts to ensure minimal delay in ac-
that we stock and are available to visit any skilled enough to quickly diagnose to di- tual replacement at the site. Genuine parts
of the sites where our clients are based. agnose and repair the causes. also prolong the useful lifetime of the gen-
As part of the after sale service, we train Ryce Engineering has a crew of trained erators, thus improving the benefits to the
the client’s operators or technicians to en- technicians with full understanding of the customers.

EU grants Kenya Sh15.4 billion for roads upgrade

European and US institutions, such as the
World Bank, IMF and EU had slowed their
loan disbursements in the 2009/2010 fiscal
year due to perceived weaknesses in the
administration of the finances, including
accusations levelled against top officials of
the ministries of education and agriculture
over the schooling funds and the maize
import allocations
But China and Japan stepped in the multi-
billion contracts as they shrugged off
the governance concerns in their efforts
to deepen their economic and political
influence in Kenya.
It is not certain if the European Union is
racing to boost its influence in Kenya in the
wake of increased participation of the Asian
nations, but what is clear is that the Western
Institutions have been losing clout in their
quest to influence Kenya’s economic and
political direction using loans.
On 20th April 2010 Finance Minister Uhuru
Kenyatta and the EU head of Delegation
Mr Eric Van der Linden signed six financing
agreements at the Treasury. Of the total of
Sh15.4 billion given, Sh790 million will President Mwai Kibaki commissioning Maji Ya Chumvi- Miritini road
go towards technical assistance and sector since the road section is part of the Nairobi- The fifth agreement for Sh966 million is for
policy studies for the Ministry of Roads, Addis Ababa highway,” said Mr Kenyatta. ways of addressing Governance challenges,
Kenya Highways Authority, Kenya Urban During a briefing at the Treasury. The including dealing with negative ethnicity
Roads Authority, Kenya Rural Roads community Development Programme will and the rebuilding of a democratic and
Authority and the transport ministry. be financed to the tune of Sh3.4 billion. responsive state as well as the promotion
The second grant of Sh9.3 billion will The fourth agreement was on implementation of the rule of law.
support regional roads component, in of the Kenya Private Sector Development The sixth accord, for Sh483 million, is for
particular, the upgrading of the 122- Strategy that is intended to boost and technical support programme to improve the
kilometre Merille-Marsabit road. “This competitiveness of the private sector and co-operation between Kenya and the EU.
will enhance regional economic integration create employment.

Safaricom posts record profits

Safaricom continued its record-breaking ways by posting a Sh21 billion profit on a day
that saw the Government shelve regulations Safaricom had strongly opposed.
• A strong growth in data usage pushed the mobile telephone service provider’s
pre-tax profit for the year ended 31st March up by 37 per cent. Becoming the
first ever Kenyan company to pass the Sh20 billion profit mark.
• Revenues grew from Sh70 billion to Sh83 billion during the year
• Data profit (M-Pesa, Broadband and SMS). Broadband grew by 91.7 per cent, SMS
by 11.3 per cent and M-Pesa by 158 per cent. M-Pesa raked in Sh7.5 billion.
• Revenue from calls was Sh63 billion with subscribers up by 18 per cent
• Safaricom holds a significant 78 per cent of the mobile phone services market
share in Kenya
• Mobile and fixed Internet the new revenue stream earned Sh2 billion

Safaricom posts sh 21 billion in profit

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 7


Mombasa port traffic up 16 per cent

Mombasa port handled a total of 19.06 More than 90 per cent of the current cargo tion Agency loan. “KPA has already de-
million tonnes in 2009, up from 16.41 mil- is moved by trucks but Kenya and Uganda cided that the second terminal should be
lion tonnes in the previous year the port are planning to lay a 1,290 standard gauge operated by a concessionaire in some form
operator said in a report. track to supplement the existing metre of competition with the authority’s own
The container terminal handled 618,186 gauge railway between Mombasa and container handling facility,” KPA said.
twenty foot equivalent container units Kampala. KPA said Chinese and Korean KPA also hopes to dredge the port to a
(TEU) in 2009, up slightly from 615,733 in firms had expressed interest in construct- deeper 15 metres from 13 metres to enable
2008, although it was designed for 25,000 ing the wider track. bigger ships to call at the port. The Mom-
TEU. Turnaround time improved to three days basa port also serves Uganda, Rwanda,
Over a quarter of the total throughput, 4.98 from five days in 2008 after the port ad- Burundi, south Sudan, eastern DRC and
million tonnes was transit cargo. Uganda opted 24-hour work schedules and opened Somalia.
goods accounted for just under 80 per cent. new container freight stations. KPA said Aid agencies also use it for food aid it
“These figures highlight the growing use work on a second terminal with a 1.2 mil- handled a million tones of aid cargo last
of the port by the region and show signs lion TEU capacity began in 2009 and there year, nearly double the amount of food dis-
of an improvement in regional economic were plans to convert existing berths into a charged in 2007. KPA said. Food destined
performance,” the Kenya Port Authority third terminal. for Somalia took nearly 40 per cent. Zam-
(KPA) said in its 2010-2011 handbook. The second terminal whose first phase bia. Ethiopia and Malawi were considering
“KPA is forecasting continued growth for should be operational in 2013 will cost using Mombasa port for some overseas
2010 and 2011, albeit at a slower pace ow- an estimated $235 million and will be fi- markets.
ing to the current economic conditions.” nanced by a Japan International Coopera-

8 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010


World Bank projects exempted from procurement law

Views of the proposed World Bank offices in Kampala Uganda

The commencement of many important Bank guidelines, giving little room for measure by the Government to contain
projects is frequently delayed by losing losing bidders to file for appeals. This will rising cases of losing bidders filing for
bidders lodging appeals at the Public reduce project delays due to the long appeal appeals in the Public Procurement Oversight
Procurement and Oversight Authority . process. Authority. In contention of how the contracts
To overcome this often annoying practice Already the Government has applied for are awarded. Already, implementation of
Energy Permanent Secretary Patrick Nyoike $330 million from the World Bank to the 280 MW geothermal plant is shrouded
has inserted an advert in the local press finance the projects with additional funding in a procurement controversy after a losing
stating that: “Procurement of contracts expected from other financiers. bidder in a two electric land rigs contract
financed by the World Bank will be The projects include the construction of 280 managed to convince the high court to
conducted through procedures as specified MW geothermal generation plant in Olkaria cancel the contract.
in the World Bank’s Procurement Guide- that consists of the Olkaria I capacity by So far, the Government has secured Sh38
lines on Procurement. Under IBRD Loans 140 MW, a new power station at Olkaria billion for the project estimated to cost
and IDA Credits (current edition) and is IV with a 140 MW capacity systems for Sh98 billion. However, there are fears
open to all eligible bidders as defined in the connection of steam wells., the two power that the decision to use the World Bank
guidelines.” stations and associated substations and guidelines could raise protests because they
The statement adds that consulting services transmission line facilities. Other projects leave losing bidders little room to appeal.
will be selected in accordance with the include building of three new transmission Other financiers of the Electricity Expansion
World Banks Guidelines on Selection and lines, upgrading and expanding of Kenya Project include the Japan International Co-
Employment of Consultants by World Bank Power and Lighting Company distribution operation Agency, the French Development
borrowers (current edition). networks, electrification of priority loads in Agency, the European Investment Bank,
Ultimately this means that procurement for rural areas and electrification of slums. Germany Development Cooperation and
all projects under the Electricity Expansion The decision to use the World Bank the Global Program for Output Based Aid.
Project will be conducted under the World Procurement Guidelines is a desperate

KenGen to end power supply deal in August

With the record inflow of water to the power from the emergency plants by the end of March 2010. This has left Aggreko to
Seven Forks dams and with Masinga res- generate 140 MW at Embakasi and Naivasha stations.
ervoir full to overflowing – it has reached On 11 May 2010 Kenya Power and Lighting
its optimum capacity of 1056.5 metres on Company (KPLC) said fuel cost adjustment
10 May - the generation of hydropower - a varying item on the power bills that is
has returned to its former high levels. Ken- linked to the amount of power on the national
Gen therefore has given Aggreko Plc three grid that is generated from thermal sourc-
months notice of its intention to terminate es - had dropped from Sh6.72 in April to
100 megawatts of emergency power from Sh4.98. “We have had a significant reduction
August 2010. of nearly 40 per cent in the cost of fuel since
November 2009 and we could see more cuts
Agrreko power deal in the coming months because of improved
ends hydrology h,” said KPLC managing director
Joseph Njoroge in a press briefing. Consum-
ers should, however, not exchange much change in their individual power bills because
Output to the national grid has gone down fuel cost charges only form one of the variables that determine the overall value of the
with the terminating of 150 megawatts of bill,” he added.

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 9


Fly540 launches daily flight to Kakamega

The Kakamega business community,
Provincial Administration, local leaders and
MPs were all at hand together with Eldoret
Kenya Airports Authority Manager Peter
Wafula to welcome the inaugural Fly540 to
Kakamega Airstrip on 14th May.
“Ensuring the long-term success of
Kakamega Airstrip has been one of the top
priorities of my administration. Working
with the Provincial Administration and
the Domestic Air Service providers, we
have opened up Kakamega to the world,
bringing new jobs and new business
developments to the region,” said Mr.
Stephen Gichuki, Kenya Airports Authority
Managing Director. “Today, I am thrilled
to add to our list of successes the start of
Fly540 flight service at Kakamega Airstrip.
This is another significant step forward for
our organization and the region.”
Fly540’s arrival into the Kakamega market
will provide tremendous opportunities better choices at better prices. Increasing celebration today is the result of a great deal
for travellers from the region. The new access and competition to these two major of hard work, careful planning, creative
flight service will open up competition business centers will also help stimulate enterprise and an unwavering focus on
for two of Kakamega’s most important additional economic growth for the western this important vision,” said Gichuki. “The
business destinations, Kisumu and Eldoret. region. Airports Authority is elated that Fly540
Fly540 will help keep Kakamega Airstrip “It has been our goal to attract new Airlines Airways will be bringing its unique brand
competitive by providing travellers with and see the existing Airlines expand. This of air service to Kakamega Airstrip.”

Geothermal firm targets East Pokot

Olkaria III Geothermal
power plant

The Geothermal Development Company hold meetings with communities living in plagued with cattle rustling. The project is
(GDC) will begin exploring possible targeted areas later this month to get their expected to boost economic status of towns
sources for geothermal power in East Pokot views on the project, and understand their in the area, with the expected improvement
District. needs and expectations. of security once the project kicks off.
Managing Director Silas Simiyu said the “The community will benefit from this The company has also been carrying out
aim is to speed up fast efforts to narrow project as it will not only boost their studies at the Menengai Crater in Nakuru,
the growing demand for electricity and economic status, but GDC also plans and drilling is expected to start sometime
available sources. to support the community projects they in October.
GDC will begin feasibility studies in June propose,” said Simiyu.
before drilling begins. The company will East Pokot is part of North Rift and has been

10 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010


China lends Kenya Sh7.5 billion for drilling geothermal wells

Kenya has received a concessional loan
of Shs7.5 billion from the Export-Import
Bank of China to be used for drilling 26
steam production wells at the Olkaria !V
geothermal field.
The loan agreement was signed on 13th
April 2010 by Finance Minister Uhuru
Kenyatta and the Export-Import Bank’s
Vice-President Zhu Hongjie. Also present
at the signing ceremony was Energy Min-
ister Kiraitu Murungi.
“In consideration of the present energy
situation, high fuel prices and overde-
pendence on hydropower production the
government of Kenya now recognizes the
need to diversify sourcing of power gen-
eration through environmentally friendly
sources.” Uhuru said. The minister added
the funds will be used for drilling 26 steam
production wells at olkaria and that once
completed the project will inject an addi- Olkaria II geothermal power station
tional 140MW to the national grid which
developed at Olkaria 1. This is being fi- the Forum for China Africa Cooperation
will considerably reduce the current pow-
nanced by Sh23.4 billion loan from Japan platform, China has enabled Kenya boost
er deficit.. Xhu Hongjie said that although
and Sh6.5 billion from Germany. the pace of implementing development
the drilling facilities has been delayed the
Earlier Mr Hongjie met with President projects. He mentioned that Kenya is de-
work is currently under way and he com-
Kibaki who hailed the strong bilateral ties termined to develop the port of Lamu and
mended the government for prioritizing
existing between the two countries and the establish a standard gauge railway to serve
the power project.
continued support that China has extended the northern parts of the country, south Su-
A second 140MW power plant is being
to Kenya. The President noted that under dan and Ethiopia.

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 11


A strong case for a second port at Lamu

The present port of Lamu

The Kenya Government on 20 May on different corridors, Whereas Mombasa said Dr Mutule. The port will be able to
2010 awarded a contract to Japan Port port is expected to serve the traditional handle super post- Panamax vessels because
Consultants to carry out a feasibility study Uganda, Rwanda and DRC, Lamu port of its deep natural channel and will be one
for the development of a port at Lamu. and will handle cargo for Southern Sudan and of the largest ports on the continent, also
also the development of a transport corridor Ethiopia.” Said Eng Atonga. serving as a trans-Africa port, according
connecting Lamu to Southern Sudan and Former KPA managing director, Jonathan to Mutule.
Ethiopia. Mturi said the new port will place Kenya in The terms of reference for Japan Port
Earlier in May President Kibaki visited a competitive position. We are talking about Consultants states that the government
China for discussions with Chinese a port that has the capacity to open up this envisions the development of a new
President Hu Jintao. The two leaders country, to be a business hub in the whole of transport corridor linking Lamu port with
agreed to prioritize the construction of the Africa especially because Kenya is centrally Garissa, Isiolo, Maralal, Lodwar and
Lamu Port as a key pillar project to open up located on the continent,” he said. Lokichoggio and branching at Isiolo to
large areas of Northern Kenya and benefit KPA, which manages all ports in the country, Moyale and proceeding to the border with
regional economies of Southern Sudan is already upgrading the port of Mombasa to Southern Sudan.
and Ethiopia. ensure that it remains a transit hub through The corridor will comprise a new standard
A second port at Lamu makes economic the Northern Corridor. The authority is also gauge railway line, a new road network, an
sense since the Port of Mombasa is almost building a second container terminal that oil pipeline, an oil refinery at Lamu, a new
stretched to capacity. The port received 19 will create an extra capacity of 1.2 million airport and a free port at Lamu. In addition,
million tonnes of cargo last year against an 20 foot equivalent units compared to the three resort cities will be established in
installed capacity of 20 million according present terminal which has the capacity to Lamu, Isiolo and on the shores of Lake
to the Kenya Ports Authority. handle 250,000 TEUs. Turkana.
“The volume of cargo this year is likely to With the entry of Southern Sudan into the The consultant is required to identify and
reach the maximum capacity hence the region’s economy, estimates put unrestricted concretely define the dimensions of a new
need to construct another port if Kenya demand of cargo through Kenya rising transport corridor complete with basic
is to remain the regional hub,” said KPA upwards of 32 millions tonnes per annum, transport infrastructure to improve access
Operations Manager JosephAtonga, who said Dr Mutule Kilonzo, Lamu port and connectivity of transport between
noted that extra capacity ought to have been economic adviser. “It has been recognized Kenya and Southern Sudan and between
created six years ago. for a long time now, that Kenya , as the Kenya and Ethiopia. Development models
Eng Atonga said Mombasa would not be principal gateway to the sub-region needs with cost estimates and recommendations
relegated to a feeder port. “The two ports an alternative port which was identified on possible public private participation is
would complement instead of competing by a study carried out as early as 1975 and the development of the infrastructure is
with each other. The two ports would focus recognized Lamu as a suitable alternative,’ also required..

12 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010


Isiolo gas find sparks hope of oil boom

Oil rig

The China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has

announced the discovery of what has been termed “very high
concentrations of natural gas” in its Bhogal 1 well at Isiolo but it
will be a further month from June before they know whether the
find is commercially viable.
Although the well, the country’s 32nd, yielded no oil Energy
Minister Kiraiitu Murungi remained optimistic. “God is not that
unfair so as to allow oil in Uganda, and Southern Sudan and
gas in Tanzania and forget that we are here in Kenya, we have
high hopes and expectations,” he said. “I am happy to report that
the well has encountered gas in four zones,” the Minister told
delegates at the inaugural Eastern Africa Energy Conference in
Nairobi on 11 May 2010. The well is within Block 9 of the Anza
Basin of noth-east Kenya. Davis & Shirtliff
CNOOC with its partners, Africa Oil, Lion Energy and China
Petroleum Corporation has completed drilling to a depth of 6,085
metres the deepest ever drilled in Kenya will conduct further
tests and have ordered some specialized equipment to survey
the quantities.
Another firm, the US second largest gas producer, Anadarko,
which early this year discovered gas in Mozambique, is also
exploring for oil and gas in Kenya.
Meanwhile the Government is drafting laws to regulate the sharing
of revenue expected from the discovery of a commercial oil or
gas find. “We have already begun to take appropriate measures
for transparent and accountable oil and gas fiscal management
systems even before we make any commercial discovery.” Said
Minister Murungi.
State owned National Oil Corporation (NOCK) says there are 22
leased blocks with 12 different companies operating on some of
them. Drilling is about to start. Among them is the acquisition of
900 square kilometers three dimensional data by Origin Energy,
which has already completed 3D seismic data in Block L8 in
Lamu Basin. “The data is currently being interpreted to identify
drillable sites on Mbawa prospect, after which drilling will begin,
“ said Murungi.

Marsabit wind energy project gets boost

Gitson Energy, a local firm owned by
Kenyans in the diaspora proposes to set up
Kenya’s second largest wind energy project
in Marsabit. Gitson started conducting
wind monitoring and energy assessment
at its wind harvesting farm in Babisa near
Marsabit last year.
According to Cyrus Thairu the company’s
communications director, Gitson has
completed funding negotiations with two
United States financing agencies. They
include Exim Bank and Overseas Private
Investment Corporation that help the private
sector invest abroad.
Gitson has completed data collection and
plans a 300 MW wind farm and a further
50 MW from a solar project in the same
area. “We are evaluating several proposals
and term sheets that we have received
from various potential strategic partners.”
Said Mr James Gitau the company’s chief
The project is due to be completed by
2012 and will share a transmission line
being installed by Ketraco for the Lake
Turkana wind farm project. Mr Gitau said been approved by government through the The project has also been endorsed by the
that Gitson has received a draft power County Council of Marsabit, the Ministry United Nations Development Programme
purchase agreement from the Kenya Power of Energy and Green Energy program “Growing Sustainable Business” in 2007.
& Lighting Company. The project has chaired by Prime Minister Raila Odinga.

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14 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010

Eng Joseph K Njoroge Eng Raphael Mwaura Eng David Mwangi

Eng Joseph K Njoroge, MD & CEO and Lighting Company were in Sudan from Chief Manager Planning Resources KPLC
7th to 11th March 2010 to attend an Eastern was in Zambia from 2 to 6 March 2010
nd th
Eng Raphael Mwaura, Power Systems
Development Manager Kenya Power and Africa Power Pool meeting. to discuss the Zambia-Tanzania – Kenya
Power Interconnector

Eng. Charles. O. Obuon, Henry Odedeh Rosemary Gitonga

Chief Engineer KPLC was in Boston, USA Manager (Roads), Kenya National
Manager (Roads), Kenya National Highways
from 19 to 28th March 2010 to attend the Rosemary Gitonga , Chief Manager
Authority (KeNHA), attended a Course in
2010 International Conference organized Commercial Services KPLC was in South
Transport Management and Planning at
by Doble Engineering Company. Africa from 14th to 20th March 2010 to
Galilee College, Nahalal, Israel, between
attend Power Electricity World Africa
18th February 2010 and 8th March 2010. The Joshua Mwangi , Deputy Manager North/
Conference. Her visit was sponsored by
course covered Public Transport Planning South and Eliud Limo, Chief Manager
Terrapin Ltd.
and Mnagement, Road Safety, Decongestion, Energy Sector Recovery Programme, KPLC
Smart Highways, Concessioning and public were in Soeul, South Korea from 13th March
To appear on this page, contact us at
private partnership (PPP). A Diploma to 4th April 2010 to attend Power Engineering
Tel: 4443649/50 Fax: 4443650
was awarded on completion of a project & Management Training sponsored by
Email: info@kenyaengineer.
proposal. Korea Electric Power Corporation.

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 15


Power line to pave the way for investment in green energy

Consumers are set to benefit from a plan to
build a power line that will tap into wind,
solar and geothermal energy generation
pool, easing Kenya’s reliance on erratic
hydro power.
Kenya Electricity Transmission Company
(Ketraco) is set to construct the power line
stretching from Marsabit, , Lake Turkana
to Suswa . The construction to commence
in September this year is a great relief to
private green energy investors like Lake
Turkana Wind Power as they will not have
to construct transmission lines, an incentive
that could also see the country attract more
players. Lake Turkana Wind Power plan to
produce 350 MW.
“We have the money that is required for
these projects . The donors are competing to
fund us because of the immense importance
of electricity access for development.”
Said Joel Kiilu KETRACO managing
director. Investors will also not pay to use
transmission lines. “The transmission line
is like a road that is meant to facilitate
business and we do not intend to earn from
it,” said Kiilu.
Lake Turkana Wind Power had planned
the construction of a 428 kilometre 400 kV
the project. infrastructure within the areas that hold the
Double Circuit line from their Lake Turkana
The planned line is a strategic move by highest potential of green energy generation
site to Suswa at a cost of Sh14 billion,
Ketraco to create adequate transmission in Kenya.
Ketraco however said they will take over

Lake Turkana wind power project to benefit from carbon sale

The planned 300 MW wind power project
in Turkana will earn up to 14 million euros
(Sh1.3 billion) in carbon credit sales a year
, the initiative’s debt arranger said recently
raising hope for the improvement of the
livelihood of communities living around
the site.
“The community around Turkana has been
marginalized for a long time and the project
promises a windfall in terms of proceeds
from carbon credit sales that would be used
to improve development in the region,” Mr
R Pitmann the African Development Bank
(AfDB) vice- President for Infrastructure,
Private Sector and Regional Integration has
said. Adding “The earnings could be even
more than projected because the demand for
clean energy is huge.” Wind firm
The AfDB estimates that during the project’s bank is facilitating a debt tranche for the envisages constructing a wind farm
20-year lifespan carbon emissions will be Sh55 billion wind power project that could consisting of 353 wind turbines each with
reduced by an estimated 16 million tonnes add up to a third of power supply to the a capacity of 850 kilowatts The total power
indicating the potential earnings the project national grid. generated in the initial phase of the project is
is likely to generate from the facility. The The lake Turkana Wind Power project expected to reach 300 MW by July 2012.

16 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010


Profile:Dionysius Maina Wanjau BSc, MSc, REng, FIEK

Eng Dionysius Maina Wanjau took over In 1988, Wanjau decided that his future
as Chairman of the Institution of Engineers lay in conducting research in the broad
of Kenya on 22nd April 2010. areas of environmental engineering and
He was born in Nyeri District on 3rd October hydraulics and joined the teaching staff in
1956 and attended Giathugu School for his the University of Nairobi as a lecturer in the
Primary Education, Kiangoma Secondary Civil Engineering Department and currently
School, Nyeri then Nakuru High School a Senior Lecturer.
for his “A” Levels. His secondary School “Besides lecturing, I supervised and
results were excellent and he excelled was an Internal Examiner for graduate
in Mathematics and Science and on the engineers taking an MSc degree in a wide
advice of his masters he decided to become range of topics in Civil and Environmental
a Civil Engineer. I was also influenced by Health Engineering. I was also given
Eng. Ranji Patel when gave career talks special responsibility for Water Supply
on engineer and of course my Physics Management in the University culminating
teacher Mr.W J Arnold. He enrolled in the in the drilling of boreholes in all campuses
Universityof Nairobi Department Of Civil through stage capital utilization, This
Engineering in 1977 and graduated in 1980 earned me a measurement of praise from
pretreatment and disposal system for a
with a BSc Upper Second Class Honours the University authorities,” he says with
vegetable oil factory in Dar es Salaam
degree. pride.
• Preliminary design and Detailed
Looking around for a job Wanjau decided Later he was appointed to chair a committee
Design for upgrading 20km Kianyaga-
that Water should be his speciality so he on College of Architecture and Engineering
Kiamutugu-Githure Road.
approached Nairobi City Commission (CAE) Industrial Training and Linkages.
“These, and several others, were all
who were undertaking at the time the The committee formulates strategies for
challenges which were most interesting,”
largest water project in the country, the closer collaboration between the University
he says with some satisfaction.
Third Nairobi Water Supply project. It and Industry. He was also, at this time,
Eng Wanjau has over the years attended a
included a 65m high earth gravity dam with Senate Representative for the Faculty of
number of Workshops overseas, including:
234 million of fill on the Thika River to Engineering.
* In 1993 in Mauritius on “Training
impound 70 million cubic metres reservoir Wanjau established his own consultancy
A p p ro a c h e s f o r E n v i ro n m e n t a l
and a 5km rock raw water aqueduct tunnel firm in 1990, Syntex Consultants (INT).
Management in Industry.
and seemed to offer the challenge he was This firm has carried out several interesting
* In 2002 in CapeTown on “Continuing
looking for. The dam was being designed assignments, including:
Engineering Education Training of
by Howard Humphreys and so, after joining • The design of Industrial Waste Treatment
the Commission, he was seconded to them plant for East African Industries.
* 1n 2005 in Johannesburg on “Capacity
to assist on site investigations. After this • Engineering appraisal, rehabilitation
Building and Best Practice in Water and
assignment he was engaged on a number studies, design and supervision of
of interesting projects: community based self-help schemes
* In 2009 in Johannesburg on
• Resident Engineer on East Dagoretti sponsored by Swedish Development
“Engineering and Technology for
Water Distribution Works Agency in Timau, Meru, Kabuku, Rioni
Poverty Reduction.”
• Engineer-in-charge of supply contracts and Kiambu.
Eng Wanjau enrolled as a Registered
valued at KSh9 million • Design and supervision of rural based
Engineer with the Engineers Registration
• Engineers Representative on Water irrigation sprinkler system for Kanjoo
Board and joined IEK as a Corporate
Reticulation schemes – Buru Buru Irrigation Project.
Member in 1986. He was elected to
Phase V – 800 middle class housing • Rehabilitation of Hudur town water
the Council in 1994 and served as Hon
units. supply system in Somalia
Secretary from 1998 to 2005, followed
• Project Engineer on East Dagoretti • Establishing the causes of unacceptable
by 2nd Vice-Chairman from 2006 to 2008
Water Improvement Scheme to serve water losses through seepage in
and 1st Vice-Chairman from 2009 to 2010.
ultimately 250,000 people. small dams and pans for National
He was a Council Member, National
In 1985 he was awarded a scholarship by Water Conservation and Pipeline
Environmental Council 2001 to 2004 and is
the World Bank/NCC to undertake Master Corporation.
currently Chairman, Academic Qualification
of Science studies at the University of • Design of 110km irrigation canal to
Committee and Civil Engineering Panel of
Newcastle upon Tyne and on his return serve Makueni District for National
ERB. He has been Chairman of the IEK
in 1986 he was promoted to Senior Water Conservation and Pipeline
Membership Committee from 2005.
Assistant Engineer. The following year Corporation
he was promoted to Principal Assistant • Design of Bakotech Sanitary Landfill
He plans as Chairman to improve the
Engineer and continued to be involved in for the Gambian Agency for the
performance of the Secretariat by appointing
monitoring activities on the site supervision Management of Pubic Works, West
an Executive Officer and to take measures
arrangements for the Third Nairobi Water Africa
to collect the substantial backlog of
Supply contracts. • D e s i g n a n d c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f
subscriptions owed to the Institution. He also

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 17

plans to give priority to the establishment objectives of the founders of the Institution He follows:
of an Engineers Centre to further the status – to have qualified engineers in private and Prof A V Otieno 2003/2004
of the profession in Kenya. public sector for the service of the society” Prof J K Musuva 1994/1995
“I am also anxious to have a structured he says with conviction. Prof F J Gichaga 1985/1987
training programme for graduate engineers
and curriculum-based industrial attachment Eng Wanjau is the fourth University of
for undergraduate students to realize the Nairobi engineer to become IEK Chairman.


The Engineers’ Conference: The Role of Public-Private

This year’s annual engineering
conference of the Institution of
Engineers of Kenya was held at
the Sarova Whitesands Beach
Resort, Mombasa from 21st to 23rd
April 2010. A report on part of the
proceedings is given below.

Development of sustainable
The Chairman of the Institution Eng D M
Wanjau presented a comprehensive paper on
the topic, and discussed arrangements where
the private sector supplies infrastructure
assets and services that traditionally have
been provided by the government . He
said that Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)
are involved in a wide range of social and
economic infrastructure projects such as
building and operating hospitals, roads,
bridges, ports and water supplies. PPPs
can be effective to both the government Minister of Roads Franklin Bett (second right) and the incoming chairman Eng. D M
and the private sector in that they do not Wanjau at the Rhino Special Products stand
add to government borrowing. number of preconditions for success. The risk transfer to the private sector. In any
He explained that: “An infusion of private quality of services has to be contractible event disclosure of PPP contracts is
capital and management can ease fiscal so that payments to service providers necessary to assess risk transfer.”
constraints on infrastructure investment can be linked to their performance and “A typical PPP takes the form of a design-
and increase efficiency. Reflecting these then the need for contract renegotiation is build-finance- operate (BDFO) scheme.
advantages , PPPs are taking off around the minimized, and there has to be competition Under such a scheme the government
world ; there are well established programs or incentive-based regulation, which is specifies the services it wants the private
in a number of countries. However, it essential for efficiency. An appropriate sector to deliver, and then the private partner
cannot be taken for granted that PPPs are institutional framework characterized by designs and builds a dedicated asset for
more efficient than public investment political commitment, good governance that purpose, finances its construction,
and government supply of services. One and clear supporting legislation is also and subsequently operates the asset and
particular concern is that PPPs can be used needed. In addition the government has to provides the services derived from it. This
to bypass spending controls and to move develop the skills needed to manage a PPP contrasts from traditional public investment
public investment off budget and debt program and in particular to refine its project where the government contracts with the
off the government balance sheet, while appraisal and prioritization.” private sector to build an asset but the
the government still bears most of the risk design and financing is provided by the
involved and meets potentially large fiscal Eng Wanjau continued: “Assessing risk
government. In most cases the government
costs. transfer is difficult given the multitude
then operates the asset once it is built. The
“Adequate risk transfer from the government of risks in which PPPs are exposed and
difference between these two approaches
to the private sector is a key requirement if the complexity of PPP contracts. When
reflects a belief combined responsibilities
the PPPs are to deliver high quality and some countries make such an assessment,
for designing, building, financing and
cost effective services to customers and the focus is on selected provisions of PPP
operating an asset is a source of the
the government. But this is only one of a contracts that may be indicative of limited
increased efficiency in service delivery that

18 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010

justifies PPPs,” Eng Wanjau concluded.

Cement Concrete Roads

P O Jangoya and C W Siters of the Civil
and Structural Engineering Department,
Moi University and F Sakwa of Bamburi
Cement Limited presented a paper on
Cement Concrete Road Development in
Kenya. Mbagathi Way, Nairobi being the
only major concrete road to be constructed
in Kenya. Inevitably was the subject of
The authors pointed out that Kenya has
always developed roads using asphaltic
concrete which have proved costly to
maintain generally because of insufficient
financial allocations or the culture of
rehabilitating a road when it is at the verge
of Collapse. They point out that there is
need to invest in a kind of pavement which The delegates of the conference on a factory visit to Athi River Mining
will require less maintenance logistics and indispensable alternative for economic new enabling institutions and they lead to
frequency as compared to the asphaltic growth and meets the critical need on the changes in public sector jobs. To work well
concrete roads currently in use in Kenya. social and economic fronts, to be addressed they require well functioning institutions,
The authors explained: “Cement concrete by a positive cooperation between the transparent, efficient procedure, accountable
roads development requires high initial public and private sectors. The driving and competent public and private sectors,
development costs, but lower life cycle force behind the new impetus and debate I.e. “good governance.”
costs as compared to asphaltic concrete on PPPs is primarily the well known Enforcement of contracts and the security
roads. These high initial costs can be shared critical shortage of public funds to sponsor of their effective enforceability is a critical
between the government and the private infrastructure works and utility services factor in the good governance and in the
sector among other stakeholders, as it is and to meet the demand resulting from investment decision for international and
too expensive for the government alone developing nations announced economic domestic investors.
to handle. However, in the long run this growth spurts. The shortage of public funds In the final analysis the enactment of the PPP
partnership is financially beneficial to all coupled with the private sectors lack of regulations demonstrates to some extent a
parties.” interest in taking over such works and practical commitment by the government
“The first ever cement concrete road in services under the traditional concession to undertake PPP projects. However, for
Kenya (Mbagathi Way) can be researched on system, may explain why infrastructure the success and efficacy of PPPs, a robust
to come up with a Kenyan cement concrete investments have not been successful in the and efficient dispute resolution mechanism
roads design code and developing more past and that calls for innovative ways of and the role of the judiciary as the ultimate
roads in cement concrete. These will require funding public infrastructure. PPPs in the custodian of rights including economical
the involvement of the concept of Public delivery of public services have become a rights cannot be over emphasized. The
Private Partnership in the development of phenomenon which is spreading the globe courts not only ensures that the laws are
these roads,” the authors suggested. and generating great interest. The reason for respected but also creates jurisprudence
The Department of Civil and Structural this is that PPPs often avoid the negative that either further interprets the law or
Engineering, Moi University (DCSE) used effects of either exclusive public ownership sets precedents for future PPPs . Even the
Mbagathi Way as a research project and delivery of services, on the one hand, best framework legislation will remain
or outright privatization, on the other. In ineffective if implementation mechanisms
Public Private Partnerships: The contrast, PPPs combine the best of both are weak or nonexistent or if a high level of
Best Practices worlds, the private sector with its resources, corruption prevents the justice system. For
Eric Mwandia, Engineer CEO management skills and technology, and the this reason, independent judiciary, low level
(Management Consultant), KAPS Ltd public sector with its regulatory actions and of corruption and regulatory framework
and Lawrence Madiolo, Advocate, KAPS protection of public interest. The balanced to prevent abuse of public funds are all
Ltd presented a paper entitled “The approach is especially welcome in the important factors that will foster the creation
Best Practices In efficient Public Private delivery of public services which reach on of real partnerships between the private and
Partnerships. They said that Public Private every aspect of human life. public sectors for the benefit of all.
Partnerships are now a widespread concept The authors continued: “Even though
in many countries and operates as an there are lots of reasons why governments
arrangement between the public authorities around the world favour PPPs and plenty of Writing good requirements for
and the private sector for the performance evidence that they work well, governments projects
of large sized works and utility services admit that they do present a severe Noah Omondi Ogamo of Kenya Power
by means of sponsored or administrative organizational and institutional challenge & Lighting Company presented a paper
concessions, sharing venture risks and for the public sector. They are complex in on this topic in which he gave his detailed
primarily counting on private funding. nature requiring different types of skills and views. He covered most of the common
“A PPP”, the authors said, “is an

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 19


problems that are encountered in writing

requirements and then described how to
avoid them.

In his introduction he explained that: “The

need for good requirements starts early at
the pre-project planning stage. Pre-project
planning is the process of developing
sufficient strategic information with which
owners can address risks and decide to
commit resources to maximize the chance
for a successful project.”
“Stakeholder identification and team
alignment are critical to project success.
Alignment is the process of incorporating
distinct viewpoints of team members into
Mr. Alfred Khang’ati of the office of the Prime Minister reading the Prime Minister’s
a uniform set of project objectives that
speech during the opening session
meet the organisation’s needs. The critical of prices.”
alignment issues include the requirement that The specifications are reviewed by a group “Site physical and technical studies are
stakeholders should be properly represented of people to ensure technical correctness essential to determine requisite materials
on the pre-project planning team and that and completeness. Often checklists are and works specifications . If these studies
project leadership is defined and made used to ensure all requirements in all are not fully carried out there is a danger of
accountable. Most requirements that are possible categories have been elicited and claims arising during works implementation
too stringent may happen accidentally and documented correctly. Validation is actually on costs, sourcing of materials and
not intentionally.” a quality assurance topic. All documents achievement of qualities specified.”
produced throughout a project should
Specification Financing sources for a project
undergo validation reviews.”
“The specification sub-phase involves Eng Rogo said: “There are various
documenting the requirements into a sources for financing projects locally and
well-formulated, well-organised document.
Dispute Resolution
Eng A O Rogo, Consulting Engineer, internationally. However, it is essential
Numerous resources are available to
Arbitrator and Adjudicator presented a that the project attracts financing sources
help with writing and formatting good
paper entitled, “Contracts Compliance suitable for its circumstances apart from
requirements and good documents. A
Performance Monitoring and Dispute the standard needs of any repayment
major resource is the set of engineering
Resolution in Civil Works. He first outlined terms. Flexibility in financing decision
standards.” making is essential to cope with unforeseen
Potential Sources of Disputes.
He started by describing client’s needs, variations that usually occur in civil works
and said :It is essential that client’s needs implementation schedules.”
“Once a requirements specification is
both current and proposed are accurately
completed in draft form it must be reviewed Te n d e r D o c u m e n t a t i o n a n d
determined and prioritized. This is essential
both by peers of the author and by the project Procurement
to avoid over provision or under provision.
stakeholders in most cases. If detailed Eng Rogo stressed that:
This could have an adverse effect on the
stakeholder requirements were written and “i) Must take into consideration feasibility
client’s investment programmes of requisite
signed off by the stakeholders they may studies, financing agreement, designs and
facilities. It is a likely cause of works
not need to participate in the review of specification factors.
claims/disputes as a result of changes in
the more technical system requirements. ii) Should take into consideration recognized
the scope of the works and hence variation
local and international procedures. These
require prequalification of bidders and clear
bidding processes, inclusive of pre-tender
site visits.
iii) Relevant and clear dispute resolution
procedures. These must take into
consideration local laws and dispute
resolution procedures which are recognized
iv) Clearly specified works and procurement
conditions ie FIDIC, Plant Design Build
Turnkey, Single Sourcing, Short Term
Contracts, etc.
v) Evaluation of Bids/Negotiation and Award
– Must be undertaken carefully and strictly
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Roads Eng. Michael Kamau who is also the on the basis of the Bid Documentation. This
Chairman of Engineers Registration Board delivering a keynote speech at the Mombasa is to ascertain that the most suitable bidder
conference gets the job.”

20 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010

“Dispute Resolution Strategies
“What is a dispute? Eng Rogo answered
: “Generally a dispute is a situation where
a party to a contract raises a proposal
for resolution of an issue during the
performance of a contract and the other
party rejects the proposal. The current
course of action is to resort to a third party
for resolution of the dispute. The third party
could be an Engineer, Adjudicator, Mediator
or Arbitrator.
A dispute will have arisen when a party’s
claim is rejected wholly or partially by
the other party. In this instance, for a
resolution to be reached, a Third Party has
to be involved.
In civil works, contract parties to a
contract are usually the Contractor who
has contractual responsibility for carrying
out the works and the Client “Employer”
who owns the facility being created.
Key to resolving disputes Eng Rogo said
are: Eng. Vincent Sidai (far right) of Bamburi Cement and member of the conference
* Dispute Resolution Conditions committee follows the proceedings of the conference with other delegates.
* G e n e r a l C o n d i t i o n s a n d the Contract.
Specifications It is worth noting that a Dispute Resolution realization and, in my opinion, no Costs/
* International accepted Standard Agreement may be entered into before Efforts should be spared in coming up with
procedures in Civil Works or after a dispute has arisen between the appropriate Dispute Resolution measures
parties. “ including availing adequate related training
It is vital that Civil Works contracts contain for Project Managers and accessing the best
a Dispute Resolution Chapter or Agreement Finally Eng Rogo ended: “Today, Disputes
that is clear and binding to the parties to are one of the key Risks/Costs in projects Professional services necessary thereto.”

Engineering a Sustainable Kenyan Research and Education

By Meoli Kashorda, Executive Director, KENET

In the January/February 2010 issue we published Part 1 of a feature

by Meoli Kashorda on the above topic. Part 2 of his paper is
reproduced below.
1. The current implementation of virtual suggests that this is more than adequate at
private network is referred as Phase 1 this time. This is because of the low levels
and was designed to distribute satellite of local (national) traffic when compared to
bandwidth 200 Mb/s and about 620 Mb/s the national traffic that peaks at about 350
(STM-4) of undersea bandwidth. As we Mb/s (uplink and downlink) with undersea
have described in Part 1, the network bandwidth.
uses the managed optical fiber network of
KDN to provide the necessary leased lines. However, we expect local traffic to increase
Currently, 100% of the recurrent costs are dramatically in the next one year as
subsidized by the grant at total cost of about universities start rolling out broadband
$1.5 million for two years. educational applications (e.g., streaming
video and video-conferencing). Moreover,
We note that neither the last mile links nor NRENs aim to be low-congestion networks.
the backbone links in Phase 1 are owned Consequently, under ordinary circumstances
by KENET. That means that the associated the links should not be loaded at more than
recurrent costs increase linearly with 10% of their capacity.
Meoli Kashorda, Executive Director
capacity required. This is therefore not a
Thus, Phase 2 design aims to achieve at KENET
sustainable or scalable long-term solution
since all member institutions, particularly least 1 Gb/s connectivity in the backbone fiber in the backbone network that would
universities, will require cost-effective network and in some segments, up to 10 be lit by KENET. Alternatively, KENET
broadband (Gigabit capacity) connectivity Gb/s. This might require the use of dark will negotiate IRU-like national contracts
by 2015. Moreover, the use of managed
leased lines cannot support the network
experimentation typical of a research and
education network. Apart from the capacity
limits, the virtual network cannot achieve
high levels of availability desirable since
the last mile leased lines were not designed
as local access ring networks (the backbone
leased lines are part of the KDN backbone
ring network).

Phase 2 of the optical network design

therefore aims to address the sustainability,
scalability and availability issues for both
the backbone and the local access network
segments. In addition, the virtual network
will contain some campus wireless campus
network to increase access by students,
faculty and researchers. In the following,
we highlight the design considerations in
phase 2 virtual network design.

1.1 Backbone network design


The current virtual network has a backbone

of seven PoPs interconnected at speeds
between 100Mb/s to 200 Mb/s (see Figure
1). Although this appears to be low by
standards of NRENs in the high-income and
middle-income countries, our traffic analysis
in the period June 2009 to December 2009
Figure 1. NOFBI and KENET institutions map
Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 23

from the commercial operators for the high network. points will be required.
speed links in order to support the Gigabit
speeds at relatively low costs of about $1 The design also aims to increase the number 1.3 Network Operations Center for the
per Mb/s (this still translates into a high cost of last mile links that are owned by KENET, Virtual Network
for Gigabit links). especially the high capacity links connecting
the large universities. This will be achieved KENET currently provides all layer 3
The design will therefore aim to use either using high-capacity digital radio links services to connected institutions. It uses
the open-access National Optical Fiber or open-access optical fiber links provided a small-scale Network Operations Center
Backbone Infrastructure (NOFBI) setup by by NOFBI as shown in Figure 2. This will (NOC) based on open source tools that
the government its backbone links. Figure 2 be necessary to reduce the recurrent costs have been setup by KENET engineers
shows that most of the PoPs and institutions of high-capacity managed leased line. to manage the network (e.g., Cacti and
outside Nairobi are close to NOFBI but last In addition, KENET experience is that Nagios). However, KENET has designed
mile integration would still be required. In some of the rural institutions are outside a large carrier-class NOC to support the
addition, it could use other fiber operators the backbone networks of the commercial large network and provide a full suite of
who are selling IRU-type connections (e.g., operators (e.g., Moi University campuses network management services (Layer 1, 2, 3
Kenya Power and Lighting Company with outside Eldoret town do not have optical- fault reporting, performance, configuration,
its overhead optical fiber cable). Apart from fiber based last mile leased lines. security, and accountability). This NOC will
high speed fiber backbone links, the design provide all billing services, a distributed
will also include redundant high-speed Although the KENET virtual network was helpdesk, centralized video conferencing
digital radio links for some of the critical intended to interconnect campus networks and IPTV and VoIP telephone services.
segments of the network. of member institutions, Phase 2 network
design will also include wireless campus Apart from the NOC services, the NOC will
KENET is currently completing the design networks segments. This is because the also provide limited data center services to
of the backbone network and the tender majority connected institutions do not have member institutions, particularly the small
documents are expected to be completed the resources to create carrier-class campus and/or new universities. Such universities
by April 2010. networks with adequate network access do not have the skills and have also not
points. The target is to achieve at least 1:5 yet operational campus data centers. The
1.2 Implementing last-mile and local student to network access points ratio by data center will therefore provide hosting,
wireless access network solutions end of Phase 2 implementation. We note collocation, and disaster recovery services
that by November 2008, the networked to member institutions.
As of December 2009, 57 of the 68 sites
computer to student ratio was only 5.3%
had already been connected. The ongoing KENET has prepared NOC competitive
(i.e., 5.3 computers shared by 100 students)
11 institutions had not been connected due bidding documents and it is expected that
against a target of 10% [Kashorda 2009].
to non-technical reasons. Only 12 of the 57 bids will be invited in Jan 2010 using the
Although some of the Kenyan universities
sites connected have a last mile radio link. World Bank procurement procedures.
have been setting large computer labs to
Although the completion of the Phase 1 of Implementation is expected to be completed
provide access to students (see Figure 5),
the virtual network has been completed, by the third quarter of 2010.
this is not scalable and wireless access
all of the large universities, colleges, and
research institutes are among the 57 and
all the international bandwidth has been

The challenge for the last mile is that 11

of the 12 radio links are based on shared
WiMax technology with only the Egerton
University being point-to-point high
capacity radio. The performance of the
shared WiMax radios is not appropriate for
institutions with large student populations
(e.g., Moi University with about 20,000

In addition, the last mile optical fiber-based

leased lines were not setup in ring network
topology for reliability. That is, if the last
mile link is cut at one point, the institution
is disconnected for the period it takes to
repair the link. In Phase 2 design, all the
last mile links will either be setup in a
ring-network or with a redundant last mile
digital radio link for increased reliability. In
all cases, only carrier-class point-to-point
shared radio links will be used in the virtual
Figure 2: Campus-based student lab

24 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010


2. Conclusions the campuses of the universities, allowing $21.5 million.

students and staff to connect different access
At the end of the implementation of Phase 1 devices, including mobile phones, PDAs, Similarly, the connected institutions are
of the KENET virtual network in April 2010, netbooks, laptops, and desktop computers. expected to have invested similar amounts in
KENET will be distributing about 800 Mb/s The NOC and associated data center will upgrading their campus networks including
of undersea bandwidth, 100 Mb/s of satellite also have been implemented and KENET the virtual network nodes, purchase of
bandwidth to connected institutions. All of will be providing full network management computers, and paying recurrent costs
the 63 connected institutions will have equal services, including data recovery services. of the virtual network and international
access to Internet bandwidth irrespective of Internet bandwidth and connectivity and
their locations (i.e., only the institutional The virtual will have direct links with providing the engineering and network
Internet budgets of the institutions will limit other NRENs in Europe and USA via management services. Thus, one of the
the International bandwidth available rather peering UbuntuNet Alliance Africa regional key innovations in implementation of
than the network). KENET has adopted REN ( and the KENET academic network is that it has
a flat bandwidth pricing structure that is European regional REN, GEANT (http:// used the open source model to dramatically
independent of location or geography. The This will provide world reduce the engineering and network
equivalent bandwidth price shall be about class access to research and learning consulting implementation costs of a large
equivalent price of bandwidth will be down resources to Kenyan students, faculty, and and complex network. The network is
to $300 per Mb/s by April 2010 during peak researchers. We expect this connectivity to operated by a small full-time technical staff
time and about $200 per Mb/s during off- dramatically improve the quality of Kenyan supported by volunteer technical staff from
peak hours (evening and weekend). This is higher education. the different universities. The combination
because of the high efficiencies. of the government and institutional network
At the end of Phase 2 in 2012, the government investments and the open-source low-cost
Phase 2 of the virtual network will see an will have invested about $13.5 million engineering and operational model is what
upgrade to 2.5 Gb/s speeds for the backbone of KTCIP funds in building a high-speed makes the network sustainable.
and at least 2.5 Gb/s access to undersea virtual network and in the purchase of about
international optical fiber IRU bandwidth. three STM-4 (2.5 Gb/s) IRUs for KENET A sustainable and affordable high speed
The virtual network will be reliable up to members. In addition, the Government network is a necessary platform for
the last miles which will also have optical will have used about $8 million on satellite innovation and experimentation in learning
fiber rings and/or digital radio backup for bandwidth subsidy and recurrent costs of and networking technologies. This is the
critical links. Wireless campus networks leased lines. The total investment will be promise of an NREN.
will also have been established at most of

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Assessment of Kenya’s Export Potential and Supply

Capacities in the Engineering Services Sector
Extracted from a World Bank/Export Promotion Council - Services Exports Study 2010
Compiled by Andrew Otsieno

Overview of Services Export Export Marketing Strategies

Globally services are the fastest growing Marketing strategies used by Kenyan service
contributor to world economy accounting exporters are largely not well defined.
for nearly 20% of world global trade. Majority of firms do not deliberately set out
Emerging countries are fast discovering to enter foreign markets. Oftentimes foreign
services to be a great contributor to their market entry results from referrals where
economies. Indeed Kenya’s services foreign clients contact the company directly
contribute some 60% to GDP, compared to or in some cases the companies follow their
agriculture at 24% and industry at 17%. clients as they enter foreign markets. As a
This World Bank/ Export Promotions result few firms undertake foreign market
Council – Services Study: “Assessment evaluation processes that identify a specific
of Kenya’s Export Potential and Supply country or region prior to selecting a market
Capacities in Selected Professional Service and thereafter conducting country visits.
Sectors - 2010” focused on sectors identified Those firms that undergo this process are
with high services exports potential. In larger firms with turnovers of 100 million to
this article we take an in-depth look at the over 1 billion shillings. Mid and small firms
engineering services sector to reveal the undertake preliminary analysis, either using
strategies and constraints faced in export internet or business contacts to assess the
markets. foreign market before proceeding to enter. Andrew Otsieno originally trained
Modifications to Exported Services Marketing strategy begins with identifying as an engineer at the University of
Modifications to exported services are done the market, possible collaboration, checking Nairobi and has post graduate training
minimally and are mostly carried out to suit on competition and determining entry in organizational leadership from the
client expectations. Presented in the table strategy. The main marketing strategies African International University. He has
below are services offered, the commonly used by engineering service exporters are over the past 20 years transformed into an
exported services and an illustration of the as follows: organization development consultant and
kind of modifications done to the service to - Networks in the local industry an enterprise management development
ensure exportability of the service. - Advertising in specific & targeted expert. He currently heads EMD-Kenya
Export Process and Procedures journals that are read by engineers - certified by the International Trade
Engineering firms provide design reports - Website presence Centre - Geneva as a national centre of
and supervisory management services. In - Use of company profile in brochures Enterprise Management Development
foreign countries there’s usually a standard - Word of mouth programmes. He also teaches and provides
way of doing things; Kenyan service firm Perceived Competitive Advantage advice in the planning, management, and
standards are adapted to fit the foreign The key attributes identified by the survey evaluation of mission-driven organizations,
country’s building standards. Work permits as competitive advantages by survey enterprises, and projects, and facilitates
are required for consulting and supervisory respondents were unique service offer, high any process that requires structuring and
work. Staffs travel to foreign country skill level, quality services, and competitive effective communication. management, and
e.g. South Sudan or Rwanda work for a pricing. evaluation of mission-driven organizations,
temporary period of time. Perceived Service Positioning in Target enterprises, and projects, and facilitates
The step by step process firms go through Market any process that requires structuring and
when exporting their services comprises: Service firms from Kenya generally effective communication.
1. Initial Client Engagement positioned themselves:
providers i.e. able to provide
2. Investigation of project - Regionally - as premium quality
quality service at lower cost
3. Preparation of scheme plans for service providers especially in
relative to local service providers
development countries where there is a lack of
4. Tender document: preparation of in the foreign market.
manpower / skilled professionals.
specifications, builders quantities, Kenyan firms perceived as superior In some countries such as Tanzania, there
and offering better work than local is nationalistic sentiment that views export
5. Inviting tenders & evaluating them &
counterparts. services firms as taking away indigenous
recommending their acceptance
6. Supervision of work
- Internationally – as value service

26 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010


Pricing Strategies
The study uncovered three general pricing Level of Competition in Current Export Markets
strategies; premium pricing, value based
pricing, and low-cost/volume based Main Export Regional countries
strategies. Markets
Engineering fees are regulated; scaled fees Level of
from the Ministry of Public Works are Competition: High
applied by the Association of Consulting Main: International firms such as Howard Humphreys or Gibbs Eas
engineers. Pricing is based on percentage of Africa and otherlocal engineering firms in the foreign market
the project costs. Abroad pricing is based on
the standards of the country and negotiated Comments - Smaller and mid sized engineering firms tend to offer specialized
percentage with the client. services thus are able to be competitive in foreign markets.
Methods of Receiving Payment for larger projects these firms will team up or be called on as
Firms in services sector receive payment consultants
in a variety of modes and do not restrict as they do not have the capital or capacity to do large works on
themselves to one form of payment. The their own.
most prevalent modes of payment for - In South Sudan there are a limited number of firms offering
services rendered are electronic bank services due
transfer and payments by cheques. as loans, overdraft facilities, lines of credit depend on recommendations and referrals,
Payments are done as soon as deliverables etc are used by a few firms for both working you are likely to be most successful in
are received. The deliverables are normally capital an d investment requirements. markets where you have strong contacts.
based on achieving various milestones. Human Resource Also, since you need to move quickly to take
Typically there will be a mobilization The table (on next page) outlines the advantage of new market opportunities, you
fee, upon completion of work along industry specific skills and qualifications will need to keep modifying your strategy
predetermined timelines (e.g. completion of required; highlights which qualifications or as conditions change and your network
draft report) and upon final completion and certifications are required to export services; expands. Here are the typical steps to take
acceptance of work by the client. determines whether the qualifications are in developing your export strategy:
Obtaining Export Contracts mutually recognized in export countries; - Define your export objectives
Most firms use a combination of modes to and provides an assessment of the skills - Identify the export-related strengths
attract foreign clients. However, referrals available in Kenya. of your firm that you could leverage
where foreign client’s contact firm’s directly - Identify a potential market with
is the most widely used method of obtaining Key Constraints Faced when Exporting
customers who have needs similar
foreign contracts. For Engineering services Services to those that your firm has already
firms this is the most common method of In Tanzania the withholding tax is 20% for addressed successfully
gaining clients as they are prohibited by consultants as opposed to the 5% charge - Identify your firm’s existing contacts
law from actively seeking out clients. To in Kenya. This makes Kenyan engineers in the potential market (satisfied
circumvent this restriction most of these working in Tanzania expensive. customers, business colleagues, old
firms have websites, attend conferences, Work permits are difficult to get. Therefore schoolmates, relatives, friends)
give talks on various subjects as an indirect most engineers do not get work permits - Work with your contacts to build
way of showcasing their expertise and when working in Tanzania but get a tourist credibility for your firm in your
join international networks that refer or business visit visa. potential market and/or with target
work strictly to members. Marketing and Setting up a business in Tanzania is customers
advertising efforts along with personal expensive due to protectionist tariffs - Travel to the market (if necessary)
client visits are other ways firms obtain intended to raise barriers of entry for foreign to build profile and meet potential
business. Government and donor work firms to their market e.g. project fees. partners and customers
normally has to go through a competitive The working conditions can be quite - Review the regulatory regime and
bidding process. difficult especially in Sudan. Consultants trade liberalization commitments in
require remuneration so to stay in the your potential market, and resolve
Sources of Financing harsh environments. They must stay for market entry issues and risks
Firms in the service exporting largely use at least 90 days for their contracts to be - Allocate the resources needed to
retained earnings/internal fund obtained economical. It is sometimes a challenge to develop the priority export market.
from professional fees for most of their get professionals willing to remain in Sudan
financing needs. Working capital needs are for that length of time. Compiled by Andrew Otsieno
financed through internal funds/retained Last Word: Typical Steps in Developing
earnings by most firms; same for investment an Export Strategy for Services
needs. Commercial banking facilities such Because potential international customers

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 27


Cocktail lecture on ICT Concepts used in Engineering Projects

The Functions Committee of the Institution
arranged a lecture on 12 May 2010 at the
Silver Springs Hotel when Professor S
S Chakraborty, Chairman and Managing
Director of Consulting Engineering Services
on “ICT Concepts used in Engineering
Projects.” Consulting Engineering Services
are the Consultants for Lot 1 of the Nairobi-
Thika Road.
The meeting was attended by Eng D M
Wanjau, Chairman, Eng H J Nyaanja, 2nd
Vice-Chairman, Eng M Shiribwa, Hon
Secretary and Eng R K Chepkwony,
Hon Treasurer and Functions Committee
Chairman of the Institution and by a good
number of Engineers.
Professor Chakraborty described the
contribution of ICT in civil engineering
especially in infrastructure with a view
to establishing its contribution towards a Fourth left, Professor Chakraborty from Apec Consulting firm, during the cocktail
better built environment by making efficient lecture organized by the institution at Silver spring hotel.
use of resources, ensuring longevity of the
created assets and minimizing waste. He particularly in infrastructural development. improving the quality of living.
said that civil engineering performance Also it has enabled engineers in realizing A vote of thanks to Professor Chakraborty
has increased through ICT usage and the goals of better-built environments and was proposed by Eng Shiribwa.


.Building Construction .Shop-fitting
.Civil engineering works .Aluminum works
.Plumbing .Suspended ceilings
.Electrical installation .Dry wall partitioning
.Floor carpeting .Glazing
.General renovation works .Flooring

Electrical maintenance. Plumbing. Tiling. Carpentry .Painting


KenGen pioneers in Wellhead generation
KenGen is set to pioneer in a new technology may result in change of the eco-system.
in geothermal power generation when it Use of wellhead generators will minimize
installs the first wellhead generator unit at this effect as the steam will pass through
Olkaria in June this year. The technology the generators with the steam pressure
involves tapping steam from wells which and temperature dropping and ultimately
are undergoing tests or are awaiting condensed to a liquid, forming a closed loop
connection to permanent plants to benefit with very little or no atmospheric venting.
from early generation. Secondly, the normal well testing wastes
Drilling of geothermal wells takes between resources as in most cases, wells are
50 to 70 days to depths of between 1.8 and discharged over long periods to assess their
2.8 kilometers. After this, the well is put response to exploitation as the resource is
under discharge test to determine its flow drawn down without tangible production.
characteristics and establish the power Through use of the new technology,
output at different wellhead pressures. KenGen will test the wells while routing
The standard way of achieving the above the steam through the generators which will
is to pass the geothermal fluid through a supply power to the grid. So in one single
pipe, measure the total flow and direct the stroke, the need for efficient utilization
fluid to a wellhead separator to separate the of natural resource and the endeavour to
steam from the water. The water fraction meet the country’s energy demand are
is measured through the normal weirbox achieved within as short a time as 70 days
and a V-notch and the difference between of commencing well drilling. George W Muga, Manager Special
the total mass flow and the water gives the It is no longer economical to drill all the Projects KenGen, graduated with a BSc
steam fraction. wells needed to supply a permanent power in Mechanical Engineering from the
Through the use of wellhead generators, station before financing is sought or returns University of Nairobi in 1981. In 1986 he
KenGen will move away from this are realized from the wells. Power from the went to the University of Auckland, New
traditional method and use wellhead first well can be used to supply the next well Zealand , the Geothermal Institute and
generators to achieve the same results, the to be drilled, thus reducing diesel usage at studied Geothermal Energy Technology. He
first Company to do so in Africa. the rigs, and the balance sent to the grid. joined KenGen in 1997 having previously
Wellhead generation has many Each well once completed starts contributing worked for KPLC.
merits. to the grid and could as well be doing this for
When using the standard method of well the four to six years it takes to complete all power plant with the ability to operate at
testing as has been done in the past, the wells and build the main power plant. varied separator pressures. Their being
discharge of steam into the atmosphere has portable means they can be moved between
negative environmental impact in that the wells and other geothermal resource areas
THE TECHNOLOGY when necessary or when productivity of
temperature of the immediate environs is The well head generating units are built
raised above normal ambient conditions and the wells drop below optimum operating
on the concept of the standard geothermal levels.
The main components of the plant in
about four standard containers are the
separator frame, the Turbine and generator,
the condenser unit and the controls and
auxiliaries system
These containers are interconnected
through piping, valving and cables with
whole system being hooked up to the grid
through transformers, circuit breakers,
isolators and switches.
The whole system may be controlled
from the wellpad but it is also capable of
full remote control from the main power
station control room, thus optimizing on
operational costs.
KenGen expects the first pilot unit to be up
and running in the early part of June 2010,
delivering about 5 megawatts. Thereafter
more units with an expected yield of 70
megawatts are expected to be in place by
April, 2011.
A permanent power plant takes between
24 to 36 months to construct Pg 30
Geothermal well undergoing normal testingthrough a twin Separator/Silencer sys-
tem. The wells can now be tested through a welhead generator.
Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 29

IEK holds Annual General Meeting

This year’s Annual General Meeting
of the Institution of Engineers of
Kenya was held at the Sarova
Whitesands hotel on the 22nd of April
2010. It was well attended.

The outgoing chairman, Eng. F W Ngokonyo

in his report on the year’s activities said that
the council met 15 times including the
extra ordinary council meeting. He then
recognized the presence of the President of
the Institution of Engineers of Uganda Dr.
Mbabazi. Other reports were as under:

Private Public partnership: T he

chairman said that the Institution together
with Kenya Private Sector Alliance and
Kenya Association of Manufactures have
been involved in round table discussions The outgoing chairman Eng. F W Ngokonyo delivering the chairman’s report during
with Prime Minister’s Office in a view the AGM
to foster government private sector engineering profession. It created a platform Treasurer report
cooperation. The importance of engineers for sharing information between these The accounts for the year ended December
taking part in decision making within countries. 31, 2009 were presented by the Hon
government was stressed in this meetings. Treasurer, Eng H J Nyaanga. The institution
The Strategic Plan: He said that the had debtors and creditors standing at
plan has been completed and is uploaded Ksh 4,769,437 and 20,396 respectively.
Engineers Act: He said that the review
on the institutions websites for comments The treasurer said that the council will
of the Engineers Act was several steps
and proof reading. He added that the budget be able to collect the money owed to the
ahead. ‘Through Prime Ministers efforts
stand at KSh15 million per year and Ksh institution with major creditors being
this act has been discussed in a cabinet
87 million for the planned period. government institutions, parastatals and
subcommittee and is awaiting for cabinet
annual subscriptions. Samto & Associates
approval,’ he reiterated. He said that
among other benefits the act will provide The consulting firm for the institution: were re-appointed auditors for the year
He reported that the registration of the 2010/2011.
a mode of conflict resolution within the
profession and financial benefits from process was completed and the firm was
the government through the Engineers just looking forward for its first project. Council for 2010/2011
Registration Board. He noted that the firm will enhance the Announcement of the council Election
competitive edge of the local firms since it results. The members of the council for the
Overseas visits : Representative of will have the capacity and the expertise that year 2010/2011 were announced and are as
the council led by the chairman visited always lock out the firms during the bidding shown on page 32.
Malaysia and Singapore to discuss the for major contracts.

Continued from pg 29
and commission. When this
comes on line, the wellhead
units will be moved to
other geothermal areas like
Menengai, Longonot, etc.
In essence, geother mal
wellhead generators achieve
environmental friendliness,
early generation of power
using renewable resource
and provide an early revenue
stream that can be used to drill
more wells or contribute to
financing of the main power
plant. A Geothermal well discharging into the atmosphere

30 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010

Engineers dancing the night away!
This is an annual social event dubbed ‘the
dinner dance’ hosted by the institution of
the Engineers of Kenya (IEK) for the entire
engineering fraternity.
After a successful completion of a three
day engineering conference at the Sarova
Whitesands hotel from 21 st to 23 rd of
April, the engineers chose to test their
dancing skills at a gala night in the Sarova
Whitesands beach garden. It was the
place to be for fun and the party lovers.
The glamour and suspense from the solo
rendition of Miriam Makeba’s ‘Aluta
continua’ kept everyone on their feet. It was
full of pomp and colour: the decoration, the
fireworks, ladies and gentlemen in their best
dinner outfits did not disappoint.
The menu completed the look with
assorted Swahili traditional dishes ranging and take their rightful position in the wishing everyone an enjoyable evening
from coconut fish to crab cocktail. The community, not forgetting politics. ‘It’s and proposing a vote of thanks to all the
resounding beats from the coastal based the politician that decides on policy issues stakeholders.
band ‘mwambau’ was perfect! The rib hence the need for engineers to take part in
cracking jokes from the speakers and politics’, he added By Ngesa Omole Booker
I quote ‘God created earth and all that Eng Wanjau closed the speeches by
are in it, and then handed it over to the
The occasion was graced by the outgoing
and the incoming chairmen of the institution,
Eng. F W Ngokonyo and Eng. D M Wanjau
The dinner dance started by a toast to his
Excellency the President of Kenya proposed
by the outgoing chairman followed by a
speech from Eng Wanjau who acknowledged
the good work that was undertaken by the
conference committee and congratulated
them on behalf of the Institution, he then
impressed on the need for engineers to take
part in leadership and decision making by
government departments.
He observed that in first world countries
most decision makers were professionals,
most of whom are engineers. He mentioned
Tanzania as a role model in engaging
engineers in decision making. He then
challenged the engineers to stand up

National Highway Authority contracts

The Kenya National Highway Authority has recently awarded the following contracts:
Road Name Contract Contractor Contract Amount (KShs)
Nanyuki-Lewa (A2) Maintenance works Intex Construction Ltd 567 million
Makutano (Kenol) – Maintenance work Roben Aberdare Kenya Ltd 4800 million
Sagana (A2)
Rodi Kopany – Maintenance work Ceabud Engineering Services Ltd 1,184 million
Karungu (C18)
Homabay – Mbita (C19) Consultancy Services for Abdul Mullick Associates 129 million
Construction Supervision

Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010 31


IEK Council Professional

Chairman - Eng D M Wanaju-Maina
1st Vice-Chairman - Eng J M Riungu
The Professional Interviews (PI) will
2nd Vice-Chairman - Eng H J Nyaanga be conducted 3 (three) times in a year.
Hon Treasurer - Eng R K Chepkwony To enable the necessary arrangements
to be made, the Professional Exami-
Hon Secretary – Eng M Shiribwa nation documents MUST be lodged,
Ordinary Member – Eng R K Kosgei not later than the date indicated
Ordinary Member – Eng (Mrs) V W Maundu herewith :
Month of Closing Date for
Ordinary Member - Eng Jan Mutai
Examination submission of
Ordinary Member – Eng W R Okubo Documents
Ordinary Member – Eng C M Ndonga March 31 January
Ordinary Member - Eng M Okonji June 30 April
November 30 August
Retiring Past Chairman – Eng F W Ngokonyo
Chairman Mombasa Branch – Eng V O Onyango
Vice-Chairman Mombasa Branch – Eng Abel Rotich
Update of Addresses
Members are urged to update their ad-
Branch Sec/Treasurer Mombasa Branch – Eng J O Odumbe dresses to ease communication. Please
submit your current address to IEK Sec-
Chairman Western Branch – Eng A Cheruiyot retariat : The address
Vice-Chairman Western Branch - Eng Prof P M Wambua to include, postal number and code,
telephone, e-mail.
Branch Sec/Treasurer Western Branch – Eng I Chebii

New members elected New Council member

The Council of the Institution has elected the
following new members
Class of Graduate G.3483 GW Wasike
G.2206 J S Rostom G.3484 P C Ruheni
G.2735 L A Otieno G.3496 L A Otieno
G.2738 I T Wachira G.3507 J W Thubu
G.2740 J W Theuri G.3515 P O Pambo
G.2756 H Ouma G.3533 L Rotich
G.2760 R K K Yagan G.3539 C Wathimba
G.2768 C M Syengo G.3542 K Sumbeiywo
G.2956 F K Wambua G.3543 W M Wacuka
G.3027 F O Owuor G.3546 A I A Sirkoi
G.3029 J M Wamwangi G.3574 I S Wangette
G.3096 A G Tubi G.3577 P K Wambua
G.3241 M K Waya G.3587 M M Thiongo
G.3262 S K Yego G.3597 I N Wakhu
G.3280 J A Otike G.3582 S M Wasike
G.3301 ML Vishwakarma G.3610 J W Songoi
G.3318 G O Ponde G.3618 K Wachira
G.3350 D K Rop G.3636 G Nyamasyo
G.3412 M L Shachile G.3652 E W Bone
G.3430 D P Owuor G.3707 M C Kirui Eng Michael Ezekiel Okonji, Principal Electrical Engineer,
G.3441 H K Rotich G.3708 K O Obong’o
G.3481 J K Sirma G.3709 F O Otsieno Bison Consulting Engineers has been elected to the Council
G.3409 P N Wachira G.3710 V O Ouma of the Institution. He was awarded a BSEE (cum laude)
G.3415 J N Warari G.3711 P O Nalyanya degree in electrical engineering from Harvard University,
G.3420 E F Wafula G.3712 F O Adoyo USA in 1987 and the following year was appointed Chief
G.3429 A K Theuri G.3713 H M Mwangi Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, Ministry of Public
G.3445 C K Temu G.3714 A M Murugi
G.3446 C K Tiony
Works , a position he held until his retirement from the civil
G.3715 P O Akuon
G.3450 V O Oyieng G.3716 J A Besigen service in 2008.
G.3458 J K M Rwara G/3718 G C Ooko Eng Okonji is a Registered Engineer with ERB and a
G.3473 J O Oyugi G.3719 J K kuteli member of the IEK Membership Committee.

32 Kenya Engineer - May/June 2010

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